Journal of Global Pharma Technology

Publications
IR spectra of [Ni(L)Cl2]
A new ligand 2,2'-((1Z,2Z)-ethane-1,2-diylidenebis[(2Z)hydrazin-1-yl-2-ylidene-1,3,4-oxadiazole-5,2-diyl])diphenol and its Cr(III), Co(lll) and Ni(ll) complexes were synthesized. The ligand and its complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, conductance measurements, as well as spectroscopy (H1NMR, IR, mass), magnetic susceptibility. A new ligand and its complexes were screened for their antibacterial activity against two kinds of strains Escherichia coli (gram negative bacterial strains) and staphylococcus aureus (gram positive bacteria strains) using the agar disk diffusion method.
 
A new ligand 2,2'-[(1Z,2Z)-ethane-1,2-diylidenedi(2Z)hydrazin-1-yl-2-ylidene]bis(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole) and its Cr(III), Co(lll) and Ni(ll) complexes were synthesized. The new ligand and its complexes have been characterization on the basis their spectra of 1HNMR, mass, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), as well as magnetic susceptibility, elemental analysis[C, H, N] and conductance measurements. The program of Hyperchem 7.51 has been used up for theoretical accounts using PM3 method [1] to study the electrostatic potential that provided good information about the complexity site. Of the results obtained we can suggested octahedral geometrics for Cr (III) and Co (III) complexes, while tetrahedral geometry for Ni (II) complex.A ligand and its complexes were screened for their antibacterial activity against two kinds of strains Escherichia coli (gram negative bacterial strains) and staphylococcus aureus (gram positive bacteria strains), This research showed excellent results in comparison with Ciprofloxacin as standard drug.
 
Electronic spectrum of L
A series of coordination compounds of Cu(II), Cd(II), Hg(II) and Ag(I) ions with 5,5, -(ethane-1,2-diyl)bis(4-(4-nitrobenzylideneamino)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thio), as a ligand has been successfully prepared in alcoholic medium. The synthesized complexes were characterized quantitatively and qualitatively by using: elemental analysis CHNS, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, 1H and 13CNMR, atomic absorption measurements, magnetic susceptibility, thermal analysis)TG and DTG) and conductivity measurements. This ligand coordinates as a bidentate that to the metal ions through sulphur and nitrogen of (azomethine group) atoms. According to the spectral data, Cu(II)- complex has coordination of 6 with octahedral geometry while the Cd(II)-complex and Hg(II) have coordination of 4 with exhibited tetrahedral, and the Ag(I)-complex has coordination of 3 with exhibited trigonal planer, The Schiffbase and its metal complexes have been screened for antimicrobial activity against four bacteria, namely :(Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp., Klebsilla Pneumonia Escherichia coli)and the fungi, namely (Aspergillus flavus).
 
Several 3,6-disubstituted-1,2,4-triazolo-[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazoles were prepared by condensation of 4-amino-5-(2-(4-isobutyl phenyl) propyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (4) with acetic acid, substituted aromatic acids, phenyl isothiocynate, pyridine and urea through a one-pot reaction. These compounds were investigated for their antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic and antihelmentic. Some compound showed analgesic activity as compared to ibuprofen. Some of the tested compounds also showed moderate antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial and fungal strains. These compound show better antihelmentic activity as compared to albendazole.
 
Some physical properties of compounds [A-C]
FT-IR data of Schiff bases compounds [A-B2]
FT-IR data of compound [B1a-B2a]
This work involved prepared of some new series of chemical compounds of 1, 3-oxazepineand 1, 3-Diazepine derivatives. First step reaction of sulfadiazine with 4-amino acetophenone product of Schiffbase (A) 4-((1-(4-aminophenyl) ethylidene) amino)-N-(pyrimidin-2-yl) benzenesulfonamide. Then, Schiffbase [A] enter reactions with chloro acetyl chloride to product four-membrane ring (B) 4-(2-(4-aminophenyl)-2-methyl-3-oxoazetidin-1-yl)-N-(pyrimidin-2-yl)benzene sulfonamide (B) were condensed with different aromatic aldehydes such as (p-hydroxybenzeldehyde, N, N-dimethylaminobenzeldehyde] in ethanol absolute to give new Schiffbases derivatives [B1-B2] respectively, Then the resulting imines derivatives [B1-B2] were reacted with malic anhydride in toluene to give new 1,3-oxazepine-4,7-dione ring derivatives [B1a-B2a], reaction 1,3-oxazepine[B2a] with Naphthyl amine to give 1,3-diazepine-4,7-dione ring derivatives[C].All compounds were characterized by M.P and FT-IR spectroscopy, some of them were characterized by 1H-NMR and C13NMR spectroscopy analysis.
 
Number of new derivatives of 1,3-oxazepinewere synthesized by cycloaddition reaction (2+5) of (NE, N'E)-4,4'-methylenebis (3-chloro-N-(4-halobenzylidene)aniline) with exo-3,6-epoxy-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthallic anhydride, tetrachlorophthalic anhydride and citraconic anhydride by refluxing in dry benzene. (NE, N'E)-4,4'-Methylenebis(3-chloro-N-(4-halobenzylidene)anilines)were prepared by thermal condensation of 4,4'-Methylenebis(3-chloroaniline) and p-halobenzaldehydes in absolute ethanol under reflux conditions. The structure of the target compounds were characterized by their spectral data of FT-IR and 1H-NMR.
 
The 2H-1,4-pyridoxazin-3-(4H)-ones (I) and 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4 pyridoxazine (II) scaffolds have been studied intensively as important heterocyclic systems for building natural and designed synthetic compounds. The wide occurrence of benzo fused and heterocyclic fused [1,4] oxazines in bioactive natural product and pharmaceuticals has made them important synthetic targets. They are utilized as suitable skeletons for the design of biologically active compounds, ranging from antiinflammatory, analgesics, bactriostatic, fungistatic and MAO inhibitors etc.This review covers the achievements in the synthesis of 2H-1,4-pyridoxazin-3-(4H)-ones in last few years. Various acetamide derivatives and substituted pyridine derivatives were used to get the novel compounds in good yield.
 
Laser ablation in liquid technique (PLA) has become a more important for the preparation of NPs. Metal targets were laser ablated in liquid for preparation of spherical Ag @ Au core @ shell NPS colloidal solution for refractive index sensing. In our research was prepared Core-shell Nano colloid system of Ag @ Au by using pulses of Nd-YAG laser with (1064, 532, 355) nm wavelength and (80 @ 60) mJ energy in ethanol liquid. The Surface texture, topography and morphology studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).Our structural analysis indicated the grains show spherical shape, where TEM images showed formation of Core-Shell clearly, UV-Visible spectroscopy has been employed for the optical properties measurements, Absorption peaks shifted to lower wavelength (blue shift) (UV). The effect of (Ag-core) was more effective than the (Ag-shell), and so by the sliver core effect (Ag-Core), and this confirms clear evidence that the effect of the (Core) influential, which dominates the effect of (shell).
 
PCR products of amplified exon 1 of HOXB13 gene by using a conventional PCR of the molecular size 809 bp indicated by red arrow. Gel electrophoresis on 2 % agarose gel at 90 voltages for one hour and visualized by gel documentation system after 30 minutes of staining with EtBr. Lane (1-10): PCR products obtained with sample from control healthy. Lane (11-24): PCR products obtained with sample from patient of benign tumor.
New single nucleotide polymorphisms in Hoxb13 gene has a related with prostate cancer and may be considered as early molecular marker and SNPs are located in gene promoters, exons, intronsas well as 5'- and 3'- un translated regions. The study investigation the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and prostate patients Materials and Methods: 75 prostate cancer patients, 75 prostate benign and 81 healthy were included. A conventional PCR technique was used to defect variable region of HOXB13 gene by using specific primer pairs synthesized targeting certain region of exon one and two in the HOXB13. The DNA sequencing results for 134 samples were analyzed and aligned using NCBI nucleotide alignment tool, BLAST n (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) in which DNA sequence obtained in this study were compared with human reference HOXB13 gene sequence. Results showed for HOXB13 gene deletion T located in 48728612 region complement (promoter region), substitution C > T Rs 8556 (exon 1 region), deletion A 48727109 region complement (intron region) and substitution G > A region complement.
 
The research included a number of axes focused on these axes on the analysis of the hormones involved in the study and this is by giving a particular effort to raise the pulse to 160 N / d where the pulse is measured after an exercise or effort to raise the pulse of the player and when the completion of exercises The pulse is measured by the player through a device to measure the pulse and when the arrival to the pulse specified blood is drawn to the player and then the analysis of the hormones involved to study at the pulse of the specific measurement and know what changes in these hormones at this pulse and after the analysis in the laboratory allocated and a special device The results are collected Obtained and then deal with these results statistically to extract what extent attributed the changes that have taken place for these hormones for each player. The results showed that there were clear changes in hormone levels at pulse 160 and these changes vary from one player to another.
 
Twenty two isolates of Burkholderia cepatia (B. cepacia) were isolated from clinical sources and diagnostic using VITEK 2 system and GNB ID cards. Two molecular diagnostic methods have been used to confirm the identification., the first method is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by 16S rRNA gene (1400bp) amplification followed by sequencing the product by send it directly for DNA Sanger Sequencing to Macrogen Company/Soul, Korea, data were analyzed and edit using Geneious Program and the edited sequence were compare with data base using BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) to find the closed relation with submitted sequences, the second method is Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction by recA gene (385 bp fragment) amplification. The VITEK 2 System identify all the B.cepacia isolates with confidence values (97-99) %, 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing results confirm the identification with percentages of identification ranging from (96-99) %, after sequencing analysis, one of the B.cepacia isolate had been submitted in Gen Bank ((National Centre Biotechnology Information NCBI) under the accession number (MF678807). These results highlight the advantage of using these PCR assay to detect B. cepacia from different clinical sources that confirm the identification of isolates which may be misidentified when biochemically tested.
 
This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of Supernemic in the control of larvae of big headed myiasis fly Chrysomya megacephala by direct spraying and food treatment, the results of direct spraying of the second instar larvae with concentrations 0.3, 0.6 and 1ml.l⁻¹ led to cumulative mortality reached 25, 37 and 59% respectively, with a decrease in the emergence number of adults insects to 75, 36 and 41%, respectively, as well as 76% of the adults which produced from larvae were treated with 1 ml.l-l of supernemic died after 24 hours, some of malformation in the dead larvae was noted such as blackening the whole body of the larva or appearance of black spots on it. The treatment of larval food with same concentrations showed a cumulative mortality reached 27, 64 and 65%, respectively, and the adults emergence percentage were 67, 36 and 35 respectively, we conclude that the larvae of this fly were sensitive to the insecticide, as well as food treatment was more efficient in controlling of this fly compared to the direct spraying treatment.
 
The reaction of formation of complex between Cd²⁺ cation and large ring ligand of 18-crown-6 in solvent systems of methanol/ethyl acetate, methanol/dimethyl formamide, methanol/acetonitrile, acetonitrile/ethyl acetate, acetonitrile/tetrahydrofuran, and acetonitrile/dimethyl sulfoxide was studied at different temperatures by conductometry method. The obtained results indicate that the formed complexes have a stoichiometry of 1: 1 [ML]. The values of the complex stability constants, determined by using conductometry data, show that the formed complex stability is affected by the nature and composition of the solvent. In all two-component mixtures of solvents, a nonlinear relationship is observed for variations in stability constant of the complex, formed by the composition of the solvent. This type of behavior is attributed to solvent-solvent interactions in solvent binary mixtures. The values of the thermodynamic parameters (ΔH ° c, ΔS ° c, ΔG ° c) for the complex have been obtained from temperature dependency of the stability constants. These results showed that the reaction thermodynamics of the formation of the complex is affected by the nature and composition of the mixture of solvents. In the studied solvent systems, entropy or enthalpy, and in some cases, both factors were favorable for complex formation.
 
The present study conducted to study the measurement of red and white muscle fibers in two Iraqi fish species (Barbus grypus and Barbus sharpeyi) belonging to the cyprinidae family specimens of fish collected from AL-Hindyiah river at Kerbala province using gill net and cast net. The results declare clear differences in the mean values for the different studying length groups of both species under investigation. The mean diameters of red muscle fibers were less than that of white muscle fibers diameter at different regions of the the body and studying length groups. The results revealed that the diameter of red muscle fibers ranged from (40.68 - 73.32 microns) in comparison with (69.58 - 102.41 microns) for white muscle fibers for both species. On the other hands the results revealed that diameter of both red and white muscle fibers decrease toward the posterior region of the body, which is perhaps related to the mechanism of movement or swimming of the fish.
 
The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of polymorphism of interleukin-1-R gene (IL1R) at position-1970 SNP) in T1D and in healthy controls subjects39 of Iraqi patients, (12 males & 27 females; 1 5.65 ± 1.79 years) and 21 controls. (7 mail & 14femal; 14.66 ± 3.43 years) were enrolled in this study the polymorphism of IL-1R-1970was data waved by polymerase chain reaction-specific sequence primer (PCR-SSP) assay. Results revealed that comparing IL1R-1970genotypes and alleles between T1D patients and controls frequencies of TC genotype and C allele (79.49vs. 68.05%;P =0.419respectively) were significantly rise in patients contrast to controls, (38.28vs. 40.62%; P =0.094) and the related RR rates were 21.3%and39.8%, respectively. And the associated EF values were 1.71and2.11. Similar observations were made in CC genotype. In contrast TT genotype and T allele (22.33vs. 38.95%, P =0.706respectively) frequencies were significantly decreased in patients, compared to controls (42.38vs. 49.38%; P =0.094), and associated PF values were 0.63and0.47, respectively. These findings suggest that IL1R-1970 SNP might have a role in the etiopathogenic mechanism showed associations (positive and negative) with T1Din the samples of Iraqi patients.
 
Objective: To evaluate the association between the dihydrotestosterone hormone level and the level of sulfotransferase 1A1 enzyme inside the scalp hair follicle in patients with androgenic alopecia. Method: The study was conducted with the participation of 67 androgenic alopecia patients (37 females and 30 males). The level of serum dihydrotestosterone hormone was estimated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The sulfotransferase enzyme 1A1 was extracted from the plugged scalp hair follicle by sonication and estimated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: In this study, it was found that there is a significant association between the level of serum dihydrotestosterone hormone and the level of sulfotransferase 1A1 enzyme inside the scalp hair follicle in patients of androgenic alopecia ( p-value< 0.001), which means that whenever the level of serum dihydrotestosterone hormone increases, the concentration of the sulfotransferase 1A1 enzyme inside the scalp hair follicle decreases, and probably it will affect the response of a patient toward the minoxidil. Conclusion: Reducing the level of serum dihydrotestosterone hormone, could increase the level of sulfotransferase 1A1 enzyme inside the scalp hair follicle and that concept can lead to modulate the treatment regimen of androgenic alopecia.
 
Cesarean section delivery is a common choice for some women because it is often considered faster and safer. Over the past few decades, the cesarean section continues to be performed more frequently. As a result, there is also an increase in the number of women with a history of cesarean section and become a problem for pregnancy and subsequent types of labor. Method This is a retrospective descriptive study obtained using medical records in Sanglah Hospital Bali, 1st January 2015 to 31st December 2016 Period. Results Within 2 years since January 1, 2015 - December 31, 2016, the number of births in Single Deposer hospital as many as 2502 cases, consisting of 1753 (70.06%) vaginal delivery and 749 (29.94%) with cesarean section. Of all deliveries, the total number of deliveries with uterine scarring were 247 cases, consisting of 190 (76.92%) of direct cases of cesarean section, and 57 (23.08%) cases were decided by TOLAC. Of 57 TOLAC cases, 49 cases were successful VBAC (85.96%), while 8 cases were unsuccessful VBAC (14.04%).The incidence of VBAC was most frequently found in the age group of 20-35 years old (82.46%), body mass index (BMI) of ≤30 kg/m2 (91.23%), and gestational age of ≤40 weeks (84.2%). Based on the number of previous vaginal deliveries after cesarean, women with a history of vaginal delivery was most common with 29 cases. Based on previous cesarean section indications, fetal distress had the highest number of cases (35.09%). Women with cervix dilatation of ≥4 cm are more likely to have successful VBAC (85.96%). Almost all VBAC was spontaneous vaginal delivery (97.96%), except one. Almost all newborn have a birth weight of less than 4 kg (98.25%). Anemia and hysterectomy are among maternal morbidities found in our study. Based on perinatal morbidity, asphyxia, neonatal dengue, ARDS, and jaundice, were found in our study and only four newborns needed to be treated in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Conclusion The success rate of VBAC in this study was high, the indications of previous cesarean section most due to fetal distress. Moderate asphyxia was the most common perinatal morbidity, followed by ARDS, severe asphyxia, neonatal dengue and jaundice. However, in most cases there is no perinatal morbidity.
 
Background: Periodontitis is a infectious disease leading to the destruction of periodontium including periodontal ligament and adjacent alveolar bone induced by periodontal pathogens biofilm. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 patients, 50 with chronic periodontitis (CP) and 40 normal subjects0referring to the clinic of collage of Dentistry, Babylon University, Hilla City, Iraq, were evaluated, TNF-α and IL- 1a genotyping was performed by PCR)and analyzed by polyacrylamide gel. Results: polymorphism of IL1α (-889) and TNFa(-308), The results showed that there was no (significant) allele frequency) difference between(patients and)control groups. Conclusion: The current study suggest that there is no association between IL1α (-889) and TNF-α 308 polymorphism and chronic periodontitis in this population.
 
Objective: Urinalysis is important in screening, diagnosing, and monitoring the progress of certain diseases. However, the procedure takes time to finish, special skill, and lack of standardization in certain labs. This study evaluates the concordance between manual microscopic examination results to Sysmex UX-2000, and urinalysis chemical results between Sysmex UX-2000 and Cobas U411 (Roche Diagnostic), and the validity of urine sediment results between Sysmex UX-2000 and manual microscopic examination. Methods: Eighty urine samples were analyzed using Sysmex UX-2000, Cobas u411, and manual microscopic examination. Concordance level was measured using kappa coefficient. Then we calculated the validity of Sysmex UX-2000 in sediment tests to manual microscopic examination. Results: Chemical urinalysis of Sysmex UX-2000 possesses good and very good concordance level to Cobas u411 (*weighted κ 0.65-0.91). Urine sediment tests of Sysmes UX-2000 possesses good concordance to manual microscopic examination (**weighted κ 0.76-0.77), with 86-100% sensitivity and 73-78% specificity. Conclusion: Sysmex UX-2000 has good concordance level to Cobas u411 for chemical tests urinalysis, and also good concordance and validity between Sysmex UX-2000 to microscopic examination for erythrocyte and leucocyte sediment tests.
 
Background: Hirschsprung's disease (HD) is a congenital absence of ganglion cells in the lining of the large intestine that can cause functional intestinal obstruction. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of Hirschsprung's disease in patients referring to a pediatric hospital in south of Iran over a period of 9 years. Methods: This retrospective research was carried out on all neonates, infants and children who referred to the largest pediatric Hospital of Hormozgan in Bandar Abbas, Southern of Iran due to suspected signs and symptoms of hirschsprung's disease during the 9 years from March, 2005 to March, 2013.Demographic data and clinical symptoms of these patients were extracted from medical records available in hospital archives by a checklist. Results: Among the 85177 hospitalized patients in koodakan hospital of Bandar Abbas, a total of 425 cases had Hirschsprung's disease (HD) with an overall male-to-female incidence ratio of 1.72. An overall increasing trend was observed in studied time. Chronic constipation (92.2%) and abdominal distension (91.1%) were the most common complaints. There were 21 deaths (4.9%) in cases with HD but none of the deaths in this population were attributable to HD. Conclusions: Based on the result the incidence of hirschsprung's disease was elevated in recent years. However, more studies in several provinces are required to determine the exact value of incidence and further associations.
 
Distribution of TB infection according to sex:
Distribution of infection with TB according to residues:
Distribution of TB infections according to age groups
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the concern worldwide public health threats. A retrospective study conducted during the period (2016/11/14) until (2017/4/7) to comparative the incidence of tuberculosis disease in Diyala province between 2010 and 2015 years, the study-included number of patients with the chest and respiratory infections visited the central treatments of tuberculosis infections in Diyala. The patients included males and females with ages from (20-90) years, they had been done X-ray chest and laboratory tests, including: examination of the septum with Ziehl-Neelsen testand (E.S.R).Examination had been identified a positive cases of tuberculosis among them, the number of patients infection with TB in (2010) were (147) cases from (1429) and (405) cases from (5772) patients in (2015). The study showed that tuberculosis infections were decline in 2015 to 7% compares with 2010 to10.3% .The results showed that (44.89%) of male and 55.1% in female with TB infections in 2010. Also 47.90% of males and 52.09% of females infected with TB in 2015,the high rate of infection among age group (31- 50) in 2010, and (51-70 years) in 2015,while the age group (71-90years) are showed the lowest ratio were infected with TB infections for both 2010 and 2015. The results appeared urban area were high incidence of infection in both 2010 and 2015 in contrast with rural area,was 85(52.82% ) in urban and 62(42.17%) in rural area in 2010,with 207 (51.1%) in urban area and 198 ( 48.9%) in rural areas in 2015.
 
Introduction:High blood pressure is the most common cause of preventable death in the world. Today, more than 50% of isolated aortic valve failures, leading to aortic valve replacement, are due to aortic root dilatation that is also rising steadily. Association between aortic root dilatation and hypertension has been discussed and numerous studies were noted the relationship between hypertension, aortic root dilatation and aortic valvlar failure. Given the importance of the issue and the lack of a comprehensive study on regional and even countries in this field, in this study, we have to measure dilated aortic root prevalence and related factors in patients with hypertension in University of Medical Sciences, Urmia.Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive – analytical study. During the years 2012 to 2013, all patients referred to Seyedolshohada Hospital, Urmia with high blood pressure (systolic blood pressure over 140 or diastolic blood pressure over 90) were enrolled. In section echocardiography was done by echocardiologist with VIVD7 manufactured by GE and dilated aortic root was examined. The dimensions of the aortic in 3 areas annulus, Sinus Valsalva and STJ was measured and calculated according to body surface, and the results of the analysis were analyzed using statistical software SPSS 17.Results:In this study, we examined 1256 patients with hypertension, 541 patients (43.1%) were female and 715 (56.9%) were male. The prevalence of aortic root dilatation was 166 (13/3%) patients. And the dilated aortic root with older age, male gender, and smoking, there was a significant association, but with dyslipidemia and diabetes had no significant association. Discussion: Given that hypertension is the most common cause of preventable death in the world and associated of aortic root dilatation with hypertension has been demonstrated in numerous studies. Thus, the estimation of high blood pressure prevalence in the region and the country and its timely treatment aimed at preventing aortic root dilatation and complications related to it can be effective action.
 
Thalassemia syndrome is the commonest, well-known monogenetic inherited hematologic disorder that caused by a decrease or an absence of globin production. The study aimed to assess the differences in the socio-emographical characters, clinical finding and adherence to the treatment stratigeis between thalassemia major and other types of thalassemia. An analytical, cross sectional-retrospective- hospital based study, including the past 5 years; from 2012 till the end of 2017 in thalassemia center-Al- Habboby hospital-Thiqar health directorate-Iraq. All the registered cases of thalassemia were included in this study. The study include 103 patient with mean age of (10.47± 4,936), 52.4% were female, thalassemia major was representing the main proportion (68%) of the studied population, while only(32%) were with other types of thalassemia syndromes such as sickle thalassemia and thalassemia intermedia, Early age of thalassemia major presentation was the main finding in this study, Al-Nasiriya was the main site of inhabitation. Age of presentation, address, occupation, and educational level, Osteal lesion, growth retardation and carrying of some known complication were of significant association with the different types of thalassemia. Second degree relativeness was the main form of consanguinity among the parents thalassemia major, There was no significant statistical association in adherence to the treatment strategies among the transfusion and non-transfusion dependent thalassemia in their compliance to their applicable regimen. Socio-demography and clinical character are differ among different types of thalassemia, Early age of thalassemia major presentation was the main finding in this study, osteal lesion, growth retardation, cholelithiasis and infection with viral hepatitis had significant difference, while the consanguinity, blood group and adherence to the treatment had no significant association.
 
Background: Poisoning is a major global public health problem and one of the most common deaths in many societies. The goal of this study was to detect the percentage of patients with intentional and unintentional poisonings, and to define demographic factors, major toxic agents related to the occurrence of poisoning recorded by The Poisoning Consultation Center (PCC). Methods: This was a retrospective - epidemiological study covering data collected between 2014 and 2016 records of The Poisoning Consultation Center (PCC)/the Ghazi Hariri Specialized Surgery Hospital in the Baghdad medical city, Baghdad, Iraq. Results: Totally, 3213 cases associated with poisoning were evaluated. Among these cases, 3181 were reported as unintentional and only 32 cases as intentional poisoning. Females predominated among intentional cases (81%), and the majority of them belonged to the age group of 15-24 years. While, the 0-9-year age group was the most common among accidental cases. Metal poisonings, mostly copper, were found most frequently within accidental poisoning cases (74%). Carbamazepine ingestion was found to be the major toxic agent for committing suicides, followed by Paracetamol. Conclusion: Females had a greater propensity to commit intentional poisoning, and the housewives, the age group of 15-24 years and drug medications were more related with suicidal poisonings. A large scale of metal accidental poisoning are appearing in Iraqi cities where, bombing, military events, and waste incineration have led to increased public exposures. The results of this study may serve as evidence for new strategies in Iraq to prevent poisoning.
 
Background: Congenital anomalies are a major cause of neonatal and infant death, and disability around the world. The prevalence of congenital malformations differs widely between countries. Objectives: To determine the types of congenital anomalies among neonates and to identify the possible risk factors associated with congenital anomalies. Patients and Methods: A case-control study was carried out during 3years period (from the 1st of January 2015 to the 15th of December 2017). One hundred seventy-two neonates with congenital anomalies admitted to neonatal intensive care unit in Bint Al-Huda Teaching Hospital were involved in the study as a case group. A total of 305 neonates without congenital anomalies were randomly selected from neonates admitted to the same hospital for reasons other than congenital anomalies and including in the study as a control group. Results: Neural tube defects are the predominant type of congenital anomalies (31.9%), followed by congenital heart diseases (14.5%), cleft lip and palate (6.9%), and upper and lower limbs deformity (5.9%). Both genders equally distributed among patient and control group p-value > 0.05. The higher percentages of multiple congenital anomalies were detected among low birth weight neonates (30.6%), premature neonates (24.5%), neonates of mothers with advance age (> 35 years) (33.3%), grand multiparas (27.8%), and women with pregestational diabetes (37.5%).There is a significant positive association of low birth weight and premature neonates, young maternal age, chronic maternal illness, father occupation, and family history with the congenital anomalies, p-value < 0.05. Mother and Father Age, and prematurity were independent risk factors for congenital anomalies (OR 8.470, 17.367, 6.606, respectively). There is a highly significant association between congenital malformations with periconceptional folic acid intake, p-value < 0.001, (OR 5.746). Conclusion: The commonest congenital anomalies are neural tube defects, followed by congenital heart diseases, cleft lip and palate, and upper and lower limbs deformity. There is a positive association of low birth weight, chronic maternal illness, father occupation, and family history with the congenital anomalies. Parental age and prematurity were independent risk factors for congenital anomalies. Periconceptional folicacidin take protect against congenital malformations.
 
Sistan and Baluchistan province with an area of 187.500 km², accounts for 11.4% of the total area of the country as the biggest province. Considering the population density, it is one of the lowest populated provinces in Iran. Quality of the ground water is determined by its chemical, physical, and biological properties. Since chemical elements play a significant role in the type and amount of the usage of these resources, in this work, it's been aimed to determine and interpret the dominant type of water and critical points by measuring the important and influential physical and chemical properties including the concentrations of sulfate, fluoride, calcium, chloride, magnesium, and sodium ions, as well as other physical and chemical parameter in 800 samples from different areas of the province in 2015. The final goal is to contribute to solving the current water crisis of the country by gaining the knowledge for better management of these water resources, now and in the future. The results demonstrated that, in all cities of the province, all parameters were within the limited range, except for sodium, which was revealed to be higher than the limited range in majority of the cities. Among these cities, the quality of the water in Zahedan and Chabahar was obtained to be comparatively worse. Furthermore, the dominant type in Sistan and Baluchistan province was detected to be sodium sulfate and then sodium bicarbonate.
 
Background: H. pylori are a gram-negative, spiral shaped; flagellated bacteria adapted to colonized the gastric mucosal layer. It is affects nearly one half of the world population, mainly in the developing countries. Increasing prevalence in developing countries is due to socio-economic status such as poor hygiene, overcrowding household and deficient sanitation. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Al-Nasiryia city in to twenty primary health care centers among general population for all age groups and both sex. The sample size was 386 individual from 4-75 years old age. In questionnaire we used collect socio-demographic data of studied population. The laboratory test used blood sample to estimate the H. pylori antibody, that by using special kit. Data were analyzed by (SPSS) version 24 to estimated frequency, percentage, Chi-square test, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression, in all cases p-value < 0.05 was considered as statistical significant. Results: the overall prevalence of H. pylori infection among studied population of PHC attendants was 49.48%. In this study there was statistical association between H. pylori and some risk factors such as age, sex, marital status, smoking habit, occupation and cardiovascular disease were (0.0001) respectively. Multivariate analysis to showing the effect and association of variable on positivity of H. pylori antibody result in sex, occupation, CVD, smoking habit, difficulty swallowing to solid food, were p-value less than 0,05 and exponential B were 0.343, 0.381, 0.368, 0.401, 0.215, 1.772 respectively. Conclusion: The study shows about half of studied population was infected with H. pylori. the highest prevalence of H. pylori antibody was among age > 65 years old, male gender, divorced, illiterate level of education, of retired occupation, of urban residence, family size more than 7, of outer RO water supplement, having CVS disease, and very sever obese.
 
InhA, the enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase is one of the key enzymes involved in the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway of M. tuberculosis. Discovery Studio 2.5 was used to carry out the current work. Different training sets and test sets were taken for QSAR and pharmacophore studies from a total of 116 molecules. In the present work, classical 2D QSAR (r 2 = 0.913, Adj. r 2 = 0.95 and cross-validated r 2 = 0.90) models were developed for a series of 95 enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase inhibitors. This model was applied to successfully estimate activities of 14 test set molecules. Hiphop showed best fit with five features namely one hydrogen bond donor, three hydrophobic and one hydrophobic aromatic. The best hypothesis of hypogen run with 28 molecules consisting of four features namely two hydrophobic aromatic, one hydrophobic aliphatic and one hydrophobic, has a correlation coefficient of 0.914, a root mean square deviation of 1.166 and a cost difference of 80.23, suggesting that a highly predictive pharmacophore model was successfully obtained. The application of the model showed success in predicting the activities of few molecules in 54 known Mt EACP reductase inhibitors in our test set with a correlation coefficient of 0.847(r). The CDOCKER energies of two highly active inhibitors were -27.723 and -18.668, that of one moderately active inhibitor was -27.191 and of two low active inhibitors were and -2.581, -3.807. From 2D-QSAR, pharmacophore and docking studies the results have shown that Triclosan derivatives were proved to be highly potent inhibitors against Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase.
 
The ratio of feed materials in the formation of the initiator ration and the growth ration used in the experiment with the calculated chemical composition of both rations
This study was conducted at poultry farm of Animal Resources Dept., College of Agriculture, and University of AL-Qasim Green to investigate the effect of adding different concentrations of the Mint oil Menthaspicata L. to the ration on some blood traits of broiler chicks Ross 308. Use the 144 broiler chicks Ross 308 day-old were randomly assigned to four treatments by 3 replicates per treatment (12 chicks per replicate). The treatments were as follows: The first treatment (control) without adding mint oil to the ration. Adding mint oil at a concentration of 600 mg / kg basal feed (second treatment). While third treatment had mint oil at a concentration of 800 mg / kg feed. Adding mint oil at a concentration of 1000 mg / kg feed (fourth treatment). The study included the following characteristics: red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and differential leucocyte count. The results indicated that the addition of mint oil at a concentration of 600 ، 800 and 1000 mg / kg feed to broiler ration led to a significant improvement in white blood cell counts of broiler chick's ، and addition of 1000 mg Mint oil / kg of significantly improved the lymphocytes cell compared to the first treatment (control) and the second treatment.
 
The purpose of this study was to design Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) based solid dispersions bearing gliclazide. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K-30 and K-90) based solid dispersions containing the drug in different mass ratio i.e. 1:1, 1:3, 1:5 and 1:7 were prepared using fusion method. The prepared solid dispersions were characterized for their drug content, phase solubility studies, fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray diffraction, and in-vitro dissolution studies. All the formulations showed marked improvement in the solubility and dissolution rate of drug from solid dispersion is due to decrease in crystallinity of drug and additives. It was concluded that prepared solid dispersion of the gliclazide with Polyvinylpyrrolidone may improved the solubility and dissolution rate of the drug.
 
The research includes genetic study of insulin-like growth factor-II. The results showed a significant change comparing patients with of hypothyroidism with healthy group. The study included 60 people (males and females). Age ranged (20 - 45 years). Divided into 2 groups: The first group consisted of 30 patients (15 males and 15 females) with hypothyroidism .The second group consist of 30 people (15 males and 15 females) as control group. The results showed that individuals with non-homozygous allele AG had hypothyroidism. The aim of the study is to identify the common allele in a sample Iraqi society for hypothyroidism patients. The results showed a non-significant change when compared with the results of hypothyroidism with hyperthyroidism. While in the healthy group, the safety of individuals from any thyroid gland disease, but the genetic study showed that the number is not small also carrying the allele AG heterogeneous and that if anything indicates that these individuals with the allele AG will be vulnerable to thyroid disease during Next years. A pair of primers is designed to amplify exon 3of IGF-II gene and the polymerase chain reaction produced were sequenced to detect mutation.
 
Effect of exposure time on microbial removal efficiency of water using the SODIS (initial turbidity = 3 NTU, the weather is quite sunny) 
Effect of initial turbidity on microbial removal efficiency of water using the SODIS (exposure time=6 hour. the weather is quite sunny) 
Effect of weather conditions on microbial removal efficiency of water using the SODIS (exposure time=7 hour. Initial turbidity= 3NTU) 
Effect of bottle material on microbial removal efficiency of water using the SODIS (Turbidity NTU 3, Exposure time 7 h, and the weather is quite sunny) 
Today, drinking water supplies for most of the developing countries which mainly includes the remote villages are at stake. Therefore, using of low-cost and available methods, for the treatment of surface water for drinking in the areas without safe water system or emergency conditions was approved by international healthcare organizations. Solar disinfection technology (SODIS), is one of the most important technologies. In this study, the effect of UV-A radiation of sunlight in surface water disinfection in Bandar Abbas was studied. In a cross-sectional study, the samples have been exposed to sunlight for 1 to 7 hours in two types of PET and glass containers. Using of HPC method was measured number of remaining bacteria in the samples. Then, by using a statistical analysis, the relationship between reduce of microbial load and turbidity, contact time, weather conditions and type of containers was investigated. The results showed that removal efficiency of bacteria increased by increasing contact time from 1h to 7h. Also there was a direct and inverse relationship respectively between environmental temperature and turbidity with disinfection efficiency. Also results showed that in glass containers was observed more microbial load reduction. Noticed to significant impact of turbidity on SODIS, it is recommended, a filtration step performed prior to disinfection to reduce water turbidity. Based on the findings, the use of SODIS as a simple and practicable method is recommended to guarantee the drinking water safety.
 
Increase in frequency of acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI) and difficult economic situation in Ukraine require rational use of financial resources to treat this disease in children. Comprehensive analysis on background of additional pharmacoeconomic methods: ABC-, VEN- and frequency analysis based on study of results of 180 children with ARVI - allows to estimate cost of drugs in hospital of Burin town, Sumy region, Ukraine. It has been found out that part of money turned out to have been used inefficiently for treatment of children with ARVI and pharmacotherapy not always to be in line with government regulations because 16.15 % - 38.69 % of all funds were spent on drugs not included in Clinical Protocols for ARVI and related diseases. That is why there is an opportunity to cut down expenditures spent on unnecessary drugs during treatment period.
 
The problem lies in the apparent decrease in the accuracy and strength of the serving performance of the Anbar University team in tennis and the lack of focus on the mental abilities and linking them to the physical and skillful aspects, which necessitated the researchers to go into this problem through the development of sensory - kinetic exercises to address this decline. The research aims at identifying the effect of sensory-kinetic exercises in the development of the functional abilities, and the accuracy and strength of serving in tennis. The researchers hypothesized that the impact of exercises has a statistical significance on the functional abilities and the accuracy and strength of the skill of serving in tennis. They used the experimental approach to design the two equal groups and on a sample of (12) players. The field procedures of the research were by conducting the pretests on Wednesday, 4/10/2017 at 11am on the outdoor tennis court and the closed hall at the college. The sensory-kinetic exercises were carried out over 6 weeks at three units per week. On Sunday, 12/11/2017 at 11 am the post-tests were conducted in the same court and conditions similar to the conducting of the pretests. The researchers concluded that the controlling and experimental groups developed but the experimental group that used sensorykinetic exercises was more advanced in the post-tests. They recommend the emphasis on using the sensory-kinetic exercises to develop the skill of serving, other tennis skills, and other individual and team sports.
 
The problem of research is the amount of weakness in the level of some physical abilities, which has a negative impact on the low level of skill performance and shows through random play and slow movement within the stadium and the large number of cases cut in performance. Objectives There are statistically significant differences between the results of the post and remote tests of the two research groups in the search variables and in favor of the post tests. There are also significant differences between the control and experimental research groups in the remote tests and in favor of the experimental group. The experimental method was used for the nature of the research problem. The sample consisted of (48) players distributed to 22 control groups (22) for the experimental group and they represent the Soran Club. The experimental method of the experimental group in the experimental curriculum has developed in some special physical abilities and the velocity of the skillful performance of the research sample. The most important recommendations are to adopt the training method in specific areas and in different forms in the training curricula in the preparation and special stages.
 
The research problem is that there is a weakness in the technical performance of jogging efficiency 100 meters for students aged 11-12 years. The researchers found that the use of teachers for specific and nonvaried methods in the education of students in addition to the lack of focus in developing the physical abilities of students, Pupils for this event. This has prompted researchers to study the problem to find appropriate solutions. Where the researchers saw the development of a program of motor education in the style of small games and include exercises to reduce the psychological pollution and develop psychological skills and the most physical capabilities as well as technical performance in the effectiveness of running 100 meters relay to ensure the level of performance of students to this event and the goal of the research to: • Preparation exercises small games in reducing pollution and psychological development of psychological skills and the most important physical abilities of students aged (11-12 years). • Find out the effect of small games in the style of artistic performance development ran 100 meters for students aged (11-12 years). • The researchers used the experimental approach to design the equal groups to suit the nature of the study. The research community consisted of 6 primary pupils in Al-Farahidi Primary School for Boys in Babil Governorate (ages 11-12). The research society was the sixth primary pupils (28). • Small games contributed to reducing the psychological pollution of the pupils by 11-12 years. • The small games that have been used within the physical exercise capacity in the development of its effectiveness ran (100 m) and psychological skills for pupils Reconstruction (11-12 years). • The approach taken by the teacher contributed to the reduction of pollution and psychological development of physical abilities and mental skills for pupils Reconstruction (11-12 years).
 
The elements Oxides compounds S1(Y2O3) & S2(Y2O3/SeO2) are prepared chemically as an initial stage and affected by Laser Neodymium -YAG ablation energy (200 mJ), pulses (200 pulse) and frequency (6Hz) at temperature (65°C) with distilled water as a second stage. (XRD) showed that the oxides compounds were Polycrystalline to the two samples with a difference in the intensity values by increasing crystallization in the first sample and the appearance (Y (OH) 3, PLA) of the) Cubic), (Monoclinic) forms of the yttrium oxide (S1) and in the second sample (S2) confirmed the formation of SeO2 based (Y2O3) in a quadrilateral and Monoclinic. The Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy(FE-SEM) images of the two samples (Y2O3) & (Y2O3/SeO2) showed nanoparticles of Yttrium Oxide & Selenium Oxide as multi-shapes (sheets & rods) with (Y2O3: 82nm) and (Y2O3/SeO2: 91nm) in grain size showed long nanotubes distributed on the nanoparticles spread more widely (S1), and the sample (2S) showed the presence of selenium as well as SeO2 in varying proportions and in spherical forms spread over the surfaces of the Y2O3 nanoparticles. This was reinforced by the EDX analysis with the presence of these oxides. The results of the optical properties showed the value of absorbance increased in the S2 than in the S1, energy gap for the indirect electronic transmission were observed. They showed that they were semi-conductive materials with values of (3.5 eV) for the first sample & (3eV) in the second sample.
 
This study was carried out to determine the ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains to produce slime layer and biofilm formation during a period of study which extended from1 October, 2016 till 1 October, 2017. Analytic Profile Index (API) system for Staph (Bio-Merieux, France) was used to identify of bacteria to species level. According to Kirby-Bauer (disk diffusion) technique, the antimicrobial susceptibility test was done. Frequency of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from hip and knee joint infections was higher in male than female patients, 12(85.7%) vs. 2 (14.3%) (P-value ≤ 0.05).From antimicrobial susceptibility test, the most effective antibiotic was Vancomycin which showed 100% susceptibility rate and the highest resistance rate was to Benzylpenicillin (85.7 %.) followed by Erythromycin and Ampicillin (78.6%). Staphylococcus epidermidis strains were revealed different degrees of resistance towards remaining antibiotics. Out of 14 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains under study, 11(78.6%) of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains were slime layer production, while only 3(21.4%) of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains were non slime layer production (P-value ≤ 0.05) this indicate that Staphylococcus epidermidis strains from Hip and knee infections have the ability to format biofilm.
 
The aim of this study is to highlight the potential relationship between blood groups and diabetes for the local population of the city of SuqAl-Shuyukh in Thi-Qar, Iraq. The study included the identification of blood groups to 276 diabetes patients for the period from December 2018 to March 2018. ABO blood groups of all subjects were determined by slide agglutination method. Chi- square statistical analysis among different blood groups between non-diabetic (n= 100) and diabetic population (n= 276) revealed no significant relationship of any blood group with diabetes mellitus (p > 0.05). But relative risk (RR) were calculated in reference to blood group O, it has been observed that slight increase of risk of developing diabetes mellitus among AB (RR 1.111), a (1.045) and B (1.025).
 
Characteristic pregnant women who had an abortion, in terms of patients' information
The seroprevalance of B19 antibodies in relation to age groups
Distribution of anti-human parvovirus B19 in relation to gestational age
Distribution of B 19 antibodies in relation to number of the abortion
Background: Parvovirus B19 (B19 V) is a pathogenic for humans and the cause of erythema infectiosum, a common rash of childhood. B19 infection also causes severe disease such as chronic anemia in immunocompromised patients; aplastic crisis in the fetus can lead to cardiac failure, nonimmune hydrops, and fetal death in pregnant women. Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin (IgM, IgG) to Parvovirus B19 in pregnant women with spontaneous abortion. Materials and Methods: Cross sectional study was carried out in 100 pregnant women who referred due to a spontaneous abortion that attended at Bunt AL- Huda hospital for maternity and children in Thi-Qar province, Iraq. Then, the blood samples were tested to assay of anti-human B19 specific IgM, and IgG using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (DRG-Elisa kit, Germany). Furthermore, a questionnaire filled for all participants during samples collection. Results: Among study group the mean age was 27.35 years, with an age range 17-40 years. Seropositivity rate was 34% (34 cases) for an individual occurrence of human parvovirus B19 IgM alone and 38% (38 cases) for a similar individual rate of human parvovirus B19 IgG, Meanwhile,12 cases (12%) had both types of antibodies. There was no significant difference between the presence of antibody and age of pregnant women, gestational age, number of previous abortion, presence of children below the age of six. Conclusion: The results of this study showed (84%) of studied participants had a high susceptibility to parvovirus B19 in a way similar to that found in most countries. And also there might be a number of spontaneous abortions in which parvovirus infection caused fetal death. However, more studies are needed to prove the absolute role of parvovirus B19 in these abortions.
 
Multiparticulate drug delivery systems are especially useful for controlled or delayed release oral formulations to obtain different release patterns. Consequently, multiparticulate drug delivery systems provide tremendous opportunities for designing new controlled and delayed release oral formulations. Recently pulsatile delivery and multiparticulate dosage forms are gaining much favor over single-unit dosage forms in pharmaceutical appl ications. Recently pharmaceutical companies developed various technologies that fulfill unmet medical needs in the treatment of various diseases include Accu-Break™ Technology, CODAS™ Technology, Geoclock®, Geomatrix™ Technology, IPDAS® Technology, PRODAS® Technology, PULSYS™ Technology, OSDrC® Technology, VersetrolTM Technology, and Magnetic Nanocomposite hydrogel etc. Current review discusses about the spheroidal oral drug absorption system SODAS® technology, a proprietary technology which is used for many applications.
 
Babylon has one of the highest road traffic accident (RTA) related fatality rates in Iraq. Yet, still little is known about the factors contributing to the high number of RTAs .For the first objective, identification of the main human factors that contribute to the occurrence of RTAs in Babylon, the study on human factors conducted by Gründl (2005) was replicated. The results revealed three human factors that significantly increase the risk of causing an RTA in Babylon. These factors are according to the strength of their impact: namely the human (inappropriate speed, fatigue and having a conversation with the passenger), the vehicle and the road environment. Objective this study aimed to identify the main human factors that contribute to the occurrence of RTAs in Babylon and to investigate the human road interaction as a contributing factor to the occurrence of RTAs in Babylon.
 
It has been detected gene expression using the Real – time technique for some Isolations Candida albicans before and during infection to cells epithelium, Ther esults be high rate of gene expression (37.156 ±7.66049) to T2 treatment and significantly difference at the level of the probability P ≤ 0.01,compared with the C treatment that at a rate(1.040 ± 0.32229).As the use of an extract of the seeds of Moringa Oleifera In the concentration of 25% to assess its impact on the gene expression (SAP5) before and during infection yeast cells of epithelial and the results were reduced gene expression treatment T1 at a rate(0.074 ± 0.01542) comparison with the treatment C (1.040 ± 0.32229) and teams significantly at the level of the probability P ≤ 0.01, As for the T2 treatment was gene expression at a rate(37.156 ±7.66049) high Compared with T3 treatment in which gene expression dropped at a rate (19.565 ± 8.82162) and with a significant difference at the level of the probability of P ≤ 0.01.
 
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of financial information technology system (SANAMA: real-time monitoring system of the Department of Financial Monitoring and National Treasury) on the transparency, accountability, and audit of the national budget performance statement. This system improves management of the financial system in the area of resource consumption and national budget through a continuous financial control and supervision of the public resources consumption. The lack of timely and quick access to information and audit data resulting from traditional implementation of affairs reduces the accuracy and quality of the audits in addition to increasing the cost and time. Accordingly, the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance launched an electronic surveillance system known as the "SANAMA" as one of the major IT-based developments in the country in order to resolve the problem mentioned above and also to change and update the audits. Data were collected using questionnaire method. Based on one-sample t-test, the respondents represented a consensus of opinion on three issues raised in this research including improvements in auditing, transparency, and accountability of financial statements in executive organizations as the consequences of SNAMA system usage.
 
The Aim of Research: Preparation of special exercises to develop the deep sense and the accuracy of block in the volleyball for focal young players and Learn the effect of special exercises in the development of deep sense and the accuracy of the block of the volleyball of focal young players. Hypothesis: Special exercises have a significant effect on the development of the deep sense and the accuracy of block of the volleyball of the focal young players. As for the research methodology, the researcher chose the experimental method as the appropriate method to solve the problem of research in the design of a single group with the pre and posttests. The sample of the research was chosen from the research community represented by the young players (17-19) years for the Kufa and Al Rawdatain 2016-2017 clubs. The number of players was chosen from them. The number of players was 4 players in each team. The total number of players was 8. The Researcher Concluded: An evolution in the deep sense of the young players for the movement of the parties to the experimental group, Exercises for deep sense and accuracy contributed to increase the accuracy of the wall of the ball of the volleyball players, The various special exercises developed by the researcher contributed to the development of deep sense and accuracy of the wall barrier.The Recommendations Were: The need to use special exercises in the development of deep sense and the accuracy of the wall of the block of the volleyball of young players, The need to develop a deep sense and accuracy of the skill of the wall of the young players to defeat the importance. The need to use exercises for the deep sense of other skills.
 
Patients and tissues used
Pharmacology of responses to EFS in circular muscle from human adult ascending and descending colon
Summary of ganglia and cell bodies stained by antibodies for HuC/D, ChAT and nNOS per millimetre myenteric plexus in different regions of colon from patients of different age groups
Statement of the problem the correct fit of implant-supported frameworks is obtained through taking a precise master cast which is quite similar to the patient's intraoral orientation. The accuracy of implant casts depends on several factors including the impression technique and material, tray, implant angulations and depth, impression coping, the geometry of implant torque, and cast expansion. Purpose: this study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of open-tray and closed-tray impressions in two implant systems. Materials and method: two master casts of edentulous mandible were made of transparent acrylic resin. Bio horizon (n=30) and dio of implants (n=30) were inserted in either cast at 0 and 20° angles. Open- and closed-tray impressions were taken by using monopren material, and were poured with type iv stone cast. The related abutments were installed on the prepared casts. Digitizer in association with the 3d scanning system of atos software created point cloud of the casts and master casts. Finally, a comprehensive report of the deviations in x, y, and z axes were presented. Results: both the impression technique and implant system affected the impression accuracy significantly (p=0). but, the effect of implant angulations was statistically insignificant (p=0.793). Moreover, the interaction of implant system and impression technique was significant (p=0). However, no significant interaction was noted between the implant angulations and system or between the implant angulations and impression technique (p=0.944).conclusion: the impression technique and implant system play the key roles in the implants impression accuracy.
 
The current study aimed to identify the relationship of statistical research to the effect of concentration and attention and their relation to the accuracy of the performance of the spike and rotation of the volleyball of the sample of the research, which was subjected to the test of the impact of concentration and attention to volleyball and the skill test dealt with the study. The researchers used the experimental method to suit the nature of the research, where the study was conducted on a sample of students of the second stage in the Faculty of Physical Education / Karbala University for the academic year 2017 (2018) and represent the age group (20 - 22) years, the number of (60) students, (80%) of the original research community were selected by random method. The researcher used the following statistical means (Percentage, mean, standard deviation, and correlation coefficient - Pearson). The researchers concluded that the concentration and attention test showed a significant correlation in the spike test and the volleyball deception.
 
The current study is of great importance as the aim of the research is to prepare phosphate-strength exercises to develop the rapid ability of the weapon arm and the accuracy of the epee attack for girls' players. Learn about the impact of exercises with phosphate effort to develop the rapid ability of the weapon arm and the accuracy of the epee attack for girls' players. The researchers use the experimental method - the two equal groups a pretest and posttest to the nature of the suitability of the study. Select the research community for girls players in the Alfahtat club in Baghdad to the fencing, totaling (20) player, as it has been selected (16) player and (80%) of the total research community as it has been divided into two groups (Control and experimental) and each group (8) players. In order to achieve the same conditions in the training modules and thus control the search variable, the two groups were trained together as a single group, in all parts of the training unit and under the direct supervision of the researcher, with the exception of the main section of the unit, the players are distributed to their groups, so that the experimental group undergoes these exercises prepared by the researchers, while the control remains on the same exercises given by the coach them. The training program took (6) weeks by (3) training units in the week a total of (18) training units, ranging training unit time (90 minutes), the duration of the proposed exercises by researchers range (30-35) minutes from the main section of the training unit time, in the exercise design, the researchers adopted a repetitive training method (90-95%) of the maximum intensity of the player. The researchers used the maximum exercise time to determine the intensity of the phosphate exercise the researchers conducted some exercises and measured the time of some player's days before the start of the main experiment and verify this during the application of his experience and exercises in the experiment so the intensity of exercise is known to researchers. One of the most important conclusions reached by the researchers is that the phosphate exercise used in research can positively affect the rapid ability of the female players in the fencing, thus positively affect the skill of accuracy of the attack and hence the proposed training exercises have achieved its proposed goals.
 
The Aims of Research to: Preparation of visual exercises, especially in the development of visual tracking and the accuracy of the spike of the volleyball young players. To identify the impact of exercise visual especially in the development of visual tracking and the accuracy of the spike of the volleyball of young players. The Hypothesis: Special visual exercises have a positive effect on the development of visual tracking and the accuracy of the volleyball spiking of young players. As for the research method, the researchers chose the experimental approach as the appropriate method to solve the research problem by designing the experimental and control groups with the tribal and remote tests as it fits the nature of the research problem. The sample of the research was chosen from the research community represented by the young players in the volleyball of the middle region (3 clubs) in Iraq at the age of 17-19 years and the number of (36) player has been selected two clubs, including the number of (20) player after the expulsion of the player prepared randomly by lot to represent the two groups Experimental and control of the sample of the search and the reality of (10) player for each group. The Researchers Concluded: An evolution in visual tracking and accuracy of the volleyball team's spike in volleyball skill, There is a preference for the experimental group in the tests of the dimension of visual tracking and the accuracy of spiking in the volleyball, The various special exercises developed by the researchers contributed to the development of visual tracking and the accuracy of the spiking skill. The Recommendations Were: The need to use special visual exercises to develop the visual tracking of players, especially young people, The need to use special visual exercises to increase the accuracy of the skill of spiking, The need to use special visual exercises to increase the excitement and excitement of young people and increase their motivation for training.
 
The research problem indicates a weakness and a decrease in the level of some special physical abilities as well as a decrease in the accuracy of the performance of some basic skills of the research sample and this is clearly evidenced by the slow movement and frequent maneuvers or cases and the failure of most cases scoring. The main objective of the research was to develop training pattern according to the training exercises in the training curriculum and to identify the effect of these training pattern on the research variables under consideration. The research hypotheses were statistically significant differences in the results of pre and posttests between the control and experimental research groups, statistical significance between the posttests between the control and experimental research groups and for the benefit of the experimental group. The researchers were used the experimental method, the sample of research consisted of (20) players representing the club (Ararat) the experimental group and (20) players representing the Club (Shaklawa) total control, the most important conclusions reached by researchers that the training models according to the exercise exercises used in The research has developed in some special physical abilities and accuracy of the performance of the basic skills used in the research. The recommendations are the adoption of training models according to the training exercises in the preparation stage and the two repetitive training methods in the training curricula of trainers.
 
Top-cited authors
Ahmed N. Abd
  • Al-Mustansiriya University
Nadir Fadhil Habubi
  • Alnukhba University College
Rishabha Malviya
  • Galgotias University
Vvipin Bansal
  • GlaxoSmithKline
Pramod Sharma
  • Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee