A high-resolution biostratigraphy study and paleoenvironment analysis were carried out on composited fifteen (15) ditch-cutting samples retrieved from AJAYI-01 well, offshore Niger Delta, Nigeria. The studied intervals range from 4060feet – 4960feet and were subjected to foraminifera, calcareous nannofossil and palynological analysis to determine their age, biozonation and environment of deposition. The standard laboratory preparation techniques of wet sieving, simple smear method, and Hydrofluoric (HF) and Hydrochloric (HCl) acids maceration techniques respectively. A sedimentological description of the ditch-cutting samples was carried out. Three major foraminifera zones of Turborotalia peripheroacuta/Bolivina mandoroveensis Zone, Praeorbulina glomerosa/Nonion centrosulcatum Zone and Catapsydrax dissimilis/Buliminella subfusiformis Zone and the important marker Heterostegina sp. was recognized in the well based on the critical evaluation of bioevents and correlatable datums. The nannofossil zones of Helicosphaera ampliaperta and Sphenolithus heteromorphus were erected for this well based on the index taxa and fossil assemblage recorded. The palynological data consists of highly diversified assemblages dominated by terrestrial forms such as Zonocostites ramonae, Monoporites annulatus, Laevigatosporites sp., Verrucatosporites sp., Retitricolporites sp., Acrostichum aureum. The important marker recorded was Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni (FDO) at 4420feet. The well is dated early to middle Miocene (NN4 –NN5) based on the occurrence of marker species Helicosphaera ampliaperta and Sphenolithus heteromophus which corresponds to Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni - Echitricolporites spinosus Zone (P720-P680) subzones. A tentative sequence stratigraphic framework for the studied sequences was established. A condensed section that is associated with the Maximum Flooding Surface (MFS) was dated 15.20Ma at 4480 feet based on peak faunal abundance and diversity. The environment of deposition has sediments deposited in the marine environment fluctuating between middle neritic and inner neritic to the littoral, including coastal deltaic settings based on deductions from foraminiferal, palynological and sedimentological data.
Palynological studies in Nigeria are mainly confined to the Tertiary Niger Delta, where several studies have been carried out for the discovery of natural oil and gas in this particular basin during late 1950s. The accuracy and profitability of the exploration process can be enhanced by the micropaleontological monitoring through the palynological analysis of ditch cuttings for age determination. Fifty ditch cutting samples from intervals 8040 ft and 11010 ft of Well X-1, OML 108, Ukpokiti field, offshore Niger Delta Nigeria were analyzed for their palynofloral content, in a view to establish the biozonation framework for the purpose of age characterization of the rock succession. Palynological sample processing and analysis followed standard methods of treatments with different concentrations of Hydrochloric acid, Hydrofluoric acid and organic acid for digestion of carbonates, removal of silicates and washing or centrifuging for concentration of the palynomorphs respectively in order to liberate the palynomorphs from the extraneous organic matter in the rock matrix. The palynofloral analysis yielded a total number of forty-three (43) pollen, seven (7) spores and one dinoflagellate cyst, from which four subzones based on palynofloral assemblage of marker species, their stratigraphic tops and base including their abundance and diversity were recognized. The zones are from youngest to oldest: Stereisporites sp, Racemonocolpiteshians, Verrutricolporitesrotundiporus and Retibrevitricolporitesobodoensis/protundens zones corresponding with pollen sub zones:P850-830, P820, P780 and P770respectively, indicatingLate Miocene to Middle Miocene age. In conclusion, the palyno – zones of this study compare well with the pollen zones of , therefore shows that the rock succession was deposited during the Middle to Late Miocene epoch.
The study focuses on the mapping of geological lineaments from the following different sun elevation angles: 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, 180°, 225°, 270°, and 315° of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Four of the images with azimuth; 0°, 45°, 90° and 135° were combined to produce a single image with multi-illumination directions. The images with azimuth; 180°, 225°, 270°, and 315° were equally combined to produce another single shaded relief image with multi-illumination directions. The two multi-illumination direction images were used for the automatic lineament extraction using PCI Geomatica software. The extracted lineaments were overlaid, and duplicate lineaments were eliminated. The final lineaments of the study area were screened using high-resolution Google images for non-geological features. A total of 237 lineaments were extracted, with a total length of 649.77Km, a mean length of 2.742Km and standard deviation of 1.187. The dominant trending pattern in the final lineaments of the study area is NE-SW direction. The Lineament density for the study area ranges from 0 to 1.36 km/sqkm with about 69.1% of the study area being mapped as poor and low density while the high and very high densities area account for just about 30.9% of the study area.
Many states in Africa have experienced particularly painful growth trajectories and transitions to post-independence democracy. In particular many writers have noted the ‘lost decades’ for democratic consolidation and economic growth in Africa between 1980 and 2000. Current perceptions of Africa are framed by high levels of absolute poverty and low levels of life expectancy, and significant national debt burdens. Many countries have experienced extended periods of devastating political and military conflict, as well as unsuccessful attempts with Marxist- Leninist and free market economic policy, further exacerbating the painful nature of post-independence development. The development paths of many African countries have also been significantly conditioned by regional militarism as well as international geopolitical developments, furthering conflict and development trauma. This paper therefore seeks to identify some of the root causes of the poor economic growth that many post-independence African nations have experienced, specifically between 1980 to 2000. It argues that colonial (and neo-colonial) history and geography have played a significant role in Africa’s lagging growth rate and peripheral regional status in a hostile and competitive global economy.
This study analysed the Spatial Assessment of Land use/Land Cover Dynamics From 1988 To 2018 In Bonny LGA, Rivers State, Nigeria using Landsat imageries of 1988, 2000, 2003, 2016 and 2018 with the aid of Remote Sensing (RS) techniques and Geographic Information System (GIS). Five land use/land cover types where analysed: Waterbodies, Forest, Mangrove/Swamp, Built Up Area/Bare Surfaces and Muddy Surface. The results show that from 1988 to 2018, water bodies, forest, and mangrove/swamp reduced by 5.14%, 25.07%, and 38.28% respectively while built-up area/cleared lands and muddy surface increased by 69.42% and 682.24%. Findings show that spatial coverage of forest and mangrove/swamp decreased between 1988 and 2018 and the reduction in forest cover reduces the significant role that it plays in maintaining the ecosystem. This study has clearly shown the roles of geo-information technologies at monitoring land use/landcover change in Bonny LGA, Rivers State and therefore, recommended that re-afforestation projects, strict legislation, policies, and strategies should be established to replenish the forests and mangrove/swamp; should be put in place.
The improvement of the conditions of access to drinking water for the populations of the Lobo watershed requires the exploitation of groundwater because of the surface water which remains exposed to climatic hazards and the impacts of anthropic activities. And yet, these underground waters finds himself bedrock aquifer which are complex aquifers. Thus, the objective of this study is to characterize those fissure aquifers that who govern underground run-off in the aquifer system of the Lobo catchment area. The methodology adopted consisted in using 1A sentinel radar images to map fractures and their spatial distribution. The validation of the lineaments first consisted in comparing and highlighting the lineaments from the radar images and the fractures revealed from photo-geological images. Next, we superimposed the map of lineaments on the map of boreholes with a flow rate greater than or equal to 5 m3/h, which were considered as productive boreholes. To determine the traffic corridors, this fracturing map was superimposed on the piezometric map. This work made it possible to extract 9,753 lineaments over a surface area of 7,000 km². The various validation techniques enabled us to confirm 121 major fractures with an average length of 9 km. In addition, the most productive boreholes are located on average less than 300 m from the fractures. The analysis of the distribution of the orientations of these fractures revealed a heterogeneity of direction and a predominance of the N-S; NW-SE and NE-SW families. The Fracturing density maps and density of the number of fracture crossing points highlight the spatial heterogeneity of the fracture network which is controlled by geomorphology, geological formations and lithological contacts. The river Lobo and its main tributary the Dé, flow preferentially in fractures. This river and its tributary drains the aquifer system. The results obtained from different thematic maps are useful for the realisation of future high-yield hydraulic wells (Q ≥ 5 m3/h).
Land use/land cover changes in Owerri Municipal and its environs which included Orogwe, Ubomiri, Emii, Uratta, Ihiagwa and Egbu were studied as being driven by rapid population growth for urbanisation. The study applied the digital technology of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (ARC GIS 9.3 Version software). These tools were implored to generate land use/land cover maps for the period; 2005, 2010 and 2015 and to determine the area in km2 of each of the six classes of land use/land cover types, the percentage change of the total area covered, accuracy of the overall classification including the Kappa coefficient, while a classification scheme was used to develop the classified land use/land cover maps. Also satellite imagery for the period (2005-2015) was imputed into the ENVI 4.5 software environment, composited, digitized and exported to the Arc. GIS where they were clipped with the study area. The extracted image of the study area was then exported back to the ENVI 4.5 environment for Arc.GIS environment in TIFF format. This was followed by a colour separation in the imagery repeated for all the raw satellite imagery. Image interpretation was done on ENVI 4.5 software based on a set of pixels of the Region Of Interest (ROI). Results are that Kappa coefficient values were high enough for the period of study with 0.9099, 0.9557 and 0.9685 for 2005, 2010 and 2015 respectively indicating a strong agreement between the classified maps and ground referenced information. Integrating GIS and satellite remote sensing with high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution at the local scale to develop urban environmental monitoring, effective land use planning and management of the current growth pattern were among others recommended.
The human biometeorological conditions at mid-afternoon during 12 months of 2012 in the city of Minna North-Central Nigeria have been evaluated based on energy budget indices (UTCI and PET) using climate parameters -air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation) observed at 15:00LST as input into the Rayman model. Air temperature demonstrated strongest significant correlation coefficient (r) with UTCI and PET (r= 0.91, r= 0.93) (P<0.0001) while windspeed show weakest association with them(r=-0.10, r=-0.20) (P<0.03, P<0.001) respectively. March and August were characterized by peak and slightest monthly thermal stress conditions according to both indices. The correlation coefficient between both indices was significantly (P<0.0001) very strong (r=0.98) and more noticeable for equivalent temperatures in strong stress thresholds (UTCI>=32°C, PET>=35°C), which shows that both indices can be used indifferently in warm climates. However, during May to October, UTCI better expressed warm conditions than PET mainly due to the difference in the definition of reference environment for both indices; this study is relevant to the urban sightseeing industry as tourists would most likely opt for a period of lesser thermal discomfort.
The investigation of rainfall, temperature and solar radiation variability at Birnin Kebbi metropolis, Kebbi State, Nigeria was carried out using observations of air temperature (°C) rainfall (mm) and solar radiation (W/m2) for the period of 2014 -2016 (3 years), data was obtained at Sir Ahmadu Bello international Airport, analysis of data indicate for the occurrences of abrupt change in temperature, rainfall and solar radiation values. It was observed from the distributions of monthly average wind speed for the (3) three years are fairly similar with maximum wind speed with variation in some months, having deficit values in February and April 2014, February and March 2015, January and February 2016, its revealed that, the least global solar radiation in 2014 followed by the month of January 2015 and June in 2016. The variation between maximum solar radiation and minimum is said to be great in the months of January to March where there is increase in the intensity of heat as there is strong expectation of precipitation events that become extremely in the month of August/September 2016. The slight difference between maximum and minimum in the period advocates a different seasonal period between the regime of large difference and low difference in the Relative Humidity in the year. However 2016 show the maximum temperature which in turn when compared with 2014 and 2015 as the case reverse, significant increases in precipitation indicated in 2014 compare to other years (2015, 2016). It was concluded that there is a significant downward trend in the yearly total and mean rainfalls at Birnin Kebbi showing that 2014 has highest rainfall compared with 2015 and 2016.
In order to define a better model for the Cephalonia-Lefkas Transform Fault Zone the sequence of 2015 Lefkas earthquake was examined. On 17 November 2015 (07:10 GMT) a major earthquake (Mw=6.4) occurred on the central-western part of Lefkas island. Several destructive events were located in the past in this fault zone, so an extensive seismotectonic study is feasible for that area. Manual analysis was performed using a custom velocity model that was determined for that purpose, applying the average travel-time residuals and location uncertainties errors minimization method. Several clusters belonging to the aftershock sequence were identified, whereas three are directly related to the causative fault, covering an area of about 25 km. The central one, which includes the mainshock, comprises of only a few aftershocks. The northern, within which the majority of aftershocks are located, lies in the central part of Lefkas island and the southern occurred close to the SW edge of the island. In addition, offshore clusters with distinct characteristics have been identified to the south, between Lefkas and Cephalonia islands. The temporal evolution of the aftershock sequence indicates that no migration was observed, given that after the occurrence of the mainshock the entire epicentral area was activated. Focal mechanisms of the Seismological Laboratory of the University of Athens showed dextral strike-slip faulting for both mainshock and major aftershocks of the sequence. Taking into account the spatial distribution of the aftershocks, supported by the tectonic and geomorphological settings of the region, a deformation pattern, consisting of the Cephalonia-Lefkas and Ithaca-Lefkas major fault zones which converge in the area of Vassiliki bay is proposed. The appearance of the southernmost clusters was interpreted by the positive Coulomb stress changes transfer due to major earthquake Mw=6.4.
Transport infrastructure development can have significant negative impacts on natural resources over time and space, making it crucial to undertake careful consideration to minimize damage to both natural and artificial features. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of the environmental impacts caused by the standard gauge railway (SGR) from Nairobi Terminus to Nachu station in Kiambu county. The research approach used in collecting data, interpreting and analyzing the data was both quantitative and qualitative research. The study used a detailed GIS and remote sensing (RS) baseline environmental assessment and interviews to identify social and environmental impacts and proposed mitigation measures for the SGR project during and after implementation which is from 2016 to 2019. The results show that there was a 3.6% increase of built-up areas along the SGR line, while grassland, forest, and cropland decreased by 2.5%, 2.6%, and 13%, respectively. Increase in built-up areas has been identified to be around the railway station and also along the buffer zone The drivers of this change were mainly attributed to urbanization. Negative environmental effects of the SGR included encroachment on conservation areas, disruption of human settlement, and reduction of forest and vegetation cover. Noise and air pollution from SGR construction and operation affected wildlife, vegetation, and human settlements. To mitigate these negative impacts, this study recommends a number of measures including the wet-spraying of cement and wet drilling to reduce dust emissions during construction, frequent investigations of construction sites, afforestation, and GIS analysis to locate the most suitable SGR routes. Moreover. In conclusion, this study highlights the negative environmental impacts of the SGR project from Nairobi Terminus to Nachu station in Kiambu county. The results suggest that the project caused significant environmental degradation, particularly in terms of reduced forest and vegetation cover, and encroachment on conservation areas. The proposed mitigation measures can help reduce these negative impacts and minimize future damage caused by transport infrastructure development.
At the start, we consider the greatest decreases in reproducing populace size that have been seen across a wide scope of animal categories. The essential imperative on such an activity is that these alleged memorable paces of decline will constantly misjudge real decays, since genuine notable populace maxima will have happened well before fishery the executives offices started gathering information on fish overflow. For most fish populaces, dependable quantitative information on overflow have just been accessible for the beyond 2 to thirty years. In this information base, bringing forth stock size, enlistment, gets by the fishery, and fishing mortality, all assessed by the public or global organization answerable for the administration of every populace, are accessible for a considerable length of time. Obviously marine fishes have encountered phenomenal downfalls comparative with known memorable levels. These information depend on populaces for which time series reach out something like 10 years, with a mean of 25 years and a limit of 73 years. Taken all in all, the middle greatest populace decline among the 232 populaces for which information are accessible is 83%; well over portion of the populaces (58%) showed most extreme decays of 80% or more. The solid negative slant in the information, and the high middle decrease in overflow, are likewise apparent at lower ordered levels. Among 56 populaces of clupeids, 73% experienced notable downfalls of 80% or more. Inside the Gadidae and cod, of the 70 populaces for which there are information, the greater part declined 80% or more. Furthermore, among 30 pleuronectid populaces, 43% displayed declines of 80% or more. These outcomes are sobering for two reasons. To start with, a considerable lot of them have happened notwithstanding a gigantic work to keep them from occurring. Second, as indicated above, they depend on "noteworthy" maxima that are not exactly notable by any means, most fisheries having been well under way many years or hundreds of years before the time series of information started. Without even a trace of longer-term information, analysts' discernments will more often than not scale to time spans that they, or maybe their folks, can recall. This outcomes in the "moving benchmark condition", by which researchers acknowledge information from an ever increasing number of late periods as baselines, failing to remember that this permits definitely diminished populaces to fill in for the a lot higher baselines that happened before people started significantly affecting populaces.
An evaluation of irrigation quality of groundwater from shallow aquifers within Wamba Sheet 210 in Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria was carried out. The area is located between Latitudes 8°30’N and 9°00’N, and Longitudes 8°30’E and 9°00’E, covering about 3,025 Km2. It is underlain by rocks belonging to the Basement Complex, the Younger Granites, and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The results of field tests and laboratory analysis were used in assessing the suitability of groundwater found in the area for irrigation. Values obtained for Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP), Magnesium Adsorption Ratio (MAR) and Kellys Ratio (KR) were 0.97 - 3.43, 8.18 - 81.76%, 8.03 - 80.22 and 0.04 - 3.43 respectively. These indices are largely within the safe limits for irrigation with very little likelihood that salinity hazards will develop.
In recent years removing environmental pollution has become one of the main concerns of human life. Air quality in cities depends on weather conditions and the amount of pollutants produced. Today, air pollution is one of the most complex problems of human societies, which has left many negative effects on the health of living beings, especially humans. In this research, the average monthly and annual concentrations of air contaminators in the air pollution measurement stations of the General Directorate of Environmental Protection of Tehran province in the years 2013 to 2019 were examined. By using google earth engine site . Processes that GEE (Google Earth Engine) contains a consolidated resource of open-access RS (Remote Sensing) datasets, along with a variety of algorithms to extract information for Earth’s surface monitoring , and using maximum likelihood classification method it recognized that examining the spatial changes of pollutants in the areas where there was more construction, the amount of contaminators was also higher. In terms of time, however, no special changes have been observed for all gases. For AI (Aerosol Index) pollutant, no very specific changes were observed within the region. We have seen a growing trend for carbon monoxide pollutant. For the nitrogen oxide pollutant, we have not seen any growth during this period of time. For sulfur dioxide, we have seen a growing trend. Also, in terms of seasonal changes, air pollutants are more concentrated in winter.
Urbanisation is one of the most significant development process affecting the modern world particularly the developing countries. However, often the pattern and level of urban development are highly variable both spatially and temporally. Barasat subdivision comprises the sadar subdivision of the district of North 24 Parganas in West Bengal. This district traditionally has a glorious history of urbanisation being much higher than both the state and national averages. Within the district, this subdivision has shown a slow and steady growth of urbanisation since independence. Although the percentage of urban population has remained below the district average it has been significantly higher than the state and national average. The study aims to find out the trends, levels of urbanisation and spatio-temporal pattern of urbanisation in the study area using quantitative and qualitative techniques. Mostly secondary data sources have been used. The study reveals that there are significant spatio-temporal variation in levels of urbanisation within the subdivision. The subdivision was overshadowed in the urban scenario mainly due to the overwhelming presence of neighbouring Barrackpore subdivision till 1981. The situation has significantly altered after Barasat being declared the district headquarter in 1986.
The 4th Assessment Reports prepared by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007 reported serious concerns which directly affect the livelihoods of millions of coastal habitants and fishing communities. This study mainly concentrates on the awareness regarding the climate variability and vulnerability exposed by climate change on the marine fishing communities based on their Socio-Demographic Profile, Livelihood strategies, Social Networks, Health, Water, Natural disasters and Climate Variability and Knowledge and Skills; which are divided into three main components of vulnerability (IPCC): Exposure, Sensitivity and Adaptive Capacity. Here, we have chosen the three major functioning fishing harbours of this district are Lakshmipur Abad of Namkhana, Kalinagar of Kakdwip and Sultanpur of Diamond Harbour with their respective fish landing centers. The primary data used is based on a purposive sampling survey of 150 household of fishing communities and the secondary data about recent climate variability and extreme events was collected from official records. This study used the participatory tools and methods in order to generate qualitative and quantitative information about climate change impacts and community based adaptation strategies to climate change. The study reveals that the most important climate-related elements of exposure are the storms and cyclones. We have also found that studied villages are highly populated and competing for limited resources, furthermore lack of economic opportunities like agriculture in coastal areas making these communities already vulnerable along within higher sensitivity and lower adaptive capacity combine to create higher vulnerability.
Some of the common methods of monitoring and mapping groundwater contaminants is by extracting and analyzing samples of the groundwater obtained from wells within the expected investigation area, although lots of limitations are encountered in this type of investigation technique (point wise method) due to the nature of most subsurface layers, which are heterogeneous and anisotropic in nature and acquiring information using this method is comparatively difficult due to the few points acquired for investigation. Common and most recent method used to overcome such type of limitation and improve ground monitoring cost-effectively, is the use of Direct Current Resistivity measurements. This method gives a comprehensive characterization of the electrical properties of the subsurface layers (volume) needed. This paper investigates the usability and advantages of the resistivity method as a better method technique in monitoring groundwater contaminants in basement area or terrains under different seasons, in monitoring programmes. The work comprises field investigations at several sanitary landfills around the basement area of Ado-Odo town, in Ogun State, Nigeria, using Wenner array configuration (tomography) technique. From the results obtained, the level/degree of contaminants are easily identified and evaluated within the subsurface layers. We therefore concluded that the use of resistivity survey method gives an improved, better and appropriate information, generally suitable for mapping and monitoring of conductive groundwater contaminants in basement area.
The Search for residential land use option at Abakaliki area in Ebonyi state, Nigeria was carried out using Geographic Information System (GIS). Some laboratory experiments were incorporated to delineate some complementary information for the study. Ten determinants as capability factors were selected to develop thematic maps for over-lay analysis using software incorporated in Geographic Information System (GIS). The percentage influences of these determinants were also considered to facilitate the interpretation of the results. An Arch view model builder was employed in the over-lay analysis. The result produced the composite map where the residential land use zones were isolated, towards sustainable land use for residential purposes in the area. The residential land use option occurred at the NE-Eastern zone in the North west, South west and South east locations of the study area respectively.
The Lower Benue Trough, in South-eastern Nigeria, hosts several lead-zinc deposits. The mineralization is frequently hosted by Cretaceous black shales that appear to have undergone low grade metamorphism, and subordinate sandstones. Most parts of the deposits have been epigenetically formed, and occur as blocky shaped, discordant veins, fracture, and possibly open-space fillings, of hydrothermal origin. For this reason, structural evaluation constitutes an important criterion for the investigation of the mineralization. In particular, the orientation of fractures occurring at the Pb-Zn deposits can be useful in the differentiation of the relative ages of the mineral vein deposits. A total of one thousand, one hundred and forty-seven fractures around mineralized zones, at the study localities, were measured and analysed. Results indicate that the vein deposits are structurally controlled, have four main orientations, and most likely formed by crack-seal process. The most prominent fracture sets show NW-SE, NNE-SSW to N-S orientations, while the less prominent ones are displayed in the NE-SW and ESE-WNW directions. The NW-SE, NNE-SSW to N-S fracture sets is interpreted as ‘ac’ extension fractures from two different deformation episodes that affected the trough, while the NE-SW, ESE-WNW to E-W sets is the two ‘bc’ tensile fractures, respectively parallel to the axes of F1 and F2 folds which occur in the trough. Small variations of the NNE-SSW and ESE-WNW brought about the occurrences of N-S and E-W sets respectively. Indication are that the two deformation episodes affected the trough: the first episode produce the NE-SW (F1) fold axes, while the second less intensity episode produce the ESE-WNW (F2) folds. The most dominant mineral vein trends in the study area are the NW-SE and NNE-SSW to N-S orientations, in which mineral veins are loaded in the ‘ac’ extension fractures. The less dominant mineral vein trends are the NE-SW and ESE-WNW orientations, which are in the ‘bc’ tensile fractures. At the NW-SE trend, vein minerals mainly occur along 150-160o from N, although it ranges from 135-175o from N. Vein width up to 7.0m can be obtained from both the NW-SE and NNE-SSW directions. The Lower Cretaceous sediments appear to be characterized by the NW-SE (major) and NE-SW (minor) sets of veins, while the upper Cretaceous sequence is most likely characterized by the NNE-SSW (major) and ESE-WNW (minor) vein sets. The widest Pb-Zn vein in the study area is 11.5m wide, located in the Enyigba axes sub-area and trends in the NE-SW direction with evidence of slickensides which indicates faulting.
Indiscriminate discharge of abattoir wastewater has been a major cause of concern globally due to its negative effect on the environment. This study analyzed the effect of abattoir waste on surface water quality parameters the of Iwofe River, Port-Harcourt, and the River’s state using standard methods. The water samples were collected at three different points (upstream, midstream, and downstream) and the results were analyzed using Oneway ANOVA at p = 0.05. From the results; temperature, pH, salinity, conductivity, oxidation-reduction potential, and turbidity were in the range of 28.50 – 29.70 oC, 7.19 – 7, 3.00 – 6.35 PSU, 5059 – 11208 µS/cm, 91.70 – 164.80 mV, and 59.60 – 78.10 NTU respectively. Although the temperature was slightly above WHO standards, pH, Electrical conductivity, and Turbidity were all within WHO acceptable limits. TDS, TSS, DO, BOD5, and COD were in the range of 2542 - 5604 mg/L, 2.90 – 7.75 mg/L, 5.90 – 12.90 mg/L, 0.42 – 3.08 mg/L, and 5.90 – 18.50 mg/L respectively. DO and TS were above WHO permissible limit while BOD5, COD, TSS, COD, and ORQ were within WHO permissible limit in all samples. Total alkalinity, hardness, Cl-, CO32-, and NO3- were 25 – 113 mg/L, 990.00 – 1256.00 mg/L, 3669.08 – 7887.63 mg/L, 12.50 to 66.00 mg/L, 0.85 – 1.08 mg/L. SO42-, PO42-, oil and grease, and total coliform were in the range of 133.56 – 283.17 mg/L, 90.00 – 100.00 mg/L, 0.10 – 0.15 mg/L, 1.34 × 104 to 2.98 × 105 cfu/mL. Total Alkalinity was within limit only in upstream, while hardness, Cl-, NO3, SO42-, and total coliform were all above WHO permissible limit in drinking water. Heavy/trace metals results ranged as follow; As (<0.001 – 0.009 mg/L), Pb (<0.001 – 0.002 mg/L), Zn (<0.001), Fe (0.019 – 0.285 mg/L), K (8.245 – 8.540 mg/L), Mn (<0.001 – 0.005 mg/L), Mg (3.345 – 4.076 mg/L), Ca (2.452 – 4.085 mg/L), Ni (0.002 – 0.010 mg/L), Cu (<0.001 – 0.006 mg/L), Cr (0.001 – 0.003 mg/L), Cd (0.006 – 0.013 mg/L). As, Pb, Zn, K, Mn, and Ca were not above WHO permissible limit, but were present in significant amount indicating that the river was gradually being polluted with metals. Most of the water quality parameters did not meet WHO permissible limits for drinking water. Also, the study indicates that the meat processing industry can potentially reduce water portability, thereby adversely affecting the range of its uses. Hence the activities of the abattoir should be monitored closely by relevant agencies in order to prevent full-blown environmental problems and health hazards in the near future.
Understanding land use/landcover change (LULC) dynamics is very important in sustainable land resource management. This is especially so for developing countries of the world where majority of the people depend heavily upon natural resources for survival. In this study, moderate spatial resolution Landsat images were freely downloaded from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) archives for 4 decadal dates of 1991, 2001, 2001 and 2021 for Umuahia town, which became capital of Abia state of Nigeria in 1991. The images were analyzed in ERDAS Imagine 14 and ArcGIS 10.2 software environments to generate LULC statistics for the 4 dates. Post classification comparison algorithm was used to generate LULC change trends from 1991 to 2021. Key informants interviews and direct field observations were used to identify the main drivers of LULC change in the area. The results show that, the town has undergone significant LULC changes since its designation as Abia state capital in 1991. The extent changes for the various LULCs over the 30 year period (1991 to 2021) have been Built-up (+233%), Bareland (-34%), Woodland (45%), Uncultivated Farmland (-62%), Burnt Woodland (630%) and Agricultural land (-25%). Water Body did not undergo change over the period. It was concluded that though urban growth has promoted some degradation trends in the town, it has promoted increases in urban woodland areas which could go a long way in promoting climate change mitigation, as well as human health and comfort in the town. It was recommended that there is the need to promote deliberate reforestation efforts boost development in urban woodlands.
Detailed geologic mapping and geochemical analysis of coal samples around Abocho area, northern Anambra Basin, Nigeria was conducted in order to assess the quality of the coals in the area. Proximate and ultimate analyses were carried out on coal samples from the Mamu Formation to determine its chemical characteristics. Physical analysis was also carried out on the coal samples to determine the specific gravity, density and hardness. Geochemical analysis was also carried out on the associated rocks in the study area (Abocho), particularly Shales and Clays to determine their major oxides composition. The area is composed of the Maastrichtian Mamu Formation overlain by the Ajali Sandstone of the same age both dipping between 16°E and 19°E. The geologic mapping of Abocho area revealed two mappable lithologic units: The Mamu Formation and the Ajali Sandstone. The Proximate analyses indicates that the coal contains an average 7.15%, 35.53%, 36.24% of moisture content, volatile matter and fixed carbon respectively. These burns to generate 4,339 kcal/kg calorific value with 20.80% ash yield. The result of the ultimate analysis shows 57.81% organic carbon, 4.15% hydrogen, 8.41% oxygen, 1.39% nitrogen and 0.3% Sulphur. The physical analysis revealed that, the coal has an average specific gravity of 1.5g/cm, average density of 1.4g/cm3 and average hardness of 1.2. These characteristics qualify the coal to be ranked as high volatile sub-bituminous to marginal lignite. The coal is thus, suitable for combustion, gasification, electric power generation and industrial uses. Geochemical results show that the Shale contains 60% Silica (SiO2) and 26%Alumina (Al2O3) constituting 86% of bulk chemical composition. The Clay contains 70% Silica (SiO2) and 25% Alumina (Al2O3), constituting 95% of bulk chemical composition. The occurrences of CaO, NaO and K2O which are the major component of feldspar in clay suggests the clay to be of granitic origin possibly from Oban massif, east of the Anambra Basin. It also suggests low feldspar content.
Facies of part of the Coastal swamp depobelt was analyzed using well log. Electrofacies was defined based on well log signatures. The defined facies were inter-related to define a facies association. The facies association were related to deltaic depositional cycles. 10 of such facies association or deltaic cycles were seen in the interval studied. The facies association or deltaic cycles have a different composition of facies related to the level of preservation of the components of the association. The component of the facies association seen include marine clay facies, lower shoreface facies, upper shoreface facies, prograding mouth bar facies and fluvial facies. The marine clay facies underlie each facies association and the channel / prograding mouth bar cap the association where it is preserved. The lower shoreface facies, upper shorefacies, prograding mouth bar and fluvial facies form the Reservoir sandstones. The identified facies association was seen to be repeated in the interval studied though with different composition. This reflects different deltaic depositional cycles with different component of facies due to the prevailing depositional processes occurring at the period of deposition and those affecting the deposit of the cycles after deposition. The arrangements of the different components of the facies within the facies association will help in the prediction of reservoir sand bodies in any deltaic depositional cycle.
This greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting study of the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use sector assesses carbon emissions and absorption for the period 2010 to 2018 in the Monomodal and Bimodal rainfall agroecological zones. The methodological approach used for GHG emissions calculations in the Livestock category is the one proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 guidelines, taking into account the national systems of other countries. In general, Tier 1 has been used for the calculation of emissions. Emissions/removals are calculated by integrating the activity data of the different sectors considered in the IPCC software. In the subcategory of land use change, the SEPAL platform and ArcGis 10.6 software were used to download and process the images. In addition, the Peng (2000) equation was used to assess the soil organic carbon stock. Emissions from the two agroecological zones are 281,541.3 GgCO2Eq and absorptions are -2,924,841.22 GgCO2Eq. The potential carbon stock that can be recovered in the two agroecological zones is -2,643,299.92 GgCO2Eq. It is clear that these two agroecological zones absorb more than they emit. These results show that the Bimodal and Monomodal rainfall agroecological zones have a high absorption potential that Cameroon could use in the framework of internationally transferable mitigation results.
he Abu Ghusun manganese deposit is subjected to mineralogical and geochemical
studies in order to elucidate its petrogenesis. Manganese occurs as sheets, lenses,
encrustation and fracture filling within clastic sediments of the Abu Ghusun
Formation of Oligocene age. The mineralogical, and geochemical data confirmed by
microscopic investigations, X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared absorption
spectrometry (IR), differential thermal analyses (DTA), thermo gravimetric (TG),
environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and chemical analyses of major
and trace elements. The results showed that Abu Ghusun manganese deposits
include two different ore types: 1- massive ore and 2-manganiferous sandstone ore.
The main mineralogical composition of manganese ore types are pyrolusite,
psilomelane, rhodochrosite and hematite. The gangue minerals are quartz, feldspar,
rock fragments, apatite and calcite. The geochemistry of Abu Ghusunmanganiferous
sandstone and massive ore types indicated that they are rich in Cr (60, 58 ppm), Zn
(132, 200ppm), Ba (12050, 1414 ppm), Sr (3400, 353 ppm) and V (156, 196 ppm)
respectively. The discrimination diagrams based on major and trace elements also
indicated that Abu Ghusun manganese deposit is a hydrothermal origin. The
manganiferous sand stone (40.9% MnO2) and the massive ore types (48.1 % MnO2)
lie in the field of high grade B