Journal of Geography Environment and Earth Science International

Published by Sciencedomain International
Online ISSN: 2454-7352
Publications
Stratigraphic distribution of foraminiferal assemblages recorded in AJAYI-01 well (ii) Praeorbulina glomerosa / Nonion centrosulcatum Zone Stratigraphic Interval: 4480-4720 feet. Equivalent Planktonic Foraminifera Zone: N6/N7 Zone. Age: Early to Middle Miocene Diagnosis: This is the second zone encountered in the studied section. The zonal top is at 4480 feet and the zonal base is placed at 4720 feet which 4480feet marks the maximum flooding surface (MFS) of the studied section and is dated 15.20 Ma MFS [28]. The zone is correlated with the "middle" N6 and "early" N7 Planktic Foraminifera Zone of [27,29]. The age is early to middle Miocene. The zone was picked based on the law of superposition i.e., the top depth of the well must be younger than the base depth, therefore from the foraminiferal zones scheme [27,28] Praeorbulina glomerosa / Nonion centrosulcatum Zone is younger than Catapsydrax dissimilis/Buliminella subfusiformis Zone.
Foraminiferal zones recognized in AJAYI-01 well
Summary of calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of AJAYI-01 well
Stratigraphical distribution of palynological assemblages of AJAYI-01 well
Summary of Lithologic Table of AJAYI-01 Well
A high-resolution biostratigraphy study and paleoenvironment analysis were carried out on composited fifteen (15) ditch-cutting samples retrieved from AJAYI-01 well, offshore Niger Delta, Nigeria. The studied intervals range from 4060feet – 4960feet and were subjected to foraminifera, calcareous nannofossil and palynological analysis to determine their age, biozonation and environment of deposition. The standard laboratory preparation techniques of wet sieving, simple smear method, and Hydrofluoric (HF) and Hydrochloric (HCl) acids maceration techniques respectively. A sedimentological description of the ditch-cutting samples was carried out. Three major foraminifera zones of Turborotalia peripheroacuta/Bolivina mandoroveensis Zone, Praeorbulina glomerosa/Nonion centrosulcatum Zone and Catapsydrax dissimilis/Buliminella subfusiformis Zone and the important marker Heterostegina sp. was recognized in the well based on the critical evaluation of bioevents and correlatable datums. The nannofossil zones of Helicosphaera ampliaperta and Sphenolithus heteromorphus were erected for this well based on the index taxa and fossil assemblage recorded. The palynological data consists of highly diversified assemblages dominated by terrestrial forms such as Zonocostites ramonae, Monoporites annulatus, Laevigatosporites sp., Verrucatosporites sp., Retitricolporites sp., Acrostichum aureum. The important marker recorded was Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni (FDO) at 4420feet. The well is dated early to middle Miocene (NN4 –NN5) based on the occurrence of marker species Helicosphaera ampliaperta and Sphenolithus heteromophus which corresponds to Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni - Echitricolporites spinosus Zone (P720-P680) subzones. A tentative sequence stratigraphic framework for the studied sequences was established. A condensed section that is associated with the Maximum Flooding Surface (MFS) was dated 15.20Ma at 4480 feet based on peak faunal abundance and diversity. The environment of deposition has sediments deposited in the marine environment fluctuating between middle neritic and inner neritic to the littoral, including coastal deltaic settings based on deductions from foraminiferal, palynological and sedimentological data.
 
Palynological studies in Nigeria are mainly confined to the Tertiary Niger Delta, where several studies have been carried out for the discovery of natural oil and gas in this particular basin during late 1950s. The accuracy and profitability of the exploration process can be enhanced by the micropaleontological monitoring through the palynological analysis of ditch cuttings for age determination. Fifty ditch cutting samples from intervals 8040 ft and 11010 ft of Well X-1, OML 108, Ukpokiti field, offshore Niger Delta Nigeria were analyzed for their palynofloral content, in a view to establish the biozonation framework for the purpose of age characterization of the rock succession. Palynological sample processing and analysis followed standard methods of treatments with different concentrations of Hydrochloric acid, Hydrofluoric acid and organic acid for digestion of carbonates, removal of silicates and washing or centrifuging for concentration of the palynomorphs respectively in order to liberate the palynomorphs from the extraneous organic matter in the rock matrix. The palynofloral analysis yielded a total number of forty-three (43) pollen, seven (7) spores and one dinoflagellate cyst, from which four subzones based on palynofloral assemblage of marker species, their stratigraphic tops and base including their abundance and diversity were recognized. The zones are from youngest to oldest: Stereisporites sp, Racemonocolpiteshians, Verrutricolporitesrotundiporus and Retibrevitricolporitesobodoensis/protundens zones corresponding with pollen sub zones:P850-830, P820, P780 and P770respectively, indicatingLate Miocene to Middle Miocene age. In conclusion, the palyno – zones of this study compare well with the pollen zones of [3], therefore shows that the rock succession was deposited during the Middle to Late Miocene epoch.
 
The study focuses on the mapping of geological lineaments from the following different sun elevation angles: 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, 180°, 225°, 270°, and 315° of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Four of the images with azimuth; 0°, 45°, 90° and 135° were combined to produce a single image with multi-illumination directions. The images with azimuth; 180°, 225°, 270°, and 315° were equally combined to produce another single shaded relief image with multi-illumination directions. The two multi-illumination direction images were used for the automatic lineament extraction using PCI Geomatica software. The extracted lineaments were overlaid, and duplicate lineaments were eliminated. The final lineaments of the study area were screened using high-resolution Google images for non-geological features. A total of 237 lineaments were extracted, with a total length of 649.77Km, a mean length of 2.742Km and standard deviation of 1.187. The dominant trending pattern in the final lineaments of the study area is NE-SW direction. The Lineament density for the study area ranges from 0 to 1.36 km/sqkm with about 69.1% of the study area being mapped as poor and low density while the high and very high densities area account for just about 30.9% of the study area.
 
Economic growth in South Africa under GEAR
Many states in Africa have experienced particularly painful growth trajectories and transitions to post-independence democracy. In particular many writers have noted the ‘lost decades’ for democratic consolidation and economic growth in Africa between 1980 and 2000. Current perceptions of Africa are framed by high levels of absolute poverty and low levels of life expectancy, and significant national debt burdens. Many countries have experienced extended periods of devastating political and military conflict, as well as unsuccessful attempts with Marxist- Leninist and free market economic policy, further exacerbating the painful nature of post-independence development. The development paths of many African countries have also been significantly conditioned by regional militarism as well as international geopolitical developments, furthering conflict and development trauma. This paper therefore seeks to identify some of the root causes of the poor economic growth that many post-independence African nations have experienced, specifically between 1980 to 2000. It argues that colonial (and neo-colonial) history and geography have played a significant role in Africa’s lagging growth rate and peripheral regional status in a hostile and competitive global economy.
 
This study analysed the Spatial Assessment of Land use/Land Cover Dynamics From 1988 To 2018 In Bonny LGA, Rivers State, Nigeria using Landsat imageries of 1988, 2000, 2003, 2016 and 2018 with the aid of Remote Sensing (RS) techniques and Geographic Information System (GIS). Five land use/land cover types where analysed: Waterbodies, Forest, Mangrove/Swamp, Built Up Area/Bare Surfaces and Muddy Surface. The results show that from 1988 to 2018, water bodies, forest, and mangrove/swamp reduced by 5.14%, 25.07%, and 38.28% respectively while built-up area/cleared lands and muddy surface increased by 69.42% and 682.24%. Findings show that spatial coverage of forest and mangrove/swamp decreased between 1988 and 2018 and the reduction in forest cover reduces the significant role that it plays in maintaining the ecosystem. This study has clearly shown the roles of geo-information technologies at monitoring land use/landcover change in Bonny LGA, Rivers State and therefore, recommended that re-afforestation projects, strict legislation, policies, and strategies should be established to replenish the forests and mangrove/swamp; should be put in place.
 
The improvement of the conditions of access to drinking water for the populations of the Lobo watershed requires the exploitation of groundwater because of the surface water which remains exposed to climatic hazards and the impacts of anthropic activities. And yet, these underground waters finds himself bedrock aquifer which are complex aquifers. Thus, the objective of this study is to characterize those fissure aquifers that who govern underground run-off in the aquifer system of the Lobo catchment area. The methodology adopted consisted in using 1A sentinel radar images to map fractures and their spatial distribution. The validation of the lineaments first consisted in comparing and highlighting the lineaments from the radar images and the fractures revealed from photo-geological images. Next, we superimposed the map of lineaments on the map of boreholes with a flow rate greater than or equal to 5 m3/h, which were considered as productive boreholes. To determine the traffic corridors, this fracturing map was superimposed on the piezometric map. This work made it possible to extract 9,753 lineaments over a surface area of 7,000 km². The various validation techniques enabled us to confirm 121 major fractures with an average length of 9 km. In addition, the most productive boreholes are located on average less than 300 m from the fractures. The analysis of the distribution of the orientations of these fractures revealed a heterogeneity of direction and a predominance of the N-S; NW-SE and NE-SW families. The Fracturing density maps and density of the number of fracture crossing points highlight the spatial heterogeneity of the fracture network which is controlled by geomorphology, geological formations and lithological contacts. The river Lobo and its main tributary the Dé, flow preferentially in fractures. This river and its tributary drains the aquifer system. The results obtained from different thematic maps are useful for the realisation of future high-yield hydraulic wells (Q ≥ 5 m3/h).
 
Digital elevation model of the study area
UTCI and PET categories of thermal sensation
Mean and standard deviation of meteorological parameters for the months of 2012
The mean and standard deviation of simulated biometeorological indices for the months of 2012
The human biometeorological conditions at mid-afternoon during 12 months of 2012 in the city of Minna North-Central Nigeria have been evaluated based on energy budget indices (UTCI and PET) using climate parameters -air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation) observed at 15:00LST as input into the Rayman model. Air temperature demonstrated strongest significant correlation coefficient (r) with UTCI and PET (r= 0.91, r= 0.93) (P<0.0001) while windspeed show weakest association with them(r=-0.10, r=-0.20) (P<0.03, P<0.001) respectively. March and August were characterized by peak and slightest monthly thermal stress conditions according to both indices. The correlation coefficient between both indices was significantly (P<0.0001) very strong (r=0.98) and more noticeable for equivalent temperatures in strong stress thresholds (UTCI>=32°C, PET>=35°C), which shows that both indices can be used indifferently in warm climates. However, during May to October, UTCI better expressed warm conditions than PET mainly due to the difference in the definition of reference environment for both indices; this study is relevant to the urban sightseeing industry as tourists would most likely opt for a period of lesser thermal discomfort.
 
Map of Nigeria (a) Showing Kebbi State; (b) Showing study location
Monthly average wind speed for 2014, 2015, 2016
Minimum temperature for 2014, 2015, 2016
, present sequential values of the rainfalls in Birnin Kebbi. The figures apparently show decreasing trends in the rainfalls, the downward trends appearance of the yearly total, maximum, minimum and mean rainfalls. In all these cases the appearance of strongest decreasing trend occurred in monthly rainfall 2015, but 2016 show lowest decreasing as compared to 2015. While 2014 present appearance of slightly increasing trends in rainfall within the period (in the months of June, July, August and September), while 2014, 2015, 2016, some months presents neither increasing nor decreasing trends in rainfalls. These trends can result due to some changes which manifest itself in the city as temperature increment and reduction in rainfall in the month of April, May, and October.
The investigation of rainfall, temperature and solar radiation variability at Birnin Kebbi metropolis, Kebbi State, Nigeria was carried out using observations of air temperature (°C) rainfall (mm) and solar radiation (W/m2) for the period of 2014 -2016 (3 years), data was obtained at Sir Ahmadu Bello international Airport, analysis of data indicate for the occurrences of abrupt change in temperature, rainfall and solar radiation values. It was observed from the distributions of monthly average wind speed for the (3) three years are fairly similar with maximum wind speed with variation in some months, having deficit values in February and April 2014, February and March 2015, January and February 2016, its revealed that, the least global solar radiation in 2014 followed by the month of January 2015 and June in 2016. The variation between maximum solar radiation and minimum is said to be great in the months of January to March where there is increase in the intensity of heat as there is strong expectation of precipitation events that become extremely in the month of August/September 2016. The slight difference between maximum and minimum in the period advocates a different seasonal period between the regime of large difference and low difference in the Relative Humidity in the year. However 2016 show the maximum temperature which in turn when compared with 2014 and 2015 as the case reverse, significant increases in precipitation indicated in 2014 compare to other years (2015, 2016). It was concluded that there is a significant downward trend in the yearly total and mean rainfalls at Birnin Kebbi showing that 2014 has highest rainfall compared with 2015 and 2016.
 
a) Main tectonic and volcanic elements of the broader area of Greece [35,29,36]. The study area is highlighted with a white rectangle b) Zoom in the study area of Central Ionian Sea, showing the islands of Cephalonia and Lefkas. Abbreviations in both maps are as following: HT, Hellenic Trench; NATr, North Aegean Trough; HVA, Hellenic Volcanic Arc; CLTFZ, Cephalonia-Lefkas Transform Fault Zone; PF, Paliki Fault; NVF, Nydri-Vassiliki Fault
Map of the study area showing the seven (7) main spatial clusters marked with different colors: cluster #1 (orange), cluster #2 (cyan), cluster #3 (blue), cluster #4 (green), cluster #5 (red), cluster #6 (yellow) and cluster #7 (purple). The back ground seismicity, before and after the main body of the aftershock sequence is marked with grey open circles
Evolution of the seismicity in the study area before (2012-2015a) and after (2015b-2017) the occurrence of November 17, 2015 M6.4 Lefkas earthquake
Statistics of location uncertainties and median depth for the regional and custom model
In order to define a better model for the Cephalonia-Lefkas Transform Fault Zone the sequence of 2015 Lefkas earthquake was examined. On 17 November 2015 (07:10 GMT) a major earthquake (Mw=6.4) occurred on the central-western part of Lefkas island. Several destructive events were located in the past in this fault zone, so an extensive seismotectonic study is feasible for that area. Manual analysis was performed using a custom velocity model that was determined for that purpose, applying the average travel-time residuals and location uncertainties errors minimization method. Several clusters belonging to the aftershock sequence were identified, whereas three are directly related to the causative fault, covering an area of about 25 km. The central one, which includes the mainshock, comprises of only a few aftershocks. The northern, within which the majority of aftershocks are located, lies in the central part of Lefkas island and the southern occurred close to the SW edge of the island. In addition, offshore clusters with distinct characteristics have been identified to the south, between Lefkas and Cephalonia islands. The temporal evolution of the aftershock sequence indicates that no migration was observed, given that after the occurrence of the mainshock the entire epicentral area was activated. Focal mechanisms of the Seismological Laboratory of the University of Athens showed dextral strike-slip faulting for both mainshock and major aftershocks of the sequence. Taking into account the spatial distribution of the aftershocks, supported by the tectonic and geomorphological settings of the region, a deformation pattern, consisting of the Cephalonia-Lefkas and Ithaca-Lefkas major fault zones which converge in the area of Vassiliki bay is proposed. The appearance of the southernmost clusters was interpreted by the positive Coulomb stress changes transfer due to major earthquake Mw=6.4.
 
An evaluation of irrigation quality of groundwater from shallow aquifers within Wamba Sheet 210 in Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria was carried out. The area is located between Latitudes 8°30’N and 9°00’N, and Longitudes 8°30’E and 9°00’E, covering about 3,025 Km2. It is underlain by rocks belonging to the Basement Complex, the Younger Granites, and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The results of field tests and laboratory analysis were used in assessing the suitability of groundwater found in the area for irrigation. Values obtained for Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP), Magnesium Adsorption Ratio (MAR) and Kellys Ratio (KR) were 0.97 - 3.43, 8.18 - 81.76%, 8.03 - 80.22 and 0.04 - 3.43 respectively. These indices are largely within the safe limits for irrigation with very little likelihood that salinity hazards will develop.
 
The 4th Assessment Reports prepared by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007 reported serious concerns which directly affect the livelihoods of millions of coastal habitants and fishing communities. This study mainly concentrates on the awareness regarding the climate variability and vulnerability exposed by climate change on the marine fishing communities based on their Socio-Demographic Profile, Livelihood strategies, Social Networks, Health, Water, Natural disasters and Climate Variability and Knowledge and Skills; which are divided into three main components of vulnerability (IPCC): Exposure, Sensitivity and Adaptive Capacity. Here, we have chosen the three major functioning fishing harbours of this district are Lakshmipur Abad of Namkhana, Kalinagar of Kakdwip and Sultanpur of Diamond Harbour with their respective fish landing centers. The primary data used is based on a purposive sampling survey of 150 household of fishing communities and the secondary data about recent climate variability and extreme events was collected from official records. This study used the participatory tools and methods in order to generate qualitative and quantitative information about climate change impacts and community based adaptation strategies to climate change. The study reveals that the most important climate-related elements of exposure are the storms and cyclones. We have also found that studied villages are highly populated and competing for limited resources, furthermore lack of economic opportunities like agriculture in coastal areas making these communities already vulnerable along within higher sensitivity and lower adaptive capacity combine to create higher vulnerability.
 
Urbanisation is one of the most significant development process affecting the modern world particularly the developing countries. However, often the pattern and level of urban development are highly variable both spatially and temporally. Barasat subdivision comprises the sadar subdivision of the district of North 24 Parganas in West Bengal. This district traditionally has a glorious history of urbanisation being much higher than both the state and national averages. Within the district, this subdivision has shown a slow and steady growth of urbanisation since independence. Although the percentage of urban population has remained below the district average it has been significantly higher than the state and national average. The study aims to find out the trends, levels of urbanisation and spatio-temporal pattern of urbanisation in the study area using quantitative and qualitative techniques. Mostly secondary data sources have been used. The study reveals that there are significant spatio-temporal variation in levels of urbanisation within the subdivision. The subdivision was overshadowed in the urban scenario mainly due to the overwhelming presence of neighbouring Barrackpore subdivision till 1981. The situation has significantly altered after Barasat being declared the district headquarter in 1986.
 
Some of the common methods of monitoring and mapping groundwater contaminants is by extracting and analyzing samples of the groundwater obtained from wells within the expected investigation area, although lots of limitations are encountered in this type of investigation technique (point wise method) due to the nature of most subsurface layers, which are heterogeneous and anisotropic in nature and acquiring information using this method is comparatively difficult due to the few points acquired for investigation. Common and most recent method used to overcome such type of limitation and improve ground monitoring cost-effectively, is the use of Direct Current Resistivity measurements. This method gives a comprehensive characterization of the electrical properties of the subsurface layers (volume) needed. This paper investigates the usability and advantages of the resistivity method as a better method technique in monitoring groundwater contaminants in basement area or terrains under different seasons, in monitoring programmes. The work comprises field investigations at several sanitary landfills around the basement area of Ado-Odo town, in Ogun State, Nigeria, using Wenner array configuration (tomography) technique. From the results obtained, the level/degree of contaminants are easily identified and evaluated within the subsurface layers. We therefore concluded that the use of resistivity survey method gives an improved, better and appropriate information, generally suitable for mapping and monitoring of conductive groundwater contaminants in basement area.
 
The Search for residential land use option at Abakaliki area in Ebonyi state, Nigeria was carried out using Geographic Information System (GIS). Some laboratory experiments were incorporated to delineate some complementary information for the study. Ten determinants as capability factors were selected to develop thematic maps for over-lay analysis using software incorporated in Geographic Information System (GIS). The percentage influences of these determinants were also considered to facilitate the interpretation of the results. An Arch view model builder was employed in the over-lay analysis. The result produced the composite map where the residential land use zones were isolated, towards sustainable land use for residential purposes in the area. The residential land use option occurred at the NE-Eastern zone in the North west, South west and South east locations of the study area respectively.
 
The Lower Benue Trough, in South-eastern Nigeria, hosts several lead-zinc deposits. The mineralization is frequently hosted by Cretaceous black shales that appear to have undergone low grade metamorphism, and subordinate sandstones. Most parts of the deposits have been epigenetically formed, and occur as blocky shaped, discordant veins, fracture, and possibly open-space fillings, of hydrothermal origin. For this reason, structural evaluation constitutes an important criterion for the investigation of the mineralization. In particular, the orientation of fractures occurring at the Pb-Zn deposits can be useful in the differentiation of the relative ages of the mineral vein deposits. A total of one thousand, one hundred and forty-seven fractures around mineralized zones, at the study localities, were measured and analysed. Results indicate that the vein deposits are structurally controlled, have four main orientations, and most likely formed by crack-seal process. The most prominent fracture sets show NW-SE, NNE-SSW to N-S orientations, while the less prominent ones are displayed in the NE-SW and ESE-WNW directions. The NW-SE, NNE-SSW to N-S fracture sets is interpreted as ‘ac’ extension fractures from two different deformation episodes that affected the trough, while the NE-SW, ESE-WNW to E-W sets is the two ‘bc’ tensile fractures, respectively parallel to the axes of F1 and F2 folds which occur in the trough. Small variations of the NNE-SSW and ESE-WNW brought about the occurrences of N-S and E-W sets respectively. Indication are that the two deformation episodes affected the trough: the first episode produce the NE-SW (F1) fold axes, while the second less intensity episode produce the ESE-WNW (F2) folds. The most dominant mineral vein trends in the study area are the NW-SE and NNE-SSW to N-S orientations, in which mineral veins are loaded in the ‘ac’ extension fractures. The less dominant mineral vein trends are the NE-SW and ESE-WNW orientations, which are in the ‘bc’ tensile fractures. At the NW-SE trend, vein minerals mainly occur along 150-160o from N, although it ranges from 135-175o from N. Vein width up to 7.0m can be obtained from both the NW-SE and NNE-SSW directions. The Lower Cretaceous sediments appear to be characterized by the NW-SE (major) and NE-SW (minor) sets of veins, while the upper Cretaceous sequence is most likely characterized by the NNE-SSW (major) and ESE-WNW (minor) vein sets. The widest Pb-Zn vein in the study area is 11.5m wide, located in the Enyigba axes sub-area and trends in the NE-SW direction with evidence of slickensides which indicates faulting.
 
The study area
Distribution of the mapped LUC for the years 1991, 2001, 2011 and 2021
Understanding land use/landcover change (LULC) dynamics is very important in sustainable land resource management. This is especially so for developing countries of the world where majority of the people depend heavily upon natural resources for survival. In this study, moderate spatial resolution Landsat images were freely downloaded from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) archives for 4 decadal dates of 1991, 2001, 2001 and 2021 for Umuahia town, which became capital of Abia state of Nigeria in 1991. The images were analyzed in ERDAS Imagine 14 and ArcGIS 10.2 software environments to generate LULC statistics for the 4 dates. Post classification comparison algorithm was used to generate LULC change trends from 1991 to 2021. Key informants interviews and direct field observations were used to identify the main drivers of LULC change in the area. The results show that, the town has undergone significant LULC changes since its designation as Abia state capital in 1991. The extent changes for the various LULCs over the 30 year period (1991 to 2021) have been Built-up (+233%), Bareland (-34%), Woodland (45%), Uncultivated Farmland (-62%), Burnt Woodland (630%) and Agricultural land (-25%). Water Body did not undergo change over the period. It was concluded that though urban growth has promoted some degradation trends in the town, it has promoted increases in urban woodland areas which could go a long way in promoting climate change mitigation, as well as human health and comfort in the town. It was recommended that there is the need to promote deliberate reforestation efforts boost development in urban woodlands.
 
Detailed geologic mapping and geochemical analysis of coal samples around Abocho area, northern Anambra Basin, Nigeria was conducted in order to assess the quality of the coals in the area. Proximate and ultimate analyses were carried out on coal samples from the Mamu Formation to determine its chemical characteristics. Physical analysis was also carried out on the coal samples to determine the specific gravity, density and hardness. Geochemical analysis was also carried out on the associated rocks in the study area (Abocho), particularly Shales and Clays to determine their major oxides composition. The area is composed of the Maastrichtian Mamu Formation overlain by the Ajali Sandstone of the same age both dipping between 16°E and 19°E. The geologic mapping of Abocho area revealed two mappable lithologic units: The Mamu Formation and the Ajali Sandstone. The Proximate analyses indicates that the coal contains an average 7.15%, 35.53%, 36.24% of moisture content, volatile matter and fixed carbon respectively. These burns to generate 4,339 kcal/kg calorific value with 20.80% ash yield. The result of the ultimate analysis shows 57.81% organic carbon, 4.15% hydrogen, 8.41% oxygen, 1.39% nitrogen and 0.3% Sulphur. The physical analysis revealed that, the coal has an average specific gravity of 1.5g/cm, average density of 1.4g/cm3 and average hardness of 1.2. These characteristics qualify the coal to be ranked as high volatile sub-bituminous to marginal lignite. The coal is thus, suitable for combustion, gasification, electric power generation and industrial uses. Geochemical results show that the Shale contains 60% Silica (SiO2) and 26%Alumina (Al2O3) constituting 86% of bulk chemical composition. The Clay contains 70% Silica (SiO2) and 25% Alumina (Al2O3), constituting 95% of bulk chemical composition. The occurrences of CaO, NaO and K2O which are the major component of feldspar in clay suggests the clay to be of granitic origin possibly from Oban massif, east of the Anambra Basin. It also suggests low feldspar content.
 
Facies of part of the Coastal swamp depobelt was analyzed using well log. Electrofacies was defined based on well log signatures. The defined facies were inter-related to define a facies association. The facies association were related to deltaic depositional cycles. 10 of such facies association or deltaic cycles were seen in the interval studied. The facies association or deltaic cycles have a different composition of facies related to the level of preservation of the components of the association. The component of the facies association seen include marine clay facies, lower shoreface facies, upper shoreface facies, prograding mouth bar facies and fluvial facies. The marine clay facies underlie each facies association and the channel / prograding mouth bar cap the association where it is preserved. The lower shoreface facies, upper shorefacies, prograding mouth bar and fluvial facies form the Reservoir sandstones. The identified facies association was seen to be repeated in the interval studied though with different composition. This reflects different deltaic depositional cycles with different component of facies due to the prevailing depositional processes occurring at the period of deposition and those affecting the deposit of the cycles after deposition. The arrangements of the different components of the facies within the facies association will help in the prediction of reservoir sand bodies in any deltaic depositional cycle.
 
he Abu Ghusun manganese deposit is subjected to mineralogical and geochemical studies in order to elucidate its petrogenesis. Manganese occurs as sheets, lenses, encrustation and fracture filling within clastic sediments of the Abu Ghusun Formation of Oligocene age. The mineralogical, and geochemical data confirmed by microscopic investigations, X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared absorption spectrometry (IR), differential thermal analyses (DTA), thermo gravimetric (TG), environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and chemical analyses of major and trace elements. The results showed that Abu Ghusun manganese deposits include two different ore types: 1- massive ore and 2-manganiferous sandstone ore. The main mineralogical composition of manganese ore types are pyrolusite, psilomelane, rhodochrosite and hematite. The gangue minerals are quartz, feldspar, rock fragments, apatite and calcite. The geochemistry of Abu Ghusunmanganiferous sandstone and massive ore types indicated that they are rich in Cr (60, 58 ppm), Zn (132, 200ppm), Ba (12050, 1414 ppm), Sr (3400, 353 ppm) and V (156, 196 ppm) respectively. The discrimination diagrams based on major and trace elements also indicated that Abu Ghusun manganese deposit is a hydrothermal origin. The manganiferous sand stone (40.9% MnO2) and the massive ore types (48.1 % MnO2) lie in the field of high grade B
 
Presence of pipe in households (access to tap water)
Frequency of tap flow in households
Distance to water sources
Water is an essential element of the natural resource of the earth that sustains all living creatures on the planet, it`s fundamental importance can never be overemphasized. This study evaluates access to pipe-born water in Akwanga Local Government Area, Nasarawa State. The study identifies the sources of household water supply and identifies the presence of pipelines facilities in each household, to determine if the quantity of pipe water supply meets demands, also assesses the effects of the quantity of water supply on the socioeconomic activity of householders. This study adopted a survey research design. A total of 300 questionnaires were administered to households. A purposive sampling technique was employed to select the respondents. Five wards were selected within the study area, while 60 copies of questionnaires were distributed in each of the selected wards. Data were analyzed and presented using a descriptive form of statistics. The study revealed that most of the pipelines meant for the supply of water were old and inefficient. Therefore, no significant coverage (60%) of pipeline facilities in the study area. Pipe-borne water supply in the study area is not sufficient to meet the demands of the residents due to irregularity in the flow of water; 4.2% of these taps run every day, 8.8% of these taps run once a week, 11.7% of these taps run once in 3 days, 18.4% of these taps run once a year, 22.2% of these run once a month, while 37.7% water used for cooking, washing, drinking and sanitary purposes were mostly sourced from alternative sources that are energy and time consuming and costly to obtain. The average water consumed per person per day in the study area was 37.76 litres which are below the minimum absolute daily water needed 50 litres per person per day as stated by UNDP. Consequently, pipe-borne water supply in the study area does not have any significant impact on the socio-economic activities of residents as people still spent the better part of their time sourcing for water. This study, therefore, recommends that there should be constant monitoring of population growth rate and repairs of damaged pipes and taps in the study area.
 
This study investigated the processes influencing the chemistry of surface and shallow groundwater in tropical coastal environments - south east of greater Accra region of Ghana using GIS models and combination of geological and hydro geochemical techniques for sustainable management of freshwater resources and abundantly available brackish water resources. A total of 37 shallow groundwater and 11 surface water samples were collected and analysed for their physico-chemical constituents. The samples were adjusted to room temperature after which the hydrogen ion concentration (pH), Total Dissolve Solids (TDS) and Electrical Conductivity were measured with a precision of 0.01 for both parameters using a La Motte, USA in unfiltered samples. The analysis of major and minor ions were performed using ion chromatography (DIONEX-ICS-1000 Series). The geographical locations of the samples were recorded with the aid of a handheld Global Position System (GPS). The analysed shallow groundwater indicates minimum salinity values of 70.2 psu/ppm, maximum salinity of 4398.3 psu/ppm with an average of 1571.4 psu/ppm whilst surface water has minimum salinity of 33.8 psu/ppm, maximum of 43574 psu/ppm with an average of 4972.6 psu/ppm therefore highly saline. The total minimum dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations is 87.5 ppm, maximum of 5160 ppm with an average of 1911.96 ppm for shallow groundwater and for surface water minimum of 38.4 ppm, maximum of 27100 ppm and average 3938.12 ppm.
 
The GFSAD30m cropland extent map has been recently produced at a spatial resolution of 30m as a part of NASA MEaSUREs’ Program Global Food Security Data Analysis (GFSAD) project. Accuracy assessment of this GFSAD30m cropland extent map was initially performed using an assessment strategy involving a simple random sampling (SRS) design and an optimum sample size of 250 for each of 72 different regions around the world. However, while statistically valid, this sampling design was not effective in regions of low cropland proportion (LCP) of less than 15% cropland area proportion (CAP). The SRS sampling resulted in an insufficient number of samples for the rare cropland class due to low cropland distribution, proportion, and pattern. Therefore, given our objective of effectively assessing the cropland extent map in these LCP regions, the use of an alternate sampling design was necessary. A stratified random sampling design was applied using a predetermined minimum number of samples followed by a proportional distribution (i.e., SMPS) for different cropland proportion regions to achieve sufficient sample size of the rare cropland map class and appropriate accuracy measures. The SRS and SMPS designs were compared at a common optimum sample size of 250 which was determined using a sample simulation analysis in ten different cropland proportion regions. The results demonstrate that the two sampling designs performed differently in the various cropland proportion regions and therefore, must be selected according to the cropland extent maps to be assessed.
 
Ten years production profile of anda field
Study reservoir thicknesses encountered in ten wells
Historical profile with the study result
Globally the challenge to meet the increasing energy demand is on with the application of game-changing technologies to maximize recovery from proven reserves in mature assets. Production studies have shown that some Niger delta fields have heterogeneous reservoirs with low to fair recovery factor derived in most cases by software simulations without adequate field acquired reservoir parameters before embarking on the secondary development plan for such reservoirs. Failures recorded in most secondary recovery strategies for heterogeneous reservoirs are accountable for lack of in-depth studies of the reservoir characteristics. There is a direct relationship between reservoir recovery factor and the petrophysics of the reservoir. A sand body in the field can exhibit variable petrophysical changes at different positions in the field. Therefore optimum secondary recovery plan for such reservoirs are designed with the combination of field acquired (not simulated) petrophysical data (porosity and permeability), the environment of deposition, special core analysis and formation evaluation studies. This study emanates from the recently developed project in a field in Niger delta.
 
This study examined spatial and temporal variations of noise levels across hot spot areas in Port Harcourt metropolis, Rivers State Nigeria. It employed a quasi-experimental design. The noise level was captured using Mobile Application known as decibel (dB) X in infinix note 3 android smart phone, which was calibrated with a digital noise meter SET 1350, with a measuring level range of 20–120 decibel while the sampling points were captured with the use of handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) Garmin 78sc which was calibrated to UTM zone 32N. The Geographic Information System (GIS) was the main tool in manipulating surface prediction modeling Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) in the morning and evening noise levels using Environmental Science Research Institute’s (ESRI) software ArcGIS 10.4 version. In the twelve areas investigated, two sample points were captured in each, making a total of twenty four points. Analyses was done using ANOVA and t-test for the hypotheses and the finding of the results in mean noise levels in the morning and evening indicate that there were no statistical significant difference in the noise level as P =.89 and P =.124 respectively while the t-test indicates statistical significant difference in the majority of the hotspot areas. Therefore, hypotheses of significant mean noise levels were accepted. The finding of the IDW reveals that noise pollution occurs in the morning than in the evening periods in most areas, as they exceed the allowable noise limit of WHO standard is 85 dB (A). Based on the findings, the study recommended among others: that noise pollution planning controls should not be compromised but operates at higher dimension through planting of trees and monitoring in order to ensure strict compliance.
 
Introduction: Kaduna state in Nigeria is located within the Guinea Savannah of the African Continent. The state is susceptible to desertification and the risks of drought. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study is to access magnitude and extent drought in Kaduna state Nigeria using MODIS dataset. Study Design: The study examined people’s perception; precipitation data and satellite imageries for assessing and monitoring drought. Descriptive statistics were used to present the some of the data. Methodology: The dataset were analysed using Idrisi remote sensing and Geographical Information (GIS) softwares to determine the aerial coverage of drought and its magnitude. Furthermore, run off were determined, VCI calculated, cross-tabulation were made from classified imageries and the views of respondents were also sought to complement the analysis. Results: The study revealed that there have been several episodes of drought in Kaduna state within the period under review. Runoff decreased from 72.50mm in 2000 to just about 48.00mm in 2009. The study also revealed that there is a positive relationship (0.72) between rainfall and vegetation vigour/biomas in the state. Similarly, vegetation condition index (VCI) revealed a value 10.2% indicating a severe drought in the state based on Kogans drought classification. Conclusion: The study concluded that both rainfall and vegetation/biomas vigour are generally decreasing suggesting a strong positive correlation value of 0.71. While a better high spatial resolution satellite dataset be utilised for further studies in this direction, the study also recommends that individuals and organisations be encouraged to engage in the habit of tree planting in order to curtail the decrease in vegetation biomass in the state. In addition, research and extension services should be strongly promoted in order to develop particular breed of seeds that can survive the drought in this period of food insecurity.
 
This paper examined perceptions and attitudes of students towards tourism and recreation activities in Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire. A sample of 100 students was randomly selected from the 8 colleges purposively selected in the University. The number of respondents that were selected from the colleges depended on the population of each college. Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, Humanities, Management and Social Sciences, Education, Engineering and Technology, Institute of Education, Information and Communication Technology, Pure and Applied Sciences and Institute of Distance and E-learning were all selected for the study. The researcher was able to retrieve 85 copies of questionnaire from the 100 copies administered. It was revealed that Kwara State University students were willing to engage in tourism and recreation activities. Many of the students were constrained to participate in stressing that their studies give opportunity for them to engage in tourism and recreation activities. It was concluded that the student’s perceptions and attitudes towards tourism and recreation activities is relatively good. Therefore, it was recommended that, the school must create avenue for students to engage and involve more in tourism and recreation activities and this could be done by creating more sport centres and other recreational activities within the campus. The school should create more tourism centres in order to boost student’s involvement in recreation and tourism activities in the school. The school management should ensure that they mandate the students to engage in activities that could help to fresh up their brains.
 
This study assessed the geospatial impacts of sand mining activities in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. There are thirty five (35) burrow pits in Benin and eleven (11) were used for the study. Similarly, three (3) distinct datasets and sources were used to determine the spatial extent of environmental degradation as a result of sand mining activities in Benin City. The first data set was the 19th January, 2019 satellite imagery of each of the mining sites. This high resolution remotely sensed data was used in the determination of areal extent of the sand mining sites. The second set of data was the Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) 30meters resolution digital elevation model (DEM). The ASTER-DEM was used as an input dataset in the determination of the volume of sand that have been mined in each site and compilation of three – dimensional model (3D Model) of each the sand mining site. The third set of data was the geographic coordinates of the mining sites. They were sourced from field survey with the use of global positioning system (GPS).The study concluded that sand mining and development cannot be entirely separated but mining should be done in a sustainable manner with less of environmental degradation. It is recommended that miners should be regularly sensitized by the government on environmental degradation and about the fragile nature of the environment. The government regulatory body should ensure that Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is carried before mining pits are approved for mining activities. Also illegal burrow pits should be short down to check environmental degradation.
 
Field investigation, trace elements geochemistry, borehole and groundwater data were employed to determine the level of contamination or pollution of heavy and trace elements in abandoned quarrying, agricultural sites and its adjourning communities which are leads and other parts of Boki Local Government Area which have massive basement rocks as prospects for quarry establishment. This preliminary study on geosphere-biosphere becomes useful in medical geology as rock-soil-water-human interactions, and relationships are important and obvious. The mining pits depths range from 30.5 m to 50.0 m, while the boreholes depths is 41.0 m to 45.0 m and the thickness of regolith soil weathered Feralsols soil and less weathered Acrisols soil, varies from 22.0 m to 35.0 m in places. The Geochemical data obtained indicates Ba, Th, Ce, Zn, Zr are high in all rocks while Cr and Ni are generally low. In the water samples, some borehole values for the faecal pollution are high and indicates the water is contaminated, CaCO₃, Mg are high, while NO₂, F are low, when compared with established data from WHO standards, they indicates anomalies. The high Ba contents in a previous laboratory animals study shows it can cause nephropathy, but not carcinogenic or genotoxic. The identified boreholes water that are contaminated should be disinfected before use. For a sustainable quarry development in the area, there should be an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) with a clear baseline data, reclamation, remedial and rehabilitation procedures before abandonment at the end of the life of the quarries.
 
This research work is aimed electrical resistivity survey for groundwater development conducted in Mubi and Maiha local government area of Adamawa State, in order to delineate the groundwater potential zones and determining the depth and thickness of sediments layers, and recommend suitable depth for drilling. Fourteen vertical electrical soundings (VES) were carried out within the study area using Schlumberger electrodes configuration was used for the field data acquisition. The field data obtained was analyzed using IX1D computer software and, VES1-14 resistivity model indicate 3-4 layered earth models. The interpretation shows positive inference in terms of a well-defined weathered basement and as such, it is likely to possess requisite hydro-geological characteristics that could supply underground water in fair quantity to well when drilled. Therefore, VES number denoted (R) are recommended for drilling at approximate depths of 40±5 to 50±5 meters.
 
Aims: This study was undertaken to find out what determines the adoption of Matengo pits in order to adapt to the impact of climate change and variability. Study Design: The study adopted a quantitative research design. The design allowed collection of a wide range of numerical data, covering the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and their households, farm characteristics and institutional factors. These data were important in finding out the determinants of using Matengo pits. Methodology: The study was conducted in Mbinga District, south-western Tanzania, because of the predominance of the pits. Three wards, which constituted about 10% of all 28 wards, were randomly selected and one village from each ward was selected to represent the other villages. Data were collected using structured interviews with systematically selected respondents from the sampling frame, which comprised all the heads of farmer households. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to find out the determinants of practicing Matengo pits. Results: The findings indicated that slope of the land was the most important factor that determined the use of Matengo pits. This was based on the Wald value of 42.846, which was greater than all the other Wald values and the p-values of 0.000 at a 95% confidence level. Other significant determinants of using Matengo pits were sex of the household head (p-value = 0.000), farming experience (p-value = 0.002), knowledge of Matengo pits as a strategy for adapting to climate change and variability (p-value = 0.004) and the size of a household (p-value = 0.014). Conclusion: Matengo pits dominated the steep slopes of the study area, where they were introduced for soil conservation purposes. Low practicing of the pits were observed in the low land areas because some farmers had no knowledge about the usefulness of Matengo pits in their areas. Besides, the strategy is adopted differently by different sex, whereby male headed households were mostly practicing Matengo pits than their female counterparts. This is attributed to difficulties involved in digging the pits among the females and low income to employ other people to dig the pits. Further, farming experience and knowledge about the usefulness of the pits in adapting to climate change and variability increased the rate of practicing the strategy. Regarding the size of a household, small household size reduced adoption due to small labour force to engage in digging the pits. In view of these findings, it is argued that knowledge of the usefulness of Matengo pits for adapting to the impacts of climate change and variability and availability of financial resources can help to overcome the barriers to practicing Matengo pits. As such, the Government, Non-Governmental Organisations and Community-Based Organisations should provide education about the usefulness of the pits and fiscal resources to motivate more famers in the district and other areas to adopt Matengo pits so as to improve their adaptive capacity, food security and the general socio-economic development.
 
The paper examined the relationship between geomorphological parameters and channel erosion in River Ajilosun in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Data on geomorphological parameters and channel erosion of the River Ajilosun were generated through direct field measurements using tape measure, ranging pole and a piece of flat board. Some of the variables were also derived through simple linear mathematical relationships. Analysis of the various data was done with both descriptive and inferential techniques. The result of the analysis showed that channel erosion exhibited spatial variation across and along the longitudinal profiles of River Ajilosun and also between the concrete-channelised and the alluvial reaches of the river. The result of the analysis also revealed both positive and negative correlations between the geomorphological parameters and channel erosion in the river. The measures suggested for controlling channel erosion in River Ajilosun included effective channel and slope management, improvement of the channel capacity retention of channel bank vegetation and protection of the valley side vegetation among others.
 
The present study area, occupying a major south-central part of the Jadukata river basin of the West Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya, predominantly comprises two contrasting litho-units viz., the Precambrian gneissic unit (PGU) towards the north of the study area and the Mahadek Formation constituted of sedimentary rocks (MFS) in the south. Derived areal and relief morphometric parameters have been analysed on five sub-basins two of which are in the PGU (Umlang and Umkyrtha) and the other three (Umsophew, Wah-Phodthra, and Khandow) predominantly in the MFS. The drainage density (Dd) and stream frequency (Fs) values are relatively lower for the sub-basins of PGU suggesting higher overland flow. This is substantiated by higher values of the constant of channel maintenance (C) and length of overland flow (Lg). The relief ratio (Rr) and ruggedness number (Rn) are higher for the sub-basins of MFS implying more dissection. High hypsometric integral (HI) and pseudo-hypsometric integral (PHI) suggest youthful stage and neotectonic rejuvenation with a tilt towards the west as indicated by asymmetry factor (AF) and topographic profile. Association of distinct knickpoints of longitudinal profiles with prominent lineaments indicates active fault. Preferred orientation of lower order streams in the PGU sub-basins suggests neotectonism. Deep incision by Umsophew, Wah-Phodthra, and Khandow rivers, forming V-shaped valleys through the MFS is the result of neotectonic uplift which has been further substantiated by very low valley floor-to-height ratio (Vf) at nearby locations of the confluence of these rivers with the Kynshi.
 
Magnetic method had proved very effective in the area of subsurface anomaly studies and structural delineation worldwide. Sheet number 151(Akko sheet) of the high resolution digital airborne magnetic data was obtained from the Nigerian Geological Survey Agency (NGSA). Analysis of the data was done using first horizontal and first vertical filters while the residual field was obtained using the polynomial fitting method. Lineaments of the study area were generated from SRTM (shuttle radar thematic mapper) and DEM (digital elevation model) by producing four shaded relief images at solar altitude of 45˚, 50˚, 60˚ and 90˚. The first horizontal and first vertical derivative filters exhibited magnetic trend consistent with the lineament trend of the study area, which showed major trends in NE-SW and NNW-SSE direction and minor trends along NW-SE.
 
Location map of the study area Source: [3]
Main stratigraphic units found in the area: 1) Barreiras Formation deposits (fb); 2) Fluid deposits and flow of debris (dffd); 3) Braided stream (bsb) deposits according to Lima et al. [13]
Map of TMF reduced to the equator and continued upward with its main individualized magnetic regions
The São Francisco River delta is a Quaternary sandy plain built on a structural low of the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, known as the São Francisco Low. The inner limit of the São Francisco River delta is defined by rectilinear cliffs between the delta plain and the Barreiras Formation, which coincide with important faults delimiting the São Francisco Low. Moreover, on the continental shelf, the deltaic clinoform developed over a topographic low limited by rectilinear scarps that present compatible orientation with the Sergipe-Alagoas structural framework. Thus, based on a theoretical background that indicates the existence of structural control over the formation of delta systems in general, and previous knowledge of this area, it is possible that the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin structure has influenced the delta. This relationship can be inferred using adequate methodology. Magnetometric data was integrated in the present study with the geological information on the area. The main objective was to evaluate the existing structural controls over the formation of the São Francisco delta and neighboring areas. The first stage of the present study consisted of a thorough bibliographic review and the search for pre-existing geophysical data in the region.
 
Residual map of the study area
Radial average spectrum blocks (5-16) Table 1. Average depth to magnetic sources in Matsina (km)
Two dimensional spectral analyses of high resolution aeromagnetic data was carried out over matsina and environs North Eastern Nigeria to determine hydrocarbon and groundwater potentials. The analysis was done using Oasis Montaj version 8.2. The result obtained indicates the existence of two source depths. The shallower magnetic sources varies between 0.35 to 0.55 m and deeper magnetic sources also varies between 0.6 to 2000 m. The shallower magnetic sources could be as a result of basic intrusive within the Borno Basin, while the deeper sources correspond to the basement topography underlying the Chad formation. Comparing the result with what was obtained in Gubio, Maiduguri sub basin, it is apparent that the sedimentary thickness over Matsina and and Environs cannot be a potential site for oil exploration rather for ground water exploration.
 
Geology map of Nigeria showing study area (NGSA 2006) Basement Complex covers about 50% of the total surface area of Nigeria. It is composed of the following litho structural units: -The Migmatite-Gneiss complex (MGC), The Metasedimentary and Metavolcanic rocks (The Schist Belt). The Pan -African granitoid (The Older Granites), underformed acid and basic dykes. The Nigerian Basement Complex (Fig. 2) forms part of the Pan African mobile belt and lies between the Congo Craton and south of the Taurage Shield [8]. The Nigerian basement was affected by the 600 Ma Pan African Orogeny and occupies the reactivated region which resulted from plate collision between the passive continental margins [9,10]. The basement rocks are believed to be the result of at least four major orogenic cycles of deformations, metamorphism and remobilization corresponding to the Liberian (1100 Ma) and the Pan African cycles (600 Ma)
Geological Map of Nigeria showing the Atlantic Fracture Zones Ajakaiye et al. [12] gridded data which can be used for first-pass data processing. The CET grid Analysis extension contains tools for texture analysis, phase analysis and structure detection. The aim of this structural analysis is to: i Locate the contact between the basement of the study area ii Locate the extent and position of the outcrops and intrusive bodies (the basement and sedimentary formations) within the study area iii Detect fracture or any fault that may exist within the area iv Interpret the entire lineaments detected Standard deviation provides an estimate of the local variations in the data at each location in the grid, it calculates the standard deviation of the data values within the local neighborhood. Features of significance often exhibit high variability with respect to the background signal. For a window containing N cells, whose mean value is μ, the standard deviation σ of the cell values xi is given by:
Total magnetic intensity of the study area
Correlation of (a) Lineament map and (b) Second vertical derivative south-eastern region, areas around Gitata, Kafanchaan and Jemma which could be attributed to some tectonic activity that could trigger the subsurface and result into earth tremor within the study area. The stresses built up around plate boundaries especially in pre-existing faults such as Romanche fracture zone could result in earth tremor as a result of new active fault formed within the study area.
Superimposing of paleostructure zone and first vertical derivative of the study area
Qualitative analysis of Aeromagnetic data of parts of north central Nigeria had been carried out with the aim to delineate seismic prone areas. The study area is bounded with latitude 9. 00o to 10. 00oN and longitude 7.00o to 9.00oE with an estimated total area of 24,200 km2. Vertical derivatives and upward continuation filters were used to enhances long wavelength anomalies which could give preliminary information about the magnetic structures present in the study area. The total magnetic intensity map shows both positive and negative anomalies with susceptibility ranging from 33487.7 nT to 33800.9 nT. The high magnetic susceptibilities dominated in the basement region around the north-eastern and north-western parts of the study area which corresponds to Naraguta, Jemma and Kafanchan area. Based on the geology of the area this is attributed to granite, schist and migmatite rocks. The low magnetic values are made of sediment deposition also dominates the south-western part of the study area, corresponding to Abuja and Gitata. The area with magnetic susceptibility values ranging between 33506.6 nT and 33653.8 nT indicates alluvium deposite around Bishini and Kachia area. Lineament from First Vertical Derivative trend in the northeast-southwest and east-west directions, which is an extension from Romanche Fracture Zone. Majority of this lineament trends in the same directions as the Romanche Fault Line which continues at 25 km and 30 km into n inferred closure within the study area which is trending along north-west direction. This, closure occurs probably because of the existence of the paleo fracture zone (Romanche Fracture Zone) within the study area. At 40 km and at 80 km a regional trend in the NE-SW direction in (porphyritic) basement rocks. At the northeast and southeastern part of the area which is made up of basement complex that corresponds to areas around Gitata, Kafanchaan and Jemma are prone to tectonic activities while the southwestern part of the area around Abuja is seismic free. It is suggested that those lineaments identified, most especially at the southeastern part could be the reason for the shaking of the subsurface which result into earth tremors.
 
Coordinates of the study locations, their elevations and duration of study
Wind direction spread analysis for the Eastern and Western cities
The study of visibility in the Niger Delta region is necessary because it reflects the atmospheric changes caused by economic expansion in Nigeria. Cities in the Niger Delta (especially Port Harcourt) are the most polluted cities in the country and therefore visibility degradation has become one of the major environmental challenge in Nigeria. Analysis of a 31 years (1981-2012) monthly mean horizontal visibility data and monthly mean datasets of meteorological parameters such as relative humidity and wind direction obtained from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) and the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) for Calabar, Uyo, Port Harcourt, Owerri, Warri and Akure was done using statistical techniques. A correlation analysis was done and the annual visibility variability indexes from (NIMET) shows significant correlation with the (NCEP) datasets for R/humidity at r=0.1334 and Wind direction at r=0.1210 respectively at 90% confidence level from t-test. This study concluded that the relationship of the atmospheric visibility and meteorological factors are closely related. The results showed that visibility is more correlated with Relative humidity in places with high hydrocarbon activities leading to excess aerosol loading like Port Harcourt while it is better correlated with wind direction in places with less hydrocarbon activities like Calabar and Akure. The results of this study can assist policy makers and operators in establishing positive strategies to improve the air quality.
 
In many of Africa's emerging nations, open defecation continues to pose a serious threat to public health and the environment. 946 million people worldwide still use open defecation, and there are around 2.4 billion people without access to better sanitation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the variables that affect open defecation among slum residents in Lokoja Metropolis. The investigation was conducted using a descriptive cross-sectional study design. Lokoja was purposefully chosen because to its metropolitan setting, abundance of slum areas, and inadequate coverage of both family and public latrines. In order to choose the five communities in the slum for the study, simple random sampling was performed. To supplement the home survey, 281 household heads filled out a standardized questionnaire with quantitative information, and in-depth interviews were used to gather qualitative information. Prior to data analysis, all the filled-out questionnaires were cleaned. They were then coded, entered into SPSS, and checked for completeness. Inferential statistics was used to measure the relationship between the dependent and independent variables, and thematic analysis was carried out for the qualitative portion of the study. Descriptive findings were presented as numerical summaries and tables, while inferential statistics was used to measure the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. Majority of the slum dwellers either shared latrines among the households (29.7%) or used public latrines (49.8%). At (mean difference= -0.168, p=0.005), there was a significant correlation between knowledge of open defecation and the practice of it. The study found that households without latrine facilities had greater rates of open defecation. The majority of the residents' households either shared restrooms with other homes or used public restrooms. To prevent open defecation, greater government and landlord initiatives are needed to increase toilet ownership and use at homes, as well as to build more public latrines in the study area.
 
Radar imagery was used to identify geological features and the production of geological maps of the Afikpo basin. The essence of this study was to delineate significant geological and geomorphological features that have not been imaged by the traditional ground field mapping. The application of Radar imagery technique will be relevant to the discovery of subsurface structures that will aid the accumulation or concentration of certain economic minerals or natural resources. It will enhance the identification of significant geological information such as lineaments, geologic structures, drainages, etc, that will serve as a guide to the actual ground field work investigation. Results from radar imageries revealed drainage pattern, major geomorphological units, mega lithostratigraphic units, lineaments and structures. The geology of Afikpo basin consist of Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary rocks are recognizable; the highly deformed Cretaceous rocks are characterized by regional lineaments. Some of the rivers are aligned along the regional lineaments. The NW-SE and NE-SW lineaments truncate one another, suggesting different ages for the lineament groups. A few sinistral tensional movements occur in the eastern sector of the basin. The major folds in the Afikpo basin have NE-SW and NW-SE trends, and occur as anticlines and synclines. The basement structuring and basin framework suggest a tectonic setting in the southeastern Benue Trough resulting from the Early Cretaceous opening of the South Atlantic Ocean and interpolate movement in Africa. From the evidence currently available we may conclude that the post Santonian Afikpo basin falls within the transtenstional basin categories associated with transform faults. The regional tectonics interpreted from the radar imageries are likely hydrocarbon related structural features.
 
This paper asserts the case for developing the ecotourism potential in Afikpo, Ebonyi state. The main aim of the study is to assess the ecotourism potentials in Afikpo with a view to recommending means to enhance these potentials for development. The following objectives were underpinned (i) To examine the nature of tourism sites in Afikpo, (ii) To identify the potentials, (iii) To determine the extent, the potentials have been harnessed, (iv) To identify factors that hinders the potentials of tourism. The study adopted a survey design approach. Data was collected from both primary and secondary source through orals interview, questionnaire, and direct observation methods. Four hundred questionnaires were administered in the three communities that were selected for this study. The sample size of 400 respondents was determined from the sample population of 130,329 resident’s population of Afikpo north using De Vaus Formula. Three hundred and eighty (380) were returned representing 95% questionnaire utilization. Simple random sampling and a purposive sampling techniques were employed to select the respondents who were the residents. The study identified factors that hinder tourism development in Afikpo and a breakdown showed that four out of the thirty one (31) variables were identified as the major factors that hinder the development of potential tourist sites. The findings revealed that lack of political will was the most prominent factor responsible for the undeveloped sites. This was followed by political bureaucracy, and political instability. The study therefore recommended amongst others the intervention of the government in the development of the tourism potentials in Afikpo, Ebonyi State.
 
Kumadugu-Yobe river basin is located in African sub-region within the boundary of Nigeria and Niger republic. The basin is drained by two major river systems; river Yobe and kumadugu gana. The Two major rivers empty their waters into Lake Chad. The basin falls within three major climatic belts, namely: the guinea savannah at the water head; Sudan at mid-stream and Sahel at downstream. The rainfall pattern varies from over 1200mm at the Jos plateau water head to less 400mm at downstream. The basin constitutes only 6% of the Lake Chad basin but accommodating more than 55% of the basin’s population and also providing livelihood means to over 15 million people, particularly farmers, pastoralists and fishermen. However series of impediments has been altering with hydrology of basin following the sahelian drought of 1970s and 1980s. The basin ecosystem is vital to not only the local population but to global community at large. The hadejia-Nguru wetlands of basin is the key host to wintering migratory birds from Europe and also one of the Ramsar wetland site of international importance.
 
Transportation infrastructure has become one of the key development factors in urban centers of sub-Saharan Africa. However, a nuanced understanding of the links between the state of urban transport structures and the mutations in urban populations exist. We contribute to clarify this nuance, by using a case study of Bamenda – a primate city par excellence. Bamenda provides an interesting case study because of its centrality and it rapidly growing population. Using a semi-structured interview guide, we randomly surveyed 400 household heads within the urban hub of Bamenda. This data was complemented with key informant and expert interviews to target stakeholders. Multiple Linear Regression analysis (at 0.05 levels of significance) led us to the following conclusions: location choice was influenced by a combination of transport structures, commercialization, land affordability, labour and educational factors, and where transportation factors are prioritized over other factors in location selection and spatial population concentration in Bamenda. The study findings contribute to edify urban development planning, with regards to unbundling the links between transport infrastructure and the dynamics of urban population. Further empirical evidence is required to ground this assertion.
 
The early Miocene palynoflora was recovered from well P1 located in the Aboisso area, about 175 km around of Abidjan (south-eastern Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa). Pteridophyta spores, angiosperm and gymnosperm pollen grains have been identified. The main objective of this work is to inventory all the palynomorphs encountered, to propose a local palynostratigraphy and to reconstitute the paleobotany of our study area during the Tertiary formations north of the lagoon fault. The samples were processed according to the classical procedure of extraction and concentration of palynomorphs. The lithology contains brown to black clays, coarse to fine sands, and reddish to motley clays. This study showed that the dominance of freshwater ferns such as Verrucatosporites usmensis, Laevigatosporites ovatus, Polypodiaceiosporites simplex, Cingulatisporites pseudocicatricosus and leiotriletes adriensis which evokes a swampy environment. Also the development of Bombacaceae (Bombacacidites annae), and the abundance of Pteridophyte spores of the Polypodiaceae family (Verrucatosporites usmensis, Laevigatosporites ovatus, and Polypodiaceiosporites simplex) indicate the climate was tropical with alternating dry and wet periods. Early Miocene sediments are placed in a continental type environment.
 
Vertical Mountain Ranges exist in the Americas, North Central Asia, African Highlands and Japan, Philippines and Australia and Horizontal Mountain Ranges exist Elsewhere is a new geographical thesis like the “Frontier Thesis” of Frederick Jackson Turner delivered at the World’s Columbian Exposition in 1893. Slanted mountain ranges occur in the European continent in places like the Caucuses mountains too. Carpathian mountain ranges, Apennines, Pyrenees, Dinaric Alps can be seen as slanted mountain ranges too [1]. The Pennines of the United Kingdom can be seen as a vertical direction mountain range.
 
The objective of this policy paper is to examine, assess and propose a solid theoretical model that will assist in [1] assessing the current status of development mineral value chains; [2] identifying social economic activities for mining systems, and [3] proposing consistent recommendations on policy options and other incentives necessary to enhance the contribution of the mining sector and their value chains to sustainable social economic development in Rwanda. This is a theoretical paper based on literature reviews on policy models using classical Michael Porter's (1979) Value Chain Model, (VCM) articulating full range of social economic activities – including design, input sources, production, marketing and distribution – businesses conduct to bring a product or service from conception to delivery. Value chain analysis has been a strategic policy tool used to analyze internal firms, sectorial and national operational objectives and strategies given external environments. The policy findings and solution emphasizes the importance of strengthening all optimal mineral-based linkages while resources are extant so as to maximize the developmental and inter-generational impact of those resources. The nation's mining policy objective is to ensure efficient and effective utilization of mineral deposits, explorations, extractions, processing, beneficiations, trades and marketing, and final consumptions systems by national social economic entities such as households, firms and communities. The paper recommends that Rwanda government to develop and achieve the “transparent, equitable and optimal exploitation of mineral resources to underpin broad-based sustainable growth and socio-economic development. The Rwandese must ensure that all social economic entities have to share a common goal of achieving profitability, productivity and optimal cash flow for the entire development mineral value chain. It follows that national development mineral operations management, implemented through value chain management, requires a new, operational and different perspective of relationship management.
 
A geophysical investigation involving 1D Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES), 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging (2D ERI) and Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) has been carried out at Agege, Lagos, Nigeria with a view to delineating the subsurface stratigraphy and locate some competent strata/stratum for founding civil engineering structures. Six (6) 200 m long traverses were established within the study area. Along these traverses, 2D ERI were carried out adopting Wenner electrode configuration. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) adopting Schlumberger electrode array were carried out at selected points along profiles 1, 2 and 3 to determine the lithological sequence at depth. MASW data also were acquired along traverses 1, 2 and 3. The data were processed and the result yielded interpretable 2D resistivity structure and geoelectrical parameters (layer resistivity, thicknesses and depth) from the VES. The interpreted VES results were used to generate geoelectric section while the MASW resulted in 2D velocity sections. Three subsoils including topsoil, clay and clayey sand/sand were delineated beneath the study area. The resistivity and thickness range of the layers are; topsoil (34.0-54.6 ohm-m, 0.9 – 1.7 m), clay (10.3 – 17.7 ohm-m, 8.9 – 12.3 m) and clayey sand/sand (48.9 – 323 ohm-m) while the S-wave velocity range for the subsoil falls between 40 – 500 m/sec.
 
The present study is concerned with the analysis of landform characteristics of Salda River basin and its impact on agriculture land use pattern. The Salda basin is one of the sub-basins of Subarnarekha River, with diversified landscape pattern in the western part of Purulia district in West Bengal. This basin is constituted by plateaus, plains with terraces, scarps, inselbergs, which is evolved under polycyclic evolution. The development of polycyclic geomorphic processes in this basin is typified by diverse morphology and drainage, which largely influence the land use pattern in this area. These diverse landscape patterns indicate the interaction of litho-tectonic-structural and various geomorphic processes with recent human intervention. The main objectives of the present study are to analyse the landforms characteristics, correlate them with land use and identify problems as well as prospects of agricultural land utilization. The entire study is based on both primary and secondary data. Extensive field survey has been conducted to collect primary information regarding terrain characteristics, micro relief, slope characteristics, hydrological attributes, soil character, natural vegetation, environmental hazards. The Survey of India topographical sheets, meteorological data, agricultural production data, land use and land cover data have been collected for the analysis of geomorphological characteristics, land classification, and agricultural land use pattern. This study reflects the typical land characteristics of the fringe area of Chhotanagpur plateau, where some typical geomorphic attributes control the productivity of the land and also controls the socio-economic conditions of the local people. The present authors have tried to examine the typical geomorphic attributes and their effects on present productivity of the land in a micro level study, where agriculture is the main source of income.
 
The land is a delineable area of the earth's surface, encompassing all attributes of the biosphere immediately above or below this surface. Physical characteristics of the land determine agricultural land use. Among them, relief and slope play an important role. Aim of this study is to establish the relationship of relief and slope with agricultural land use in Valapattanam River basin in Kannur district using GIS and Remote sensing. The Survey of India Topographic maps in 1:50000 scale was used as a base map for delineating the basin. Contours were digitized and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was generated. Agricultural land use map was prepared using satellite digital data by the digital image processing method using ERDAS IMAGINE image processing software. Agricultural land use map was intersected with the relief and slope classes in ArcGIS software. Areas were calculated and the trend of agricultural land use patterns was studied. The study revealed that there is a strong correlation between Agricultural land use and relief and slope in the Valapattanam River basin. Most of the area under paddy, coconut, mixed crops like banana and tapioca concentrated below 20 m height in the coastal plain and valley regions of the basin. Rubber mostly cultivated between 100 and 300 meters with slopes between 3 to 12 degrees. Agriculture is limited up to 18-degree slope and 300 m height. Areas of more than 300 m height are occupied mostly by forest.
 
Aims: This study sought to analyze the effects of adoption of Climate Smart Agriculture practices on farmers’ livelihoods in Soy sub County Kenya. Study Design: The study adopted a cross-sectional descriptive survey research design, specifically use of household questionnaires, and interviewing key informants were used to come up with both quantitative and qualitative data. Place and Duration of Study: the study was conducted in two sites in Soy sub-County Kenya: Soy and Kipsomba ward. The study was conducted in the period October –December 2019. Methodology: Structured household questionnaires (N-196) and interviews with Key informant (N-6) were conducted in two agro-ecological zones. Descriptive statistical analysis was used .while results from key informants were used to collect valuable data that was useful in checking the validity of responses obtained through the use of questionnaires. Results: The study found that 88.7% of the farming households that had adopted CSA practices led to increased yields, 73.46 % of farming households felt that the adoption led to increased income, 7.65 % felt that it has led to employment creation, 4.08 % felt that the adoption led to control of pest and 0.06 % felt that it led to control of weeds. This is an indication that the adoption of Climate Smart Agriculture practices can be the useful approach for mitigating climate variability effects, building more resilient livelihoods, improving food security and alleviating poverty. Conclusion: in order to improve on the climate variability adaptation smallholder farmers need to adopt more of CSA practices to turn around the of food insecurity threats. The study concludes that the adoption of Climate Smart Agriculture practices positively and negatively influences the livelihoods of farming households in Soy sub- County.
 
Niger state showing the study local Government area
Correlation coefficients of climatic variables and major crops grown in Niger state
Results of regression analysis
This study aimed to examine the effects of climate variability on annual crop yield at smallholder farmers’ level in the Guinea Savanna Region of Nigeria, using Niger State as a case study. Climate data (rainfall and maximum temperature) for a period of 38 years (1971-2008) was acquired from National Cereals Research Institute, Bida and Nigeria Meteorological Agency, while crop yield data was acquired from Niger State Agricultural Mechanization Development Authority (NAMDA). Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) were undertaken in 18 communities in six local government areas in Niger State spread across the three agricultural zones in the State to validate the impact of climate change and variability. The climate data was analyzed with the aid of charts. Results showed a generally rising trend in both temperature and rainfall across the State. It shows that rainfall is not only more variable, but its onset and cessation patterns have shifted and its occurrence very inconsistent. Linear relationships between climatic variables and the major crops showed moderate to strong positive and negative relationships. However, when crop yields were regressed with the climate variables, only maize (.032), bambara groundnut (.029) and groundnut (.007) were very significant at .05 confidence level (95%). The policy implication of this finding is the need to provide the farmers with local climate information and the need for vigorous pursuance of the development of high yield crop varieties better suited to changing climate conditions in the Guinea Savanna ecological zone by research institutes and other relevant agencies.
 
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J. Marvin Herndon
  • Transdyne Corporation, California
Mark Whiteside
  • Florida Department of Health in Monroe County
Sunday Edet Etuk
  • University of Uyo
Jeetesh Rai
  • University of Delhi