Journal of Geography

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Online ISSN: 0022-1341
Publications
Article
"In 1930, the majority of Hispanics were of Mexican descent and lived in the five Southwestern states of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. After World War II the Latino migrant stream began to diversify and include large numbers of Caribbeans, and Central and South Americans who generally settled in the Eastern states and California.... The U.S. Hispanic population has increased from approximately one million in 1930, to approximately 32 million in 1997. County maps chronicle the changing distribution and numbers of Hispanics from 1850 to 1990."
 
Article
PIP "In this study, the internal migration in Spain from 1962 to 1993 is analyzed from the viewpoint of migration flows, with special emphasis on the spatial scale and direction of migration as well as the migration fields.... The evolution of the spatial scale and direction of migration shows a radical change in the middle 1970s: migrations from 1962 to 1975 (first period) were unidirectional movements at great distance (interprovincial and interregional), whereas those from 1976 to 1993 (second period) are characterized by the weight of intraprovincial movements and the bidirectionality of interprovincial movements. Through the two periods, the major sector in which migrants are employed has shifted from the industry to the service sector." (EXCERPT).
 
Article
During the 1970s, new patterns of population change have appeared in the U.S., and previous patterns have acquired new complexities.The main purpose of this paper concentrates on identification and reaffirmation of the train of forces that bring about urban and rural spatial change, and the study starts from perception of several population changes through analyzing statistical data to find out the existence of a bunch of growth-inducing factors.At first, we can trace big migrations from the northeast and north central regions to the south and west. This regional shifts had already started before 1970, and became truly dramatic for the first half of the 1970s.Secondary, population increase of rural sector can be clearly seen. The gains increase partly due to the popular metropolitan overspill into adjacent counties but others are the result of the rural resurrection, a remarkable renascence of growth in the remoter nonadjacent counties due to specialized activities such as increasing accessibility of rural areas to the big metropolitan areas owing to advances in highway transportation, especially in development of “Interstate Highway System”, new industrial location trends emerged in the 1960s such as the decentralization of manufacturing, the revival or expansion of energy extraction, highly localized, large-scale energy related industrial development, recreation, and retirement.Thirdly, the slower growth of SMSAs as a whole can be noticed. However, growth rate depends upon the scale or the location of each SMSA, and slower growth is caused by the decline of central cities or slower growth of suburban areas.As for the slower growth of suburban areas where outstanding growth was seen during the 1950s and 1960s, we can recognize that three major reasons underlie that is to say, changing in the American life-style, rising of housing price, and increasing difficulties in using private cars.Finally, faster growth of black population is evident in the suburban areas of SMSAs. Black suburban population is still small in total number, compared with that of white one : however, faster growth of black population there will lead eventually to white abandonment of suburban community.Without doubt, such new trends as mentioned above, seen during the 1970s, are highly connected with the new patterns of population change of that period. Several sharp breakes with previous trends suggest that the forces underlying contemporary American population trends differ considerably from that operated during the 1960s. Through analyzing those new patterns as well as growth-inducing factors affecting population change of American urban and rural areas, it may be possible to point out that government role in developing new urban patterns is getting bigger.In the U.S., urban and rural community development has long been carried out by private hands. However, after “urban crisis” of the 1960s, federal government started to join in the private sector such as “urban development” or “development of new communities”. Government role in formation of new settlement patterns is still very small compared with that of private sector. However, we can recognize that new government participation in urban development will make it possible that government can lead urban development into favorable direction, not only in physical project but also in introducing social planning into this field.
 
Article
There is every indication that Africa’s population growth will remain well above the world average for the remainder of this decade and probably for the rest of this century. With the exception of the island states and parts of North Africa, fertility levels show little indication of change. This is in part a reflection of little desire for small families, as well as a consequence of limited or even restricted family planning services. Great diversity in attitudes regarding population policy prevails among African governments, ranging from extreme pro-natal to committed anti-natal. Even with antinatal policies, however, many African states have yet to attain any significant success in depressing their rates of growth. To date, Mauritius can be cited as the only state to have almost achieved the transition from high to low fertility. The consequence of these continuing trends is that Africa will see further increases in its youth dependency ratio. Pressures on infrastructural services will therefore increase, and the problems of generating employment will intensify. While demographic factors are by no means the only ones creating economic stress on the continent, they clearly are contributory. Unlike Asia or parts of Latin America, Africa’s problem is less a matter of too many people but rather one of excessive growth in too short a time frame. A realistic and effective longterm population policy, therefore, is an immediate need.
 
Article
A serious problem associated with the population explosion in Africa is the widespread degradation of vegetation and soils. Various factors such as climate animal overgrazing overcultivation fires and soil erosion contribute to the social and economic impact in some areas. An increase of droughts due to lack of precipitation has damaged grasslands. In addition increased animal population due to animal disease control increased water supply and social custom of measuring wealth in terms of herd size cause near wastelands from overgrazing. Also overcultivation of commercial crops due to an increasing population has accelerated soil erosion by allowing shorter fallow periods which causes lower crop yields and soil deterioration. Firing woodlands and grasslands to suppress new woody growth is damaging soil as well as encouraging the growth of coarse grasses that have little value for grazing animals. The barren land due to firing causes soil erosion both by water and wind; a total estimated drift of dust from western Africa is 60 million tons/year. These conditions indicate that deterioration will continue resulting in lower carrying capacities and lower productivity from cultivated land.
 
Article
This exercise illustrates the concept of spatial correlation, the categorizing of data for mapping, and the use of the scatter diagram. It employs the variables of infant mortality and life expectancy as applied to the Arab World, though any region can be used. The factor of oil exports is added to enhance discussion of the findings. An extra advantage of the exercise is the learning of names of countries in a relatively painless way. The exercise teaches both content and methods of interpretation, and it is adaptable to high school and college levels.
 
Article
The current volume and velocity of population growth in Monsoon Asia is unmatched in history and threatens to become 1 of the gravest emergencies in the world before the end of the century. For centuries the demographic character of the region remained unchanged but the facts of the political transformation of the region from a collection of colonies to nations and of the ever-hastening Westernization or modernization of the societies and economies has brought about qualitative and quantitative change. Both trends have led to a revolution of rising expectations. Modernization has brought about a drop in death rates that has not necessarily been tied to a rise in per capita income or to a decline in birthrates (except in Japan). Population projections for the area when considered in light of economic trends indicate a disastrous multiplication of people beyond the available means of subsistence. Japan and Russia can serve as development models but direct action in the form of urbanization and family planning programs could also prove effective. In the long run economic development such that living standards are raised considerably would appear to be the answer. Geographers can be of service in collecting data and in evaluating probable results of demographic and economic plans proposed to deal with the problem.
 
Article
Analyzes the spatial patterns of acceptance of birth control practices in India and examines the relationship between these patterns and levels of economic development. Suggests implications of the area differences in acceptance patterns for family planning program policymakers. (Author)
 
Article
Purpose of this paper is to present a model for teaching fourth grade children some aspects of the population geography of California from a nontextual approach. The objective is to interest and instruct children in the mobility of the people and on the reasons why so many families have moved to California from other states. Students should be alerted not only to internal migration problems but to the excess of births over deaths. Materials necessary for the lessons are transparencies overhead projector marking pencils chalk and chalkboard. After showing the students that California population has approximately doubled every 20 years the students should be encouraged to find reasons explaining why people have moved to the state should be able to categorize those reasons under the terms industrial/manufacturing agricultural urban or recreational should learn how to plot population distribution on a California regional outline map and should attempt to explain why certain parts of California are more popular than others. The teaching model described in this paper may be replicated with modfications for any grade level and area of study.
 
Article
Methods and procedures to teach geography have become increasingly important as non-geography teachers attempt to present geographic concepts in history, literature, language, math, and science courses. The mathematical concepts of mean and media are easy measures that can be used especially by the mathematician or geographer to also teach the concept of mean center. Population data for national administrative units such as states of the U.S. and provinces of China applied to a procedure to produce mean centers reveal locations and densities that can be used to compare these countries of approximately the same physical size.
 
Article
Urbanization in China is proceeding rapidly in step with population growth and a structural shift in employment from farming to industrial, commercial, and service jobs. Two additional causal factors drive the recent rapid urbanization. First, policies related to migration and household registration have been relaxed to allow more farmers to move to cities as transient workers. Second, economic reforms have resulted in new rules and regulations that promote foreign investment and trade activities in coastal areas. The results are seen in the emergence of four extended metropolitan regions in coastal areas (Shanghai-Nanjing, Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan, Canton-Hong Kong, and Dalian-Shenyang). These metro regions have markedly different demographic, employment, migration, and foreign investment patterns from other parts of China. Such patterns presage the likely future form of China's urbanization as the country enters a period of accelerated urbanization.
 
Article
Water resource issues are critical in the Middle East. Not only is the region located in the arid zone, but it is experiencing increasing pressures on its scarce water resources, pressures that could erupt into serious conflict. This article analyzes the causes of these increasing pressures and the conditions and major sources of conflict in the three major international river basins of the Middle East—the Tigris-Euphrates, the Nile, and the Jordan-Yarmuk, and investigates possible solutions.
 
Article
Americans seem to be moving constantly, and they always have been. They moved to the frontier from the older settled areas in the East, and they were joined by immigrants from Europe once railroads had been constructed. They moved from the farms to the central places that served them. They moved from the central city to its suburbs, and now they are moving to the exurbs. They are moving to distant amenity areas when they.retire. To a considerable degree, the various streams of movement are independent one from another. Their strength has varied with time. Quite often one has been waxing while another has been waning, and on occasion they have even managed to cancel each other out, but you cannot hope to understand the patterns and growth of population in the US without a clear sense of the variations in its major components.
 
Article
In the modern era the worlds refugee problem has changed magnitude and location; it has expanded from a local to a continental and now global scale issue. About 90% of the worlds 10 million refugees are from developing countries and over 90% of these will stay there. Refugee generating and receiving countries are concentrated in 5 world regions: Central America Southwest Asia Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Each concentration is unique and is associated with a particular set of regional conflicts. International efforts address short-term relief needs whereas political instability and repression that generate refugees continue unabated. Refugees along sensitive border regions affect bilateral relations large groups of refugees can pose political and security problems for the host country and disputes over refugee policies and their implementation can complicate diplomatic ties. Some highlights of the data follow. 1) The 3 million cross-border refugees and 5.5 million internally displaced persons make the many governments in Sub-Saharan Africa increasingly dependent on Western assistance to solve their problems. Refugees are fleeing armed conflict tribal violence and drought and often generate additional regional turmoil. 2) 3-4 million Afghans have fled their country since the 1978 Marxist coup; about 2.5 million have entered Pakistan. Most choose to remain in camps near the Afghanistan border where they are targets of cross-border attacks. 3) 1.2 million Salvadorans Guatemalans and Nicaraguans live outside their native countries. Official refugee and unofficial migrant populations are active in various rebel insurgencies contribute to strained bilateral relations and tensions in border areas and are the subject of heated political debate in host countries. 4) 90% of the 1.7 million Indochinese who fled from 1975-May 1986 have been resettled; 168000 refugees remain in 1st-asylum camps not including 240000 Khmer without refugee status in temporary camps in Thailand. Thailands large refugee population is involved in factional strife smuggling and guerrilla activities. The Thai are particularly concerned about Hmong refugees who are accused of opium cultivation and destruction of Thai forests through slash-and-burn cultivation. 5) Nearly 62% of the thousands of present Vietnamese refugees to Hong Kong have been in camps > 3 years and 17% > 6 years. Many have turned to crime alcohol drugs or prostitution.
 
Chapter
This article describes various materials on the World Wide Web that can be effectively utilized in courses on natural hazards and physical geography. Specific Internet addresses are provided for teachers who wish to access various hazard warnings, satellite images, hazard vulnerability maps, reports, and other data concerning geophysical, hydrologic, and meteorological hazards. Suggested strategies for classroom use of this information are also provided. References are made to previous articles in the Journal of Geography that can provide guidance for teachers using the abundant hazards data accessible via the Internet.
 
Concepts required, overall (n = 3,010).
Integration of the three components, overall (n = 3,010).
Number of questions examined, by textbook and by question location.
Article
This article examines whether questions embedded in geography textbooks address three components of spatial thinking: concepts of space, tools of representation, and processes of reasoning. A three-dimensional taxonomy of spatial thinking was developed and used to evaluate questions in four high school level geography textbooks. The results indicate that textbook questions focus on low-level spatial concepts more frequently than high-level spatial concepts; few questions require students to create various kinds of spatial representations; and textbook questions only rarely encourage higher-order cognitive skills. The study provides insights on the design and use of textbook questions to foster learning to think spatially.
 
Article
Examines seven surveys containing ratings of geography departments that appeared between 1924 and 1980. All the surveys attempted to assess the relative standing of Ph.D.-granting departments of geography in the United States. (RM)
 
Article
The post-World War II American pattern of general urban growth, rapid suburbanization, and central city decline has now given way to reduced urban growth outside the Sunbelt, increased growth in nonmetropolitan areas, greater self-sufficiency for suburbs, and continuing depression in the central cities. Implications of these changes are discussed. (IS)
 
Article
Poor quality writing skills among under- graduate geography students is a significant concern among university instructors. This article reports on a multipronged strategy aimed at improving student writing in a large, first-year human geography course. The strategy emphasized ways to provide effective feedback through teaching assistant training, criterion referenced assessment, draft and final submission, peer review, and in-class writing exercises. Writing activities focused on building geographic understanding by emphasizing geographical content and spatial connections through map and data interpretation. Success of the strategy was evaluated by examining student grades, as well as the quality and content of their written work.
 
Article
Combines independent reading and teacher-directed lessons to teach geographic concepts through picture books and children's literature in a third grade class. Outlines learning activities that emphasize the geographical perspectives of five picture books. Describes the class project in which students develop a puzzlelike map of the United States from the literature they have read. (DB)
 
Article
Geographic ethics are profoundly important if students are expected to be stewards of the earth and responsible citizens whose decisions about the environment will affect our planet's future. The proposed framework, founded in geography but applicable to other subject areas, guides students to moral decisions for the well-being of the planet and its people so that geographic skills will be applied for beneficial purposes. It is in the tradition of Kropotkin, Dewey, and Freire and introduces Nel Noddings' concept of caring to geography education. This proposed framework for the elementary and secondary levels is called transformative geography.
 
Article
Describes six activities that encourage young children to look at a variety of objects from different points of view. The activities are designed to enhance children's understanding of geography relative to visualizing areas to be mapped. Organizes activities so that they move from the concrete to the abstract. (KO)
 
Active learning suggestions for the lecture hall and discussion section. Activities Examples Lecture Supplements Videos (e.g., The Poisoned Dream, Cadillac Desert)
Article
Traditional lectures generally force students to play a passive role in the classroom. In an effort to promote active learning, we added discussion sections to a large lecture hall course. Field trips, student journals, and group-based assignments, in particular, enhanced the learning experience. To ensure the success of the new format, course planners must enlist the sustained cooperation of key faculty and administrators on campus, as well as teaching assistants assigned to the new sections. The new discussion sections allowed students to acknowledge the environmental impact their actions have on campus and to recognize that environmental problems occur at multiple scales.
 
Article
A baseline geography skills test was administered during 1987 to over 3,000 students who were enrolled in freshmen geography courses at 18 Indiana universities. Known as the National Council for Geographic Education Competency-Based Geography Test, Secondary Level, Form D, this test was used to measure the students' level of geographic ability in: (1) map skills; (2) place-name map identification; (3) physical geography; and (4) human geography. Information was obtained concerning each student's: (1) major area of study; (2) home state of residence; (3) class status; (4) other U.S. and foreign residencies; (5) excursions outside of the home state; (6) sex; (7) age; (8) ethnic group; (9) reasons for taking the course; and (10) previous geographic education. Findings indicated that a low overall level of geographic skills and knowledge exists and that these students averaged test scores of 75 percent correct on place-name map identification, 70 percent on map skills, 63 percent on human geography, and 58 percent on physical geography. Along with overall ability, factors such as age, major area of study, frequency of travel, number of places visited outside the home state, and reasons for taking the course positively influenced the level of geographic skills and knowledge. Four references are included. (JHP)
 
Article
This article reports the results of a case study that employed user-centered design to develop training tutorials for helping middle school social studies teachers use Web-based GIS in their classrooms. This study placed teachers in the center of the design process in planning, designing, and developing the tutorials. This article describes how teacher input was used to develop the tutorials and their ratings of the final tutorials. It also reports how many teachers ultimately used the tutorials in their classrooms. In this study, 20 percent of the participants implemented Web-based GIS in their classrooms.
 
Article
Argues that the creation of a College Board Advanced Placement examination in geography is an indicator of the resurgence of interest in geographic education. Traces the history of the Advanced Placement Program and the place negotiated for geography within it. Discusses continuing challenges that exist for geography educators. (DSK)
 
Article
As computers become commonplace in the nation's schools, interactive maps are finding their way into the geography classroom. Students can use electronic atlases to access information as well as use authoring software to produce their own interactive maps. Does this change in media correspond to better geography education for our children? This article addresses whether using interactive maps for gathering and presenting information can have a positive influence on learning geography content. A two-week experiment was conducted in five 7th grade classrooms. Students in four of the classes researched and produced map products using both traditional and computer-assisted techniques. The fifth class was a control group. A pretest and two post-tests were given to quantitatively assess student learning after each project. Also, students were given a qualitative questionnaire to determine their attitude towards the different techniques. Quantitative results of the study indicate that there was no significant difference in student post-test performance after using each of the techniques, but qualitative results suggest that students prefer using the computer techniques over the traditional methods for gathering and presenting information.
 
Article
How social influences have affected ideas current in the teaching of geography and recent developments in the field is examined. A case is made for change in the content and objectives of geography instruction. (RM)
 
Article
Despite the existence of a clear scientific consensus about global warming, opinion surveys find confusion among the American public, regarding both scientific issues and the strength of the scientific consensus. Evidence increasingly points to misinformation as a contributing factor. This situation is both a challenge and an opportunity for science educators, including geographers. The direct study of misin- formation—termed agnotology (Proctor 200835. Proctor , R. N. 2008. “Agnotology: A missing term to describe the cultural production of ignorance (and its study)”. In Agnotology: The Making and Unmaking of Ignorance, Edited by: Proctor , R. N. and Schiebinger , L. 1–33. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. View all references)—can potentially sharpen student critical thinking skills, raise awareness of the processes of science such as peer review, and improve understanding of the basic science. This potential is illustrated with examples from a small, upper-division collegiate weather and climate class.
 
Article
Examines historical trends in geography education and describes three tasks necessary for advancing the teaching of geography at all levels. New curricula and inservice teacher education programs must be developed. The essentials of geography must be clarified. College level geographers must devote more time to research in geography education. (AM)
 
Article
PhoneDisc Business 95 and BusinessMAP LTF, when used in conjunction with each other, offer a user-friendly, low-cost, and quick method of identifying and mapping patterns of the names of America's businesses. Intended as a teaching/technical aid, this paper provides: 1) descriptions of software capabilities; 2) step-by-step directions for use; 3) examples of student-generated maps, which explored the distribution of businesses with "Coast(al)," "Piedmont," and "Sunbelt" in their names; and 4) a concluding evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the packages as teaching and research technologies. Mapping the names of American businesses can provide students with: 1) insight into how populations see and define themselves regionally, 2) an avenue to explore the country's spatial economy; and 3) valuable experience using the computer as a tool for collecting and visualizing large amounts of geographic data.
 
Article
A master's degree program in geography and geology at Eastern Michigan University merges academic training with career experience. Students with relevant work experience in industry or government may fulfill their thesis requirement by teaching an undergraduate course in the department and preparing a publishable paper. (Author/AV)
 
Article
Describes a study which examined how to improve the readability of maps for upper elementary and middle school students. Data were gathered through interviews with 96 students who were asked a series of questions requiring the interpretation of one of four experimental maps. (AM)
 
Article
Separata de: The Journal of geographyv. 62
 
Article
This paper represents an attempt to trace the development of the change in American attitudes toward resources and the environment and to analyze past, present, and future trends in resource development and environmental protection.
 
Article
The impact of the post-Columbian exchange on both New World and Old World cultures can be examined through college student analyses of ethnic recipes. Working independently or in a classroom exercise, the student selects a recipe, identifies the world region of domestication of each ingredient listed, determines to what extent the ethnic recipe is comprised of native foods, and suggests what cultural processes maybe involved in the evolution of the recipe. Information sources, lists of domesticated biota by region and type, and two sample recipes are presented to illustrate the methodology.
 
Article
This paper compares briefly, within the regional context of the western United States, several of the more readily adoptable models that are being used or could be used to provide estimates of annual climatic water need appropriate to macroscale applications in introductory geography courses. (Author)
 
Article
Teaching geography within a field-based, environmental-problem-solving framework integrates geographic knowledge and practice and introduces high school students to skills required to undertake geographic research. A five-day field investigation on coastal geography was designed for juniors at a science high school in New Jersey. The goal of the field investigation was to allow students to engage in problem-solving, gather field data, apply geographic concepts and tools, and foster the ability to think critically. The purpose of the investigation was to identify the spatial distribution of litter on a beach and interpret the distribution based on physical and human processes. The field site is a 400-m-long shoreline reach in Raritan Bay, New Jersey Students defined the term "litter" for purposes of the investigation, developed a classification system, and mapped the location and type of litter on the beach. Three sampling grids were established across the beach from the dune crest to the waterline. Students conducted topographic surveys of the sampling grids, collected litter in each grid cell, and counted, classified, and weighed the litter. Data gathered were reduced, analyzed, and interpreted based on the published literature. Findings were presented at a formal presentation on the last day of the investigation. Students submitted a written report and presented the results of the investigation at a student conference two months later. Field investigations can expose students to different methods of data sampling and measurement. Collaboration between secondary schools and universities can result in successful learning initiatives that allow students the opportunity to experience the role of a practicing professional.
 
Article
Summarizes some of the approaches a feminist can use in the classroom and reports the student interest generated when women are included as subject matter in part of a regional geography course. (Author/AV)
 
Article
Geo-political concepts and constructs are used to interpret the Arab-Israeli conflict. (DE)
 
Article
This paper contributes to the dearth of literature on the implementation of the National Geography Standards. A survey instrument was sent to Teacher Consultants from 25 randomly selected Geography Education Alliances. Based on the data presented we concluded that there is a relationship between the implementation of the National Geography Standards and four independent variables, including preservice training, inservice training (geography institutes and workshops), and number of minutes per week geography is taught.
 
Article
Holding universities accountable for the quality of their products (students), and how to assess relative product quality, have become major concerns of many academic units. The position taken in this paper is that the assessment process should be approached in a positive frame of mind, and that it should encourage development of meaningful curricular goals and strategies for their implementation. This approach will result in programs of improved quality that will attract superior students and enhance the standing of geography in the academic community.
 
Article
The primary objectives of this article are: (1) to conceptualize teacher dispositions related to teaching spatial thinking in geography classrooms; and (2) to propose an exemplar assessment that can be used to prepare teachers who are disposed toward teaching spatial thinking through geography. A detailed description of the construction procedures and potential uses of the assessment are presented with suggestions for future research and applications.
 
Article
The results of an experiment indicate that there are no differences in student achievement between a computer-assisted geography unit and a lecture based unit on the same topic. (DE)
 
Top-cited authors
Joseph J. Kerski
  • Environmental Systems Research Institute (Esri), and University of Denver
Sarah Bednarz
  • Texas A&M University
Alan Jenkins
  • Oxford Brookes University
Mick Healey
  • Healey HE Consultants Ltd; University of Gloucestershire
Thomas R. Baker
  • Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI)