Journal of Geographic Information System

Published by Scientific Research Publishing
Print ISSN: 2151-1950
Due to inappropriate planning and management, accelerated urban growth and tremendous loss in land, es-pecially cropland, have become a great challenge for sustainable urban development [1]. Detection of such changes may help decision makers and planners to understand the factors in land use and land cover changes in order to take effective and useful measures. Remote sensing and GIS techniques may be used as efficient tools to detect and assess land use changes.In recent years, a considerable land use changes have occurred in the greater Zanjan area. In order to understand the type and rate of changes in this area, Landsat TM images captured in 1984 and 2011 have been selected for comparison.First, geometric correction and contrast stretch are applied. In order to detect and evaluate land use changes, image differencing, principal component analyses and Fuzzy ARTMAP classification method are applied. Finally, the results of land cover classifica-tion for three different times are compared to reveal land use changes.Then, combined Cellular Automata with Markov Chain analysis is employed to forecast of human impacts on land use change until 2020 in Zanjan area. The results of the present study disclose that about 44 percents of the total area changed their land use, e.g., changing agricultural land, orchard and bare land to settlements, construction of industrial areas and highways. The crop pattern also changes, such as orchard land to agricultural land and vice versa. The mentioned changes have occurred within last 27 years in Zanjan city and its surrounding area.
Line feature (are) attribute structure 
Contour matching forma 
Geology is the base for highways and tunnels construction. With the fast development of national highway construction, highway tunnel construction project are more and more complex. The completeness and accuracy are essential for the planning, design and construction of projects, while the ground information is quite poor in systematic, reliable and timely aspects. Therefore, the development of underground road tunnels, and the implementation of informationized spatial information management is urgent for highway construction. 3D geological tunnel model is intuitive, high efficient and convenience which greatly facilitates the maintenance and security of highway tunnels construction and it will be the trend for the future highway tunnel development.
Rare vegetation communities. Initial classification scheme.
Interpretation of SPOT image and field survey. 
Best minimum and best average separability (Initial classification scheme).
Final classification scheme.
Contingency matrix. Final classification scheme.
This paper describes remote sensing methodologies for monitoring rare vegetation with special emphasis on the Image Statistic Analysis for set of training samples and classification. At first 5 types of Rare Vegetation communities were defined and the Initial classification scheme was designed on that base. After preliminary Statistic Analysis for training samples, a modification algorithm of the classification scheme was defined: one led us to creating a 4 class's scheme (Final classification scheme). The different methods analysis such as signature statistics, signature separability and scatter plots are used. According to the results, the average separability (Transformed Divergence) is 1951.14, minimum is 1732.44 and maximum is 2000 which shows an acceptable level of accuracy. Contingency Matrix computed on the results of the training on Final classification scheme achieves better results, in terms of overall accuracy, than the training on Initial classification scheme.
This paper analyzes the existing spatial structure of mobile information services and the current new characteristics of the service, proposes a new service model. The model adopts a unified deployment solution of spatial data. It extends the spatial data management and lightweight computing to the embedded computing devices, and enhanced the service flexibility and scalability. The design of mobile side achieves the integration of spatial data management, mobile computing and wireless communication, and it can meet the various needs of spatial information mobile services. The paper introduces the composition of the new model and the key contents, and pointing out that this model is the inevitable trend of spatial information mobile services.
Location of the area of interest (Municipalities of Perugia and Corciano, Umbria, Italy).  
Essential metadata of the land use datasets.
Output of MSPA procedures (adopted from Soille & Vogt, 2009).  
SDI of year 2000 and relative isolines. Detail in the area to the north of Perugia.  
Development of peri-urban areas in the Perugia area between 1977 and 2000.  
Urban fringes represent very complex landscapes because of their proximity and mutual dependency with cities and rural areas. These landscapes may be considered as transition entities characterized by fuzzy boundaries. An uncontrolled development of urban sprawl and land use changes in these areas may determine negative impacts on all natural, economic and social components. Thus, urban fringes assume a key-role in modern landscape analysis, planning and management. Landscape analysis of these interfaces, as this study shows, can be effectively supported by GIS spatial modelling. The Settlement Density Index (SDI), developed through GIS spatial analysis techniques, expresses punctually the territorial gradients generated by the presence of settlements and allows the identification of the urban fringes in the two periods under investigation. These areas are then characterized and analyzed quantitatively using detailed land use data. The comparison of the diachronic information highlights the transformations of peri-urban landscapes that appear mainly related to the modifications of spatial configuration of urban areas and to the changes of agricultural systems.
Structure and software routines for shoreline extraction.
This paper presents algorithmic components and corresponding software routines for extracting shoreline features from remote sensing imagery and LiDAR data. Conceptually, shoreline features are treated as boundary lines between land objects and water objects. Numerical algorithms have been identified and devised to segment and classify remote sensing imagery and LiDAR data into land and water pixels, to form and enhance land and water objects, and to trace and vectorize the boundaries between land and water objects as shoreline features. A contouring routine is developed as an alternative method for extracting shoreline features from LiDAR data. While most of numerical algorithms are implemented using C++ programming language, some algorithms use available functions of ArcObjects in ArcGIS. Based on VB .NET and ArcObjects programming, a graphical user's interface has been developed to integrate and organize shoreline extraction routines into a software package. This product represents the first comprehensive software tool dedicated for extracting shorelines from remotely sensed data. Radarsat SAR image, QuickBird multispectral image, and airborne LiDAR data have been used to demonstrate how these software routines can be utilized and combined to extract shoreline features from different types of input data sources: panchromatic or single band imagery, color or multi-spectral image, and LiDAR elevation data. Our software package is freely available for the public through the internet.
Description of ALOS images used. 
Paddy planted area in May 2007. 
Agricultural land has a strategic function as the primary food provider for the people of Indonesia. Various methods of agricultural production estimation, particularly food crops, provide different information. It can be a source of error in decision making. Satellite data, provides information periodically, wide coverage area, can be used as a source of information on the condition of agricultural lands and even remote areas. The advantages of SAR data that does not depend on sunlight and can penetrate of clouds and fog can fill the lack of optical data. ALOS PALSAR data has been used for analysis and ALOS AVNIR-2 is for checking of land cover visually, with acquisition date on 10 May 2007. Sampling of each rice crop growth period used several of rice field conditions in each period, on one scene data. Results showed a possibility to use soil moisture conditions derived from ALOS PALSAR for estimating rice planting area. On a scatter diagram between backscatter of ALOS PALSAR and near infrared of ALOS AVNIR-2 showed a specific pattern for each growing period of paddy. The results of the analysis produce distribution maps of the rice planting area Subang area, West Java Province. However, validation of the method used remains to be done. Remote sensing results of this study are expected to provide better information and can contribute in the planning of higher quality agricultural land.
Correlation matrix between ELA and predictor variables. Up: LIA: Down: Present. Significant correlations are written in bold.
Correlations between ELA and predictor variables (stage = present).
Correlations between ELA and predictor variables (stage = LIA). valley, more precisely around Combeynot and Montagne des Agneaux. Furthermore, the map of the difference of ELA (LIA-Present, in Figure 6) indicates a progressive exacerbation of this spatial heterogeneity: variation is higher next to Combeynot and Montagne des Agneaux (approximately +200 to +250 m) than in La Meije or Les Ecrins area (approximately +100 to +150 meters): a kind of hierarchy of glaciological settings is thus pointed out,
Comparison between measured and estimated differences. Dashed line corresponds to the regression line, dots line corresponds to line which equation is measured difference = difference estimated thanks to the model. 
Glacier variation is one of the best indicators of climate change in mountainous environment. In French Alps, many temporal data are acquired by glaciologists at glaciers scale: geometrical parameters (surface area, thickness, length and front altitude) are surveyed since the end of the 19th century. Those parameters are necessary to estimate the mass-balance of glaciers and, then, an accurate temporal signal of glacier variation. However, the time-response of the glaciers can be highly variable because of the topoclimate, and more generally the local settings of the glaciers. Moreover, climatologists and hydrologists are requiring estimation of glacier variations at regional scale and not only at local scale. In this paper, we highlight that the Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) is a parameter prone to spatio-temporal reconstructions at regional scale. ELA can indeed be interpolated at a region scale from local data: for instance, many geographers have reconstructed spatial trends during 1980s. Here, we try to interpolate ELA from multi-dimensionnal regression analysis: ELA is explained by many local parameters (Incoming solar radiation, topographic indexes, snow-redistribution by wind, etc.). Regression model was adjusted from a spatio-temporal database of 50 glaciers, located in the Massif des Ecrins. ELA was estimated for each glacier thanks to the Accumulation Area Ratio (ratio = 0.65) at two stages: LIA maximum and at present. Results first show that the multiple regression analysis is efficient to interpolate ELA through space: the adjusted r² is about 0.49 for the reconstruction during the LIA, and 0.47 at present. Moreover, the RMSE error is about 50 meters for the LIA period, 55 meters at present. Finally, a high spatial variability (standard deviation of about 150 meters) is highlighted: incoming solar radiation and snow redistribution by wind mostly explain the observed differences. We can also assess a rise of the ELA of about 250 meters during the 20th century.
Simulation Environment
Illustration of MPC arrivals
A novel statistical angle-of-arrival (AOA) model for indoor geolocation applications is presented. The modeling approach focuses on the arrivals of the multipath components with respect to the line-of-sight (LOS) path which is an important component especially when indoor geolocation applications are considered. The model is particularly important for indoor applications where AOA information could be utilized for tracking indirect paths to aid in precise ranging in harsh and dense multipath environments where LOS path might be blocked due to obstructions. The results have been obtained by a measurement calibrated ray-tracing (RT) tool.
One of the most important factors affecting the precision of the performance of a GPS receiver is the relative positioning of satellites to each other. Therefore, it is essential to choose appropriate accessible satellites utilized in the calculation of GPS positions. Optimal subsets of satellites are determined using the least value of their Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP). The most correct method of calculating GPS GDOP uses inverse matrix for all combinations and selecting the lowest ones. However, the inverse matrix method, especially when there are so many satellites, imposes a huge calculation load on the processor of the GPS navigator. In this paper, the rapid and precise calculation of GPS GDOP based on Recurrent Wavelet Neural Network (RWNN) has been introduced for selecting an optimal subset of satellites. The method of NNs provides a realistic calculation approach to determine GPS GDOP without any need to calculate inverse matrix.
Some ratios for NRCS dimensionless UH. 
Statistics of morphometric quantities. 
NRCS-based hydrological results in the study area. 
NRCS UH quantities for Makkah' catchments. 
Unit hydrographs (UH) are either determined from gauged data or derived using empirically-based synthetic unit hydrograph procedures. In Saudi Arabia, the discharge records may not be available either for several locations or for long time scales, and therefore synthetic unit hydrographs are crucial in flood and water resources management. Available metrological, geological, and land use datasets have been utilized in order to apply the US National Resources Conservative Services (NRCS) methodology in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. Furthermore, NRCS unit hydrographs have been developed for six watersheds within Makkah metropolitan area, southwest Saudi Arabia. The accomplished results show that the UH time to peak discharge vary from 1.15 hours to 4.47 hours, and the UH peak discharge quantities range from 10.14 m 3 /s to 16.74 m 3 /s. It is concluded that the third basin in Makkah city may be considered as the most hazardous catchment. Hence, it is recommended that careful flood protection procedures should be taken in this area within Makkah city.
Study area.
Statistics of morphometric quantities.
Flood spatial variations in Makkah. 
Flash floods occur periodically in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia, due to several factors including its rugged topography and geological structures. Hence, precise assessment of floods becomes a more vital demand in development planning. A GIS-based methodology has been developed for quantifying and spatially mapping the flood characteristics. The core of this new approach is integrating several topographic, metrological, geological, and land use datasets in a GIS environment that utilizes the Curve Number (CN) method of flood modelling for ungauged arid catchments. Additionally, the computations of flood quantities, such as depth and volume of runoff, are performed in the attribute tables of GIS layers, in order to assemble all results in the same environment. The accomplished results show that the runoff depth in Makkah, using a 50-years return period, range from 128.1 mm to 193.9 mm while the peak discharge vary from 1063 m 3 /s to 4489 m 3 /s. The total flood volume is expected to reach 172.97 million m 3 over Makkah metropolitan area. The advantages of the developed methodology include precision, cost-effective, digital outputs, and its ability to be rerun in other conditions.
The distribution of the land surfaces temperature of the year 1990. 
The distribution of the land surfaces temperature of the year 2003. 
The spatial characteristics of land cover are useful for understanding the various impacts of human activity on the overall ecological conditions of the urban environment. The multi-temporal Landsat images (TM) between the years of 1990 and 2003 were used together with the Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques to evaluate the environmental changes in the area around Gabal El Hamza and the surrounding urban expansion in the new urban cities at the northeast side of the Greater Cairo by using the post classifi-cation change detection technique and field investigation. Five major units were determined including: urban, cultivated land, Holocene sand dunes, Oligocene basalt and Miocene–Pleistocene sediments. The cultivated cover changed from 89.6 to 150.4 km2 for the years of 1990 and 2003 respectively. The urban area increased from 49.5 to 120.9 km2 with a great value of change reached 71.3 km2. The basaltic exposures changed from 3 to 3.75 km2. The sandy cover decreased from 68.9 to 60.1 km2 and the exposures of the rock units changed from 904.8 to 780.8 km2 with removing 124 km2 in 13 years. The total accuracy of the Landsat-derived land cover data was 95 and 92% for the years 1990 and 2003 respectively. Landsat TM thermal infrared data in-dicated that the surface temperature was strongly affected by the land cover changes.
Location Map (source:
Flowchart showing methodology 
Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ) is a geologically rich belt with structures like faults and folds being the distinctive features. Due to these characteristics this area has been an important centre of studies since past few decades. With the advent of Remote Sensing and GIS, it has been possible to study and interprete geological setting of any area in the laboratory itself without even visiting the field again and again. The present study aims to investigate the geology of the SSZ from ASTER DEM by observing the elevation, as-pect, texture, pattern etc of shaded relief images. This can prove to be an excellent supplementary information database for interpretations along with other data.
Wetlands, the transitional zones that occupy an intermediate position between dry land and open water, regulate the flow of water and nutrients, thereby facilitating optimum functioning of the physical and biological cycles of nature. To conserve and manage wetland resources, it is important to invent and monitor wetlands and their adjacent uplands. Wetlands are most productive ecosystems besides being a rich repository of biodiversity and are known to play a significant role in carbon sequestration. Wetlands are halfway world between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem and share properties of both. Wetlands exhibit enormous diversity according to their genesis, geographical location, water regime, chemistry, dominant plants and soil or sediment characteristic. Wetland vegetation provides a natural barrier to fast moving water and therefore aids in flood speed reduction. Remote sensing offers a cost effective means for identifying and monitoring wetlands over a large area and at different moments of time. The present paper describes the methodology and results of wetland area for Ranchi city of Jharkhand state for the year 1996-2004.The signatures of wetlands and associated land features are identified in unsupervised classification approach based on their DN value using Satellite data. There are drastic change in between 1996 and 2004. The spatial distributions of the NDVI values were evaluated to determine the cutoff points for the water bodies, and wetted area.
List of the municipalities and FSAs (PSEPC* 2005).
Determination of the vulnerability due to inundation of critical facilities and bridges. (a) 6 × 6-grid layered over the FSAs of London; (b) square vulnerability shape; (c) example FSA region divided in grid cells; (d) vulnerability shapes for cells with 1-5 bridges; (e) with 6-10 bridges (not to scale).
GIS generated map of standardized average vulnerability to flood.  
An exhaustive knowledge of flood risk in different spatial locations is essential for developing an effective flood mitigation strategy for a watershed. In the present study, a riskvulnerability analysis to flood is performed. Four components of vulnerability to flood: 1) physical, 2) economic, 3) infrastructure and 4) social; are evaluated individually using a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. The proposed methodology estimates the impact on infrastructure vulnerability due to inundation of critical facilities, emer gency service stations and bridges. The components of vulnerability are combined to determine an overall vulnerability to flood. The exposures of land use/land cover and soil type (permeability) to flood are also considered to include their effects on severity of flood. The values of probability of occurrence of flood, vulnerability to flood, and exposures of land use and soil type to flood are used to finally compute flood risk at different locations in a watershed. The proposed methodology is implemented for six major damage centers in the Upper Thames River watershed, located in the SouthWestern Ontario, Canada to assess the flood risk. An information system is developed for systematic presentation of the flood risk, probability of occurrence of flood, vulnerability to flood, and exposures of land use and soil type to flood by postal code regions or Forward Sortation Areas (FSAs). The flood information system is designed to provide support for different users, i.e., general public, decisionmakers and water management professionals. An interactive analysis tool is developed within the information system to assist in evaluation of the flood risk in response to a change in land use pattern.
Architecture of the explicit fuzzy method illustrated for two descriptor, two variables with three classes.  
Three dimensional object extraction and recognition (OER) from geographic data has been definitely one of more important topic in photogrammetry for quite a long time. Today, the capability of rapid generating high-density DSM increases the supply of geographic information but the discrete nature of the measuring makes more difficult to recognize correctly and to extract 3D objects from these surface. The proposed methodology wants to semi-automate some geographic objects clustering operations, in order to perform the recognition process. The clustering is a subjective process; the same set of data items often needs to be partitioned differently based on the application. Fuzzy logic gives the possibility to use in a mathematical process the uncertain information typical of human reasoning. The concept at the base of our proposal is to use the information contained in Image Matching or LiDAR DSM, and typically understood by the human operator, in a fuzzy recognition process able to combine the different input in order to perform the classification. So the object recognition approach proposed in our workflow integrates 3D structural descriptive components of objects, extracted from DSM, into a fuzzy reasoning process in order to exploit more fully all available information , which can contribute to the extraction and recognition process and, to handling the object's vagueness. The recognition algorithm has been tested with to different data set and different objectives. An important issue is to apply the typical human process which allows to recognize objects in a range image in a fuzzy reasoning process. The investigations presented here have given a first demonstration of the capability of this approach.
This paper introduces the necessity and superiority of auxiliary wiring WEBGIS, as well as system implementation difficulties and countermeasures. Then explained the general concept of auxiliary wiring systems, data interface response, and finally introduced the system wiring switchover function, and gave an example.
The channel of Bhagirathi River is the branches off from the Ganga at Nurpur (lower course of the Ganga). Bhagirathi River is one of the main rivers in Murshidabad district. Analyzing the image of the Bhagirathi River in Murshidabad district through the year 1970, 1977, 1990, 2000 and 2006, it is found that significant changed has been occurred in souththern part of the river and less change is found in the middle part which is close to the Berhampore town. Toposheet of the year 1970 is also compared with the image data to observe the change. Water discharge, soil types and transportation of sediment is the major contributing factor of morphological changes like bar or shoal, ox-bow Lake, meander etc. Maximum erosion takes place at Dear Balagachi and after Baidyanathpur. A cut-off has take place at Baidyanathpur in 1984 [1]. It is found from the study that there is a possibility of natural meander cut-off at Dear Balagachi and near Majayampur. The traditional bank protection works, concrete walls, cemented stone and brick, play a significant role in the modification of the hydraulic aspect of the discharge values and in the interference in the water dynamics of erosive and depositional phenomena both upstream and downstream.
Rank and optimals value of calibrated SWAT parameters.
Yearly Average simulated water balance.
The study of water resources at watershed scale is widely adopted as approach to manage, assess and simulate these important natural resources. The development of remote sensing and GIS techniques has allowed the use of spatially and physically based hydrologic models to simulate as simply and realistically as possible the functioning of watershed systems. Indeed, the major constraint that has hindered the expansion use of these tools was the unavailability or scarcity of data especially in the developing countries. In this context, the objective of this study is to model the hydrology in the Bouregreg basin, located at the north-central of Morocco, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in order to understand and determine the different watershed hydrological processes. Thus, it aims to simulate the stream flow, establish the water balance and estimate the monthly volume inflow to SMBA dam situated at the basin outlet. The ArcSWAT interface implemented in the ArcGIS software was used to delineate the basin and its sub-components, combine the data layers and edit the model database. The model parameters were analyzed, ranked and adjusted for hydrologic modeling purposes using daily temporal data series. They were calibrated using an auto-calibration method based on a Shuffled Complex Evolution Algorithm from 1989 to 1997 and validated from 1998 to 2005. Based on statistical indicators, the evaluation indicates that SWAT model had a good performance for both calibration and validation periods in Bouregreg Watershed. In fact, the model showed a good correlation between the observed and simulated monthly average river discharge with R² and Nash coefficient of about 0.8. The water balance components were correctly estimated and the SMBA dam inflow was successfully reproduced with R² of 0.9. These results revealed that if properly calibrated, SWAT model can be used efficiently in semi-arid regions to support water management policies.
GIS assist in specific planning and decision-making processes in irrigation through the input, spatial analysis and output of relevant information. The real strength of GIS is its ability to integrate information. This integration power makes the scope of GIS almost infinite. The unique integration capability of GIS allows dis-parate data sets to be brought together to create a complete picture of a situation. GIS technology illustrates relationships, patterns and connections that are not necessarily obvious in any one data set but are amazingly apparent once the data sets are integrated. GIS also helps us to assess the performance of the irrigation command areas. GIS based system helps a canal to analyze the spatial information about its engineers and farmers to improve planning, management and supply of water resources to its corresponding blocks. In order to manage the water efficiently in the command area, it is needless to say that calculation and evaluation of water demands in detail at block and minor level to be given overriding priority. Blocks and Chak boundaries can be delineated from the Digital Elevation Model using GIS techniques. These boundaries will help to plan and allocate the water resources to improve the water allocation strategies and in turn water use efficiency and can make inter-canal comparisons. The delineated block boundaries can be refined exactly using the drainage, topography and existing canal network in GIS platform.
Schematic of how filling the DEM tool works. a) A DEM without sinks filled. Water enters the sink, but does not leave. b) A DEM with the sinks filled. Water runs over the sink and continues downstream.
Percentage of Filled DEM SPI threshold coverage for each unit.
This table outlines SPI thresholds used for this study. Note that the Raw SPI values are higher in the filled Dem than the unfilled DEM.
Cave levels, passages found at similar elevations and formed during the same constant stream base level event, reveal information about paleoclimates and karst geomorphology. The investigation presented here examines how Stream Power Index (SPI) relates to cave levels. The study area, Carter Caves State Resort Park (CCSRP), is a fluviokarst system in northeastern Kentucky containing multiple cave levels. SPI determines the erosive power overland flow based on the assumption that flow accumulation and slope are proportional to potential for sediment entrainment. Part of this digital terrain analysis requires the creation of a flow accumulation raster from a digital elevation model (DEM). In creating the flow accumulation raster, one has the option to fill depressions (also considered errors) within the DEM. Filling these depressions, or “sinks,” creates a well-connected stream network; however it also removes possible sinkholes from the DEM. This paper also investigates the effects a filled and an unfilled DEM have on SPI and what each reveals about erosion potential in the area. The data shows that low elevations within the filled DEM maintain a high SPI value when compared to the unfilled DEM. The filled DEM also created a stream network similar to reality. The unfilled DEM demonstrated similar SPI results between all levels, indicating a well-connected karst system. In order to truly understand the mechanics of this system, a combination of these two DEMs is required.
Details of triangulation summary showing RMSE error.
Generation of DEM and Ortho image generation in LPS. 
High resolution data have high relief displacement in hilly terrains. Development of Digital Elevation model helps to assess bio resources more accurately in such terrains. While estimating bio resources in the Himala-yan hilly terrain using multispectral LISS-III data of 23 m spatial resolution, the need for orthorectifcation of satellite data was necessary to correct for spatial distances due to high undulating slopes. Therefore, Cartosat stereo pair based Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was generated using the Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPC) supplied along with the data products. By using the DEM orthorectification of LISS-III was created. In order to evaluate the positional accuracy of ortho rectified LISS-III Ground control points were selected using the Global Positioning System in differential GPS mode. As there is variation in the spatial distances and height over few points, the GCP corrected DEM was used for ortho rectifcation of Cartosat PAN and LISS-III data. This paper presents the procedure followed for ortho rectification and digital elevation model generation using Cartosat stereo pair data. The result of the study indicated high spatial resolution stereo images helped generation of three dimensional mountainous regions more accurately which helps in estimating the bio resources using multispectral LISS III data.
Gardening information management system layer structure. 
To provide scientific management basis for the garden planning, project construction, maintenance, social service, this paper prompted that the urban gardening administration sectors need to construct gardening information management system. On the basis of fully requirements analysis of gardening sectors, this paper discussed the key technology for system construction. It also proposed to flexibly and smartly build up the system by using the secondary development design environment and running environment based on data center integration development platform. This system greatly helps the daily management and plays very important role in improving urban ecological environment and investment environment.
Land cover (LC) and land use (LU) dynamics induced by human and natural processes play a major role in global as well as regional patterns of landscapes influencing biodiversity, hydrology, ecology and climate. Changes in LC features resulting in forest fragmentations have posed direct threats to biodiversity, endangering the sustainability of ecological goods and services. Habitat fragmentation is of added concern as the residual spatial patterns mitigate or exacerbate edge effects. LU dynamics are obtained by classifying temporal remotely sensed satellite imagery of different spatial and spectral resolutions. This paper reviews five different image classification algorithms using spatio-temporal data of a temperate watershed in Himachal Pradesh, India. Gaussian Maximum Likelihood classifier was found to be apt for analysing spatial pattern at regional scale based on accuracy assessment through error matrix and ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curves. The LU information thus derived was then used to assess spatial changes from temporal data using principal component analysis and correspondence analysis based image differencing. The forest area dynamics was further studied by analysing the different types of fragmentation through forest fragmentation models. The computed forest fragmentation and landscape metrics show a decline of interior intact forests with a substantial increase in patch forest during 1972-2007.
Spatial topology rule is the primary method to insure the consistency and validity of spatial topology relation in GIS software. Topology rule can be divided into three categories according to geographic entity’s geometric shape: point topology rule, line topology rule and polygon topology rule. At first, this paper summarizes the various linear geographic entities’ topological relations which have practical application, then designs a series of linear entity topology rules detailedly. Based on these rules, this paper proposes a topology rule checking algorithm using quadtree, which is designed on the basis of MAPGIS7.4 spatial data model. The algorithm has already been applied to MAPGIS platform and gained good effects.
Summary of landsat and ASTER classification area statistics for 1990, 1998 and 2006.
Summary of forest classification area statistics for 1990, 1998 and 2006.
Forest cover classification maps in Dehdez area: (1) 1990, (2) 1998, and (3) 2006 and comparison of respective extents of forest types by percentage in the area. 
Change detection error matrix for 1990-2006.
The importance of accurate and timely information describing the nature and extent of land resources and changes over time is increasing, especially in mountainous areas. We have developed a methodology to map and monitor land cover change using multitemporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and ASTER data in Zagros mountains of Iran for 1990, 1998, and 2006.Land-use/cover mapping is achieved through interpreta-tion of Landsat TM satellite images of 1990, 1998 and TERRA-ASTER image of 2006 using ENVI 4.3. Based on the Anderson land-use/cover classification system, the land-use and land-covers are classified as forest land, rangeland, water bodies, agricultural land and residential land. The unsupervised image classifi-cation method carried out prior to field visit, in order to determine strata for ground truth. Fieldwork carried out to collect data for training and validating land-use/cover interpretation from satellite image of 2006, and for qualitative description of the characteristics of each land-use/cover class. The land-use/cover maps of 1990, 1998 and 2006 were produced by using supervised image classification technique based on the Maxi-mum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) and 132 training samples. Error matrices as cross-tabulations of the mapped class vs. the reference class were used to assess classification accuracy. Overall accuracy, user’s and producer’s accuracies, and the Kappa statistic were then derived from the error matrices. A multi-date post-classification comparison change detection algorithm was used to determine changes in land cover in three intervals, 1990–1998, 1998–2006 and 1990–2006. To evaluate the change maps for the 1990 to 2006 interval, we randomly sampled the areas that classified as change and no-change and determined whether they were correctly classified. The maps showed that between 1990 and 2006 the amount of forest land de-creased from 67% to 38.5% of the total area, while rangelands, agriculture, settlement and surface water in-creased from 30.8% to 45%, 1.2% to 7.0%, 0.3% to 7.5% and 0.6% to 1.8%, respectively. The area was dominated by 35.9%, 28.9% and 29.3% dense forest, 42.2%, 46.4% and 43.2% open forest and 21.9%, 24.8% and 27.5% degraded forest in 1990, 1998 and 2006, respectively. During 16 years span period (1990-2006) about 10170.3 ha, 2963.4 ha, 351.7 ha and 3039.2 ha of forest lands were converted to range-land, agriculture, water body and settlement. The overall five-class classification accuracies averaged 78.6% for the three years. The overall accuracy of land cover change maps, generated from post-classification change detection methods and evaluated using several approaches, reached to 80.1%. The results quantify the land cover change patterns in the Zagrous highlands and demonstrate the potential of multitemporal Landsat and ASTER data to provide an accurate, economical means to map and analyze changes in land cover over time that can be used as inputs to land management and policy decisions.
Precision of evaluate supervised classification. 
Result of Different-Scale Segmentation. (a) scale 30; (b) scale 60. 
Processing flow chart of object-oriented classification. 
This paper proposed to use double polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image to classify surface feature, based on DEM. It takes fully use of the polarization information and external information. This pa-per utilizes ENVISAT ASAR APP double-polarization data of Poyang lake area in Jiangxi Province. Com-pared with traditional pixel-based classification, this paper fully uses object features (color, shape, hierarchy) and accessorial DEM information. The classification accuracy improves from the original 73.7% to 91.84%. The result shows that object-oriented classification technology is suitable for double polarization SAR’s high precision classification.
Recently, the use of mobile communication devices, such as smart phones and cellular phones, in field data collection is increasing due to the emergence of embedded Global Position Systems (GPS) and Wi-Fi Inter-net access. Accurate, timely and handy field data collection is required for disaster management and quick response during emergencies. In this article, we introduce a web-based GIS system to collect the field data from personal mobile phones through a Post Office Protocol POP3 mail server. The main objective of this work is to demonstrate a real-time field data collection method to students using their mobile phones to collect field data in a timely and handy manner, either in individual or group surveys at local or global scale research .
High School Enrollments in the Jackson Metropolitan Area, Mississippi, USA, 2005-2006. 
This research develops a gravity-based index of public school competition from private schools within local markets. Proponents of educational reform often call for policies to increase competition between schools. A major hurdle for researchers examining this issue is to determine a workable definition of “competition” by which they can measure the degree of competition within local markets. This study addresses this challenge by developing a school competition index for public schools in the Jackson metropolitan area of Mississippi, USA that considers the enrollments in public schools and the enrollments in their neighboring private schools, as well as the distances between them. The school competition index reveals the degree of competition for each public school based on its spatial location relative to peer private schools operating within its service area. This methodology can be useful for evaluating competition in other markets and redefining the traditional market structure.
This paper develops a two-regional growth model with amenity, capital accumulation and regional public goods with public goods and fiscal policies. The economy consists of two regions and each region consists of the industrial sector and public sector. The industrial sector provides goods in perfectly competitive markets. The public sector, which is financed by the regional government's tax incomes, supplies regional public goods. The public goods affect both firms and households. We show how to find equilibrium values of the dynamic system and simulate model. Then, we carry out comparative statics analysis with regard to parameter changes in tax rates, congestion and amenity. Our comparative statics analysis provides some important insights. For instance, a main difference between the effects of increasing the two regions' tax rates on the output is that as the technologically advanced region's (the other region's) tax rate on the industrial sector is increased, the national industrial output, national capital employed by the economy, and the national wealth are increased (reduced). In the region which increases the tax rate, the wage rate, consumption and wealth per capita, output per labor force, the population, and land rent are increased, and the corresponding variables in the other region are reduced.
According to the requirements of provincial land management operation, this paper introduced a method to build municipal land usage database on country level land usage database building. It realizes provincial land usage data updating, transfer and application management. This paper analyzed provincial land usage database construction requirements from data, software and hardware environment, database, etc. It also designed the mathematic base, land usage data feature, data dictionary and metadata. All the database construction process has been listed, including database configuration management, system optimization and security maintenance. at last, it presents some database applications which provides reference for the provincial land usage database construction.
Two different forest patches showing minimum and maximum RTF of 1965 map. 
Digital terrain models (DTMs) are not commonly used to integrate for landscape spatial analysis. Two dimensional patch-corridor-matrix models are prototypes in landscape spatial ecology analysis. Previous studies have motivated ecologists to integrate terrain models in landscape analysis through 1) adjusting areas and distance calculations prior computing landscape indices; 2) designing new indices to capture topography and 3) searching the possible relationship between topographic characteristics and vegetation patterns. This study presents new indices called Relative number of Topographic Faces (RTF) and Simplicity of topographic Faces (STF) that can be easily computed in a GIS environment, capturing topographical features of landscapes. Digital terrain model was first prepared and topographic units were extracted and installed in computing the suggested indices. Mountainous and rugged topography in Lebanon was chosen on a forested landscape for the purpose of this study. The indices were useful in monitoring changes of topographic features on patch and landscape level. Both indices are ecologically useful if integrated in landscape pattern analysis, especially in areas of rugged terrains.
FM of geology layer. 
Multiplication of FM and PW for geology layer. 
Geospatial Information System (GIS) provide tools to quantitatively analysis and combination of datasets from geological, geophysical, remote sensing and geochemical surveys for decision-making processes. Excellent coverage of well-documented and good quality data enables testing of variable exploration modeling in an efficient way. The study area of this research is the most important part of Cu (Mo) porphyry—type mineralization belt in Iran. There are some well-known porphyry copper deposits in this region like Sar-cheshmeh and Meiduk mines, but certainly there are same grounds to search for new porphyry deposits. The risks of developing mineral resources need to be known as accurately as possible, with regarding to all features those are effective in mineralization. These features can be recognized respect to Critical Genetic Factors (CGF's) using Critical Recognition Criteria (CRC) for each type of mineralization. CGF's can be employed for designing a Conceptual Genetic Model (CGM). Evidence maps create on the basis of CGM and then integrate together for production of Mineral Prospectivity Map (MPM). This map categorizes the areas based on their exploration importance. There are several techniques for creation of MPM. Interval Valued Fuzzy Sets (IVFSs) TOPSIS method was applied in this research. This method as a knowledge-driven method, allocate appropriate weights to layers on the basis of the effective membership, non membership, and non-certainty. The fundamental concept of TOPSIS is that the chosen alternatives should have the shortest distance from the positive ideal points (A *) and the farthest distance from negative ideal points (A –).
We present here a new approach to the development of a global land cover map. We combined three existing global land cover maps (MOD12, GLC2000, and UMD) based on the principle that the majority view prevails and validated the resulting map by using information collected as part of the Degree Confluence Project (DCP). We used field survey information gathered by DCP volunteers from 4211 worldwide locations to validate the new land cover map, as well as the three existing land cover maps that were combined to create it. Agreement between the DCP-derived information and the land cover maps was 61.3% for our new land cover map, 60.3% for MOD12, 58.9% for GLC2000, and 55.2% for UMD. Although some of the improvements we achieved were not statistically significant, this project has shown that an improved land cover map can be developed and well-validated globally using our method.
In order to realize county-level land use database remittance, establish the provincial land use database and realize annual change statistics, this paper analyzed the requirements for establishing the provincial land use database remittance standards. It proposed the principle of establish the standard compile, introduced the standard establishment process, described the standard main content, and demonstrated technical reasons for standard topologic relationship, expression method for land use data time dimension, data file naming rule, land use element classification, land use database digital dictionary file composition, land use spatial objects, etc. It provides reference for the standard establishment of provincial land use database remittance.
Scatterplot depicting DEM elevation as a function of GPS elevation. Linear regression equation, R 2 , r, p-value, and 95% prediction interval are also shown. 
Topographic attributes are often used as explanatory variables when providing spatial estimates of various environmental attribute response variables. Elevation of sampling locations can be derived from global positioning systems (GPS) or digital elevation models (DEM). Given the potential for differences in elevation among these two data sources, especially in response to forest canopy cover, our objective was to compare GPS and DEM-derived elevation values during the dormant season. A non-parametric Wilcoxon test indicated GPS elevation was higher than DEM elevation with a mean difference of 6 m. Linear regression analysis indicated that GPS and DEM elevation were well correlated (R 2 = 0.71, r = 0.84, p < 0.0001). Although elevation among the two data sources differed, the strong linear relationship allows for correction of elevation values in a predictable manner.
Capital intensity and average real money holding.
This study introduces space, transportation, and money into an economic growth model. Growth theory neglects the importance of transportation on economic growth and transportation economics fails to properly explain how changes in transportation conditions (such as technological improvement, infrastructure investment, and oil prices) affect long-term economic growth. By proposing a growth model with transportations, we try to explain effects of transportation on economic growth. Our model describes dynamic interactions among capital accumulation , travel time, housing, residential distribution, amenity, and endogenous time distribution among work, travel, and leisure. The study examines effects of inflation policy, transportation conditions, and other conditions on long-term economic growth and economic geography. The paper demonstrates a way to integrating some important models in the literature in economic growth theory, urban economics, and transportation research so that the significance of transportation systems upon economies can be properly analyzed.
General structure
Single point visible analysis effective picture 
Fire-tower is effectively applied in forest fire prevention and commanding system, especially in fire monitor and position. After explaining the significance of scientific planning of fire-tower, this paper analyzes GIS`s functions in building forest fire prevention system. This paper uses case study method, which designs a model, fire tower planning and analysis, based on MapGIS platform. After that, it directs us how to realize these functions based on MapGIS-TDE which is a 3D platform belonged to MapGIS. This paper gives us scientific ways to fire tower planning in forest fire system which promotes informationization of forest fire prevention management.
Electromagnetic radiation environment is one of the important environmental factors. In resent 20 years, the applications of electromagnetic technology became more and more popular. However, electromagnetic environment makes some negative impacts on the surrounding environments and human health, and Environmental Management and Research Department pay a lot attention to it. It will make a great significance if we study of the simulation technique for urban electromagnetic environment which supported by GIS. This paper presents some key technologies of the electromagnetic environment simulation, including terrain rendering, city building model-ing and volume data superposition, basically realize the visualization of volume data (electromagnetic fields) based on city building model and real time mapping of virtual scene data.
Display data packets structure  
With the development of mobile devices and digitalization of information, the GIS system will be more popular than before. For the variable of mobile devices and different system structure, the design of universal embedded GIS system will be more difficult. In this paper, we talked the features of embedded GIS and the key techniques, design a highly portable general embedded GIS platform, and by using some applications to tested the advantages of the new system.
Top-cited authors
Hassan Rhinane
  • Université Hassan II de Casablanca
Dimitrios Triantakonstantis
  • Hellenic Agricultural Organization (ELGO) - DIMITRA
Gomaa Dawod
  • Egypt National Waer Resrach Center
Jamal Bin Talib
  • Universiti Putra Malaysia
Hadi Memarian
  • University of Birjand