Through the earlier history of the American livestock industry, particularly in the West, the control of canine predators was of paramount concern to users of the range. Sheepmen especially were subject to ruinous losses from marauding coyotes and wolves; and "killer lobos," or packs led by such wolves, sometimes spread destruction in cattle herds. The demand for control funneled inevitably into the Congress and to western state assemblies. As a matter of course, control was provided, often in cooperation with state agencies, by the Federal Bureau of Biological Survey (now Fish and Wildlife Service), and by trappers hired by stockmen themselves. Steel traps and poisons were the principal control methods, the latter being employed officially by the Biological Survey and too often promiscuously by others. Very appreciable predator control was achieved but unfortunately at the expense of other wildlife. Since much of the poisoning was in the national forests and on public domain, fur trappers, foresters, mammalogists, and conservationists generally became concerned; and in the controversies that followed charges and counter charges were leveled and denied. Somewhat later, in researches concerned with World War II, very potent toxicants were discovered, among them the one now popularly known as "1080." This compound proved deadly to members of the dog family with the inevitable, result that many conservation groups became concerned. The Fish and Wildlife Service, through the Denver Wildlife Research Laboratory had initiated a carefully-planned series of experiments designed to measure the toxicity of 1080 to common forest wildlife and to determine means of employing it as a livestock predator control with the least possible threat to fur and game species. Later ecological studies on forest lands were undertaken. The results, indicating very encouraging progress in protection of forest wildlife, are given in this article.
Ecological changes in the vegetation of mountain meadow-lands in the West have recently attracted much attention as a phase of the erosion problem. Ordinarily, too little information regarding the specific history of these changes is available to permit accurate analysis. The history of the case treated in the following paper is, however, unusually well known. Mountain Meadows in southwestern Utah is a spot of much local historical interest. Moreover, the rapid invasion of heavily grazed sagebrush and grasslands by junipers is an ecological change of major consequence from the standpoint of both range workers and foresters.
In the late 19th century timber companies were cutting their way west, fueling the Industrial Revolution with America's forests and leaving behind vast tracts of cutover land in the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, and Midwest. In Prussia and France, forest advocates found national forestry schools and examples of legislation to regulate resource exploitation. Although Marsh, Hough, and Baker lamented their inability to effect large-scale change, their efforts did lead to federal recognition of the problems associated with uncontrolled timber harvests and thus paved the way for the second generation of forestry leaders.
Attempts to determine trends in timber depletion by quoting past estimates of standing timber have frequently been unsatisfactory. This has been due to changes in standards of merchantability, of accessibility, and of accuracies of the estimates themselves. The writer reviews the several estimates, outlines the standards used, and discusses their relative reliability. The estimates of 1945 for certain regions for which comparable earlier figures are available show a 14 percent decline in standing sawtimber during a period of about eleven years on the average.
Legal statutes and scientific research have been essential to the Forest Service mission for the past 100 years. Congressional direction for administration of the forest reserves, now called national forests, began in 1897 with passage of the Organic Administration Act. One of the defined purposes for which federal forest lands were set aside from settlement was “securing favorable conditions of water flow.” Since then, more than 25 other federal statutes have further defined watershed management on these lands. The Research branch began watershed experiments in 1910 and did most of the watershed work by the Forest Service until the 1970s. Contributions of key individuals, the Civilian Conservation Corps, the barometer watershed program of the 1960s, and other programs in the National Forest System and the State and Private Forestry branches are examined.
Even though our profession in America is comparatively youthful, as professions go, nevertheless it has already attained that age where its early pioneers are successively passing off the stage with increasing frequency. Most of them throughout their actively productive careers have been so busy doing things that they have not taken the time to leave behind them a detailed record of what they did and how they went about doing it. Such a historical record is of inestimable value to those of us coming after, as a background from which to plan and carry on into the future. We are indebted therefore to Herbert Smith for the time and effort he has put into this conscientiously accurate account of the early beginnings of forest education.
Many of today's arguments about forestry education proceed on the assumption that the past was glorious, the present is bleak, the future is doomed. In fact, foresters have disagreed about the proper balance between academic and practical training since the days of Bernhard Fernow, Gifford Pinchot, and Carl Schenck. The two main option for education--depth in technical forestry and breadth in natural resource management--reflect equally old, and fundamentally opposing, views of forestry and the profession's place in society.
Newcomers on the scene at the turn of the century, the first foresters in the American West sometimes faced a reluctant and even hostile public. But as the Old West waned, popular authors like Zane Grey chose the Forest Service ranger as a protagonist in their stories. More than simply another romantic and courageous hero, the steadfast forest rangeras portrayed in numerous novels published during the early 20th centurypopularized notions of conservation and scientific forestry among a national audience. The fictional ranger brought the gospel of forest conservation to countless readers, just as he converted most of his fictional antagonists to the very same principles.
The year 1960 marks the sixtieth anniversary of the founding of the Society of American Foresters. It also rounds out the first sixty years of the profession of forestry in the United States. For it may be said that American forestry, as a recognized profession, began with the establishment of the Society in 1900. Only a handful of men who had been trained for professional forestry was on hand in the United States in that year. Nearly all were early members of the organization that was to set the standards for a new American profession, and to play a leading part in the development of its practice in this country. On the occasion of the golden anniversary of the Society of American Foresters in 1950, Ralph S. Hosmer, Charter Member, Past President, and Fellow, wrote a comprehensive and definitive account of the Society's first fifty years. His paper was publishing in the November, 1950 issue of the Journal of Forestry. The following passages, comprising Part I of this article, are condensed from that paper and give some of the highlights of the Society's establishment and its first five decades of accomplishment.
Little is known about the biology and status of several of the fur-bearers inhabiting the extensive forest stands of Canada. Some of these species, such as the wolverine, fisher, and lynx are diminishing in numbers. The Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis canadensis Kerr, a typical denizen of the boreal forests, is becoming a rarer occurrence all the time, and its range is gradually shrinking. Its present population level is considerably lower than it was thirty years ago. Large scale cutting operations such as have taken place during the last half century may have seriously affected the status of this cat. This investigation was undertaken with the purpose of summarizing information now available on its status and indicating possible improved management practices.
On July 1, 1941, the Southern Forest Experiment Station completed 20 years of service to forestry in the lower South. During these twenty years southern forestry has made progress noteworthy. Although this progress is not entirely the result of Southern Forest Experiment Station activities, this station can rightfully assume a considerable portion of the credit. The forestry profession congratulates the Southern Forest Experiment Station on its 20th birthday and expresses the hope that it will be able to point to even greater progress during the coming 20 years.
Since 1938, several selection cuttings have changed a northern hardwood stand from one composed principally of sawtimber to one with a reasonably well-balanced distribution of size classes. Continual ingrowth into the small size classes promises a periodic yield. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) tree diameters now reflect age quite accurately; in the original tract 300-year-old trees ranged from 12 to 32 inches in d.b.h. The average age of 20- to 24-inch trees has been reduced nearly 100 years and that of 4-inch trees from 100 years to 48. Average age-height relations are surprisingly close to the probable site index, an indication that trees are suppressed for a much shorter time than formerly. Cull percents have dropped since 1938 and the average tree quality has improved. Species composition has changed little.
The effect of climate upon the abundance of insect life in the forest is a factor in ecology that can rarely be measured by quantitative methods. In the following article, however, is a record of the sudden depletion of the bark beetle population over a large area in the Modoc National Forest due to low temperatures but a few degrees below those which normally occur in winter in that region. Following a cold spell in December, 1932, 65 per cent of the western pine beetle broods were found to be dead. This resulted in the closing down of a control project and will undoubtedly have a large either upon the future course of the bark beetle epidemic which has been developing in that region.
Although foresters and engineers have long debated the value of forests as a means of flood control, relatively few studies have been made. The floods of March 1936 occurred during the period when the author was conducting intensive studies concerning the effect of vegetation upon snow cover and soil temperature. The data presented show that hardwood forests are a favorable influence which should be considered in flood control programs.
The relationship between weather conditions and the growth of trees always has been of great interest to foresters, but it has not been investigated with sufficient accuracy or thoroughness to enable an understanding of the many puzzling growth phenomena which are often observed. Correlations have been demonstrated between weather conditions and growth in both height and diameter. While no attempt has been made in this paper to review the extensive and well known literature on this subject, it is of interest to note that, in general, the best correlations have been secured when the particular factor investigated was a limiting factor.
The New England hurricane of 1938 uprooted or broke off vast numbers of trees in watersheds of the Connecticut and Merrimack Rivers. Annual flow in both rivers increased about 5 inches during the first year after the hurricane. Another 5 inches of increased flow ran off at diminishing rates during the next two or three years. At least half of these flow increases occurred in July, August, and September when streams normally are at the lowest levels of the year. There was no evidence of increased flow five years after the hurricane when forest regrowth was well underway.
This paper analyzes the damage done by insects to white-pine trees and logs following the New England hurricane of 1938. Water storage gave good protection, and logs decked on dry sites at some distance from wind-felled trees suffered comparatively little. Covering decked logs with straw and boughs gave better protection than spraying with chemicals, which did not reduce damage sufficiently to cover the cost of treatment.
In 1940 planting experiments were begun to explore methods of reforesting former red spruce sites in the Southern Appalachians. Some of the planted and seeded spots in West Virginia were re-examined in 1950. This is a report on the findings.
A recent inventory of wild turkeys in Missouri shows a population of 4,340 birds in 31 counties in the Ozark region. Their occurrence seems to be materially influenced by soil and topography, with the heaviest concentrations on shallow-soiled "balds" on Clarksville stony loam. Protection from hunting and other disturbance by man ranks high among the requirements for management. In general the native wild strain appears to be more productive than any of the hybrid game-farm strains.
This article is another in a series of comparable papers appearing annually in the JOURNAL OF FORESTRY since 1934, reporting the enrollments at the schools of forestry and the numbers of degrees conferred. Statistics of this type were first assembled when the Forest Education Inquiry made its study in 1929-31, and were published in the Inquiry's report in 1932.2 The annual articles in the JOURNAL have brought to date the figures for each successive year.3 Those for 1945-46 show an increase in enrollment over 1944-45 of 902, or 158 percent, in undergraduate students, and of 94, or 313 percent, in graduate students.
Dieback of yellow birch has already caused heavy losses of valuable timber in Canada, and in Maine and other states. Variously attributed to bronze birch borer, weather, cutting, and a virus, the cause is still undetermined. This study throws further light on the possible role of several factors and furnishes evidence that an undetermined biologic factor may be involved.
It has never been easy for entomologists to determine the extent and seriousness of forest insect damage. Roadless, inaccessible areas have always been extremely difficult to survey, and it has not always been possible to sample all infested areas satisfactorily from the ground. The advent of the airplane and its development, however, have made it possible to observe all forested areas, no matter how remote, and to determine insect conditions more accurately then had been done in the past.
In response to projected increases in population, economic activity, and income, future demands for timber from domestic forests will grow rapidly. If timber owners continue to respond to price and inventory changes and manage their lands much as they have in the recent past, supplies show much slower increases. This means that large increases in relative prices of stumpage and most timber products will be necessary to balance demands and supplies. The rise in relative prices will have substantial and adverse effects on the timber processing industries, timber-based employment and income, consumers of wood products, and the environment. Such impacts are not inevitable--there are many opportunities to greatly increase and extend timber supplies, and the investments in these opportunities promise to be profitable from the standpoint of society and the economy.
Efforts to bring back the chestnut as a forest-tree species have had only limited success. Of the hundreds of surviving American chestnut trees tested for resistance to the blight fungus Endothia parasitica, few have even the slightest degree of resistance. Substitutes have been more successful. Of Asiatic trees imported, several show promise. Tree breeding programs have had some successes. Of thousands of hybrids produced, about 3 percent exhibit to some degree blight resistance, rapid growth, and forest-tree form. Treatments with colchicine and irradiation are being tried to produce a mutant of American chestnut that has blight resistance.
This article is another in a series of comparable papers appearing annually in the Journal of Forestry since 1934, reporting the enrollment at the schools of forestry and the numbers of degrees conferred. Statistics of this type were first assembled when the Forest Education Inquiry made its study in 1929-1931, and were published in the Inquiry's report of 1932.¹ The annual articles in the Journal have brought to date the figures for each successive year.²
Hardwood seedling production in forest nurseries in 14 southern states has gradually increased from 12 million in 1965 to over 17 million in 1970. More sycamore, cottonwood, black locust, yellow-poplar and sweetgum have been produced than any of the more than 46 other hardwood species planted.
The difficulties of discussing the problems of forestry and Appalachian area economic development require an interdisciplinary perspective relevant to both economies and forestry. This article uses ecological parallels to economic processes to bring silviculture and economic growth into a common focus. By using a verbalized dynamic or flow analysis of the development process of forest related activities as an analog of the growth perspectives of silvies, the dispassionate technical, analytical, and policy viewpoint which should be common to both forestry and economies is followed to isolate some of the frustrating problems of forestry's role in economic development.
Extreme fire seasons in recent years and associated high suppression expenditures have brought about a chorus of calls for reform of federal firefighting structure and policy. Given the political nature of the topic, a critical review of past trends in area burned, size of fires, and suppression expenditures is warranted. We examined data relating to emergency wildland fire suppression expenditures, number of fires, and acres burned and developed statistical models to estimate area burned using drought indices for the USDA Forest Service from 19702002.
Forestry school enrollments in all degree programs peaked in 1975. By 1981 they were at their lowest point in the ten-year period 1971-1981 and 20 percent below the 1975 levels. Women enrollees increased from 6 to 26 percent of all students. Minority student enrollments remained at less than 2 percent. Some 2,500 fewer undergraduates were studying forestry as a major in 1981 than in 1977. Total degrees granted in all programs peaked at 5,899 in 1980, five years after peak enrollment. Women graduates increased tenfold during the period while minority degree recipients continued at less than 2 percent. Bachelor's degrees in forestry as a major in 1981 totaled 2,091 but were down 23 percent from 1980.
With some variation by region of the United States, numbers of undergraduates seeking professional degrees increased 19 percent in the years 1972-1976; most of the gain was accounted for by women students, who now comprise 18 percent of the total. Enrollment and degree awards have increased in master's programs and held steady in Ph.D. studies. Forestry continues to be the leading area of specialization, outranking wildlife, products, recreation, and other disciplines.
In June and July of 1974, 427,000 acres of Douglas-fir and grand fir timberlands in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho were treated with DDT to control the Douglas-fir tussock moth. This was the largest all-helicopter forest spray project ever carried out in the United States and required cooperation by many state and federal agencies, universities, and private landowners. Almost total insect mortality occurred immediately after treatments were applied. Defoliation ceased almost completely, and a high proportion of foliage was saved.
The Forestry Incentives Program differs from its predecessors in that its primary goal is the cost-effective production of timber rather than soil and water conservation in general. In 1974, the first year of operation, overall performance was .favorable, bat four recommendations are proposed for overcoming apparent problems.
The production of forestry doctorates in the United States appears to have leveled out at about 120 annually (excluding those in range and wildlife). Currently, 33 forestry schools offer Ph.D. or D.F. programs: one-third of the programs train two-thirds of the doctoral recipients. Certain schools predominate in particular disciplines, whereas in other disciplines the production is widely disseminated. Total demand for forest doctorates in traditional outlets seems likely to remain fairly constant. Some disciplines, however. have needs substantially beyond current production, whereas others may be in danger of overproduction.
The primary goal of the Forestry Incentives Program is to increase timber production in a cost-effective manner. Evaluation of a 9-percent sample of assistance cases in the 1974 program year indicated that the financial return and total yield increase were high on the average but low in some program segments. Five recommendations are proposed to improve performance.
Apportionment of federal cost-share funds among the states for the Forestry Incentives Program is based upon the relative amounts of worthwhile timber investments. Acreage is estimated in nonindustrial private ownerships of less than 500 acres by state: this area is then weighted by expected financial return and the proportion of area suitable for treatment. Southern states receive 68 percent of the funds, but all states receive some program money. Results are relatively insensitive to reasonable fluctuations of the rate of return and treatment-suitability weights. The procedure appears satisfactory, but apportionment will be recalculated as new documented data become available.
The Forest Service historically has rejected economic criteria for forest management decisions. Consequently, management of the national forests must be heavily subsidized even though these lands contain more than half the softwood sawtimber in the country. The National Forest Management Act of 1976 specifically requires that economic as well as environmental criteria be considered in developing balanced programs. The administrative discretion permitted by the act allows most provisions to be interpreted much more consistently with economic efficiency than is permitted by current Forest Service policies and procedures.
Of the 1977 forestry graduates surveyed, 57.4 percent found forestry-related jobs, an improvement over employment in 1976 and 1975. Hiring by industry was greater than that by the federal government. Most federal appointments were for temporary or technician positions.
In 1977, median income of members of the Society of American Foresters was $20,500, up from $15,000 in 1972 and $17,000 in 1974. Measured against the Consumer Price Index, the increases did not keep pace with inflation. A positive relationship between level of education and income continued for 1977. While federal employees retained the most favorable financial career ladders, private industry was a close second. State employment continued to rank third. Overall median starting salary increased from $8,990 in 1974 to $11,400 in 1977.
In 1979, the Forestry Incentives Program increased the productivity of nonindustrial private forests by encouraging landowners to manage more intensively than they otherwise would. The increase will amount to almost 1 3 billion cubic feet of timber over the first rotation. Investments by the federal government and landowners will return about 8.6 percent above inflation. Federal taxes these owners will pay on their additional timber income have a present value of over $2 for every dollar expended through the program.
A European strain of scleroderris canker (Gremmeniella abietina), first recognized in this country in 1975, is well established in New York and Vermont, where it is causing serious losses in red and Scotch pine (Pinus resinosa, P. sylvestris). Although quarantines have been established to prevent its rapid spread, the disease is present also in Maine and in the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick, Quebec, and Newfoundland. To determine the potential for widespread damage, most U.S. native conifers were field-tested for susceptibility. All pines tested proved highly susceptible, and other conifers were susceptible to varying degrees. The best opportunity for control lies in developing genetically resistant conifers.
This research identifies and analyzes all parties involved in 949 US Forest Service land-management court cases initiated between 1989 and 2005. We identified 2,501 parties, the frequency and type of their involvement, and their success rates. Almost 75% of the parties were only involved in one case. All 12 of the most frequent parties opposing the US Forest Service were environmental organizations, whereas the top 12 most frequent US Forest Service supporters included four different types of organizations. Repeat US Forest Service opponents were more successful than nonrepeat opponents. However, only one US Forest Service opponent involved in an average of one or more cases per year won more cases than they lost, and one-half of these opponents settled more often than the average settlement rate. By identifying litigants, policymakers, stakeholders, and the public can understand the prevalence of repeat and one-time litigants and can assess strategies to address these types of parties' propensity to litigate.
New data indicate that only 51 percent of workers displaced from the Oregon wood products sector during the 1990s remained in Oregon covered employment by 1998. Of these, 45 percent found employment in the service and wholesale-retail trade sectors. The median wage of separated workers in 1998 was below their wage when employed in the wood products sector and below the median wage of all Oregon workers. At least 30 percent of those separated from the wood products sector in the less populous southwestern and eastern portions of the state found new employment in the more urban northwestern region at wages 29 percent higher than their counterparts who did not move.
Computer methods were used to analyze attitudes and beliefs expressed in a large database of news stories about roads on the US national forests. The view that forest roads are important for recreational use and access was expressed most frequently followed by the belief that roads cause environmental damage. Analyzing the debate about forest roads as it is reflected in the news media is one way to monitor the changing Context in which forest management decisions and policies need to be made.
$ 1253, "the Craig bill," seeks to address complaints about the planning process used by the USDA Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management. Its sponsor, Sen. Larry Craig (R-ID), intends that it would promote stability in timber towns, put limits on administrative appeals of plans, and clarify the compliance of forest management activities with environmental laws. The bills also provides that the president's appointment of chief of the Forest Service would be confirmed by the Senate.
The ice storm that struck the Northeast in January 1998 has drawn unprecedented attention to the forest resource and motivated many small landowners to take a fresh look at their woodlots. So far, most landowners seem to be following the advice of forestry leaders to take their time. No hardwood pulpwood glut has yet emerged. Experts are warning that damage to residual trees caused by hasty salvage logging may be more serious than some of the damage caused by the ice storm--the cure sometimes being worse than the diseases.
The 1998 ice storm devastated major portions of south central Canada and the northeastern United States. After the storm, Ontario developed major communication and forest-focused research efforts designed to improve understanding of the short- and longer-term ecological consequences of the storm, its economic consequences, and proactive approaches that could be developed to reduce damage in the future. This article summarizes results from the major aspects of that effort: (1) communications, (2) a fertilizer/competition control experiment designed to aid sugar maple recovery and document the physiological and stand-level ecological consequences of those treatments, and (3) the consequences of both damage and postdamage management in woodlots, including plantations.
Information on the relative abundance of early and late-successional species in presettlement forests is useful in formulating management plans that emulate natural processes. In northern Maine, early 19th century land surveys have suggested a low proportion of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) and other fire-adapted species. A recent article in this journal proposed a much higher abundance of pine based on lumber production statistics; suggested reasons for lower abundance in the land survey documents included limited timber cruise data, possible reductions from logging, and surveyor bias. This article provides an analysis of land survey documents for 283 townships covering 7.2 million ac of northern Maine. Multiple lines of evidence are internally consistent in indicating low average pine volumes of about 320 bd ft/ac, 48% of the levels suggested by lumber statistics. Likely reasons for the differences are discussed, as well as implications for presettlement disturbance regimes.
The developmental stage of a discipline can be gauged by the nature of its publications. Major themes of the 750 presentations at the 1st World Congress of Agroforestry, Orlando, Florida, 2004, were biological and ecological (28%); communication and knowledge integration (24%); and economics, marketing, and social issues (23%). The presentations related mostly (88% of total) to the tropics. About 55% of the authors came from educational institutions, 21% represented governments, and 13% represented nongovernmental organizations. The presentations showed that sustainability continued to be a major conceptual foundation of agroforestry, but there was considerable tropical-temperate contrast in efforts to attain sustainability. Although issues such as poverty alleviation, food security, and attainment of the Millennium Development Goals dominate the research and development agenda in the tropics, the focus in the temperate region is on environmental services such as carbon sequestration, water quality enhancement, and biodiversity conservation. The nature, diversity, and distribution of presentations as well as the current trends in agroforestry research suggest that agroforestry is maturing as a robust discipline.
Intermingled pines and mountain whitethorn were treated with foliar sprays of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T to test their effects according to (1) season of year, (2) concentration of spray on individual tree-brush clumps, and (3) spray dosage applied on an area basis. Spraying with 2,4,5-T in September resulted in the best tree growth and most brush kill; 2,4-D caused the most tree damage and was less effective as a brush killer. The best brush kill resulted from application rates of 400 to 600 ppm of 2,4,5-T, but these concentrations reduced tree growth. After two full growing seasons, average height growth of the pines was greater on plots receiving from ¼ to 1 pound of 2,4,5-T per acre than on the control plots. Application rates of 2 and 4 pounds per acre (ppa) gave best brush kill but caused severe damage to the pines.