Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Online ISSN: 1021-9498
Publications
e Schematic illustration of peroxidase-like activityinduced cytotoxicity by iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). IONPs are trapped in acidic lysosomes when internalized into cells, so they catalyze decomposition of H 2 O 2 to produce hydroxyl radicals through peroxidase-like activity; however, in neutral cytosol, IONPs would decompose H 2 O 2 through catalase-like activity. Note. From "Dual enzyme-like activities of iron oxide nanoparticles and their implication for diminishing cytotoxicity," by Z. Chen, J.J. Yin, Y.T. Zhou, et al, 2012, ACS Nano, 6, p. 4001e12. Copyright 2012, ACS Publications. Reprinted with permission.
e Fe(II) reaction rates with molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide at 25 C.
e Scheme for OH free radical generation by iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in bio-microenvironments. (A) OH generation at the nanobio interface of Fe 2 O 3 NPs; (B) chemical processes of OH generation by Fe 2 O 3 NPs; (C) intracellular OH free radical generation: dissolution or in situ reductive dissolution of magnetic iron oxide NPs may occur in the acidic lysosomal microenvironment, which depends on surface hydroxylation and surface Fe oxidation state of iron oxide NPs; the free Fe ions or NPs can react with hydrogen peroxide and superoxide in mitochondria and cytoplasm to produce highly reactive OH via homogeneous or heterogeneous Fe(II)/Fe(III) catalytic Fenton/Haber-Weiss type reaction. Note. From "Physicochemical origin for free radical generation of iron oxide nanoparticles in biomicroenvironment: catalytic activities mediated by surface chemical states," by B. Wang, J.J. Yin, X.Y. Zhou, et al, 2013, J Phys Chem C, 117, p. 383e92. Copyright 2012, ACS Publications. Reprinted with permission.
Scheme for OH free radical generation by iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in bio-microenvironments. (A) OH generation at the nanobio interface of Fe2O3 NPs; (B) chemical processes of OH generation by Fe2O3 NPs; (C) intracellular OH free radical generation: dissolution or in situ reductive dissolution of magnetic iron oxide NPs may occur in the acidic lysosomal microenvironment, which depends on surface hydroxylation and surface Fe oxidation state of iron oxide NPs; the free Fe ions or NPs can react with hydrogen peroxide and superoxide in mitochondria and cytoplasm to produce highly reactive OH via homogeneous or heterogeneous Fe(II)/Fe(III) catalytic Fenton/Haber-Weiss type reaction.
Schematic illustration of peroxidase-like activity-induced cytotoxicity by iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). IONPs are trapped in acidic lysosomes when internalized into cells, so they catalyze decomposition of H2O2 to produce hydroxyl radicals through peroxidase-like activity; however, in neutral cytosol, IONPs would decompose H2O2 through catalase-like activity.
Article
Nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides are among the most widely used engineered and naturally occurring nanostructures, and the increasing incidence of biological exposure to these nanostructures has raised concerns about their biotoxicity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress is one of the most accepted toxic mechanisms and, in the past decades, considerable efforts have been made to investigate the ROS-related activities of iron nanostructures. In this review, we summarize activities of nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides in ROS-related redox processes, addressing in detail the known homogeneous and heterogeneous redox mechanisms involved in these processes, intrinsic ROS-related properties of iron nanostructures (chemical composition, particle size, and crystalline phase), and ROS-related bio-microenvironmental factors, including physiological pH and buffers, biogenic reducing agents, and other organic substances.
 
Article
Among agents for treatment of opioid addiction, methadone is a full mu-opioid receptor agonist, whereas buprenorphine is a partial agonist. Both are long-acting. Buprenorphine has a superior safety profile. Methadone is formulated for oral administration and buprenorphine for sublingual administration. A subdermal buprenorphine implant with a 6-month duration of action is being considered for approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Both medications reduce mortality rates and improve other outcomes. Data from a recent randomized controlled comparison of both medications (N = 1269) show better treatment retention with methadone but reduced illicit opioid use early in treatment with buprenorphine. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors were measured using the Risk Behavior Survey at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks for study completers. In the 30 days prior to treatment entry, 14.4% of the completers randomized to treatment with buprenorphine (n = 340) and 14.1% of the completers randomized to methadone treatment (n = 391) shared needles. The percent sharing needles decreased to 2.4% for buprenorphine and 4.8 for methadone in the 30 days prior to Week 24 (p < 0.0001). In the 30 days prior to treatment entry, 6.8% of the completers randomized to buprenorphine and 8.2% of the completers randomized to methadone had multiple sexual partners, with only 5.2% and 5.1%, respectively, reporting multiple partners at Week 24 (p < 0.04).
 
e Examples from the literature review, including studied elements of the approaches using fish cell lines.
Plot of experimentally determined (observed) versus predicted log values of 1/half maximal effective concentration (EC50). The straight line represents perfect agreement between experimental and calculated values. The distance of each symbol from the line corresponds to its deviation from the related experimental value. Note. From “Using nano-QSAR to predict the cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles,” T. Puzyn, B. Rasulev, A. Gajewicz, et al, 2011, Nat Nanotechnol, 6, p. 175–8. Copyright 2011, Nature Publishing Group. Reprinted with permission.
Article
In this report, we critically reviewed selected intrinsic physicochemical properties of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and their role in the interaction of the ENMs with the immediate surroundings in representative aquatic environments. The behavior of ENMs with respect to dynamic microenvironments at the nano-bio-eco interface level, and the resulting impact on their toxicity, fate, and exposure potential are elaborated. Based on this literature review, we conclude that a holistic approach is urgently needed to fulfill our knowledge gap regarding the safety of discharged ENMs. This comparative approach affords the capability to recognize and understand the potential hazards of ENMs and their toxicity mechanisms, and ultimately to establish a quantitative and reliable system to predict such outcomes.
 
Article
To build capacity and collaborative research for future cross-national studies in the Asian and Pacific Islander (API) region, priority research topics were identified and discussed at the April 2013 Conference to Promote Global Health in Taipei. These topics included (1) Neuroscience on HIV/HCV and amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), led by Drs. Linda Chang, Gene-Jack Wang, and Betty Tai; (2) ATS and mental health disorders, led by Drs. Richard Rawson and Wilson Compton; and (3) HIV/HCV transmission and social networks, led by Drs. Steven Shoptaw and Jacques Normand. Potential genetic studies spanning these topical areas as well as the importance of smoking cessation were further discussed, led by Dr. Ming Li. Additional priority research topics were also identified: (4) Drug use prevention, and (5) Family involvement to improve treatment adherence and recovery. Workgroups on these topics will be formed to prioritize research questions within the respective topical area and to determine the next steps. The ultimate goal of these workgroups is to stimulate collaboration that will eventually lead to research studies addressing critical issues related to the rising substance abuse and HIV infection rates in many Asian countries and, at the same time, to advance the scientific knowledge of substance abuse and HIV infection.
 
Article
Graphene, a single-atom-thick carbon nanosheet, has attracted great interest as a promising nanomaterial for a variety of bioapplications because of its extraordinary properties. However, the potential for widespread human exposure raises safety concerns about graphene and its derivatives, referred to as graphene-family nanomaterials. This review summarizes recent findings on the toxicological effects and the potential toxicity mechanisms of graphene-family nanomaterials in bacteria, mammalian cells, and animal models. Graphene, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide elicit toxic effects both in vitro and in vivo, whereas surface modifications can significantly reduce their toxic interactions with living systems. Standardization of terminology and the fabrication methods of graphene-family nanomaterials are warranted for further investigations designed to decrease their adverse effects and explore their biomedical applications.
 
Article
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA according to the American Cancer Society. In the past 5 years, "theranostic nanomedicine", for both therapeutics and imaging, has shown to be "the right drug for the right patient at the right moment" to manage deadly cancers. This review article presents an overview of recent developments, mainly from the authors' laboratories, along with potential medical applications for theranostic nanomedicine including basic concepts and critical properties. Finally, we outline the future research direction and possible challenges for theranostic nanomedicine research.
 
Effect of SOD on the generation of hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen by P25 during photoexcitation with UVA light. ESR spectra were recorded at room temperature 2 minutes after the UV light was turned on. Samples containing 25 mM BMPO and (A) without TiO2, (B) with 0.1 mg/mL R100, (C) 0.1 mg/mL A325, (D) 0.1 mg/mL A25, (E) 0.1 mg/mL P25, and (F) same as (E) but with the addition of 20% DMSO. The symbol + indicates the ESR signal of the BMPO/CH3 adduct. Instrumental settings: microwave power, 10 mW; modulation frequency, 100 kHz; modulation amplitude, 1 G; scan range, 100 G. DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide; ESR = electron spin resonance; BMPO = 5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide; SOD = superoxide dismutase; TiO2 = titanium dioxide. Note. From “Phototoxicity of nanotitanium dioxides in HaCaT keratinocytes – Generation of reactive oxygen species and cell damage,” by J.J. Yi, J. Liu, M. Ehrenshaft, et al, 2012, Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 263, p. 81–8. Copyright 2012, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Reprinted with permission.
Effect of different TiO2 samples on lipid peroxidation in liposomes. Oxygen consumption was measured in a closed chamber using liposome suspensions and the spin label 15N-PDT. The liposome samples contained 30 mg/mL Egg PC and 0.1 mM 15N-PDT spin label mixed with (A) no TiO2, (B) 0.03 mg/mL of R100, (C) 0.03 mg/mL of A325, (D) 0.03 mg/mL of A25, and (E) 0.03 mg/mL of P25. Lipid peroxidation was initiated by UV (340 nm) irradiation. The ESR spectra were recorded with the low field line of the 15N-PDT spin label every 4 minutes after the sample was sealed in a quartz capillary tube. The spectra were obtained with 0.5 mW incident microwave power and with 0.05 G field modulation at ambient temperature. The progressive increases in peak-to-peak signal intensity (and accompanying progressive narrowing of the line width) in each panel are due to time-dependent oxygen consumption resulting from lipid peroxidation, as shown in (F). The enhancement effects of different TiO2 nanoparticles on lipid peroxidation may be seen as bigger changes in the peak-to-peak signal intensities seen in (B–E) compared with (A). Note. From “Phototoxicity of nanotitanium dioxides in HaCaT keratinocytes – Generation of reactive oxygen species and cell damage,” by J.J. Yi, J. Liu, M. Ehrenshaft, et al, 2012, Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 263, p. 81–8. Copyright 2012, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Reprinted, with permission. ESR = electron spin resonance; TiO2 = titanium dioxide.
Article
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are one of the most widely used nanomaterials that have been manufactured worldwide and applied in different commercial realms. The well-recognized ability of TiO2 to promote the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been extensively studied as one of the important mechanisms underlying TiO2 NPs toxicity. As the "gold standard" method to quantify and identify ROS, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy has been employed in many studies aimed at evaluating TiO2 NPs safety. This review aims to provide a thorough discussion of current studies using ESR as the primary method to unravel the mechanism of TiO2 NPs toxicity. ESR spin label oximetry and immune-spin trapping techniques are also briefly introduced, because the combination of spin trapping/labeling techniques offers a promising tool for studying the oxidative damage caused by TiO2 NPs.
 
Article
To develop novel tumor cell microenvironment stimuli-responsive smart controlled-release delivery systems is one of the current common interests of materials science and clinical medicine. Meanwhile, mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a promising drug carrier have become the new area of interest in the field of biomedical application in recent years because of their unique characteristics and abilities to efficiently and specifically entrap cargo molecules. This review describes the more recent developments and achievements of mesoporous silica nanoparticles in drug delivery. In particular, we focus on the stimuli-responsive controlled-release systems that are able to respond to tumor cell environmental changes, such as pH, glucose, adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), glutathione (GSH), and H2O2.
 
e (continued ) 
e In vivo studies on genotoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. 
Article
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs, <100 nm) are increasingly being used in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics due to the unique properties derived from their small sizes. However, their large surface-area to mass ratio and high redox potential may negatively impact human health and the environment. TiO2-NPs can cause inflammation, pulmonary damage, fibrosis, and lung tumors and they are possibly carcinogenic to humans. Because cancer is a disease involving mutation, there are a large number of studies on the genotoxicity of TiO2-NPs. In this article, we review the results that have been reported in the literature, with a focus on data generated from the standard genotoxicity assays. The data include genotoxicity results from the Ames test, in vitro and in vivo Comet assay, in vitro and in vivo micronucleus assay, sister chromatid exchange assay, mammalian cell hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase gene assay, the wing somatic mutation and recombination assay, and the mouse phosphatidylinositol glycan, class A gene assay. Inconsistent results have been found in these assays, with both positive and negative responses being reported. The in vitro systems for assessing the genotoxicity of TiO2-NPs have generated a greater number of positive results than the in vivo systems, and tests for DNA and chromosome damage have produced more positive results than the assays measuring gene mutation. Nearly all tests for measuring the mutagenicity of TiO2-NPs were negative. The current data indicate that the genotoxicity of TiO2-NPs is mediated mainly through the generation of oxidative stress in cells.
 
Article
Raman scattering is an inelastic phenomenon. Although its cross section is very small, recent advances in electronics, lasers, optics, and nanotechnology have made Raman spectroscopy suitable in many areas of application. The present article reviews the applications of Raman spectroscopy in food and drug analysis and inspection, including those associated with nanomaterials. Brief overviews of basic Raman scattering theory, instrumentation, and statistical data analysis are also given. With the advent of Raman enhancement mechanisms and the progress being made in metal nanomaterials and nanoscale metal surfaces fabrications, surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy has become an extra sensitive method, which is applicable not only for analysis of foods and drugs, but also for intracellular and intercellular imaging. A Raman spectrometer coupled with a fiber optics probe has great potential in applications such as monitoring and quality control in industrial food processing, food safety in agricultural plant production, and convenient inspection of pharmaceutical products, even through different types of packing. A challenge for the routine application of surface enhanced Raman scattering for quantitative analysis is reproducibility. Success in this area can be approached with each or a combination of the following methods: (1) fabrication of nanostructurally regular and uniform substrates; (2) application of statistic data analysis; and (3) isotopic dilution.
 
Nanomaterial-induced toxicity mediated by ROS generation.
Article
Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing field in the 21(st) century, and the commercial use of nanomaterials for novel applications is increasing exponentially. To date, the scientific basis for the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of most manufactured nanomaterials are not understood. The mechanisms underlying the toxicity of nanomaterials have recently been studied intensively. An important mechanism of nanotoxicity is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Overproduction of ROS can induce oxidative stress, resulting in cells failing to maintain normal physiological redox-regulated functions. This in turn leads to DNA damage, unregulated cell signaling, change in cell motility, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cancer initiation. There are critical determinants that can affect the generation of ROS. These critical determinants, discussed briefly here, include: size, shape, particle surface, surface positive charges, surface-containing groups, particle dissolution, metal ion release from nanometals and nanometal oxides, UV light activation, aggregation, mode of interaction with cells, inflammation, and pH of the medium.
 
Article
Many of the biological applications and effects of nanomaterials are attributed to their ability to facilitate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a direct and reliable method to identify and quantify free radicals in both chemical and biological environments. In this review, we discuss the use of ESR spectroscopy to study ROS generation mediated by nanomaterials, which have various applications in biological, chemical, and materials science. In addition to introducing the theory of ESR, we present some modifications of the method such as spin trapping and spin labeling, which ultimately aid in the detection of short-lived free radicals. The capability of metal nanoparticles in mediating ROS generation and the related mechanisms are also presented.
 
Article
Nanotechnology has been applied in consumer products and commercial applications, showing a significant impact on almost all industries and all areas of society. Significant evidence indicates that manufactured nanomaterials and combustion-derived nanomaterials elicit toxicity in humans exposed to these nanomaterials. The interaction of the engineered nanomaterials with the nervous system has received much attention in the nanotoxicology field. In this review, the biological effects of metal, metal oxide, and carbon-based nanomaterials on the nervous system are discussed from both in vitro and in vivo studies. The translocation of the nanoparticles through the blood-brain barrier or nose to brain via the olfactory bulb route, oxidative stress, and inflammatory mechanisms of nanomaterials are also reviewed.
 
Article
Silver is an ancient antibiotic that has found many new uses due to its unique properties on the nanoscale. Due to its presence in many consumer products, the toxicity of nanosilver has become a hot topic. This review summarizes recent advances, particularly the molecular mechanism of nanosilver toxicity. The surface of nanosilver can easily be oxidized by O2 and other molecules in the environmental and biological systems leading to the release of Ag(+), a known toxic ion. Therefore, nanosilver toxicity is closely related to the release of Ag(+). In fact, it is difficult to determine what portion of the toxicity is from the nano-form and what is from the ionic form. The surface oxidation rate is closely related to the nanosilver surface coating, coexisting molecules, especially thiol-containing compounds, lighting conditions, and the interaction of nanosilver with nucleic acids, lipid molecules, and proteins in a biological system. Nanosilver has been shown to penetrate the cell and become internalized. Thus, nanosilver often acts as a source of Ag(+) inside the cell. One of the main mechanisms of toxicity is that it causes oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species and causes damage to cellular components including DNA damage, activation of antioxidant enzymes, depletion of antioxidant molecules (e.g., glutathione), binding and disabling of proteins, and damage to the cell membrane. Several major questions remain to be answered: (1) the toxic contribution from the ionic form versus the nano-form; (2) key enzymes and signaling pathways responsible for the toxicity; and (3) effect of coexisting molecules on the toxicity and its relationship to surface coating.
 
The trends for routes of administration in drug abuse reported by medical institutions in Taiwan from 2002 to 2011.
The trends for causes of drug abuse reported by medical institutions in Taiwan from 2002 to 2011.* Others include disease treatment, suicide, weight loss, and nonmentioned reasons.
The trends for the most commonly abused drugs reported by medical institutions in Taiwan from 2002 to 2011. * % = the percentage of cases reported. MDMA = 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine.
The trends for common sources of abused drugs reported by medical institutions in Taiwan from 2002 to 2011.
The trends for health problems in drug abusers reported by medical institutions in Taiwan from 2002 to 2011.
Article
Drug abuse has become a global issue of concern. It affects not only individual users, but also their families and communities. Data were retrieved from the database of the Taiwan Surveillance System of Drug Abuse and Addiction Treatment (SSDAAT) from 2002 to 2011, and 147,660 cases reported by medical institutions in Taiwan were reviewed. This study showed that the top five reported abused drugs by medical institutions during the last decade were heroin, methamphetamine, benzodiazepines, ketamine, and zolpidem. Heroin and methamphetamine continued to be the first two abused drugs reported by medical institutions. Heroin abuse was significant, but has shown a downward trend. However, emerging abused drugs, such as ketamine and zolpidem, presented upward trends. 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) abuse seems to have re-emerged and has increased gradually since 2010. Injection without needle sharing has become the most common route of administration of abused drugs since 2002. The majority of causes for these reported drug abuses were drug dependence, followed by peer influence and stress relief. Hepatitis C was the most commonly reported infectious disease, followed by hepatitis B and AIDS in the drug abusers reported by medical institutions. It should be noted that access to drugs via the Internet increased year by year, and this is clearly an area needing constant monitoring.
 
e Gas chromatographyemass spectrometry analytic data for six major compounds of three Melissa essential oils products.
Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry total ion chromatograms for different lemon balm essential oils: (A) lemon balm-A, (B) lemon balm-B, and (C) lemon balm-C.
Oil-Red O staining results of the lipid drop accumulation assay for control, insulin and three Melissa essential oils treatments on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
Effect of control, insulin and each dose of the lemon balm-A essential oil on the regulation of glucose and adipogenic transcription factors, such as p-AMPK, AMPK, p-ACC, ACC, PPAR, CEBPα, and SREBP1, determined by Western blot analysis. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05.
Article
Twenty-nine commercial essential oil (EO) products that were purchased from the Taiwan market, including three different company-made Melissa officinalis essential oils, were assayed on their glucose consumption activity and lipid accumulation activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The EOs of M. officinalis were significantly active in both model assays. By contrast, EOs of peppermint, lavender, bergamot, cypress, niaouli nerolidol, geranium-rose, and revensara did not increase glucose consumption activity from media, but displayed inhibited lipid accumulation activity (65–90% of lipid accumulation vs. the control 100%). Because of the promising activity of M. officinalis EOs, three different products were collected and compared for their gas chromatography chemical profiles and bioactivity. The western blot data suggest that the key factors of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/acetyl-CoA carboxylase pathway can be mediated by M. officinalis EOs. Together with biodata, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles suggested mixtures of citrals and minor compounds of M. officinalis EOs may play an important role on effect of antidiabetes.
 
e Cyclic voltammograms of ranitidine and metronidazole (0.5 mmol/L of each) in phosphate- buffered saline at bare GCE, activated GCE, and poly(chromotrope 2B) modified activated GCE. GCE [ glassy carbon electrode. 
shows the cyclic voltammogram (CVs) responses of a mixture of RT and MT (0.5 mmol/L of each) at bare GCE, AGCE, and PCHAGCE in PBS (pH 6.0). The CV obtained at bare GCE poses a rather broad oxidation peak and the indistinguishable peak potentials of these compounds. However, it was observed that RT is electrochemically active at AGCE giving a reduction peak at ca. À0.8 V, whereas the PCHAGCE gives a significantly distinguishable and increased reduction current with the negative shifting of reduction peak at ca. À1.15 V. MT gives a significantly distinguishable reduction peak and increased peak current at PCHAGCE compared to the AGCE with the
e Effect of pH on (A) peak currents and (B) peak potentials of RT and MT (0.5 mmol/L of each). MT [ metronidazole; RT [ ranitidine. 
e Cyclic voltammograms of (A) RT and (B) MT (0.5 mmol/L of each) at poly(chromotrope 2B) modified activated glassy carbon electrode in pH 6.0 phosphate-buffered saline at different scan rates (a e g: 10 mV/s, 20 mV/s, 40 mV/s, 60 mV/s, 80 mV/s, 100 mV/s, and 120 mV/s). Inset of each plots show the plot of peak current density versus square root of scan rates for RT and MT. MT [ metronidazole; RT [ ranitidine. 
e Differential pulse voltammograms for poly(chromotrope 2B) modified activated glassy carbon electrode in co-solution of (A) different concentrations (a e g: 1.0 3 10 L 5 mol/L, 5.0 3 10 L 5 mol/L, 1.0 3 10 L 4 mol/L, 1.5 3 10 L 4 mol/L, 
Article
A simple and sensitive electrochemical method for the simultaneous and quantitative detection of ranitidine (RT) and metronidazole (MT) was developed, based on a poly(chromotrope 2B) modified activated glassy carbon electrode (PCHAGCE). The PCHAGCE showed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of both RT and MT in 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0). The peak-to-peak separations for the simultaneous detection of RT and MT between the two reduction waves in cyclic voltammetry were increased significantly from ∼0.1 V at activated GCE, to ∼0.55 V at PCHAGCE. By differential pulse voltammetry techniques, the reduction peak currents of RT and MT were both linear over the range of 1.0 × 10−5–4.0 × 10−4 mol/L. The detection limits (S/N = 3) were 5.4 × 10−7 mol/L and 3.3 × 10−7 mol/L for RT and MT, respectively. The modified electrode was successfully applied to the determination of RT and MT in pharmaceutical preparations and human serum as real samples with stable and reliable recovery data.
 
e Precision and accuracy of QC samples. Precision and accuracy of detecting PAS in human plasma
e Participant's demographic data.
e Mean plasma concentration-time data.
Mean plasma concentration-time profiles after the participants have received the reference and the test drugs.
Article
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the only available calcium p-aminosalicylate (Ca PAS) commercial product, which is one of the most commonly prescribed non-surveillance products from the Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI) database in Taiwan. An open-randomized, balanced, two-way crossover study was designed to evaluate the relative bioavailability (F) of a 500 mg Ca PAS F.C. tablet with a 500 mg Ca PAS suspension in 13 healthy individuals. Blood samples were collected according to a planned time schedule. The plasma concentrations of PAS were measured by a validated liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method. Pharmacokinetic parameters of area under the plasma concentration-time curve from the time zero to the time of last quantifiable concentration (AUC0–t), area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0–∞), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), time to reach measured maximum plasma concentration (Tmax), elimination half-life (T1/2), and mean residence time (MRT) were determined by non-compartment methods. F was calculated by [AUC0–∞] of the test drug divided by [AUC0–∞] of the reference drug. The mean geometric ratios of pharmacokinetic parameters, including AUC0–t, AUC0–∞, and Cmax obtained were 0.873, 0.874, and 0.569, respectively. The 90% confidence intervals of ln (AUC0–t), ln (AUC0–∞), and ln (Cmax) after being back natural log-transformed were (74.0–103.0%), (74.1–103.0%), and (38.4–84.3%), respectively. The relative bioavailability of the Ca PAS tablet was 87.4%.
 
Article
The session, "HIV and other Infectious Diseases," was chaired by Dr. Jacques Normand, Director of the AIDS Research Program of the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse. The two presenters (and their presentation topics) were: Dr. Linda Chang ("Neural Correlates of Cognitive Deficits and Training Effects on Brain Function in HIV-infected Individuals") and Dr. Steven Shoptaw ("HIV Prevention in Substance Users").
 
Article
The "Potential Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Substance Abuse Related Disorders" session was chaired by Dr. Sulie Chang, director of NeuroImmune Phamacology at Seton University. The four presenters (and their topics) were: Dr. Wen-zhe Ho (Miniway to stop HIV/HCV), Dr. Ru-Band Lu (Low dose of memantine in the treatment of opioid dependence in human), Dr. Ping Zhang (Treatment of alcohol-related disorders-Learning from stem/progenitor cell), and Chia-Hsiang Chen (Treatment of methamphetamine abuse: an antibody-based immunotherapy approach).
 
Article
Heroin continues to be the main drug used in Malaysia, while amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) have been recently identified as a growing problem. A cumulative total of 300,241 drug users were detected between 1988 and 2006. It is also estimated that Malaysia has 170,000 injecting drug users. HIV prevalence among drug users in the country ranges from 25% to 45%. Currently, there are approximately 380 general medical practice offices that offer agonist maintenance treatments for approximately 10,000 patients. There are 27,756 active patients in 333 general medical practice offices and government-run methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) centers. The Needle Syringe Exchange Program (NSEP) reached out to 34,244 injection drug users (IDUs) in 2011. In the last 2 years (2011 and 2012) the number of detected drug addicts decreased from 11,194 to 9015. The arrests made by the police related to opiate and cannabis use increased from 41,363 to 63,466 between the years 2008 and 2010, but decreased since 2010. An almost four-fold increase in the number of ATS and ketamine users was detected from 2006 (21,653 users) 2012 (76,812). Between 2004 and 2010, the yearly seizures for heroin ranged between 156 to 270 kg. However, in 2010 and 2011, heroin seizures showed a significant increase of 445kg and 410.02 kg, respectively. There has been a seizure of between 600 to 1000kg of syabu yearly from 2009 to 2012. Similar to heroin, increased seizures for Yaba have also been observed over the last 2 years. A significant increase has also been recorded for the seizures of ecstasy pills from 2011 (47,761 pills) to 2012 (634,573 pills). The cumulative number of reported HIV infections since 1986 is 94,841. In 2011, sexual activity superseded injection drug use as the main transmission factor for the epidemic. HIV in the country mainly involves males, as they constitute 90% of cumulative HIV cases and a majority of those individuals are IDUs. However, HIV infection trends are shifting from males to females. There are 37,306 people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are eligible for treatment, and 14,002 PLHIV were receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in 2011. The decreasing trend of heroin users who have been detected and arrested could be due to the introduction of medical treatments and harm reduction approaches for drug users, resulting in fewer drug users being arrested. However, we are unable to say with certainty why there has been an increase in heroin seizures in the country. There has been an increasing trend in both ATS users and seizures. A new trend of co-occurring opiate dependence and ATS underscores the need to develop and implement effective treatments for ATS, co-occurring opiate and ATS, and polysubstance abuse disorders. The low numbers of NSEP clients being tested for HIV underscores our caution in interpreting the decline of HIV infections among drug users and the importance of focusing on providing education, prevention, treatment, and outreach to those who are not in treatment.
 
e Dried leaves and related products of Salvia divinorum purchased from the Internet in Taiwan. (A) Dry leaves of S. divinorum; (B) S. divinorum 100fx; (C) S. divinorum 30fx. 
e Determination of accuracy and precision of reference salvinorin A. 
e Effect of the mobile phase of acetonitrileewater on the retention of six Salvia species spiked with 10 mg/mL salvinorin A. (A) Acetonitrileewater (45:55, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min; (B) acetonitrileewater (40:60, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min; (C) acetonitrileewater (35:65, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min; (D) acetonitrileewater (35:65, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. 
e Effect of solvent and extraction days on the extraction of salvinorin A (n [ 3). ACN (A) [ acetonitrile; EtOH (:) [ ethanol; EA (╳) [ ethyl acetate; MeOH (-) [ methanol. 
e Contents of salvinorin A in plant samples. 
Article
In recent years, recreational use of Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae), a herbal drug that contains a hallucinogenic ingredient, salvinorin A, has become a new phenomenon among young drug users. In Taiwan, as in many other countries, dry leaves of S. divinorum and its related concentrated extract products are available via the Internet. Besides S. divinorum, there are many endemic Salvia species whose salvinorin A content is yet unknown. To understand the abuse liability of these products, the aim of this study was to assess the concentration of salvinorin A in endemic Salvia species and Internet-available salvinorin A-related products. Samples of S. divinorum were purchased via the Internet and samples of eight endemic species of Salvia were collected in Taiwan, including S. arisanensis Hayata, S. coccinea Juss. ex Murr, S. hayatana Makino ex Hayata, S. japonica Thumb. ex Murr, S. nipponica Miq. Var. formosana (Hayata) Kudo, S. scapiformis Hance, S. tashiroi Hayata. Icon. PI. Formosan, and S. keitaoensis Hayata. The content of salvinorin A was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Salvinorin A was extracted from the dry leaves of S. divinorum and endemic species of Salvia with methanol and analyzed on a C-18 column by isocratic elution with a mobile phase of acetonitrile–water. Salvinorin A was detected in S. divinorum, but not in the endemic Salvia species of Taiwan. Therefore, endemic species of Salvia in Taiwan may not possess hallucinogenic potential. However, the potential harm from S. divinorum available via the Internet should be thoroughly assessed in Taiwan, and control measures similar to those implemented in many other countries should be considered.
 
Article
The current study evaluated the stability potential of a transdermal patch composed of eserine and pralidoxime chloride for prophylaxis against (±)-anatoxin A poisoning. The drug combinations were fabricated in an adhesive matrix system supported by a backing membrane and attached to a temporary release liner. Stability testing of the optimized formulation was established for 6 months under accelerated study conditions as per International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines. Results obtained after 6 months showed that the optimized patch formulation was stable with respect to drugs content, pH, diffusion, visual inspection, and other analytical parameters.
 
e The five continuous ultrasound-assisted extractions for polysaccharide. 
e Monosaccharide compositions of CPSP-F1, CPSP-F2, and CPSP-F3. a 
e Amino acid compositions of CPSP-F1, CPSP-F2, and CPSP-F3. a 
e AChE inhibitory activity of different CPSPs. 
Article
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition enhances learning and cognitive ability for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Polysaccharide–peptide complexes were identified in Cordyceps militaris (CPSPs) and characterized for their AChE inhibitory properties. Three polymers (CPSP-F1, -F2, and -F3) were extracted and separated by ultrasound-assisted extraction and DEAE–Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. Polysaccharide–peptide complexes were identified by DEAE–Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography and high-performance gel-filtration chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectra, amino sugar composition analysis, and β-elimination reaction to identify polysaccharide–peptide bond categories. Separation of CPSP can increase AChE inhibitory activity from the crude polysaccharide of C. militaris. CPSP-F1 and CPSP-F2 exhibited half maximal inhibitory concentrations of 32.2 ± 0.2 mg/mL and 5.3 ± 0.0 mg/mL. Thus, we identified polysaccharide–peptide complexes from C. militaris and suggest CPSP has great potential in AChE inhibition bioassay.
 
e Total phenolic contents (PC; as gallic acid equivalents), total flavonoid contents (FC; as catechin equivalents) of Sorbus torminalis extracts. 
e Half maximal effective concentration (EC 50 ), Trolox equivalents antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values of Sorbus torminalis extracts and standards. 
Article
In this study, the antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz fruits were evaluated. Total phenolic and flavonoid compounds, 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothioazoline-6-sulfonic acid), 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and superoxide anion radicals scavenging activities and ferric-reducing antioxidant power of water, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts were determined for the measurement of the antioxidant activity. Quercetin and α-tocopherol were used as standard antioxidants. The inhibitory effect of the water extract on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was evaluated using the Ellman method and galantamine was used as a standard. Water extract had the highest total phenolic concentration and the strongest antioxidant activity followed by ethyl acetate and acetone extracts whereas methanol extract has the lowest phenolics and weakest antioxidant activity. Moreover, water extract showed moderate ability to inhibit AChE. It was concluded that fruits of S. torminalis have antioxidant and anti-AChE activities and that the plant might be a natural source of antioxidants and AChE inhibitors.
 
e Antimicrobial activity of methanol, hexane and water extracts of fresh Euphorbia royleana. 
Article
The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities of methanol, hexane, and aqueous extracts of fresh Euphorbia royleana. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated as gallic acid and querectin equivalents, respectively. Antioxidant activity was assessed by scavenging of free 2,2′- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals and reduction of ferric ions, and it was observed that inhibition values increase linearly with increase in concentration of extract. The results of ferric reducing antioxidant power assay showed that hexane extract has maximum ferric reducing power (12.70 ± 0.49 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of plant extract). Maximum phenolic (47.47 ± 0.71 μg gallic acid equivalents/mg of plant extract) and flavonoid (63.68 ± 0.43 μg querectin equivalents/mg of plant extract) contents were also found in the hexane extract. Furthermore, we examined antimicrobial activity of the three extracts (methanol, hexane, aqueous) against a panel of microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtillis, Pasteurella multocida, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium solani) by disc-diffusion assay, and found the hexane extract to be the best antimicrobial agent. Hexane extract was also observed as to be most effective in a potato disc assay. As hexane extract showed potent activity in all the investigated assays, it was targeted for cytotoxic assessment. Maximum cytotoxicity (61.66%) by hexane extract was found at 800 μg/mL. It is concluded that investigated extracts have potential for isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds for the pharmaceutical industry.
 
e Effect of different cultural conditions on Cordyceps militaris cultivation. (A) Effect of initial pH on C. militaris cultivation; (B) effects of initial pH on C. militaris cultivation; (C) effects of culture time on C. militaris cultivation; (D) effects of rotate speed on C. militaris cultivation; (E) effects of inoculum size on C. militaris cultivation; (F) effects of medium capacity on C. militaris cultivation. (*) yield of mycelia; (C) yield of mannitol; (-) yield of polysaccharide; (A) yield of adenosine; (:) value of D. 
e Results of statistical analysis for the Plackett-Burman design. 
e ANOVA results of the value of D from Box-Behnken design. 
e Regression analysis of the Box-Behnken design experiments. 
Article
The influence of medium composition and cultural conditions on simultaneous yield of mycelia, intracellular polysaccharide, adenosine, and mannitol by Cordyceps militaris CGMCC 2909 was investigated with desirability functions in this study. An optimization strategy based on the desirability function approach, together with response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize medium composition, and the optimal medium was obtained via the desirability as follows: yeast extract 10.33 g/L, sucrose 27.24 g/L, KH2PO4 5.60 g/L and the optimal culture conditions are initial pH 6, 25°C, rotation speed 150 r/minute, inoculum size 4%(v/v), and medium capacity 40 mL/250 mL. Under these conditions, the yield of mycelia, intracellular polysaccharide, adenosine and mannitol reached 12.19 g/L, 0.6 g/L, 61.84 mg/L, and 1.38 g/L, respectively, and the D value was 0.77. Furthermore, the polysaccharides showed significant antitumor activities against HeLa and HepG2 in vitro in a dose-dependent manner in 72 hours. At a concentration of 1000 mg/mL, the inhibition rate of polysaccharides was 92.38% and 98.79%. The IC50 for HeLa and HepG2 were 70.91 μg/mL and 97.63 μg/mL, respectively.
 
e Effects of methanolic extract of Dolichos biflorus seeds on malondialdehyde and antioxidants. 
e Activity of cyclooxygenase. Values expressed as average of six rats ± standard error of the mean in each group. Group I: normal; Group II: rats were given 0.1 mL 1% carrageenan; Group III: rats were given 0.1 mL 1% carrageenan D methanolic extract of Dolichos biflorus seeds; and Group IV: rats were given 0.1 mL 1% carrageenan D Voveran. a [ statistical difference compared with Group I at p < 0.05; b [ statistical difference when Group II compared with Groups III and IV at p < 0.05. 
e Activity of 5-lipoxygenase and 15-lipoxygenase. Values expressed as average of six rats ± standard error of the mean in each group. Group I: normal; Group II: rats were given 0.1 mL 1% carrageenan; Group III: rats were given 0.1 mL 1% carrageenan D methanolic extract of Dolichos biflorus seeds; and Group IV: rats were given 0.1 mL 1% carrageenan D Voveran. a [ statistical difference compared with Group I at p < 0.05; b [ statistical difference when Group II compared with Groups III and IV at p < 0.05. 
e Activity of myeloperoxidase. Values expressed as average of six rats ± standard error of the mean in each group. Group I: normal; Group II: rats were given 0.1 mL 1% carrageenan; Group III: rats were given 0.1 mL 1% carrageenan D methanolic extract of Dolichos biflorus seeds; and Group IV: rats were given 0.1 mL 1% carrageenan D Voveran. a [ statistical difference compared with Group I at p < 0.05; b [ statistical difference when Group II compared with Groups III and IV at p < 0.05. One unit of MPO activity defined as that degrading 1 m m of 
e Activity of NOS. Values expressed as average of 6 rats ± standard error of the mean in each group. Group I: normal; Group II: rats were given 0.1 mL 1% carrageenan; Group III: rats were given 0.1 mL 1% carrageenan D methanolic extract of Dolichos biflorus seeds; and Group IV: rats were given 0.1 mL 1% carrageenan D Voveran. a [ statistical difference compared with Group I at p < 0.05; b [ statistical difference when Group II compared with Groups III and IV at p < 0.05. Units [ 1 nmol of NO produced/min at 37 C. 
Article
Dolichos biflorus (Muthira) is a branched, suberect, and downing herb, native to most parts of India, and found at altitudes of up to 1000 m, whose seeds can be cooked and eaten. Nutrition plays a key role in building immunity and preventing noncommunicable diseases to a certain extent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of 70% methanolic extract of seeds of D. biflorus (DME) in carrageenan-induced inflammation. DME exhibited maximum percentage of edema inhibition at a dose of 50 mg/kg at the 3rd hour of carrageenan induction. The effect was higher than that of the standard drug Voveran. The activities of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, nitric oxide synthase, myeloperoxidase, and malondialdehyde showed significant (p < 0.05) reduction whereas the activities of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins C, and reduced glutathione level were increased significantly (p < 0.05) on treatment with DME. Also levels of the acute phase protein, ceruloplasmin, were brought to their normal range in DME-treated rats. Phytochemical analysis showed that the extract contains alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, proteins, and tannins, which may contribute to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Thus the results demonstrate the potential beneficiary effect of DME on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats.
 
Article
The "Medication-Assisted Therapy for Opioid Addiction" session was chaired by Dr. Betty Tai and had three presenters. The presenters (and their topics) were: Dr. Andrew J. Saxon (Methadone and Buprenorphine for Treatment of Opioid Addiction and HIV Risk Reduction), Dr. Walter Ling (Opioid Antagonist Treatment for Opioid Addiction), and Dr. Betty Tai (Chronic Care Model for Substance Use Disorder).
 
Article
The services for drug-dependence treatment and care, particularly in low-income countries, should not be fragmented and uncoordinated. A basic package of interventions should be provided in the same place and managed by the same team, with a one-stop shop approach. The services for substance use disorders should be appealing, accessible, voluntary-based, and science-based. They should also, like efforts to fight other diseases, be included in the community and the public health systems; that is, those who are affected by drug use and those who serve them should not face discrimination. The first-line assistance and the second-line essential elements of the comprehensive package will be described. The work of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and World Health Organization (WHO) to promote science-based and voluntary-based ethical treatment in Asia will be illustrated.
 
Article
Comparisons between Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) and, when possible, similar populations from their ancestral land of origin may allow for unique insights into the development of substance use disorders. Drawn from research conducted within the Hmong residing in the United States and from ongoing collaborative work between the United States and Vietnam, this paper presents a few examples of the types of addiction research that may be possible in Asian populations, both in the United States and in Asia, with a focus on developing South East Asian countries and their AAPI counterparts in the United States. Approaches to research may include epidemiological surveys, evaluation of treatment need and outcome, and genetic contributors to the risk for substance use disorders (SUDs) as well as response to SUD treatment.
 
e Calibration curves of optical density (595 nm) versus bacterial concentration: (A) Staphylococcus aureus and (B) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation.  
e 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced photodynamic inactivation against Staphylococcus aureus in the presence of 0 mM, 1.0 mM, 2.5 mM, 5.0 mM, and 10.0 mM ALA. Photoirradiation time was set at (A) 120 minutes, (B) 90 minutes, (C) 60 minutes, and (D) 30 minutes for accumulating light doses of 216 J/cm 2 , 162 J/cm 2 , 108 J/cm 2 , and 54 J/cm 2 , respectively. All data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation.  
e 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced photodynamic inactivation against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of 0 mM, 1.0 mM, 2.5 mM, 5.0 mM, and 10.0 mM ALA. Photoirradiation time was set at (A) 120 minutes, (B) 90 minutes, (C) 60 minutes, and (D) 30 minutes for accumulating light doses of 216 J/cm 2 , 162 J/cm 2 , 108 J/cm 2 , and 54 J/cm 2 , respectively. All data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation.  
e Log survival fractions of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa treated with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) at various concentrations after 90 minutes of light exposure (162 J/cm 2 ).  
Article
The aim of the present study was to develop a simple and fast screening technique to directly evaluate the bactericidal effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-mediated photodynamic inactivation (PDI) and to determine the optimal antibacterial conditions of ALA concentrations and the total dosage of light in vitro. The effects of PDI on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of various concentrations of ALA (1.0 mM, 2.5 mM, 5.0 mM, 10.0 mM) were examined. All bacterial strains were exponentially grown in the culture medium at room temperature in the dark for 60 minutes and subsequently irradiated with 630 ± 5 nm using a light-emitting diode (LED) red light device for accumulating the light doses up to 216 J/cm2. Both bacterial species were susceptible to the ALA-induced PDI. Photosensitization using 1.0 mM ALA with 162 J/cm2 light dose was able to completely reduce the viable counts of S. aureus. A significant decrease in the bacterial viabilities was observed for P. aeruginosa, where 5.0 mM ALA was photosensitized by accumulating the light dose of 162 J/cm2. We demonstrated that the use of microplate-based assays—by measuring the apparent optical density of bacterial colonies at 595 nm—was able to provide a simple and reliable approach for quickly choosing the parameters of ALA-mediated PDI in the cell suspensions.
 
Article
The presence of elevated HIV viral load within blood and genital secretions is a critical driver of transmission events. Long-term suppression of viral load to undetectable levels through the use of antiretroviral therapy is now standard practice for clinical management of HIV. Antiretroviral therapy therefore can play a key role as a means to curb HIV transmission. Results of a randomized clinical trial, in conjunction with several observational studies, have now confirmed that antiretroviral therapy markedly decreases HIV transmission risk. Mathematical models and population-based ecologic studies suggest that further expansion of antiretroviral coverage within current guidelines can play a major role in controlling the spread of HIV. Expansion of so-called "Treatment as Prevention" initiatives relies upon maximal uptake of the HIV continuum-of-care cascade to allow for successful identification of those not yet known to be HIV-infected, engagement of patients in appropriate care, and subsequently achieving sustained virologic suppression in patients with the use of antiretroviral therapy. Since 2010, the Joint United Nations AIDS (UNAIDS) program has called for the inclusion of antiretroviral treatment as a key pillar in the global strategy to control the spread of HIV infection. This has now been invigorated by the release of the World Health Organization's 2013 Consolidated Antiretroviral Therapy Guidelines, recommending treatment to be offered to all HIV-infected individuals with CD4 cell counts below 500/mm(3), and, regardless of CD4 cell count, to serodiscordant couples, TB and HBV co-infected individuals, pregnant women, and children below the age of 5 years.
 
Article
The objective of this paper is to review the current status of drug use and HIV/AIDS prevention for drug users in China and provide scientific evidence for HIV/AIDS prevention and control in drug users. Literature and articles related to drug abuse in China, as well as the results of prevention efforts and successful cases regarding HIV/AIDS prevention in drug users, are reviewed. Lessons learned are drawn out for the future improvement of work and the sustainable development of treatment programs. The number of drug users in China is increasing. Even though the number of opioid-type drug users is growing more slowly than in the past, the number of amphetamine-type stimulant users has increased sharply. It has been proven that methadone maintenance treatment and syringe exchange programs gradually and successfully control HIV/AIDS transmission in drug users. However, it is necessary to enhance these prevention methods and expand their coverage. In addition, the strengthening of antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment for HIV-infected drug users is crucial for HIV/AIDS prevention and control. The rapidly growing number of amphetamine-type stimulant users, along with their high-risk behavior, poses a hidden danger of greater HIV/AIDS transmission through sexual intercourse in the near future.
 
Article
The popularity of ketamine for recreational use among young people began to increase, particularly in Asia, in 2000. To gain more knowledge about the use of ketamine among high risk individuals, a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was implemented among regular alcohol and tobacco users in the Taipei metropolitan area from 2007 to 2010. The sampling was initiated in three different settings (i.e., two in the community and one in a clinic) to recruit seed individuals. Each participant was asked to refer one to five friends known to be regular tobacco smokers and alcohol drinkers to participate in the present study. Incentives were offered differentially upon the completion of an interview and successful referral. Information pertaining to drug use experience was collected by an audio computer-assisted self-interview instrument. Software built for RDS analyses was used for data analyses. Of the 1,115 subjects recruited, about 11.7% of the RDS respondents reported ever having used ketamine. Positive expectancy of ketamine use was positively associated with ketamine use; in contrast, negative expectancy inversely associated with ketamine use. Decision-making characteristics as measured on the Iowa Gambling Task using reinforcement learning models revealed that ketamine users learned less from the most recent event than both tobacco- and drug-naïve controls and regular tobacco and alcohol users. These findings about ketamine use among young people have implications for its prevention and intervention.
 
Article
Background Pyruvic acid concentration is a critical factor in determining Allium spp. pungency. This study was initiated to accurately measure the background pyruvic acid levels in Romanian Allium spp. From the pungency point of view, all analyzed plant varieties in this study are considered low pungent cultivars based on the enzymatically produced pyruvate level (between 42 μmol/g and 222 μmol/g fresh wt). Chromatographic analysis was carried out for the different varieties of the most popular fresh leaves (Allium cepa var. “Diamant”, Allium cepa var. “Rubiniu”, and Allium ursinum L.) in order to identify the sulfur compounds. The thin layer chromatography analysis led to the identification of allicin, with Rf = 0.377–0.47, as an important sulfur compound. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the leaves' extracts detected disulfides as the major sulfur compounds. Principal component analysis was performed to establish the differences in plant composition. These studies suggest the potential good uses of the fresh leaves of Romanian Allium spp. as condiment, ingredient, or preservative in the food industry.
 
e Liquid chromatography profiles (0e65 minutes) of oolong tea infusions and fresh tea leaves cultivated at altitudes of 200 m, 800 m, and 1300 m at 280 nm. Caffeine and the four major catechins, (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-EC gallate (ECG), and (-)-EGC gallate (EGCG) are indicated.
e Degree of catechin galloylation in oolong tea infusions and their corresponding fresh tea leaves cultivated at altitudes of 200 m, 800 m, and 1300 m. Degree of catechin galloylation was calculated as (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG)/ (EC D ECG) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)/(EGC D EGCG). Data are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean of three replicates. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 versus altitude of 200 m.
e Chemical structures of (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-EC gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and (-)-EGC gallate (EGCG) and the putative galloylation catalyzed by the specialized enzyme, epicatechin:1- O -galloyl- b -D-glucose O galloyltransferase. Gallate-type catechins (ECG and EGCG) are derived from nongallate-type catechins (EC and EGC) via esterification with gallic acid (indicated by broken circles in the structures of ECG and EGCG). 
Article
The taste quality of oolong tea generated from leaves of Camellia sinensis L. cultivated in the same mountain area is positively correlated to the cultivation altitude, partly due to the inverse correlation with the astringency of the tea infusion. The astringency of oolong tea mostly results from the presence of polyphenolic compounds, mainly catechins and their derivatives. Four catechins, (-)-epicatechin (EC) and (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) together with their gallate derivatives (with relatively high astringency), (-)-EC gallate (ECG) and (-)-EGC gallate (EGCG), were detected as major compounds in oolong tea. The degrees of catechin galloylation, designated as ECG/(EC + ECG) and EGCG/(EGC + EGCG), in both oolong tea infusions and their fresh tea leaves, were found to be inversely correlated to the cultivation altitude at 200 m, 800 m, and 1300 m. A similar inverse correlation was observed when seven more oolong tea infusions and seven more fresh leaves harvested at altitude ranging from 170 m to 1600 m were recruited for the analyses. Moreover, catechin contents in oolong tea infusions were also found to be inversely correlated to the cultivation altitude. It is proposed that catechin content and the degree of its galloylation account for, at least partly, the inverse correlation between the astringency of oolong tea and the cultivation altitude.
 
e Concentration of serum cation of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) after different treatments. Values are the means with standard errors for six animals per group. a No significant difference was observed in each 
e Effect of a single oral administration of g -aminobutyric acid (GABA) and nattokinase on systolic blood pressure (SBP) values in (A) spontaneously hypertensive rats and (B) Wistar e Kyoto rats. Symbols: - , SHD; , , SMD; : , SLD; 3 , SD; ; , SM; B , WHD; C , WD. Values are means with standard errors for six animals per group. Mean values were significantly different from the control value at the same time point: p < 0.05. SD [ negative control in the SHR; SHD [ high dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR; SLD [ low dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR; SM [ medium dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR; SMD [ medium dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR; WD [ negative control in the WKY; WHD [ high dose of GABA and nattokinase in the WKY. 
e Effect of a single oral administration of GABA and nattokinase on diastolic blood pressure (DBP) values in (A) spontaneously hypertensive rats and (B) Wistar e Kyoto rats. Symbols: - , SHD; , , SMD; : , SLD; 3 , SD; ; , SM; B , WHD; C , WD. Values are means with standard errors for six animals per group. Mean values were significantly different from the control value at the same time point: p < 0.05. GABA [ g -aminobutyric acid; SD [ negative control in the SHR; SHD [ high dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR; SLD [ low dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR; SM [ medium dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR; SMD [ medium dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR; WD [ negative control in the WKY; WHD [ high dose of GABA and nattokinase in the WKY. 
e Effect of a single oral administration of GABA and nattokinase on mean blood pressure (MBP) values in (A) spontaneously hypertensive rats and (B) Wistar e Kyoto rats. Symbols: - , SHD; , , SMD; : , SLD; 3 , SD; ; , SM; B , WHD; C , WD. Values are means with standard errors for six animals per group. Mean values were significantly different from the control value at the same time point: p < 0.05. GABA [ g -aminobutyric acid; SD [ negative control in the SHR; SHD [ high dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR; SLD [ low dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR; SM [ medium dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR; SMD [ medium dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR; WD [ negative control in the WKY; WHD [ high dose of GABA and nattokinase in the WKY. 
Article
In this study we have evalated the changes in arterial blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) caused by the short-term intake of Bacillus subtilis B060-fermented beans with significant γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and nattokinase activity. After being weaned, 7-week-old male SHR and 7-week-old male Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats were randomized into seven groups. Until the 8th week of life, the rats in each group were given one of the following: Group 1, high dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR (SHD); Group 2, medium dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR (SMD); Group 3, low dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR (SLD); Group 4, negative control in the SHR (SD); Group 5, positive control in the SHR (SM); Group 6, high dose of GABA and nattokinase in the WKY (WHD); and Group 7, negative control in the WKY (WD). Distilled water served as the negative control, and captopril (50 mg/kg), a known ACE inhibitor, served as the positive control. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure values were measured weekly from the 8th week to the 16th week of life using the tail-cuff method. A definite decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure values could be observed in the rats treated with captopril and in the rats that received GABA and nattokinase. The greatest antihypertensive effect was observed when the pharmacological treatment was administered. The effect of the daily intake of fermented beans containing GABA and nattokinase may be helpful in controlling blood pressure levels in hypertensive model animals. The fermentation of beans with B. subtilis B060 may therefore constitute a successful strategy for producing a functional food with antihypertensive activity.
 
Article
In this work, a poly(aminosulfonic acid) modified glassy carbon electrode was fabricated and the electrochemical behavior of chlorogenic acid (CGA) was studied by cyclic voltammetry. Compared with a bare glassy carbon electrode, the modified electrode exhibits excellent catalytic effect on the electrochemical redox of CGA. Utilizing this catalytic effect, a sensitive and selective electrochemical method for the determination of CGA was developed. The analytical parameters were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the oxidation peak current is linearly proportional to the concentration of CGA in the range from 4.00 × 10−7 to 1.20 × 10−5 mol/L and the detection limit is 4.00 × 10−8 mol/L. Further, the performance of the proposed method has been validated in terms of linearity (r = 0.9995), recovery (96.3–102.8%), reproducibility (RSD < 4.0%, n = 6) and robustness. The developed method has been successfully applied for the determination of CGA in a variety of pharmaceutical products.
 
Article
Free and conjugated forms of ferulic acid (FA) are generally available in higher plant taxa such as Chinese Angelica (CA, the roots of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels). These various forms of FA were found readily inter-convertible and the extractable level of each depended on solvent properties and acidity. Extraction efficiency using various pH solutions namely, water, 70% methanol, methanol-formic acid (95:5) and methanol-2% NaHCO3 in water (95:5) was compared. Extractable FA were found varying in samples under neutral solvents extraction, whilst relatively consistent for slightly acidic and alkali solvents which were therefore chosen as the optimal media to extract and determine the reproducible levels of free and total available FA. An accurate and rapid high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis was conducted using an Alltima C18 column (5 mum, 4.6 mm i.d. x 250 mm) with a guard column (C18, 5 mum, 4.6 mm i.d. x 7.5 mm) at 30degreesC, eluted with a mixture of 1.0% acetic acid and acetonitrile in a gradient program at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detected at 320 nm. Altogether 20 different types of CA samples including whole root, root head, rootlets, whole root slice, Angelica processed by Chinese yellow wine, and charred Angelica were quantified for free and total available FA. Total available FA was found more abundant than free counterpart with an average ratio of 3.15 (n = 20) in the range of 1.29 to 8.23 for these CA samples. The extraction protocol was proven reliable to quantitatively convert all conjugated FA into its free forms and thereby accurately determined by HPLC method for quality assessment.
 
Article
Grapefruit (Citrus paradisii) and shaddock (Citrus maxima) juices are used in folk medicine for the management of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, but the mechanism of action by which they exert their therapeutic action is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of grapefruit and shaddock juices on angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in vitro and the hypocholesterolemic properties of the juices in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Grapefruit juice had higher total phenol and flavonoid contents than shaddock juice, while both juices inhibited ACE activity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, administration of the juices to rats fed a high-cholesterol diet caused a significant reduction in plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein–cholesterol levels and an increase in high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol levels. The inhibition of ACE activity in vitro and in vivo hypocholesterolemic effect of the juices could explain the use of the juices in the management of cardiovascular diseases.
 
Article
Bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) anthocyanins were extracted with 0.15% HCl in methanol, removed from other polyphenolsby partition with petroleum ether and ethyl acetate, and then purified in a C-18 solid phase cartridge. Pigments were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), photodiode array detection (DAD), electronic spray ion mass spectrometry(ESIMS) and gas chromatography (GC) without the standard. The major anthocyanin, which contained 97% of the total peak area, was identified as cyanidin 3-glucoside. This pigment may be taken as a marker for authenticity control of bayberry products and has potential as a reference compound of cyanidin 3-glucoside in anthocyanin analysis. When standard chemicals are not available, HPLC-DAD-ESIMS and GC are useful in anthocyanin identification if the anthocyanin profile is not overly complex in the studied materials.
 
HPLC (a) and UV-DPPH (b) chromatograms of the ECs. Peaks: 1.Epigallocatechin, 2.Catechin, 3.Epicatechin, 4.Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, 5.Epicatechin-3-gallate  
Article
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has dramatically increased in the past decade. Furthermore, increasing evidence from research shows that oxidative stress (OS) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and in its complications. A search for ways to reduce oxidative damage has become the focus of interest for the majority of scientists. In this study, we determined the radical scavenging activity of single green tea constituents by using an on-line high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and evaluated the antioxidant effects on type 2 diabetic patients by performing a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Epigallocatechin gallate was identified as the most potent antioxidant, contributing approximately 50% of the total antioxidant capacity of green tea extract. We also found a statistically significant decrement of lipid peroxidation markers in patients treated with green tea extract after 9 months or after 18 months of follow-up. Overall, these findings are attractive for diabetic patients, helping them to keep a high level of performance and well-being, which ultimately may delay the time of disability and reduce mortality.
 
e HPLC chromatograms of caffeoylquinic acid derivatives detected from (A) first fully expanded leaf and (B) flower of sweet potato plant tissues. Peak 1: neochlorogenic acid, peak 2: caffeic acid, peak 3: chlorogenic acid, peak 4: 4-O- caffeoylquinic acid, peak 5: 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, peak 6: 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, peak 7: 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and peak 8: 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid. HPLC 1⁄4 high performance liquid chromatography. 
e Amounts (mg/g freeze-dried tissue dry weight) of CQA derivatives accumulated in different aerial parts of sweet potato plants.*
e Correlation coefficients between antioxidant activities and four major caffeorylquinic acid derivatives of different aerial parts of sweet potato plants.
e Effects of drying methods on the antioxidant activities (mg trolox equivalent/g freeze-dried tissue dry weight) of the first fully expanded leaves of sweet potato plants.*
Article
Caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) derivatives are known to possess antioxidative potential and have many beneficial effects on human health. The present study compared the CQA contents and antioxidant activities of aerial parts of sweet potato plants. The effects of drying methods (freeze drying, and drying at 30°C, 70°C, and 100°C) on these two parameters of the first fully expanded leaves were also assessed. The results indicated that the CQA derivatives were detectable in leaves, stem, and flowers of sweet potato plants (varied from 39.34 mg/g dry weight to 154.05 mg/g dry weight), with the leaves (particularly expanding and first fully expanded leaves) containing more CQA derivatives than other aerial plant parts. The expanding and first fully expanded leaves also exhibited greater antioxidant activities than other aerial plant parts, possibly due to their higher contents of CQA derivatives. Drying method significantly affected the content of CQA derivatives in dried sweet potato leaf tissues. Drying treatments at both 70°C and 100°C significantly reduced the CQA derivative content and antioxidant activity in the first fully expanded leaves. Among the tested drying methods, the freeze-drying method demonstrated the preservation of the highest amount of CQA derivatives (147.84 mg/g) and antioxidant property. However, 30°C cool air drying was also a desirable choice (total CQA derivative content was reduced to only 129.52 mg/g), compared to 70°C and 100°C hot air drying, for commercial-scale processing of sweet potato leaves, if the higher operation cost of freeze drying was a major concern.
 
Article
Camellia chrysantha (Hu) Tuyama (CCT), an ornamental plant possessing antioxidant activity, has been infused as tea and drank for its health benefits. The antioxidant components in CCT, however, had not been clearly characterized. To quickly identify the antioxidant constituents of CCT, a composition–activity relationship strategy based on ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap hybrid orbitrap mass spectrometry and orthogonal partial least-squares method has been applied. As a result, 16 variables were found to make significant contributions to the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Six of them were identified as catechin (1), epicatechin (5), vitexin (8), isovitexin (10), quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (12) and kaempferol (16). The strength of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity was found to be 12 > 1 > 5 > 16 > 8 > 10 by validation test. Meanwhile, a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry method was established for quantitative determination of six marker compounds in CCT samples from different preparations. The validation of the method, including linearity, sensitivity (limitation of detection and limitation of quantification), repeatability, precision, stability, and recoveries, was carried out and demonstrated to meet the requirements of quantitative analysis. This is the first report on the comprehensive characterization and determination of chemical constituents in CCT by ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap hybrid orbitrap mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the composition–activity relationship approach may be a useful method for the discovery of active constituents in natural plants and the quality control of medicinal herbs.
 
e Total flavonoid content of pulp and peel in calamondin extracted by different solvents. 
e Flavonoid compositions of peel in calamondin extracted by different solvents. 
Article
Calamondin has been demonstrated to exhibit antioxidant function and tyrosinase inhibitory activity, which might be attributed to its flavonoid compounds. To improve their application, the flavonoid compositions and antioxidant activity of calamondin extracts, prepared by different solvents, were investigated. The results showed that total phenolic and flavonoid contents of extracts from peel of calamondin were higher than that from pulp, except the flavonoid content in hot water extract. The flavonoids found in extracts of calamondin were 3′,5′-di-C-β-glucopyranosylphloretin (DGPP), naringin, hesperidin, nobiletin, tangeretin, and diosmin. DGPP exhibited the highest quantity, while naringin and hesperidin were the other two major flavonoids. The content of DGPP in hot water extract of peel was higher than in extracts of organic solvents, however, the contents of nobiletin and tangeretin were found only in extracts of organic solvents. The highest levels of total flavonoids and DGPP were obtained in hot water extract from peel at 90 °C. The extracts of hot water and ethyl acetate showed higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging potency than that of ethanol and methanol. A positive relationship existed between total phenolic contents and DPPH scavenging potency (p < 0.01), while total flavonoid compositions also showed correlation (p < 0.05). Thus, DGPP, naringin, and hesperidin might contribute to antioxidant activity. Collectively, the hot water extract of calamondin peel might have potential for health food and cosmetic applications due to its good antioxidant activity and high level of DGPP.
 
Article
Water-soluble polysaccharide was isolated from semen cassiae using water for extraction and ethanol for deposition. The optimized conditions for polysaccharide isolation by orthogonal experiments were a sample to liquid ratio of 1:30 at 80°C for 3.5 hours; the yield of polysaccharide from semen cassiae under these conditions was 5.46%. Different polysaccharides (SCPW-1, SCPW-2, SCPW-3, SCPW-4, SCPW-5, SCPS-1, SCPS-2) were obtained from the extract (i.e., crude polysaccharide) by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose column chromatography. The polysaccharides obtained showed different structures by Fourier transform infrared therein the five elected. The antioxidant activities of the extract were evaluated. The scavenging rates of the present extract on hydroxyl and superoxide were 43.32% and 64.97%, respectively, at a concentration of polysaccharide of 94.03 μg/mL, which was better than vitamin C at the same concentration. The scavenging rate of the present extract on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl was 13.33% at a polysaccharide concentration of 94.03 μg/mL, which was less than vitamin C at the same concentration.
 
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Hongtao Yu
  • Jackson State University
Paresh Ray
  • Jackson State University
Suryadi Ismadji
  • Widya Mandala Surabaya Catholic University
Felycia Edi-Soetaredjo
  • Widya Mandala Surabaya Catholic University
Quy-Diem Do
  • Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh