Journal of Food Science and Technology -Mysore-

Published by Springer Verlag
Online ISSN: 0975-8402
Print ISSN: 0022-1155
Association of IDRS with characteristics of study population 
As commonly observed events in diabetic patients, glucolipotoxicity induces oxidative stress, apoptosis and functional defects in β-cells. Anthocyanins are well investigated as strong antioxidants and modulators for metabolic syndromes. Therefore, this study examined the protective effects of anthocyanins-rich extracts (BAE) from wild Chinese blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) against glucolipotoxicity in β-cells. Results showed that INS832/13 β-cells subjected to glucolipotoxicity were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in cell survival rate, which were alleviated by BAE and metformin treatments. Both BAE and metformin reduced reactive oxidative species and improved the antioxidant defense system. Moreover, BAE were effective in reducing intracellular triglycerides (TG) level, restoring intracellular insulin content, lowering basal insulin secretion (BIS) and increasing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion which in turn resulted in an elevated insulin secretion index. However, metformin only demonstrated marginal effect on secretion dysfunction and had no effect (p > 0.05) on BIS or TG. Additionally, TG levels reduced by BAE treatment were correlated with BIS (p < 0.01, r = 0.9755). This study has for the first time demonstrated that anthocyanin enriched extract of wild Chinese blueberry could effectively protect β-cells against glucolipotoxicity in vitro. These results implied the potential efficacy of BAE as a complementary measure for diabetes intervention.
A solid state fermentation process was tried for the production of citric acid from apple pomace left after juice extraction using Aspergillus niger van. Tieghem MTCC 281 spores as inoculum (36.8 × 10(4) spores/100 g of pomace). The yield of citric acid was optimized by varying the amount of methanol (1-5% v/w), temperature (25-35°C) and time of incubation (1-7 days) for fermentation process. Optimum yield of citric acid (4.6 g/100 g of pomace) was recorded with 4% (v/w) methanol after 5 days of incubation at 30°C.
A challenge for food industry today is to produce minimally processed food, without use of chemical preservatives and little compromise on nutritional status. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC 291 can be directly added to food where it enhances shelf life by competing with other microflora (both bacterial and fungal) for food and also by production of antimicrobial metabolites as bacteriocins. Comprehensive studies have demonstrated the in vitro activity of bacteriocins. However their role in preventing fresh food spoilage needs more elucidation. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the whole cells of this organism as biopreservative agent against fungi. Four most commonly occurring spoilage fungi were isolated and were identified as Fusarium, Alternaria, Penicillium and Aspergillus. Growth of all of them was inhibited in in vitro studies, (approximately 33-43% decrease in mycelial dry weight basis between test and control). In situ biopreservation of Indian cheese and raw poultry meat was attempted and the colony count of Alternaria was significantly (p < 0.05, Bonferroni Holm) reduced in presence of L. acidophilus. Dip and Keep approach of preservation for Mangifera and Momordica were carried out in which microbial spoilage was not observed up to 6 days.
Proximate composition a (% w/w, dwb) of shrimp shell chitin waste (SSCW)
β -N-acetylhexosaminidase production by C. lindemuthianum ATCC 56676 at different incubation period under solid state fermentation using solid shrimp shell chitin waste (SSCW) and commercial wheat bran (CWB) medium 
Production of extracellular chitin deacetylase by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum ATCC 56676 under solid substrate fermentation was studied. The suitability of shrimp shell chitin waste (SSCW) and commercial wheat bran (CWB) was evaluated for maximal enzyme production. CWB medium (pH 6.4 ± 0.2) supplemented with chitosan favoured maximal chitin deacetylase yield of 460.4 ± 14.7 unit/g initial dry substrate (U/g IDS) at 96 h as compared to maximal yield of 392.0 ± 6.4 U/g IDS at 192 h in SSCW medium (pH 8.7 ± 0.2) at 25 °C incubation temperature and 60% (w/w) initial moisture content of medium. Along with chitin deacetylase, C. lindemuthianum ATCC 56676 produced maximum endo-chitinase (0.28 ± 0.03 U/g IDS at 144 h) and β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (0.79 ± 0.009 U/g IDS at 192 h) in CWB medium and 0.49 ± 0.05 U/g IDS of endo-chitinase at 264 h and 0.38 ± 0.04 U/g IDS of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase at 96 h of incubation in SSCW medium. SEM studies indicated the difference in the morphology of mycelia and hyphae of C. lindemuthianum ATCC 56676 when grown on different solid substrates. Production of chitin deacetylase by SSF is being reported for the first time.
Total starch, resistant starch and digestible starch of brown rice flour (% w/w dry weight) after cooking and stored at refrigerated temp 
Rate of starch hydrolysis in brown rice flour 
Percentage of starch hyrolysis in 90 min (H 90 ), equilibrium constant (Cα) and kinetic constant (k) of brown rice flour 
In vitro starch digestibility and glycemic indices of three rice varieties- 'Njavara', 'Jyothi' (pigmented rice verities) and 'IR 64' (non-pigmented rice) with similar amylose content were studied. Starch digestibility studies showed differences in glycemic response in three types of rice. The rate of starch hydrolysis was maximum (67.3%) in 'Njavara' rice compared to other two rice varieties. 'Njavara' exhibited the lowest kinetic constant (k) indicating inherent resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. The glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI) of 'Njavara' were similar to 'Jyothi' and 'IR 64'. Resistant starch content was high in pigmented rice varieties compared to 'IR 64'. The resistant starch content of dehusked and cooked rice increased with the storage time at refrigeration temperature (4°C). 'Njavara' is an easily digestible rice and can be used for baby and geriatric foods.
Effect of drying temperatures and slice sizes on protein, ascorbic acid and fibre content in dried okra pods 
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) is an important vegetable crop of India. Dried okra pods have wide use in snacks and are in great demand for domestic as well as export market. Hence, effect of four slice sizes (1, 2, 3 and 4 cm) and four drying temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C) on quality of hot air dried okra were studied. Okra pods were dried in the form of slices cut across the length at different temperatures. Quality assessment of okra was done on the basis of protein, ascorbic acid and fibre content. Okra slice sizes and drying temperatures affected all the quality parameters significantly (p < 0.05). Maximum retention of protein, ascorbic acid and fibre content were found in 2 cm long slices dried at 60 °C temperature.
The present study was undertaken to study the effect of abscisic acid and hydrogen peroxide on the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD; E.C., catalase (CAT; E.C. and ascorbate peroxidase (APX; E.C. in Syzygium cumini plant. The varying concentrations of ABA (2-8 mM/l) and H2O2 (2-8 mM/l) modulated enzyme activities differently. In general, some concentrations of the ABA and H2O2 stimulated the activities of all the three enzymes except that there was a dose dependent reduction in catalase activity in the plants treated with ABA.
Effect of red bean lines, soaking time and cooking time on water absorption and splitting (main effects) 
Interactive effect of soaking and cooking time on water absorption and splitting 
Interaction of red bean lines × soaking time and red bean lines × cooking time on water absorption and splitting 
Interaction of red bean lines with soaking time and cooking time on water absorption and splitting 
Dry beans are rich sources of dietary fiber and phytochemicals such as flavonoids and phenolics that exhibit good functional properties. In current study line, cooking and soaking time effects were investigated on water absorption, splitting and texture of different Iranian red kidney beans to determine the best lines and the best soaking time related to them for industrial use. D81083 line had the highest level of water absorption after 24 h soaking followed by Akhtar and KS31164 lines while Azna, Goli and Naz lines had the lowest level of water absorption (p < 0.05). Akhtar and Sayyad had the highest level of splitting while KS31164 had the lowest level of splitting (p < 0.05). Soaking of Akhtar line for 24 h caused the highest level of water absorption accompanied with low splitting level. 24 h soaking and longer cooking time is recommended for Sayyad, while 12 h soaking and longer cooking time is recommended for KS31164 line. 24 h soaking causes higher level of water absorption and lower level of splitting in Derakhshan line. The effects of line, cooking and soaking time on red bean texture were significant (p < 0.01).
The aim of this work was to reduce the natural fermentation period of 'idli' from the conventional 14 h to 10 h by adding underutilized okara for the preparation of 'idli'. Black gram was partially substituted with soy residue okara in the ratio of (1:1). After 14 h of natural fermentation, the pH and total acidity of control 'idli' batter was 4.51 and 0.64% and that of okara fortified 'idli' batter was 4.53 and 0.43%, respectively. The amount of CO2 released by the control and okara fortified batter was 19.7% and 33.6% respectively. The viable count of yeast and mold, lactics and mesophilic bacteria in control & okara batter increased with time reaching 9.00 & 10.34, 8.66 & 7.69, and 8.65 & 9.47 log10 cfu/g, respectively at the end of 10 h of natural fermentation. Okara fortified 'idli' was soft and spongy compared to control 'idli' .
Verification of the models by comparing the experimental values with the predicted values
Five blends of refined wheat flour (RWF) (63.2 - 96.8, %RWF) and millet were used to manufacture biscuits baked for varying time (3.3-6.7 min) and temperature (166.6 - 183.4 °C). The manufactured biscuits were evaluated in terms of textural attributes (crispness, hardness and cutting strength) and overall acceptability (OAA). Results showed that increasing the amount of RWF in biscuits decreased (p < 0.01) hardness. Prolonging the baking time led to a decrease (p < 0.01) in hardness and cutting strength and a significant increase (p < 0.05) in OAA. Increase in baking temperature was followed by an increase in crispness (p < 0.01) and OAA (p < 0.1), while hardness and cutting strength (p < 0.01) decreased. Optimum processing condition generated form the models was, - blend ratio, 90%RWF; baking time, 6 min and baking temperature, 170 °C. The predicted responses in terms of crispness, hardness, cutting strength and OAA were 45, 0.3N, 27.2N and 8.9, respectively. The desirability of the optimum conditions was 0.98.
Direct method of enrichment of food with functional ingredients 
Awareness of health and nutrition has led to the development of "functional foods" which is a new approach to achieve healthier status thus reducing the risk of diseases. Meat has been highly exploited as a functional ingredient/food in recent years wherein meat has either been modified or incorporated into non meat products. Changing consumer demand has influenced the market for all types of meat. The development and marketing the functional foods can be, however, very challenging compared to the foods that conventionally have a high health image. This review gives the overall perception about importance of using meat/meat products as a functional food.
Sensory qualities of dambu produced from maize (DME), millet (DMI), sorghum (DSO), and acha (DAH) 
Research and development on these indigenous African cereal grains, acha (Digitaria exilis Stapf) and iburu (D. iburua Stapf), is experiencing renewed interest not just in Africa but the rest of the world. It is believed that acha and iburu may have nutraceutical properties, as it is used in some areas for managing diabetes. Value addition and exploitation of fonio (acha and iburu) in the development of health or speciality foods like acha-bread, biscuit, cookies, sour dough, traditional drinks, nonfermented steamed and granulated dumpling products are gaining interest. These grains may also contribute in addressing some very relevant challenges in today's food formulation-both from functionality and health perspectives. The constraint of low yield is receiving attention in cereal breeding programmes which may give rise to a new generation of 'healthy' cereal grains in future. Further research on acha and iburu whole grains will hopefully lead to increase understanding of the health effects of grain components and to increase the intake of health-protective grain components. Moreover, with strong consumer demand for these grains due to their potential nutritional and health benefits, and because they help to satisfy the demand for a more varied cereal diet, efforts should be made to tackle the obstacles militating against production, improved quality, competitiveness and value-addition.
Physico-chemical characteristics of enzyme clarified sapota (Achras sapota L.) juice 
Newtonian viscosity values of enzyme clarified sapota (Achras sapota L.) juice at different temperatures and total soluble solid content/ water activity levels 
Parameters of first order exponential model relating Newtonian viscosity with total soluble solid content of enzyme clarified sapota (Achras sapota L.) juice at different temperatures First order exponential model: η =a Exp (bC) 
Parameters of power law model relating Newtonian viscosity with water activity of enzyme clarified sapota (Achras sapota L.) juice at different temperatures 
Rheological behaviour of enzyme clarified sapota (Achras sapota L.) juice at different temperatures (10 to 85 °C) and total soluble solid content (10.2 to 55.6 °brix) corresponding to a water activity (aw) (0.986 to 0.865) was studied using controlled stress rheometer by coaxial cylinders attachment. The rheological parameter shear stress (Pa) was measured upto a shear rate of 1,000 s(-1). The investigation showed that the enzyme clarified sapota juice and its concentrates behaved like a Newtonian liquid and the viscosity (η) values were in the range 4.340 to 56.418 mPa s depending upon temperature and concentration studied. The temperature dependency of viscosity of enzyme clarified sapota juice was described by Arrhenius equation (r > 0.94) and activation energy (Ea) for viscous flow was in the range 5.218 to 25.439 KJ/mol depending upon concentration. The effect of total soluble solid content on flow activation energy was described by exponential relationship (r > 0.95, rmse% <13.5, p < 0.01) and that of water activity was described by power law relation (r > 0.99, rmse% <5.80, p < 0.01). The effect of total soluble solid content on viscosity of enzyme clarified sapota juice followed second order exponential type relationship (r > 0.99, rmse% < 3.53) at the temperature used. The effect of water activity on viscosity of enzyme clarified sapota juice followed power law equation (r > 0.98, rmse% < 4.38). A single equation representing combined effect of temperature and total soluble solid content/water activity on viscosity of enzyme clarified sapota was established.
Fatty acids concentration (mg/100 g dry matter) of smoked tuna brined in different salt concentrations 
This work evaluated the lipid oxidation and the changes in fatty acids in hot-smoked tuna (Thunnus albacares) as a function of brine concentration. Fresh, commercially harvested tuna fish samples were purchased from a local supermarket. The fish were first immersed for 30 min in a brine solution at 5, 10, or 15% sodium chloride concentration and were then smoked at 50 °C for 3 h followed by 1 h at 60 °C and 3 h at 105 °C. The fish were then dried for 17 h, cooled and stored at 4 °C. Oxidative rancidity was measured by the peroxide value (PV), and thiobarbituric acid number (TBA) and fatty acids profile by GC-MS. Oxidative rancidity increased with storage time. The PV and TBARS values were more pronounced for samples immersed in 10% brine solution during the first 27 days of storage, whereas the lowest increase was observed for samples treated with 15% salt. Fatty acid concentration exhibited changes after smoking, and this was varied with salt concentration. The palmitic acid and stearic acid, the two main saturated fatty acids in tuna, increased after smoking at all brine concentration, whereas the contents of oleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid decreased. In conclusion, 15% NaCl-treated tuna gave smoked product with less lipid oxidation and a fatty acid profile comparable to that for 5 and 10% NaCl-treated samples.
Changes in the content of total free amino acids (a) and biogenic amines (b) of Layú made with (Layú A) and without (Layú B) sucrose at different storage temperatures. (n=3)  
Changes in the content of biogenic amine of Layú made with (Layú A) and without (Layú B) sucrose at different storage temperatures . (n=3)  
The Chinese traditional dry-cured grass carp fish (Layú) was processed with (A) and without (B) sucrose. Higher levels of free amino acids (FAA) and biogenic amines were detected in the final products when compared to the fresh fish. In the presence of sucrose, Layú A had higher total free amino acids (39.9 g/kg DW) but lower total biogenic amines (112.5 mg/kg DW) than those in Layú B (35.4 g/kg DW and 143.7 mg/kg DW, respectively) after ageing. After 60 days, the products storaged at 4 °C had lower amount biogenic amines (Layú A: 112.2~579.5; Layú B: 144~593.8 mg/kg DW) than those at 20 °C (Layú A: 112.2~974.8; Layú B: 144~773.4 mg/kg DW), indicating that low temperature storage was a safer procedure.
Seeds of 3 newly released moth bean (Phaselous aconitifolius Jacq.) varieties ('Jwala', 'RMO 225' and 'RMO 257') and 1 local variety of moth bean were pressure cooked and microwave oven cooked to find out the comparative effect of heating on total soluble solids (TSS), reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and starch and starch digestibility. The TSS of raw unprocessed moth bean cultivars ranged from 6.8 to 7.7%, reducing sugars from 0.30 to 0.34.%, non-reducing sugars from 6.5 to 7.3% and starch from 47.5 to 51.3%. Both methods of cooking of unsoaked, soaked and soaked-dehulled moth bean cultivars increased the TSS (4 to 17% and 6 to 19%), reducing sugars (5 to 32% and 6 to 36%) and non-reducing sugars (4 to 16% and 6 to 18%), while decreasing the starch content (26 to 49%). Starch digestibility of unsoaked, soaked and soaked-dehulled seeds was higher (p < 0.05) when microwave heated (88 to 129%) than pressure cooked (74-115%).
In-vitro starch digestibility of multigrain composite mixes. Mix A-initial composite mix, Mix B-composite mix with ground nut, Mix C-steamed composite. Mix B, Mix D-composite mix with Brown rice and soya  
Water absorption capacity and Water solubility index, Swelling and Solubility, Sedimentation volume and Bulk density of multigrain composite mixes
Antinutritional factors of multigrain composite mixes
Viscographic parameters of multigrain composite mixes
Multigrain composite mixes were prepared from different cereals, legumes, millets, nuts along with condiments by different processes. Multigrain composite mixes had 10 to 12% moisture, 56 to 61% carbohydrate, 15 to 20% protein, 9 to 13% crude lipid and 2 to 3% ash. Energy value ranged from ~1600 to 1700 kJ/100 g. Among the vitamins studied, thiamine and riboflavin content varied from 0. 23 to 0.45 mg% and from 8.7 to 21.6 microgram% respectively. Dietary fibre was in the range of 12.4-16.5%. Swelling power of these mixes was about 10; however solubility varied from 17 to 22%. In-vitro Starch digestibility varied from 60 to 76%. Phytic acid content in these multigrain composite mixes varied from 0.6 to 0.8%. Poly-phenols ranged from 1.2 to 1.5%, DPPH free radical scavenging activity ranged from 75.2-86.2% and metal chelating activity ranged from 1.9 to 3.9%. Pasting profile by a Brabender Viscograph of these mixes indicated that they have cross linked starch type behaviour. These multigrain composite mixes can be used for the preparation of food formulations, savory products, pan cake, snacks preparation like muruku and chakli.
The antimicrobial activities of Lawsonia inermis leaf extract and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone analogues against food-borne bacteria. The antimicrobial activities of five fractions derived from the methanol extract of Lawsonia inermis leaves were evaluated against 7 food-borne bacteria. 2-Hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone was isolated by chromatographic analyses. 2-Hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone showed the strong activities against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and S. intermedius, but exerted no growth-inhibitory activities against S. typhimurium. The antimicrobial activities of the 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone analogues were tested against 7 food-borne bacteria to establish structure-activity relationships. Hydroxyl (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), methoxy (2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), and methyl (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, and 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) functional groups on the 1,4-naphthoquinone skeleton possessed potent activities, whereas bromo (2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone and 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquione) and chloro (2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone) exhibited no activity against 7 food-borne bacteria. The L. inermis leaf extract and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone analogues should be useful as natural antimicrobial agents against food-borne bacteria.
We evaluated the phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of pod and seed extracts (in methanol, ethanol, and water) of an underutilized legume, Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard). The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined using the ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay, and the free radical-scavenging capacity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging and ABTS assays. In addition, the total flavonoids, flavonols, and tannin contents were also determined. Overall, the methanol extracts of the pod contained high concentration of phenolics and showed high antioxidant capacities compared to seed extracts. In addition, a positive correlation was found between total phenol and tannin versus antioxidant capacity. Results of the present study indicate pods and seeds of C. fairchildiana to possess rich amount of natural antioxidants, and can be further explored for their possible use as a natural additive in food or in pharmaceutical industries.
Treatment combinations to aonla shreds 
Value added dried Indian gooseberry (aonla) shreds were prepared using aonla fruits of cv. 'NA-7'. Two blanching methods (hot water and potassium metabisulphite (KMS) at 0.1%) and two drying methods (solar and hot air oven drying) were tried for the production of aonla shreds. Common salt, black salt and ginger juice were mixed for enhancing sensory quality of the product. The best product was obtained with KMS blanching and drying in solar dryer with added common salt at 3%. The most acceptable product had ascorbic acid content 298.3 mg/100 g, tannin 2.4%, acidity 2.6%, reducing sugar 3.0%, non-reducing sugar 21.0% and total sugar 24.0%. The recovery was 8.0-8.5%.
Selected examples of biological activities in GBR
Rice is a staple food for over half of the world's population. Germinated brown rice (GBR) is considered whole food because only the outermost layer i.e. the hull of the rice kernel is removed which causes least damage to its nutritional value. Brown rice can be soaked in water at 30 °C for specified hours for germination to get GBR. Soaking for 3 h and sprouting for 21 h has been found to be optimum for getting the highest gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in GBR, which is the main reason behind the popularity of GBR. The intake of GBR instead of white rice ameliorates the hyperglycemia, boosts the immune system, lowers blood pressure, inhibits development of cancer cells and assists the treatment of anxiety disorders. Germination process could be used as enzymatic modification of starch that affects pasting properties of GBR flour. GBR would improve the bread quality when substituted for wheat flour. It is concluded that GBR has potential to become innovative rice by preserving all nutrients in the rice grain for human consumption in order to create the highest value from rice.
Coefficients of second order polynomial regression models with their significance
Constraints, criteria for optimization and solution along with predicted and actual response values
Models capable of predicting the moisture and oil content as well as overall acceptability (OAA) of poori, prepared from wheat flour incorporated with wheat bran and oat bran were developed using response surface methodology. Central composite rotatable design with two independent variables (wheat bran and oat bran) at five levels (wheat bran, 3-9 g/100 g wheat flour and oat bran 6-12 g/100 g wheat flour) was used to optimize the bran level. Results showed that oat bran had significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive effect on moisture retention and negative effect on oil absorption, while wheat bran had reverse effect. Based on compromise optimization, it was recommended to incorporate 3.0 g wheat bran and 11.0 g oat bran (per 100 g wheat flour) for making fibre rich (4.2% total dietary fibre, 1.3% soluble dietary fibre) poori with lower oil content (20% less as control) and optimum acceptability (88.6).
Physico-chemical and microbiological changes in low fat pork sausages with tomato powder during refrigerated storage (4°C) 
Changes in texture profile in low fat pork sausages with tomato powder during refrigerated storage (4°C) 
Changes in sensory scores of low fat pork sausages with tomato powder during refrigerated storage (4°C) 
Low fat pork sausages were formulated with tomato powder at 0% (C), 0.8% (T1), 1.2% (T2) and 1.5% (T3) levels in basic formula. With the increase in tomato powder concentration the lightness of the sausage decreased but the redness and yellowness increased significantly (p < 0.05). The pH values of T2 and T3 were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than the others, whereas, water holding capacity of T2 and T3 was significantly (p < 0.05) higher. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, cohesiveness and springiness values of treated groups were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than those of control samples, however, hardness values of sausages with tomato powder were significantly (p < 0.05) higher. The scores of overall acceptability in tested groups were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of control samples after 30 days of storage. The low fat pork sausage with tomato powder up to 1.5% was found to be well acceptable up to 30 days at refrigerated storage. This new product will have special value due to the functional additive lycopene in tomato powder.
Effect of emulsifiers and gum on quality characteristics of pasta 
Flow diagram for preparation of pasta samples  
SDS-PAGE pattern of semolina, pasta at different drying conditions and cooked pasta. Lanes: 1. Semolina; 2. Pasta dough (0 h); 3. Pasta dough (1 h) 4. Pasta dough (2 h); 5. Dried pasta (3 h); 6. Cooked pasta  
Wheat storage proteins play a vital role in pasta making quality. In the present study, SDS-PAGE, Gel filtration chromatography and Scanning electron microscopy techniques were employed to understand the changes in the wheat protein fractions and their interactions with additives namely Sodium Steroyl Lactate (SSL), Glycerol Monostearate (GMS) and Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) during processing of pasta. SDS-PAGE studies indicated changes in High Molecular Weight Glutenin (HMW) fractions during drying stages of pasta preparation and in cooked pasta samples. In uncooked pasta, gel filtration patterns showed four peaks corresponding to different storage proteins whereas in the case of cooked pasta, these peaks were merged into three peaks. Pasta quality characteristics studies indicated that pasta with HPMC was found to have minimum percentage of cooking loss (5.6%), increased cooked weight (82 g), firmness (2.97 N) and high overall quality score (27) than GMS, SSL and control. Microstructure studies confirm the beneficial effect of HPMC. The present study indicated that HPMC is better additive for pasta manufacture followed by GMS. This could be due to interaction of HPMC with starch and protein matrix is different from that of GMS and SSL.
The objective of the study was to compare fatty acid composition of longissimus dorsi (LD) and kidney fat (KF) in Holstein steers (HS), Simmental steers (SS) and Chinese LongDong Yellow Cattle steers (CLD). All steers received the same nutrition and management but in different locations. Cattle were harvested at approximately 550 kg and fatty acid composition of longissimus dorsi and kidney fat was analyzed in samples taken after 3 days of aging. There was evidence (P < 0.05) that C18:3n6 was greater in KF than LD in CLD cattle but not in HS or SS cattle. Percentage C18:1n9, C18:2n6, C18:3n3, and n6 fatty acids were greater in LD than KF for all breeds (P < 0.05), but the difference between fat sources for n6 in CLD cattle was smaller than the other two breeds. The LD had greater percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and a greater ratio of n6:n3 PUFAs compared to the KF in each breed (P < 0.05). The △(9)-desaturase catalytic activity index was greater in LD than in KF in each breed group (P < 0.05). Percentage cis-9, trans-11 CLA was greater in KF than LD in HS (P < 0.05) but not SS or CLD cattle. These results indicate fatty acid percentages generally differed between longissimus dorsi fat and kidney fat. Further, there was some indication that some of these differences between fatty acid deposition sites were not consistent across breed group.
Proximate composition of Eucheuma powder and spice adjunct
Mean scores for sensory attributes of spice adjunct
Seaweed is a macroscopic marine algae which has been used as human food since ancient times. Food values of seaweed are mainly due to significant amounts of protein, vitamin, mineral, trace elements and dietary fibre apart from substances of antibiotic nature. In this study edible red seaweed Eucheuma (Kappaphycus alvarezzi), was used as an ingredient in the preparation of spice adjunct. Functional properties such as soluble solids, water-holding capacity, oil holding capacity and swelling capacity of Eucheuma were studied. Steamed Eucheuma powder was added at levels of 15, 20 and 25% in the preparation of spice adjunct. Sensory analysis and consumer acceptability study of spice adjunct showed that the incorporation of Eucheuma upto 20% had high acceptability. Spice adjunct containing 20% Eucheuma had 6.2% moisture, 22.2% ash, 29.2% fat, 10.0% protein, 9.4% crude fibre and 23% carbohydrates. Based on equilibrium relative humidity studies metallized polyester was selected as the packaging material. Storage studies indicated that metallized polyester provided a shelf life of 120 days at both the ambient and accelerated conditions.
A study was carried out to investigate the effect of different coagulant (lactic acid, citric acid and calcium lactate) on yield, sensory and textural characteristics of chhana and rasogolla made from admixture of buffalo milk and sweet cream butter milk (SCBM). The highest yield of chhana was observed with calcium lactate whereas the minimum yield was found with citric acid. There was no significant difference found with respect to flavour and colour and appearances scores, however, significant (p < 0.01) difference found in body and texture of chhana samples prepared with different coagulant. In addition to that, significant (p < 0.05) difference observed with respect to body and texture, flavour and porosity of rasogolla, but no significant difference was observed in colour and appearance as well as sweetness of rasogolla prepared with chhana obtained from varying coagulants. Among different coagulants, citric acid was found best suitable for chhana as well as rasogolla making.
Paneer was prepared by application of hurdle technology (HT) and its shelf stability studied by modified atmospheric packaging (MAP). The hurdles adopted comprised of water activity (aw), pH, preservative and MAP. The aw was reduced by using NaCl (1-3%), citric acid (CA, 0.01-0.1%) and potassium sorbate (0.1%). NaCl and CA at 3 and 0.1% reduced aw from 0.994 to 0.970 and pH from 5.6 to 5.1, respectively. Sensory scores of all samples decreased (p ≤ 0.05) from control during storage at different temperatures, but these scores at the end of 20 days were still under acceptable limit of 6 and above (liked moderately). MAP was carried out by using a mixture of CO2 to N2 in the ratio of 50:50. The HT adopted paneer with MAP had extended the shelf-life from 1 to 12 days at room temperature (30 ± 1°C) and 6 to 20 days at refrigeration (7 ± 1°C) temperatures.
The moisture adsorption isotherms of low methoxyl pectin were determined at 30-70°C and water activity ranging from 0.11 to 0.94. The moisture adsorption isotherms revealed that the equilibrium moisture content increased with water activity. Increase in temperature, in general, resulted in decreased equilibrium moisture content. However in some cases, equilibrium moisture content values increased with temperature at higher water activities. Selected sorption models (GAB, Halsey, Henderson, Oswin, modified Oswin) were tested for describing the adsorption isotherms. Parameters of each sorption models were determined by nonlinear regression analysis. Oswin model gave the best fit for pectin sorption behaviour. Isosteric heat of sorption decreased with increase in moisture content and varied between 14.607 and 0.552 kJ/mol. Glass transition temperature decreased with increase in moisture content of pectin.
A new method is developed to determine the presence of sunflower oil in olive oil. α-tocopherol is selected as discriminating parameter for detecting sunflower oil adulterant in olive oil. Admixtures of olive oil and sunflower oil (5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % sunflower oil in olive oil) are prepared. These admixtures are analysed by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. The sample preparation does not require saponification or addition of antioxidant. The chromatographic system consists of a C18 column with methanol: acetonitrile (50:50) mobile phase. Fluorescence detector excitation wavelength is set at 290 nm and emission wavelength is set at 330 nm. The α tocopherol concentration increases linearly in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil. The method is simple, selective, sensitive and is precise (RSD = 2.65 %) for α tocopherol. The present method can precisely detect 5 % sunflower oil in olive oil.
Besan, the flour of Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum Linn), a legume, is a popular ingredient of many culinary dishes in India. Because of its high demand, its flour is often adulterated by that of other legumes, such as, Lathyrus sativus (lathyrus) or Pisum sativum (pea) by unscrupulous traders. There are chemical methods of paper chromatography and HPLC by which the adulteration with the flour of L. sativus can be established but they are sophisticated techniques. At present, there are no chemical methods by which the adulteration with the flour of P. sativum can be detected. Microscopy is a simple technique and has been used for detection of adulteration of a number of food grains. Microscopic observation of the flour of these three legumes showed that their seed testa macrosclereids are distinct in their shape and size. The macrosclereids of C. arietinum are longer with a mean length of 155.6 microns and are bent at one end. Those of either P. sativum or L. sativus are shorter with a mean length of 61.8 and 72 microns respectively, with flat ends and with a different morphology. The seed testa macrosclereids of other edible legumes also show differences in morphology. Thus, it was observed that microscopic observation of the besan flour for the macrosclereids of other legumes is a powerful but simple means by which detection of adulteration of besan with the flour of P. sativum or L. sativus or by other edible legumes can be made. These observations make the subject matter of this manuscript.
Fruits and vegetables are dried to enhance storage stability, minimize packaging requirement and reduce transport weight. Preservation of fruits and vegetables through drying based on sun and solar drying techniques which cause poor quality and product contamination. Energy consumption and quality of dried products are critical parameters in the selection of drying process. An optimum drying system for the preparation of quality dehydrated products is cost effective as it shortens the drying time and cause minimum damage to the product. To reduce the energy utilization and operational cost new dimensions came up in drying techniques. Among the technologies osmotic dehydration, vacuum drying, freeze drying, superheated steam drying, heat pump drying and spray drying have great scope for the production of quality dried products and powders.
DPPH radical scavenging activities (RSA) of methanol, ethanol and water extracts of Aegle leaves. BHT was used as positive control. % RSA relative to control. ME methanol, EE ethanol, WE water extracts
Antioxidant components, total polyphenols and extract yield of different solvent extracts from Aegle leaves
Comparison of antioxidant properties and polyphenols of Aegle extracts and standards
Aegle marmelos (AM) leaves were extracted with methanol (ME), ethanol (EE), water (WE) and analyzed for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging method, reducing power and in vitro inhibition by Fenton's reagent-induced oxidation of lipid system. Stability of extracts to pH (4, 7 and 9) and temperature (100 °C, 15 min.) was studied. The three extracts showed varying degree of efficacy in each assay in a dose dependent manner. The inhibition of MDA formation in Linseed oil by EE (47%) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than WE (28%) and ME (23%) but less than α- Tocopherol (80%). WE showed maximum stability to high temperature. The antioxidant activity of EE at pH 4 was significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with WE and ME. At pH 7, the antioxidant activity of all the three extracts remained unchanged. Data indicates that potential exists for the utilization of Aegle marmelos as a natural antioxidant.
The effect of germination on the level of phytase activity and the contents of phytates and phosphorus of five Nigeria grown cereal grains was studied. The cereals screened were rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), millet (Panicum miliaceum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and wheat (Triticum aestivum). Phytase activity was high (0.21-0.67 U g(-1)) in all samples. Phytate content ranged between 5.6 and 6.2 mg g(-1) while total phosphorus content ranged between 3.3 and 4.3 mg g(-1). During germination, the level of phytase activity increased and reached its maximal value after seven (16-fold), six (5-fold), five (7-fold), seven (3-fold) and eight (6-fold) days of germination for rice, maize, millet, sorghum and wheat respectively. After this initial increase, phytase activity declined slightly (P < 0.05). The increase in phytase activity during germination was accompanied by a significant reduction in phytate (P < 0.05) and a small but significant increase in total phosphorus.
Fermentation of batter is an integral part of the preparation of jilebi, a traditional ready-to-eat sweet product of Indian sub-continent. The flowability and pourability of batter are crucial for forming jilebi strands during frying. Flowability and pourability have been determined from simulation studies based on the movement of batter on an inclined surface and the exit from an orifice, respectively; simple gadgets have been designed to determine these two characteristics along with providing the definitions. Response surface experimental design consisting of moisture content (50-65%), amount of added curd (0-10%) and time of fermentation (0-24 h) has been employed. The response functions are pH, flowability and pourability. Strong interaction effects of added curd and time of fermentation on the response functions have been observed. An increase in added curd and time of fermentation decreases pH in a curvilinear manner as both linear and quadratic effects are significant (p ≤ 0.01). Moisture content has a non-significant effect on pH but markedly affects the flowability and pourability of batter. Flowability and pourability decreases when there is an increase in consistency index or apparent viscosity.
This study was undertaken to evaluate the behaviour of vegetative cells and spores of four potent native toxigenic food isolates of Bacillus cereus as affected by selected time-temperature combinations used in processing of Indian traditional foods. The vegetative cells of B. cereus when subjected to sublethal heat treatments, individually, in different heating menstra showed a sigmoidal inactivation pattern, with D-values in the range of 3.45 min at 60 °C to 10.6 min at 56 °C in saline. Accordingly, the z-values recorded across the heating menstra ranged from 9.3 °C in culture broth to 24 °C in whole milk. Similarly, the inactivation pattern for spores for the same isolates was curvilinear with D-values ranging from 4.4 min at 95 °C in whole milk to 19.45 min at 85 °C in saline. The z-values for spores ranged from 16.6 °C in saline to 38.4 °C in whole milk. The thermal inactivation pattern observed for vegetative cells and spores indicate that the death rate was not constant during the process of heat treatment.
Infl uence of stabilizer blend (1:1) on quality of Mozzarella cheese analogue Cheese analogue made using 
Suitability of xanthan gum (XG)-locust bean gum (LBG), carrageenan (CAR)-LBG, and XG-CAR in 1:1 proportion at 0.42% in the formulation was assessed in the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese analogue. The stabilizer blends did not significantly influence the composition, texture profile, organoleptic, baking qualities and pizza-related characteristics of cheese analogues. Considering the influence of stabilizer blend on the sensory quality of analogue and sensory rating of pizza pie, XG-LBG blend (1:1) was preferred over XG-CAR and CAR-LBG.
The textural properties of a model gel system have been investigated by employing an experimental design concerning the effect of agar (1-3%), mango pulp (0-50%) and sugar (0-20%). A gel characterization method, based on the principle of penetration-shearing, has been applied to determine the response functions (fracture strain, fracture stress, energy for penetration-shearing and firmness). These textural indices can be fitted well (0.858 ≤ r ≤ 0.953, p ≤ 0.01) to second order polynomials. Agar possesses the maximum effect and an increase in agar content markedly increases these indices while sugar imparts mostly a curvilinear effect; a failure strain as high as 33% has been achieved by increasing the agar content. The individual optimization (maximization), based on canonical analysis, on these indices indicates that agar content to be more than 2.8%. Gels with extensively varying textural properties can be achieved by changing the proportions of these ingredients.
Vacuum packaged beef strip-loins (fresh and aged) were repackaged on polystyrene trays and over-wrapped with food grade cling film for the storage study. Several volatile compounds such as 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-butanone, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetic acid and a few hydrocarbons were detected in the headspace of these tray packaged fresh and aged beef strip loins both in the control and Salmonella typhimurium inoculated samples, in varying concentrations. These compounds were identified using manual headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) in combination with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) over a storage period of 4 days and samples were incubated at 20°C. No naturally occurring Salmonella was present in the control samples. Hexanal (r = 0.99), carbon dioxide (r = 0.98), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (r = 0.93) and 2-methyl propane (r = 0.95) showed positive correlations with Salmonella population for fresh beef samples. In aged beef samples, 3-methyl-1-butanol (r = 0.99), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (r = 0.98), carbon dioxide (r = 0.98) and acetic acid (r = 0.86) showed similar trends. In fresh beef samples, F values were significant at p < 0.05 for 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and for carbon dioxide with storage time for fresh beef samples; they were significant for 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetic acid and carbon dioxide for aged beef samples.
Hydrocolloids are widely used in many food formulations to improve quality attributes and shelf-life. The two main uses are as thickening and gelling agents. As thickening agents, they find uses in soups, gravies, salad dressings, sauces and toppings while as gelling agents, they are extensively used in products like jam, jelly, marmalade, restructured foods and low sugar/calorie gels. The role of specific hydrocolloids for thickening and for gel formation is reviewed pinpointing specific applications in food formulations and for product development.
Phenolic compounds and colour stability of red wines produced from Vranec Vitis vinifera L. grape variety were investigated by means of different maceration times (3, 6 and 10 days), two doses of SO2 (30 and 70 mg/L SO2), two yeasts for fermentation (Vinalco and Levuline), temperature of storage and time of aging (3, 6 and 16 months). In general, maceration time influenced the phenolics extraction from the grapes into the wine. Highest concentrations of phenolic components were observed in the wines produced with 6 days of maceration, except for the flavan-3-ols which were present in highest amounts in the wines macerated for 10 days. Higher doses of SO2 increased the extraction of polyphenols, preventing the wines from oxidation, while the effect of yeast on phenolics extraction was not significant. Wine aging affected the phenolic content of wines produced with 3 days of maceration and caused intensive decrease of anthocyanins during the storage period. Wines aged at higher temperature showed lower anthocyanin levels and less intense coloration. Principal component analysis revealed that separation of the wines was performed according to the hue value in correlation with the maceration time and time of wine aging.
Dehydrated products and their worth
Schematic diagram of IR assisted heat pump dryer (Chou and Chua 2001) 
Schematic diagram of a heat pump fluidized bed dryer (Law and Mujumdar 2007)
This review paper included the recent progress made in heat pump assisted drying, its principle, mechanism and efficiency, type and its application for drying of agricultural produce. Heat pump assisted drying provides a controllable drying environment (temperature and humidity) for better products quality at low energy consumption. It has remarkable future prospects and revolutionaries ability. The heat pump system consists of an expansion valve, two heat exchangers (evaporator and condenser), and a compressor, which are connected by using copper tubes. In this paper we also provided a review discussion on different type of heat pump assisted drying system ready for remarkable and commercial use in different type of food industries. Here we also have given some major advantage and disadvantage of heat pump assisted drying.
Summary of machine vision applications for food and agricultural produce
Typical segmentation techniques: ( a ) thresholding ( b ) edgebased segmentation and ( c ) region-based segmentation (Sun 2000) 
First order statistics which are based on statistical properties of the gray level histogram of an image region
Quality inspection of food and agricultural produce are difficult and labor intensive. Simultaneously, with increased expectations for food products of high quality and safety standards, the need for accurate, fast and objective quality determination of these characteristics in food products continues to grow. However, these operations generally in India are manual which is costly as well as unreliable because human decision in identifying quality factors such as appearance, flavor, nutrient, texture, etc., is inconsistent, subjective and slow. Machine vision provides one alternative for an automated, non-destructive and cost-effective technique to accomplish these requirements. This inspection approach based on image analysis and processing has found a variety of different applications in the food industry. Considerable research has highlighted its potential for the inspection and grading of fruits and vegetables, grain quality and characteristic examination and quality evaluation of other food products like bakery products, pizza, cheese, and noodles etc. The objective of this paper is to provide in depth introduction of machine vision system, its components and recent work reported on food and agricultural produce.
Indian potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) processing industry has emerged fast due to economic liberalization coupled with growing urbanization, expanding market options and development of indegenous processing varieties. India's first potato processing varieties 'Kufri Chipsona-1' and 'Kufri Chipsona-2' were developed in 1998, followed by an improved processing variety 'Kufri Chipsona-3' in 2005 for the Indian plains and first chipping variety 'Kufri Himsona' for the hills. These varieties have >21% tuber dry matter content, contain low reducing sugars (<0.1% on fresh wt) and are most suitable for producing chips, French fries and dehydrated products. The availability of these varieties and standardization of storage techniques for processing potatoes at 10-12°C with sprout suppressant isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate have revolutionized the processing scenario within a short span of 10 years. Currently about 4% of total potato produce is being processed in organized and unorganized sector. Potato processing industry mainly comprises 4 segments: potato chips, French fries, potato flakes/powder and other processed products. However, potato chips still continue to be the most popular processed product. The major challenge facing the industries lies in arranging round the year supply of processing varieties at reasonable price for their uninterrupted operation, besides several others which have been discussed at length and addressed with concrete solutions.
Activities and optimum hydrolysis conditions of individual proteases
Characterizations of water-solubility and gel filtration chromatography for the rice dregs hydrolysate obtained under the optimum process condition with the aid of trypsin. a The pH-solubility profiles of RD hydrolysis and RD protein in distilled water at 25°C; b The chromatographic elution profile of rice dregs hydrolysate with a Superdex TM peptide 10/300 GL column 
Analysis of variance for the model and factor tests
A protein hydrolysate was prepared from rice dregs (RD) using trypsin as a suitable protease. The hydrolysis conditions were optimized with response surface methodology, and then a mathematical model was developed to demonstrate the effect of each process parameter on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and recovery of protein (RP). A hydrolysate with relatively high RP (75.81%) and low DH (6.95) was obtained from RD by hydrolyzing for 2.4 h at pH 7.6 52.8°C with a enzyme/RD ratio of 0.89:1000 (w/w) and RD/water level of 0.22 g/mL. The dried hydrolysate was low molecular weight peptides (predominantly <1,000 Da) and it possessed good solubility at various pH levels. Result of amino acid analysis revealed that the hydrolysate was considerably enriched in essential amino acids. Thus, the protein hydrolysate has a potential to be an excellent protein ingredient as a balanced milk replacer.
A spreadsheet aided fuzzy logic model for predicting chapati making quality characteristics of Indian wheat varieties was created. Data collected from 19 randomly selected wheat varieties were used. Starch damage, Farinograph water absorption as input variables and chapati overall score as output variable were fuzzified by the use of excel spreadsheet and defuzzification was carried out using weighted average method. Fuzzy model was compared with the regression model of measured data for its error levels and ease of application. Standard error of estimate of fuzzy model was smaller (1.825) than measured (2.895) chapati quality score regression model.
Effect of drying temperature and cultivar on effective moisture diffusivity (m 2 /s) of fresh and osmotically pretreated peppers 
Effect of drying temperature on moisture content of fresh Tatashe pepper
Effect of cultivar on activation energy of fresh and osmotically pretreated peppers 
Effect of drying temperature on drying rate of fresh and osmotically pretreated (50°B) Tatashe pepper
Effects of osmotic pretreatment and drying air temperature on CIE colour parameters of fresh and pre-osmosed peppers 
Air-drying characteristics of fresh and osmotically pretreated (40°B, 50°B and 60°B sucrose solutions for 9 h) four pepper cultivars namely, Rodo (Capsicum annuum), Shombo (Capsicum frutescens), Bawa (Capsicum frutenscens) and Tatashe (Capsicum annuum), and CIE L*a*b* parameters of air-dried (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C) peppers were investigated. Moisture diffusivity and activation energy (Ea) were calculated from Fick's law and analogous Arrhenius equation, respectively. Colour difference, chroma and hue angle of fresh- and osmo-oven dried peppers were evaluated. Drying rates occurred predominantly in the falling rate. Moisture diffusivity varied from 8.071 × 10(-10)-1.048 × 10(-8), 7.710 × 10(-11)-1.018 × 10(-9), 9.807 × 10(-9)-1.746 × 10(-8) and 8.748 × 10(-10)-1.464 × 10(-9) m(2)/s for Bawa, Rodo, Shombo, and Tatashe, respectively. Ea for moisture diffusion during drying of peppers varied from 53.86 to 84.86 kJ/mol and was affected by cultivars and osmotic pretreatment concentration. Osmotic pretreatment and drying temperature had significant effect (p < 0.05) on a*, b*, chroma and hue angle values of dried peppers.
Drying time and moisture diffusivity of aloe vera gel cubes under various process conditions 
Variation of moisture content with drying time for unosmosed and osmotic dehydrated (30°Brix and 30°C) aloe vera cubes 
Analysis of variance for the effect of process variables on drying time and moisture diffusivity 
Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) cubes of 12.5 × 12.5 × 12.5 mm thick were osmosed for 4 h in sugar syrup of 30, 40 and 50°Brix concentration and temperatures of 30 and 50°C at constant syrup to fruit ratio of 5:1. Osmosed and unosmosed aloe vera samples were hot air dried at 50, 60, 70 and 80°C with constant air velocity of 1.5 m/s. The water loss, solid gain and convective drying behaviour were recorded during experiments. It was observed that water loss and solid gain ranged from 39.2 to 71.3 and 2.7 to 6.3%, respectively during osmo-drying. The moisture diffusivity varied from 2.9 to 8.0 × 10(-9) m²/s and 2.7 to 4.6 × 10(-9) m²/s during air drying of osmosed and unosmosed aloe vera samples, respectively. Drying air temperature and osmosis as pre-treatment affected the water loss, solid gain, diffusivity at -p ≤ 0.01.
Mother and finger rhizomes 'PCT-8' ('Suvarna') variety of turmeric (Curcuma longa L) were boiled separately in open pan for 45 min at 100°C. The rhizomes were then dried using tray drier at air temperatures of 45, 50, 55, 60 and 65°C and drying air velocities of 1, 2 and 3 m/sec. The rhizomes were dried to ∼10 % (wb) moisture content. The dried rhizomes were polished manually and powdered. The volume of fresh and dried turmeric was determined and shrinkage ratio calculated. The colour of fresh and dried turmeric was determined. Change in colour (ΔE) with drying time was found to be 2.3 and 2.7 for fingers and mothers respectively at 60°C and 2 m/sec air velocity. The oleoresin content was 13.0 and 12.0% for fingers and mothers, respectively. The drying of turmeric took place in the falling rate period and was governed by moisture diffusion. The best quality turmeric was obtained by drying at 60°C air temperature and 2 m/sec air velocity.
Levels of process variables and values of quality parameters and specific energy consumption for okra dried under various drying conditions 
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) was dried to a moisture level of 0.1 g water/g dry matter using a microwave-assisted hot air dryer. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the drying conditions based on specific energy consumption and quality of dried okra. The drying experiments were performed using a central composite rotatable design for three variables: air temperature (40-70 °C), air velocity (1-2 m/s) and microwave power level (0.5-2.5 W/g). The quality of dried okra was determined in terms of color change, rehydration ratio and hardness of texture. A second-order polynomial model was well fitted to all responses and high R(2) values (>0.8) were observed in all cases. The color change of dried okra was found higher at high microwave power and air temperatures. Rehydration properties were better for okra samples dried at higher microwave power levels. Specific energy consumption decreased with increase in microwave power due to decrease in drying time. The drying conditions of 1.51 m/s air velocity, 52.09 °C air temperature and 2.41 W/g microwave power were found optimum for product quality and minimum energy consumption for microwave-convective drying of okra.
Top-cited authors
Alok Jha
  • Banaras Hindu University
Prasad Rasane
  • Lovely Professional University
Arvind Kumar
  • Banaras Hindu University
Latha Sabikhi
  • National Dairy Research Institute
Suresh Chandra
  • Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology