Hindawi

Journal of Food Quality

Published by Hindawi
Online ISSN: 1745-4557
Discipline: Food Quality Assurance
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Aims and scope

Journal of Food Quality is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles related to all aspects of food quality characteristics acceptable to consumers. The journal aims to provide a valuable resource for food scientists, nutritionists, food producers, the public health sector, and governmental and non-governmental agencies with an interest in food quality.

Pre-harvest research will only be considered where it focuses on the effects of pre-harvest conditions on food quality. Articles regarding food safety may be considered, such as when a comprehensive evaluation of a food product or technology is reported.

 

Editors

Recent publications
Article
  • Shiping ZouShiping Zou
  • Yao XuYao Xu
  • Biao HuangBiao Huang
Chestnut rose is an endemic plant in Guizhou Province, China, also known as seedless prickly pear, rich in mineral elements, vitamin C, and flavonoids. With chestnut rose as the main raw material, with grapes, apples, and other fruits as auxiliary ingredients, through the technical process of deastringency, sterilization, fermentation, blending, and other technical processes to obtain the composite beverage, known as a chestnut rose jiaosu compound beverage, it is hereinafter referred to as CRJCB. The CRJCB fermented from chestnut rose juice is nutritious and has a variety of health effects, and the flavor is unique, with good color, aroma, and taste, which is a new type of beverage. However, at present, the fermentation related technology of CRJCB is not perfect, resulting in its low quality, which seriously restricts the industrialization development of CRJCB. In order to improve the quality of the jiaosu compound beverage, probiotics such as Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus royale (Lactobacillus reuteri), Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus, etc., were used. The chestnut rose as the main raw material was used for the fermentation, and grapes, apples, and sugar were used as auxiliary materials to carry out the research on the fermentation of single or mixed probiotics. The key fermentation processes affecting the quality of the jiaosu, such as juice preparation, deastringency of chestnut rose juice, fermentation temperature and time, sugar addition, and taste mixing of the jiaosu, were optimized. The optimized ratio, fermentation process parameters, and strains of probiotics of compound beverage with chestnut rose jiaosu, with high quality, were obtained. The experimental results showed that the SOD enzyme activity value was 167.7 U·ml−1, the vitamin C content was 1154.5 mg/100 mL, the soluble solids content was 5.80%, and the nitrite content was 89.8 mg/kg in the compound beverage with chestnut rose jiaosu, obtained by using the optimized ratio and fermentation process parameters proposed in this paper. The development and utilization of chestnut rose resources provide a new idea and is of great significance in promoting the development of the chestnut rose industry.
 
Article
In order to put an end to the widespread existence of excessive packaging and to reduce the packaging cost beyond the value of the product itself, it has caused harm to the environment and serious waste of resources. In this paper, a food packaging design based on green ecological design is proposed. Through the discussion of the theoretical framework of ecological design and the study of ecological materials for food packaging, the ecological design principles of green ecological food packaging are summarized to better guide the packaging design. The experiment shows that, through the 7-month experimental comparison and tracking of a biscuit food, although the sales volume of the product has not increased significantly, or even may decline, the cost of the product has been reduced by 20∼30%, thus increasing the profit of the product by 30∼40%. Conclusion. The experiment shows that food packaging design based on green ecology can effectively promote the sales and turnover of products, is friendly to the environment, and can also bring profits to enterprises.
 
Article
The main objective of this research was to evaluate the partial replacement of cholesterol (CSL) with vitamin D3 (VD3) on the niosome structure. The effects of different molar ratios of Span 60 (SP60) : Tween 60 (TW60) and CSL : VD3 were investigated on the physicochemical characteristics of niosomes, including particle size, span (distribution width), stability, and encapsulation efficiency of VD3. The data were then optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Larger particles were obtained as the ratios of SP60 : TW60 and CSL : VD3 were increased. The smallest particles were obtained at SP60 : TW60 and CSL : VD3 ratios of 40.46 : 59.54 and 38.06 : 61.94, respectively. Increasing the ratio of SP60 : TW60 led to higher values of span. As CSL : VD3 ratio was increased from 0 : 100 to 67.67 : 32.32, value of the span was decreased; however, increasing this ratio further led to the increased value of the span. The lowest values of the span were observed at SP60 : TW60 and CSL : VD3 ratios of 67.90 : 32.10 and 72.41 : 27.59, respectively. The increase in the SP60 : TW60 ratio led to lower values of encapsulation efficiency. The highest values for encapsulation efficiency were observed at ratios of 31.76 : 68.24 and 40.02 : 59.98 for SP60 : TW60 and CSL : VD3, respectively. The highest stability was observed at SP60 : TW60 and CSL : VD3 ratios of 31.72 : 68.28 and 14.65 : 85.35, respectively. The optimum conditions were achieved at ratios of 31.72 : 68.28 and 49.37 : 50.63 for SP60 : TW60 and CSL : VD3, respectively. Finally, it can be concluded that VD3 is a suitable replacement for CSL in terms of stability and encapsulation efficiency of niosome.
 
Article
In this study, a risk assessment on Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections was carried out in order to estimate the likelihood of gastroenteritis for Cameroonians after consumption of roasted shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The Codex Alimentarius Commission framework was used in this study. Based on the distribution of total V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp and literature information indicating that nonhaemolysing carrier strains could be pathogenic to humans, the cooking, and consumption patterns, the daily exposure level generated in this study, and the dose-response model from other studies, the infectious risk was evaluated and quantified by the Monte Carlo simulation. This simulation was realized based on 10,000 iterations using the Model Risk software, version 4.0, in combination with Microsoft Excel. To better quantify the exposure of consumers and the resulting risk of infection, several scenarios reflecting the minimal, average, and maximal exposures were undertaken. According to the results, the 90% confidence intervals for minimum and maximum exposures ranged from 15 to 24 colony-forming units per day (cells/day) and from 160 to 228 cells/day, respectively. Based on the modal scenario, 90% of the population consuming this shrimp is exposed to V. parahaemolyticus loads ranging from 74 to 110 cells/day, indicating a risk of infection ranging from 1.2 to 1.8 cases per million of consumption. The estimated number of annual disease cases based on annual production is between 1 and 10 cases. This reflects a relatively low risk of infection for roasted shrimp. Good hygiene practices during handling, cooking, and storage may help reduce the actual risk.
 
Article
The term heart-related disease is stated as the range of condition that impacts an individual heart negatively. In the current scenario, cardiovascular diseases are causing more deaths when compared with other ailments, it has been estimated that there are nearly 18 million deaths annually as per the recent report released by World Health Organization (WHO). It has been stated that unhealthy habits and other related aspects adopted by individuals are considered as the primary reasons for an increase in the risk of heart diseases. High cholesterol, eating more junk foods, hypertension, etc., created the issue related to heart diseases. Hence, addressing food quality and suggesting better eating habits enable individuals to enhance their living and support better health. The application of new technologies like machine learning, deep learning, and other models support doctors, nurses, and radiologists to predict heart disease effectively. Studies have stated that the various models are used mainly for the classification and forecasting of the diagnosis of heart-related diseases. The researchers have identified that critical algorithms like CART support the predictability of the disease by 93.3% whereas the conventional models possess vert less specificity. Furthermore, deep neural networks can be applied for analyzing and detecting heart failures effectively and supporting medical practitioners in making better and more critical clinical decisions making. The researchers focus on using a descriptive research study for performing the study; moreover, the researcher collates the data using the questionnaire method, which enables sourcing the critical information from the medical practitioners and supports in making critical data analysis effectively. The researchers also use secondary data modes for sourcing the information related to past studies on the related topic. The researchers use the frequency analysis, correlation analysis, and structural equation model analysis for performing the study, and the results are stated in detail in the respective sections.
 
Article
Mycotoxins can accumulate in various feeds and thus may get in duck meat, which may have severe food safety and public health implications. This study examined mycotoxins and veterinary medications in duck meat marketed in eight marketplaces around China. For the determination of mycotoxins, including the mycotoxins aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), T-2 toxin, zearalenone (ZEN), and ochratoxin A (OTA), a liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was validated. Overall, 13 out of 48 samples (27%) presented AFB1, and AFB2 was present in 14 out of 48 samples with positive levels ranging from 0.5 μg/kg (gizzard) to 4.1 μg/kg (lung). Eleven samples were contaminated with AFM1. T-2 was also found in three parts of duck samples (duck gizzard, neck, and lung), and the 5th and 48th samples were contaminated with T-2. ZEN was found in 5 of 48 analyzed samples (10%), and OTA was present in 21 out of 48 samples. The maximum kinds of mycotoxins found simultaneously in duck samples were six in duck lungs. High co-occurrence of mycotoxins was verified in several samples. The detection rate of various veterinary drugs was 0–12.5% in duck meat samples, and the over standard rate was 2.1%. Co-occurrence of veterinary drugs was verified in several samples.
 
Article
In order to explore how sports drinks can achieve weight loss control and lipid metabolism in college students, the author proposes an experiment based on weight loss control and lipid metabolism in college students. This experiment recommends key technical problems and solutions based on information represented by college students’ weight loss control, a study exploring how sports drinks can achieve weight loss control in college students. Research has shown that Jupu sports drink is more suitable than 87% of sports drinks on the market for college students to lose weight. Sports drinks have a positive effect on maintaining a high blood sugar level during exercise and have a certain antifatigue effect in mass fitness. Jupu sports drink not only has the effect of other sports drinks but also has a certain effect on weight loss control.
 
Article
Ice-cream is one of the most popular food items consumed during the summer season in Bangladesh by all ages but mostly school-going students. Due to the ingredients and handling process of ice-cream, it acts as a good shelter for pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore we aimed to investigate the microbial count, prevalence, isolate and characterize multidrug-resistant bacteria in ice-cream samples collected from nearby shops of schools in Tangail district, Bangladesh. Ice-cream consumer and non-consumer students were selected by providing questionnaires. Total viable count (TVC) and total coliform count (TCC) were determined by pour plate methods, where conventional methods were performed for bacterial identification. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates. Kado and Liu method, with some modifications, was used to extract plasmid from the isolated bacteria and visualized through gel electrophoresis. The demographic characteristics showed that the degree of symptoms regarding microorganisms mediated disorders and rate of antibiotics intake in ice-cream consumers were significantly higher than the non-consumers. The range of TVC and TCC in the ice-cream samples were found 0- 9.9 ×109 CFU/ml and 0-900 CFU/ml, respectively. Interestingly, 93.75% of the total ice-cream samples were also showed fungal positive. A total of 12 different bacterial species were identified, including Proteus spp, E. coli, V.cholera, Pseudomonas spp, Shigella spp, Klebsiella spp, Aeromonas spp, V. Parahemolyticus. Salmonella paratyphi, Citrobacterspp, Plesiomonasspp, and Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial susceptibility assay showed the multiple resistance frequency of these isolates to different antimicrobial drugs. All individual isolates were screened for plasmid DNA, and we found that seven strains harbored a single or more than two plasmids sized approximately between 1.9 to 140 MDa, indicating a possible connection between resistance phenotype pattern and genotype. These findings suggest a potential role of ice-cream for food-borne diseases among the ice-cream consumers, especially ice-cream consumers school-going children in Bangladesh.
 
Article
In order to explore how high-protein foods can achieve effects on athletes’ bodies, the authors propose a study based on athletes’ physical performance. This method recommends key technical problems and solutions through the information represented by the athlete’s physical function and discovers how high-protein foods enable research into athletic performance. Research has shown that athletes perform high-intensity sports training for a long time, in a state of high-intensity competition, the body’s energy metabolism is strong, and the protein consumption rate is high; protein foods can preserve protein, water, electrolytes, and other nutrientsand supplement about 71% of the body’s nutrition, and it helps to strengthen muscles, relieve sports fatigue, improve immunity, etc., which is of great significance to athletes.
 
Article
The traditional antidiabetic plant Viscum album (V. album) was collected from the oak plant in the wild at Maidan, Khyber District, of Pakistan, for assessment of its antidiabetic potential and phytochemical profile. Lowering of blood glucose level, antioxidant effect, lipids profile, liver function marker enzymes, and kidney function markers were evaluated in extract and glibenclamide treated groups, in normal as well as in diabetic control groups. An elevated level of blood glucose level, lipids (Cholesterol, TG, LDL), liver function marker enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP), and kidney function markers (bilirubin, creatinine, urea) were observed in alloxan-induced diabetic rats; however, a HDL level was decreased. Administration of V. album hydroalcoholic extract for 28 days renovated significantly ( p < 0.05 ) all the above biochemical parameters. The antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, and GPX were also considerably restored. In vitro, antioxidant assay indicated that the extract of 2,000 µg/mL scavenges free radicals of DPPH 68.4%, ABTS 69.5%, and H2O2 50.6%. The extracts revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpene, tannins, phenols, protein, amino acids, sterols, and glycosides. The extract has shown phenolic contents 421 ± 4.8 mg GAE/100 g d. w and flavonoids content 127 ± 1.4 mg equiv. Rut/100 g d. w. The findings of this research recommend V. album could be a potent source of natural antidiabetic constituents.
 
Article
In order to greatly improve the physical function of martial arts athletes, this topic studies the effect of high-protein food on the physical function of martial arts athletes. Forty-five athletes in martial arts events took 5 g of high-protein food every day, 6 times a week for 4weeks, and the left and right forearm, calcaneus bone mineral density, and venous blood was drawn to detect bone metabolism and biochemical indicators related to physical function. The experimental results showed that the bone mineral density of the right calcaneus of male martial arts athletes increased significantly after taking high-protein food, and the bone mineral density of left and right forearms and calcaneus of female martial arts athletes increased significantly. After taking high-protein food, the serum calcium and phosphorus of female athletes and the serum calcium of male athletes were significantly increased. Sex decreased, female athletes significantly decreased serum creatine kinase, and male athletes significantly increased IgM. It can be seen that taking high-protein food for 4 weeks has a certain improvement effect on the bone mineral density of female athletes’ forearm and calcaneus, but has little effect on the bone mineral density of male athletes’ forearm and calcaneus. It can be concluded that high-protein food has no adverse effect on athletes’ bone metabolism, blood biochemical indexes, and immune globulin, and can better maintain the physical function level of martial arts athletes.
 
Article
The term blockchain is mainly regarded as the distributed transaction which is mainly comprised of different blocks, and each set tends to represent the data that are being associated with the previous blocks. The blockchain is mainly managed through peer-to-peer networks which comparatively involves in adhering to the protocol of authenticating various blocks to form the blockchain. The usage of blockchain technology has been increasingly used in different fields, and healthcare services are now using blockchain for better patient delivery, detecting disease, and other aspects. The scope of the proposed study is that this study has exploited the function of a blockchain-enabled big data network to support medical professionals in giving better treatment modalities and delivering better patient care. The application of a new generation of smart block chains such as Ethereum and NEM is now offering better services and features in creating blockchain-based healthcare data management and hence support healthcare centers, medical practitioners, nurses, radiologists, and patients for better healthcare management. The application of blockchain technology in big data networks supports adding more value as it results in enhanced data quality, accessibility, and support in creating better security and safety of data and information, which is highly essential in the medical industry. Blockchain technology enables big data technologies enabled in supporting medical practitioners in addressing various healthcare ailments; one of the major diseases impacting many people around the world is diabetes. Patients with such ailments tend to generate more data and information related to the disease and health-related aspects. Hence, this information requires being maintained and analyzed, so that superior healthcare services can be provided. This study is more involved in the investigation of blockchain technology through a big data network enabled in offering better care for elderly individuals who have been affected due to diabetes, the researchers propose to choose a questionnaire method to collect the data from nearly 169 respondents, and these data were then analyzed using SPSS data package. The analyst used percentage analysis, correlation analysis, and chi-square test to analyze the data which has been collated by the researchers. The results and discussion show in detail the major aspects of blockchain technology in supporting healthcare professionals for better diabetes care management for elderly individuals.
 
Article
In this paper, we built a method of verifying the 4 retinols of vitamin A and 8 tocopherol isomers of vitamin E in the food industry based on RP-HPLC-PDA-FLR. The effect of laboratory light conditions on the target components was considered for the first time, and it was found that the loss rate of the target components was the smallest in the case of a white laboratory bench with red or LED light in the dark room. There was no finding of extraction recoveries of the target components with a significant difference under different saponification conditions. Meanwhile, it was found that using ethyl acetate/n-hexane mixed solvent as the extraction solvent could ensure the effective extraction of the target components. Finally, baseline separation of 12 components was achieved within 45 min using the C30 column. With the help of methodological verification, we found that the recovery rate ranged from 76.45% to 93.52%, and RSD was between 0.19% and 12.99%; the Limit of Detection minimum value was 0.01 mg/100 g and the Limit of Quantitation minimum value was 0.03 mg/100 g. The detection method was successfully applied to the distribution detection of 4 kinds of retinols and 8 kinds of vitamin E in egg and dairy products and provided technical support for the accurate nutritional evaluation of vitamin A and vitamin E.
 
Article
Proteins play an imperative role in enhancing the nutritional status of the human body. The present study was designed to determine the molecular weight of protein isolates prepared from defatted oilseeds, i.e., sesame, flaxseed, and canola, using SDS-PAGE. The electropherogram revealed protein bands ranging from 15 to 65 kDa. Furthermore, proteins were subjected to amino acid profiling followed by calculation of amino acid score with reference to requirements for preschool children. The amino acid profiling results indicated that sesame protein isolates (SPI) exhibited the highest values for aromatic amino acids, histidine, isoleucine, and valine. However, the maximum values for sulfur-containing amino acids were depicted by flaxseed protein isolates (FPI). Moreover, the lysine content was highest in canola protein isolates (CPI). Results indicated better profile and quality of proteins, capable to meet the requirements of essential amino acids, especially for preschoolers. Moreover, the values for the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) were also determined. Conclusively, protein isolates from defatted oilseeds exhibit better-quality proteins with a balanced amino acid profile. By potential utilization in numerous food products, these proteins can play a pivotal role in fulfilling the nutritional requirements of individuals, especially in developing economies.
 
Article
High pressure processing (HPP) is a mild technology alternative to thermal pasteurization and sterilization of different food products. HPP has emerged out to provide enormous benefits to the consumers, i.e., mildly processed food, additive-free food. It is effective in the retention of bioactive compounds and extending the shelf life of food commodities by inactivating bacteria, yeast, mold, and virus. This review summarizes the applications of HPP in different food sector fruits and vegetables, dairy, meat, fish, and poultry sector. It also emphasizes on microbial food safety and effectiveness in load reduction of microorganism. The limitation of HPP in inactivating spores can be overcome by using other thermal and non-thermal processing sequentially or simultaneously with HPP. So, comprehensive information about the synergistic effect of HPP with different techniques and their effectiveness in ensuring food safety is critically reported. The critically summarized data would be very useful to interested researchers and industry personnel.
 
Article
In order to further study the early browning of P. emblica marker and mechanism, it is necessary for us to measure the changes in the content of some substances to find quality markers during the browning process of P. emblica. So, we simulated the storage conditions under different temperatures, including 5°C, 25°C, and 35°C. And, the contents of some of its phenolic compounds were determined by RP-HPLC. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was determined by PPO reagent kits, and pH was determined with a pH measuring instrument, etc. The experimental results showed that 1-galloyl-glucose was the smoothest at 5°C among the three storage temperature conditions. It fluctuates and decreases in a curve at 35°C and 25°C. The content changes of gallic acid (GA) fluctuated more obviously at 35°C, and it showed a maximum value on the 7th day. The content changes of 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (TGG) all showed a peak on the 5th day and then showed a gradual decrease. The content changes of ellagic acid (EA) fluctuated more at 35°C. The peak of the content of rutin at both 35°C and 25°C appeared on the 3rd day, and that showed a gradually decreasing trend. The PPO activity varied more significantly at 25°C and 35°C. The browning index increased with time at both 35°C and 25°C. The complete browning of P. emblica was already observed on the 13th day. Tips for experimental results 5°C are effective in preventing browning of P. emblica. The contents of TGG, 1-galloyl-glucose, and rutin in P. emblica are greatly affected by temperature and time, and its contents had a linear relationship with time and temperature and can be used as one of the indicators of early browning, which provides a reference for the storage and transportation of fresh fruit in Chinese herbals.
 
Article
Aliha is a maize-based traditional fermented beverage prepared and consumed in Ghana, predominantly in the Volta Region and other parts of Ghana. The study sought to characterize the production processes, the nutritional values, and microbial composition of aliha. A total of 126 aliha producers in the Volta, Greater Accra, and Ashanti Regions were sampled using snowballing to identify and to recruit the producers for the study, using a pretested self-administered questionnaire. The physicochemical and microbial composition were carried out using standard methods. Four different production techniques were identified across the production sites. The variations identified during the production existed across the production chain. The main ingredients used for aliha production are corn, caramel, sugar, and water. However, aliha produced by the ‘original’ method (DN2) presented the best nutritional values (proteins, energy, and calcium), followed by backslopping techniques, AG1 (total carbohydrates and ash), and AG2 (fats and oils and phosphorus). Fungi and Enterobacteriaceae dominated the initial fermentation stages (24 h) with low acid values. However, as the fermentation time increased from 24 h to 72 h, the acid contents of the fermenting beverage increased sharply leading to a drastic reduction of fungi and Enterobacteriaceae contents with increasing records of lactic acid bacterial counts. Even though DN2 presented the best nutritional values, it was highly contaminated. Hence, the producers must be encouraged to use backslopping techniques for safety and to shorten the duration of production.
 
ANN architecture.
Performance verification using ANN.
Fit curve with ANN.
Error histogram of ANN.
Article
The aromatic rice represents a smaller but independent rice collection, the quality of which is considered to be highly acceptable. Farmers are interested in growing aromatic rice due to high premium market price. The prime objective of this study was to enhance genetic improvement of aromatic rice. Combining ability analysis (GCA and SCA) and gene action are studied in a set of 7 × 7 half-diallel crosses. Twenty-one hybrids along with their seven parents were assessed in randomized complete block design. Different quantitative characters were used to estimate the magnitude of heterosis. GCA and SCA significance for all traits revealed the importance of both additive and nonadditive genetic components. Several genes determine quantitative traits, with each gene having very little impacts and being easily influenced by environmental factors. Pusa Basmati-1 and Govindobhog were the best combiners among the seven parents. In terms of per se performance, heterosis, and SCA effects on seed yield per plant and important yield qualities, the crosses BM-24 Deharadun Pahari, Baskota × Tulaipanji, and Pusa Basmati-1 × Tulaipanji may be of interest. Because of its interconnected processing properties, ANN can play a critical role in this experiment. As a result, the current study was carried out to collect data and validate it using an artificial neural network (ANN) on the combining ability, gene action, and heterosis involved in the expression of diverse fragrant rice features. Using ANN, the validation of the result was done and it was found that the overall efficiency was approximately 99%.
 
Article
This work presents the application of the NIR technique associated with exploratory analysis of spectral data by main principal components for the discrimination of Amazon cocoa ground seeds. Cocoa samples from different geographic regions of the state of Pará, Brazil (Medicilândia, Tucumã, and Tomé-Açu), were evaluated. The samples collected from each region were divided into four groups distinguished by the treatment applied to the samples, which were fermented (1-with fat and 2-fat-free) and unfermented (3-with moisture and 4-dried). Each set of samples was analyzed separately to identify the influence of moisture, fermentation, and fat on the geographical differentiation of the three regions. From the results obtained, it can be observed that it was not possible to differentiate the samples of seeds not fermented by geographic origin. However, fermentation was crucial for efficient discrimination, providing more defined clusters for each geographic region. The presence of fat in the seeds was a determinant to obtain the best model of geographic discrimination.
 
Promoting fat metabolism of college students.
Change curve of the fat oxidation rate of male and female college students.
Article
In order to solve the problem of fat metabolism and weight loss of college students, this paper puts forward a problem of the influence of sports energy drinks. Energy drink is a combination of sports drinks, energy drinks, and other special functional drinks (such as nutrient drinks with added vitamins and minerals; herbal drinks with Chinese herbal ingredients), a general term for a large category of drinks that provide specific health and nutritional functions for special groups of people. With the continuous improvement of people's consumption level and their constant attention to their own health, the consumption of energy drinks is also increasing. Energy drinks have become a new generation of drinks after carbonated drinks, drinking water, fruit and vegetable juice, and tea. At present, the total annual output of beverages in the world exceeds 300 billion liters, and functional beverages have become the fastest growing beverage varieties. Fat is the main energy supply material for endurance sports. The catabolism of fat during sports is the key link for the body to obtain energy. For the general population, abnormal fat metabolism is the main cause of obesity. In this paper, 10 healthy male and female college students without training experience were used to determine the maximum fat metabolism intensity FATmax. Based on this, the exercise prescription of maximum fat oxidation intensity for 8 weeks was formulated. The functional ability, maximum oxygen uptake, body fat percentage, quiet heart rate, blood pressure, and vital capacity before and after the experiment were measured to observe the exercise effect. The fitness effect of maximum fat metabolism intensity was studied to provide theoretical support for college students’ fitness exercise. The study found that there was no significant difference between boys and girls in the maximum fat oxidation rate and FATmax, and girls’ E. C. and running speed corresponding to FATmax were significantly lower than those of boys. After 8 weeks of exercise prescription exercise of maximum fat metabolism intensity, the E. C. and maximum oxygen uptake of boys and girls increased significantly; quiet heart rate, vital capacity index, and body fat percentage were significantly improved; and the changes in girls were more significant than boys. The results show that there is no gender difference in FATmax. The corresponding exercise intensity (7.22 METs for boys and 5.25 METs for girls) and running speed (9.73 km/h for boys and 8.65 km/h for girls) can be used as a reference for formulating college students’ fitness exercise prescriptions. The fitness exercise prescription based on FATmax can improve cardiopulmonary function and body composition, especially for girls. FATmax can be used as a reference standard for formulating fitness exercise prescriptions.
 
Article
Waxy wheat offers unique benefits in food processing, including improving the smoothness and performance of the product. However, waxy wheat is not yet commercially available. The protein characteristics, including the protein content, subunit distribution, secondary structure, chemical interactions, and microstructure of the gluten, were explored to realize the full potential of waxy wheat. The results showed that the noodles prepared from waxy wheat had a gentle and glutinous texture compared with GY2018 and YM13. Partial-waxy and waxy wheat had a lower gluten index and glutenin macropolymer (GMP) content than GY2018, indicating a reduced gluten strength. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images showed that the starch granules were not securely attached to the partial-waxy and waxy wheat protein matrix. In addition, the waxy protein chains appeared more elongated and they weakened the protein network. In particular, HMW-GS subunit 2 + 12 may be the essential cause of the weak dough from SKN1. Compared with GY2018 and YM13, SKN1 had the highest number of free sulfhydryl groups. Rather than ionic bonds, hydrophobic interactions increased the gluten network in GY2018, YM13, and SKN1. The weak molecular forces in the gluten will result in a soft noodle texture.
 
Article
Shrimp is the white gold of Bangladesh, with the second-highest income source from exporting to foreign countries. Contamination with Salmonella spp. is now one of the significant issues for Bangladesh to export. Proper characterization of the salmonella pathogen is thus necessary to avoid undesirable losses due to the rejection of exported shrimp. In Bangladesh, the present condition of raw shrimp contamination with pathogenic Salmonella serovars and their survival/virulence properties was not adequately characterized. In this study, we collected 43 raw shrimps as samples from different farms in Jashore, Khulna, and Sathkhira regions. We then maintained standard cultural and biochemical protocols for isolating Salmonella strains, followed by the molecular identification of particular Salmonella serovars. The standard method for checking its credibility to form biofilm in 0–10% NaCl, tolerate acid/bile stress likewise in the gastrointestinal tract, and resist antimicrobial pressure was performed individually with the particular pathogenic strains. Our results successfully identified eleven Salmonella strains with three typhimurium serovars and three enteritidis serovars, which have biofilm-forming capability up to 4–8% NaCl, acid/bile habituation alike stomach/small intestine of humans, and resistance against necessary antibiotics generally used in treating human and poultry infection signifying the impending danger in the shrimp industry. While previous studies of Bangladesh successfully isolated Salmonella only presumptively, our research focused mainly on molecular characterization of the human Salmonella pathogen along with important survival and virulent attributes, such as biofilm formation, acid/bile tolerance, and antibiotic resistance of selected S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis strains. Further study with more sampling will be necessary to confer the transmission route of the pathogen from the natural reservoir to the shrimp industry.
 
Article
This study was conducted to assess the effects of boiling, steaming, and oven-cooking on the fatty acid profile, physicochemical composition, and sensory properties of Atlantic salmon fish. The protein content of steamed (18.90%) and oven-cooked (20.59%) salmon was significantly higher than that of boiled (16.69%) and raw fish (14.73%). Analysis of the fatty acids profile revealed that steaming significantly ( p < 0.05 ) influenced the fatty acid contents of Atlantic salmon by recording the lowest SFA and the highest omega-3, omega-6, and PUFA contents. Textural properties such as hardness, gumminess, and chewiness were significantly higher ( p < 0.05 ) in oven-cooked salmon, with steamed salmon having significantly lower and higher values of hardness (75.32 ± 4.73) and springiness (90.56 ± 3.94), respectively. Also, volatile organic compounds, including aldehydes, ketones, and alcohol, were significantly higher ( p < 0.05 ) in oven-cooked and steamed salmon. Additionally, the E-nose sensors analysis showed that S2 and S7 were significantly correlated during oven-cooking and steaming. Furthermore, low-field NMR analysis showed that the values of T21 and T22 relaxation characteristics of raw and cooked samples fluctuated, with steamed salmon having the highest peak values indicating reduced proton mobility and increased freedom of the protons compared to other treatments. Therefore, steaming resulted in the best quality salmon when considering the fatty acid profile, physicochemical composition, and sensory properties of Atlantic salmon fish, suggesting further studies to ascertain its effectiveness compared to modern treatments.
 
Article
In Ethiopia, some plants (Ethiopia kale, Swiss chard, and celery) remain underutilized for human consumption, as information on their nutritional potential remains limited. As a result, the purpose of this study was to determine the proximate, mineral, antinutrient, and phytochemical content of Ethiopia kale (Brassica carinata), Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris), carrot (Daucus carota), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), and cabbage (Brassica oleracea) using standard analytical methods. The moisture, crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, total ash, total carbohydrate, and energy contents were found to be 6.44–16.62%, 6.76–33.64%, 9.19–54.86%, 0.50–4.00%, 1.00–2.75%, 7.28–68.73%, and 141.06–333.28 kcal/100 g, respectively. Ethiopia's kale had a high protein content, while celery had a high fat and fiber content. The calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphorous, potassium, zinc, and sodium content (mg/100 gdb) ranged between 8.00 and 306.00, 8.10–11.83, 0.64–4.85, 11.34–63.00, 2.83–810.00, 0.15–41.65, and 1.50–443.80 mg/100 g, respectively. Swiss chard contained magnesium, potassium, and sodium, whereas celery was high in calcium and iron. The total oxalate, condensed tannin, and phytate (mg/100 gdb) ranged as follows: 0.88–4.92, 138.27–892.19, and 69.14–265.99, respectively. Ethiopia’s kale recorded a comparatively low amount of tannin and phytate. High mineral bioavailability, such as calcium, iron, and zinc, was obtained in Ethiopia kale. The results also showed that Ethiopia's kale contained a good amount of total phenolic and flavonoid content. The findings indicated that Ethiopia kale was a significant source of protein, had low antinutrient content with high mineral bioavailability, and had the potential to formulate nutrient-rich infant and young child foods using staple cereals and pulse grains.
 
Proportion of pasta in flour circulation.
Article
Chinese wheat-based foods have a long history and a wide range of varieties, which is representative of Chinese food culture. Pasta and bread are made of wheat flour, and the characteristics of pasta and bread are closely related to the quality of wheat flour. The quality of wheat is mainly affected by environmental conditions, and different varieties of wheat are suitable for planting in different regions, so the regionalization of wheat is formed. Due to the different quality of wheat and eating habits in different regions of China, the same kind of wheat-based foods has different flavors in different regions, such as steamed bread, noodles, and stuffed buns. The regional characteristics of food are also formed between different regions. For example, Naan. With the changes in Chinese people’s eating habits and consumption level, there are more and more types of wheat-based foods, which are developing in the direction of industrialization. This review clarifies the wheat planting regionalization in China, giving an insight into the relationship between different wheat quality and the variety of traditional wheat-based foods, describing the types and regional distribution of traditional wheat-based food products in China. Moreover, the types of wheat-based foods are classified and whose characteristics are introduced, and the consumption trend of wheat-based foods in China is elaborated.
 
Article
Pearl millet crop, reputed as one of the most important food sources cultivated in arid and semiarid parts of Africa and Asia, is known to be a source of many bioactive molecules with potential health-promoting properties. In Tunisia, this crop presented historically rich and diversified germplasm, which is being threatened by genetic erosion. The preservation programs of these species have been held for more than 20 years via participatory breeding schemes. A prospection was undertaken to collect pearl millet cultivars preserved in the last two decades from south-eastern Tunisian farmers to estimate their variability and performances. The aim of this study was to assess the profiles of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacities, mineral composition, and dietary fiber contents of ten pearl millet cultivars in south-eastern Tunisia. The total phenolics and flavonoids in the free fraction ranged from 506.33 to 1287.71 µg.g−1 DM ferulic acid equivalent (FAE) and 4.17 to 12.53 µg.g−1 DM catechin equivalent (CE), respectively. The highest polyphenolic content from all genotypes was 1134.96 µg·g−1 DM (genotype Med.AG1.3). LC-MS analysis of individual phenol compounds allowed the identification of eight phenolic acids in millet grains. The quinic acid, p-coumaric acid, and caffeic acid were predominant phenolic acids, and six flavonoid compounds with cirsiliol and silymarin were the predominant flavonoids. The ranges of mineral contents variation were 693.10 to 1075.40 and 80.75 to 175.40 μg·g−1 for Ca and Mg, respectively, and 9.55 to 32.80, 0.75 to 8.60, 1.84 to 12.21, and 3.63 to 11.40 μg·g−1 for Na, Zn, Cu, and Fe, respectively. The content of NDF, ADF, and ADL per dry weight varied from 20 to 31%, 1 to 4.2%, and 0.4 to 2.3%, respectively. Overall, considering the variability among the assessed attributes, heatmap analysis showed the association between each of the traits as related to the clustered genotypes.
 
Article
With the improvement of living standards, consumers’ demand for wheat food is gradually diversified. Biscuit, as a kind of convenience food, becomes a consumer’s leisure snack due to its characteristics such as low processing cost, easy-to-carry and convenient-to-eat traits, long shelf life, diverse varieties, and rich tastes, which have attracted more and more people. Biscuits are composed of four main ingredients, which are flour, fat/oil, sugar, and water, whereas several secondary ingredients also are important sources of high molecular carbohydrates, plant proteins, vitamins, and minerals for human beings. In this study, we systematically summarized the related research of biscuits, including the main types of China’s biscuits, the market demands, and statistics of wheat planting, production, and import in recent ten years, as well as the research of soft wheat breeding for biscuit. The flour consumption of biscuit industry has been maintained at more than 4 million tons, accounting for more than 30% of the flour consumption in food industry. The planting area of wheat in China has stabilized around 22.8 million hectares in 2010–2020, while the yield of wheat has increased 18.0% (20.86 million t) due to the increase of yield per unit of wheat. China’s total annual pastry import bill increased 5 times and the gap between import and export bill of pastry has been increased more than 7 times from 2010 to 2020, suggesting the strong demand of the national pastry market. This research also provides a direction for the future breeding of special soft wheat for biscuits in China.
 
Article
Herbal treatments’ efficacy, safety, and mild side effects are also high priorities in primary care. Furthermore, as the world’s population expands, food production becomes more difficult. We need to use innovative biotechnology-based fertilization technologies to boost food production output. Gloriosa superba is one of the most well-known plants for its antibacterial and medicinal capabilities. The money plant is also known as the Gloriosa superba. We used a deep learning-based convolution neural network (CNN) classifier model to optimize the CNN algorithm parameter for better prediction. The enhanced particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique was used for optimization. Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) was used to extract the fungal spotted area. Digital camera with a high resolution acquires 300 dataset photographs from different villages in India for this investigation. Using a real-time fungal-affected image to train and test the model, different parametric measures are used to assess the model’s performance. The categorization accuracy obtained in this experiment was 99.32 percent.
 
Article
In recent years, agricultural image processing research has been a key emphasis. Image processing techniques are used by computers to analyze images. New advancements in image capture and data processing have simplified the resolution of a wide range of agricultural concerns. Crop disease classification and identification are crucial for the agricultural industry's technical and commercial well-being. In agriculture, image processing begins with a digital color picture of a diseased leaf. Plant health and disease detection must be monitored on a regular basis in property agriculture. Plant diseases have had a tremendous impact on civilization and the Earth as a whole. Extensions of detection strategies and classification methods try to identify and categorize each ailment that affects the plant rather than focusing on a single disease among several illnesses and symptoms. is article describes a new support vector machine and image processing-enabled approach for detecting and classifying grape leaf disease. e given architecture includes steps for image capture, denoising, enhancement, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, and detection. Image denoising is conducted using the mean function, image enhancement is performed using the CLAHE method, pictures are segmented using the fuzzy C Means algorithm, features are retrieved using PCA, and images are eventually classed using the PSO SVM, BPNN, and random forest algorithms. e accuracy of PSO SVM is higher in performing classification and detection of grape leaf diseases.
 
Article
Different formulations of chitosan (1%, 2%, or 3%) with the incorporation of cinnamon oil (0.25% or 0.50%) were prepared for the preservation of pomegranate aril cv. Bhagwa. Six combinations of chitosan-cinnamon oil formulations along with one control (untreated) were applied to the freshly extracted arils using the dipping application method. All treatments were found to be effective in enhancing the shelf life, improving the postharvest characteristics, and reducing microbial populations on pomegranate arils during a 15-day storage period at 4 ± 1°C. e treated pomegranate arils exhibited excellent resistance to microbial decay, moisture loss, respiration rate, preservation of phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidants activity, among other characteristics. Chitosan 2% + cinnamon oil 0.25% edible coating has a high potential to enhance the storage life and biochemical properties and reduce the microbial population of arils. is treatment recorded a higher total phenolic content (18%) and antioxidant activity (16%) than the control sample, respectively, at the end of storage. In addition, the treatment also helped to decrease the microbial activity by 45% compared to the control sample. e present investigation proposed an alternative method to prolong the shelf life of pomegranate arils during the 15 days of storage.
 
Article
Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was chosen to isolate secondary natural compounds from Nonea pulmonarioides. MAE is an efficient approach compared to maceration. In our study of N. pulmonarioides, the Folin–Ciocalteu and trichloroaluminum techniques were used to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Antioxidant activity was determined by the β-carotene/linoleic acid test. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was measured using the microwell dilution assay method. Overall, MAE may represent a substantially faster extraction system (5 min) with an even greater extraction yield than maceration extraction (24 h). Phytochemical screening indicated the existence of classes of several secondary metabolites. The methanol extract had a high total phenolic content (TPC) of 113.33 ± 1.06 μg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mg of dry plant weight, while the total flavonoid content (TFC) in the acetone extract was 44.26 ± 0.88 μg of quercetin equivalent (QE)/mg of the dry plant. The antioxidant activity data correlated well with the acetone extract (32.41 ± 0.93, I%) compared to the other extracts. The antimicrobial assay (MIC) results showed high activity of the extract against Candida albicans for the petroleum ether extract, which was significantly higher than against other microorganisms. The quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis of the extracts confirmed that the most abundant compound in the methanol extract was ethyl tridecanoate (45.94%), while nonadecane was the predominant compound in the acetone (35.7%) and the petroleum ether (18.34%) extracts.
 
Results of the proximate analysis, soluble protein, and water solubility.
Chromatogram of GCMS.
Article
The potential of mandai cempedak (Artocarpus champeden) powder to be mixed with other abundant raw materials such as oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) as a flavoring ingredient is an exciting thing to study as a unique flavor source for the archipelago. This study aims to observe panelist acceptance, proximate characteristics of amino acid, volatile compounds, and color profiles on five mixed formulas of fermented cempedak (Artocarpus champeden) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) seasoning. The five seasoning formulas combine 30–70% flavored mushroom powder and 30–70% mandai cempedak powder with control of commercial mushroom powder and pure mandai powder. Hedonic quality assessment on seasoning samples of flavored mushroom powder and mandai cempedak powder played a more critical role in the acceptance of the final product, with a slightly reddish yellow color tendency with a paleness level of around 66–67%. Seasoning samples had a savory taste with dominant amino acid profiles of ileusine (1.46%, w/w), glutamate (1.37%), methionine (0.82%), and aspartic acid (0.72%). All seasoning formulations of flavored mushroom and mandai cempedak powder have a moisture content of 8.4–10.9%, total protein 7.0–9.0%, soluble protein 2.4–3.5%, ash content 4.5–19.2%, fat content 2.3–4.5%, carbohydrates 62.7–79.4%, and the solubility is 31.0–89.4%. The dominant volatile compounds in seasoning are heptanone, dodecoxyethanol, and etradecyloxyethanol with pleasant aroma profiles, pungent fruity, green, citrus, and herbal. In conclusion, mandai cempedak powder to be mixed with other abundant raw materials such as oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) can be used as a typical Indonesian flavor ingredient with unique characteristics in terms of its amino acid content, volatile compounds, and essential oils.
 
Pasting curves of waxy rice flours treated with (a) distilled water or AgNO3 and (b) distilled water or DTT. VI: Vietnam indica; JI: Jiangxi indica; AJ: Anhui japonica; DJ: Dongbei japonica.
Pasting curves of waxy rice flours treated with (a) distilled water or AgNO3 and (b) distilled water or DTT. VI: Vietnam indica; JI: Jiangxi indica; AJ: Anhui japonica; DJ: Dongbei japonica.
Pasting curves of AgNO3-treated waxy rice flours with or without protease. Vietnam indica (VI); Jiangxi indica (JI); Anhui japonica (AJ); Dongbei japonica (DJ).
X-ray diffraction patterns (a) and amylopectin chain-length distributions (b) of various waxy rice starches. Vietnam indica (VI); Jiangxi indica (JI); Anhui japonica (AJ); Dongbei japonica (DJ).
X-ray diffraction patterns (a) and amylopectin chain-length distributions (b) of various waxy rice starches. Vietnam indica (VI); Jiangxi indica (JI); Anhui japonica (AJ); Dongbei japonica (DJ).
Article
Waxy rice has a long history of being cultivated and consumed in China. In this study, the effect of different factors including α-amylase activity, protein, and amylopectin structure on the pasting properties of four waxy rice varieties were investigated. Rice flours were divided into four groups (Vietnam indica (VI), Jiangxi indica (JI), Anhui japonica (AJ), and Dongbei japonica (DJ) group) and treated with AgNO3 solution, DL-dithiothreitol (DTT), or protease (n = 3). Results suggested that both α-amylase activity and protein significantly decrease the pasting viscosity of waxy rice flours. Chain length distribution of amylopectin as measured by high performance ion exchange chromatography (HPAEC-PAD) showed that starch with a higher ratio of short chain leads to a higher pasting viscosity. X-Ray diffractograms showed that the crystal type of all the four varieties of rice starches were characteristic A-type. Relative crystallinity of each rice starch was further calculated, and higher crystallization resulted in a higher viscosity. Our study would provide a fundamental knowledge of the relationship between different factors and waxy starch pasting properties, as well as be a reference for controlling the quality of waxy rice starch-based food products.
 
Multiple factorial analysis (MFA) of CATA data. (a) Representation of the terms used to describe the three mixed juice prepared with ACMP obtained by the different drying methods (spouted bed drying, spray-drying, and freeze-drying) and their acceptance and (b) representation of mixed juice obtained by ACMPs.
Multiple factorial analysis (MFA) of CATA data. (a) Representation of the terms used to describe the three mixed juice prepared with ACMP obtained by the different drying methods (spouted bed drying, spray-drying, and freeze-drying) and their acceptance and (b) representation of mixed juice obtained by ACMPs.
Article
Fruit mixed pulp has the objective of improving the nutritional and sensorial characteristics, as well as the development of new flavours and aromas. Different methods of drying (e.g., spray-drying, spouted bed drying, and freeze-drying) can influence the quality of the final product. The objective of this study was to select the drying method that enables the production of acerola-ceriguela mixed pulp (ACMP) with higher quality. For this selection, the powder pulps were evaluated for their physicochemical characteristics (water activity, moisture, soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA), SS/TA, and instrumental colour), retention of the bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, and phenolic compounds), and sensory evaluation (acceptance, check-all-that-apply (CATA), and intent to purchase). The physicochemical characteristics of the freeze-dried and spray-dried ACMP were nonsignificant p>0.05 but differed significantly p>0.05 from spouted bed powder. ACMP freeze-drying powder resulted in higher retention of ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, and phenolic compounds. The powder obtained by spray-drying showed higher retention of bioactive compounds compared to the spouted bed drying. Therefore, this study suggests that powder obtained by freeze-drying resulted in greater sensorial acceptance.
 
Article
The present work aimed to determine the difference in the chemical composition of essential oils isolated from two parts of Cupressus arizonica and to evaluate their in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. The yields of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the leaves and cones were 0.85% and 1.29%, respectively. The chemical analysis of the constituents of the two essential oils of Cupressus arizonica was carried out by using the GC and GC/MS techniques. The results of this analysis show that the leaves are dominated by cis-muurola-4 (14), 5-diene (21.27%), umbellulone (19.88%), α-pinene (9.39%), and α-muurolene (7.87%7); on the other hand, the cones are rich in α-pinene (51.07%) accompanied by other variable content constituents, myrcene (17.92%), limonene (9.66%), β-pinene (4.92%), meta-cymenene (2.6%), and α-terpineol (2.38%). The antimicrobial activity against four bacterial strains, four wood decay fungi, and three mould strains were determined using the agar-agar dispersion method. The studied essential oils exhibited moderate antimicrobial properties, which demonstrates the sensibility of all strains tested with the exception of wood rot fungi to which they do not have activity against all concentrations tested. The dosage of antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH scavenging and ferric ion reducing power (FRAP). The results indicate that the essential oils from cones of Cupressus arizonica possess a strong antioxidant activity (lower IC50) IC50 = 0.098 ± 0.008/EC50 = 0.646 ± 0.02) in comparison with those from the leaves (IC50 = 5.297 ± 0.09/EC50 = 2.335 ± 0.36). The results suggest that both essential oils could be used as a source of treatment for bacterial infections and also as natural antioxidant substances.
 
Publication trend on CSR in the food industry.
Top eight organizations on CSR in the food industry.
Co-citation analysis by cited references (VOSviewer).
Hot areas of research on CSR in the food industry by co-word analysis (CiteSpace).
Mapping of the hot research studies based on co-word analysis on the corporate social responsibility in the food industry published in 1993–2019.
Article
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the food industry has received increasing attention in recent years. Many scholars have paid attention to case studies and other empirical analyses in this field, but there is no systematic or scientific literature review. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the knowledge structure, research hotspots, and development history in CSR in the food industry. After searching, screening, and commenting, 498 articles were left for citation analysis, co-citation analysis, and co-word analysis. The main findings of the research are as follows: (1) The overall development status of the research in the field. The analysis of the three fields that constitute the knowledge structure. (2) Research in this field has become a hot spot, but the research is rather scattered, and the scholars and experts do not have a special research core. (3) The keywords’ cluster results in 9 clustering tags, which are further grouped into 7 groups. The research of the scholars focuses on the food supply chain, consumer perception, and social media communication. (4) The research topics in this field focus on environmental responsibility, nutrition and health, and food safety. The research results show that future research should be more in-depth and reflect the new characteristics of the Internet, digitalization, and big data.
 
Map showing the study area and honey sampling areas.
Some of the pollen grains/types identified in honey samples.
Article
This study assessed the physicochemical properties and floral sources (botanical origin) of sixteen honey samples collected from beekeepers in five clusters surrounding the Marsabit Forest Reserve (MFR) in northern Kenya. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the differences in physicochemical properties of honey, while relative frequencies of pollen types in each honey sample were calculated and expressed as percentages. The mean physicochemical parameter values were moisture, 18.09 ± 0.86%; total reducing sugars, 73.03 ± 1.00%; apparent sucrose, 2.43 ± 0.66%; acidity, 20.25 ± 0.86 meq/kg; hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), 11.01 ± 5.39 mg/kg. All parameter values were within limits set in the East African Standard, Codex Alimentarius, and the European Union directive standards for honey. Pollen analysis showed a total of 108 pollen types representing 55 families and 97 genera. The highest represented family in the honey samples was Euphorbiaceae. The study recommends the further uptake of apiculture and the training and facilitation of honey producers, processors, and traders on quality assurance and certification of honey to make them competitive in the markets beyond the local level.
 
Article
To ensure production of quality malt that conforms to brewing requirements, the barley used should have minimal postharvest dormancy and be able to germinate rapidly and uniformly. The objective of the study was to compare the changes in seed germination, vigour trends, and storage stability of two-row Zimbabwean commercially grown malting barley varieties (Hope and Sierra), as the postharvest storage time increased. The two varieties were stored for 12 months, and at monthly intervals, germination index, capacity, and energy were determined. In addition, other quality parameters (protein content, screening, moisture content, water sensitivity, and insect damage index) were also assessed. Hope’s germination index improved with an increase in storage time from 8.67 at the beginning of the study to 9.18 at the end of the study, while that for Sierra diminished with storage from 9.35 to 6.71. Generally, water sensitivity improved with postharvest storage for both varieties. However, the germination energy for Hope diminished with increased postharvest storage compared to Sierra. Hope variety is the more suitable variety for extended postharvest storage than Sierra. However, Sierra variety is more suitable for early malting postharvest storage.
 
Article
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a nutritious pseudocereal that is more stress-tolerant compared with traditional cereals. It is an excellent example of a climate-smart crop that is more resilient to climate change compared with barley. The purpose of the study was to investigate the optimum malting conditions required to produce quinoa malt using barley as a control. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the influence of the two malting parameters steeping time and germination time on Brix (wort extract), diastatic power (DP), and free amino nitrogen (FAN) of the malt. The temperature was set at 15°C during the steeping process. Steeping time ranging from 12 to 48 hours and germination time ranging from 24 to 96 hours were designed using a central composite design (CCD). The kilning temperature for all malts was 65°C. For quinoa malt, there was a notable weak positive correlation between germination time and Brix (r = +0.119). However, there was a strong positive correlation between steeping time and diastatic power (r = +0.893). A similar trend was noted for barley with a weak positive correlation between germination time and Brix (r = +0.142). A strong positive correlation was also recorded between steeping time and diastatic power (r = +0.897) during the malting of barley. There was a relatively stronger correlation between steeping time and FAN (r = +0.895) than germination time and FAN (r = +0.275) in quinoa malt. The optimum values for the malting of barley were 47.68 hrs steeping time and 82.55 hrs germination time with a desirability value of 1.00. The responses for the optimised barley malt were 8.25°Bx, 162.28 mg/L, and 271.69°L for Brix, FAN, and diastatic power, respectively. To produce quinoa malt with Brix, FAN, and diastatic power of 8.37°Bx, 165.60 mg/L, and 275.86°L, respectively, malting conditions of 47.69 hrs steeping time and 95.81 hrs germination time are required. It was noted that quinoa is a very good candidate for producing high-quality malt for the brewing process.
 
Map of the Volta region of Ghana showing Ho municipality. Credit: [33, 34].
Article
Aflatoxins have gained so much reputation among all mycotoxins due to their notoriety in causing countless adverse health effects on humans as well as animals. It continues to be a major concern in food safety globally. In this study, total and constitutive aflatoxins levels as well as the carcinogenic risks posed by 110 food and feed samples (55 cereals, 20 nuts and oils, 18 animal feed, and 18 fruits and vegetables) collected from the Ho Central market in the Volta region, Ghana, were assessed. Using high-performance liquid chromatography connected to a fluorescent detector (HPLC-FLD), levels of total aflatoxins (AFtotal) and aflatoxins constituents, namely, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2, were analyzed. By using the model prescribed by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), the risks posed by the food and feed samples were determined. The degrees of toxicity were in the ranges of 0.78–234.73 μg/kg, 0.47–21.6 μg/kg, 1.01–13.75 μg/kg, and 0.66–5.51 μg/kg, respectively, for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2. Out of the samples analyzed for AFtotal, about 51 (46.4%) exceeded the limits of GSA and were in the range 10.63 ± 1.20–236.28 ± 4.2 μg/kg. While for EFSA, 71 (64.54%) exceeded and ranged between 4.72 ± 0.28 and 236.28 ± 4.2 μg/kg. Furthermore, estimated daily intake (EDI) of 27.10–283.70 ng/kg·bw/day, margin of exposure (MOE) of 1.409–14.76, average potency of 0–0.00396 ng aflatoxins/kg·bw/day, and cancer risks with a range of 0.107–1.122 cases/100,000 person/yr were observed. Taken together, it could be concluded that consuming cereals pose adverse effects on human health regardless of the age of the consumer.
 
Article
In an agriculture sector, the quality of several raw crops depends upon the time factor. After harvesting, it is necessary to bring the crops either to cold storage or directly to customer though wholesale dealers. Keeping crops in cold storage decrease the nutrition value and also increase the overall cost of the crop leading to price hike. So, it will be best if the crops are put in the market as soon as possible. is can only be possible if the logistic system is updated and can handle the real-time requirement of agriculture product transport. is study investigates and highlights the possible IoT-based logistic support using artificial intelligence for the farmers such that a fast corridor is created between farmers' lands to end-user customers. is will benefit the farmers in twofold ; first, it will increase the revenue of farmers by decreasing the time span avoiding cold storage fees, and second, it will maintain the quality of crops.
 
Better protection of data.
Low implementation cost.
Article
e growing need for access to safer food items is increasing, and hence, there is a need for a better supply chain management system in the food industry is increasing. e increased complexity of the existing systems tends to introduce more issues to the stakeholders, and also, the cost of product traceability is quite high. Hence, the industry is looking for effective solutions in relation to drug traceability, and the application of Blockchain technology enables the stakeholders in the food and beverage (F&B) sector to track the movement of goods, supported in gathering the required details so that the contaminated products can be identified and recalled without much delay and lesser recall costs to protect the lives of the individuals. e tampered food items are increasing and are impacting the supply chain process, brand name of the companies, and claim assurance. ey create an adverse impact on the health of the individuals and cause higher economic loss to the health-care industry. e existing studies tend to focus on laying emphasis of the need for an enhanced, effective, and end tracking systems in the industry. e emergence of Blockchain technology enables centralized tracking of information support in enhancing the data privacy and increasing transparency and support in eradicating the tampered food products in the supply chain system. ese approaches leverage the usage of smart contracts and decentralize the storage of information in a secure manner for enhanced product traceability in the F&B industry. e implementation of smart contracts generates better data governance, which tends to meet the needs and requirements of the stakeholders, and applies effective measures of food traceability. e primary objective of the study is to perform an analysis of Blockchain in enhancing drug traceability in the food sector. e researcher uses quantitative analysis for the study as it helps in understanding the critical determinants influencing drug traceability in food effectively, the survey method is used to gather the information, and past reviews are also used to possess a better understanding of the subject area effectively.
 
Article
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease of global concern characterized by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Many studies found that glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that can alleviate hyperglycemia and T2D. Recently, probiotics and their combination with prebiotics have been found to show great potentials of blood glucose regulation and T2D alleviation. Given the important role of GLP-1 in T2D, screening probiotics with the capacity of promoting GLP-1 secretion is of great help for providing a novel application of T2D treatment. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of three probiotics, namely, Lactobacillus paracasei LC-37 (LC-37), Bifidobacterium animals MN-Gup (MN-Gup), and Bifidobacterium longum BBMN68 (BBMN68), and their combination with prebiotics on promoting GLP-1 secretion using NCI-H716 cells. The results showed that LC-37 and MN-Gup could stimulate more GLP-1 secretion in NCI-H716 cells, but BBMN68 had no significant effect. Further evaluation suggested that the two combinations of LC-37 with isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO) and MN-Gup with galactooligosaccharide (GOS) had the best performance on promoting GLP-1 secretion in vitro. Subsequently, the effects of the two combinations on promoting GLP-1 secretion and alleviating T2D were investigated in vivo using high fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ) treated rats. The results showed that the two combinations could significantly reduce fasting blood glucose levels, improve insulin resistance, and modulate serum lipid profiles in HFD/STZ-treated rats. These results will help understand the potential of promoting GLP-1 secretion of LC-37 and MN-Gup and provide theoretical basis for their applications in fermented milk or other foods.
 
Article
Skin cancer is one of the most common types of cancer that has a high mortality rate. Majorly, two types of skin cancer are the most common, which are melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Each year, approximately 55% of individuals die due to skin cancer. Early detection of skin cancer enhances the survival rate of individuals. There are various antioxidants like vitamins C, E, and A, zinc, and selenium present in various foods that can be helpful in preventing skin cancer. “Deep Learning” (DL) is an effective method to detect cancerous lesions. The study’s purpose is to comprehend the vital function performed by DL methods in supporting healthcare professionals in easier skin cancer detection using big data networks. The present research analyzes the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of “Convolutional Neural Network” (CNN) for DL in the early detection of skin cancer. A statistical analysis has been done with IBM SPSS software to understand how the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of CNN change with the change in image number, augmentation number, epochs, and resolution of images. These factors have been considered independent variables, and accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity have been considered the dependent variables. After that, a linear regression analysis was carried out to obtain t and p values. The major scope of the study is to analyze the major role played by the DL models through the big data network in the medical industry. The researchers also found that when additional characteristics are present, image resolution does not have the potential to reduce image accuracy, specificity, or sensitivity. The scope of the study is more focused on using a DL-based big data network for supporting healthcare workers in detecting skin cancer at an early stage and the role of technology in supporting medical practitioners in rendering better treatment. Findings showed that the number of training images increases the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of CNN architecture when various and effective augmentation techniques are used. Image resolution did not show any significant relationship with accuracy. The number of epochs positively affected the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity; however, more than 98% accuracy has been observed with epochs between 50 and 70.
 
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Chronic diabetes among adults is a public health concern and clinicians are trying to implement new strategies to effectively manage the disease. Traditionally, healthcare professionals are used to monitor and track the lab reports of patients. After that, they used to provide respective medicines and lifestyle plans to manage the chronic disease. e lifestyle of the patients and access to safe and secure food products is also responsible for developing chronic diseases. us, the Internet of ings (IoT) has taken an utmost interest in managing diabetes. is research is going to analyze the accuracy of IoT in assisting chronic diabetes management and determining food safety. To accomplish the research objectives, the researchers performed a linear regression analysis to understand whether IoT devices and Artificial Intelligence (AI) assist in assessing food safety and diabetes management. e independent variables selected were lab test values, treatment records, epoch size of AI, and image resolution of the training dataset. Dependent variables were the accuracy of IoT. Here, the accuracy of IoT and AI has been determined. Moreover, the accuracy of clinicians in diabetes management has been observed. It has been found that clinicians have high variance in accuracy (max 99%) whereas machines have limited variance in accuracy (max. 98%). Secondary research identified that clinicians need to be involved along with IoT devices for better management of this chronic disease and help patients by providing the safest food options.
 
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Rice is an essential primary food crop in the world, and it plays a significant part in the country’s economy. It is the most often eaten stable food and is in great demand in the market as the world’s population continues to expand. Rice output should be boosted to fulfil the growing demand. As a result, the yield of plant crops diminishes, creating an environment conducive to the spread of infectious illnesses. To boost the production of agricultural fields, it is necessary to remove plant diseases from the environment. (is study presents ways for recognising three types of rice plant diseases, as well as a healthy leaf, in rice plants. (is includes image capture, image preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction, and classification of three rice plant illnesses, as well as classification of a healthy leaf, among other techniques. Following the K-means segmentation, the features are extracted utilising three criteria, which are colour, shape, and texture, to generate a final product. Colour, shape, and texture are the parameters used in the extraction of the features. It is proposed that a novel intensity-based technique is used to retrieve colour features from the infected section, whereas the form parameters of the infected section, such as the area and diameter, and the texture characteristics of the infected section are extracted using a grey-level co-occurrence matrix. (e colour features are retrieved depending on the characteristics of the features. All three previous techniques were surpassed by the proposed fuzzy logic-based probabilistic neural network on a range of performance metrics, with the new network obtaining greater accuracy. Finally, the result is validated using the fivefold cross-validation method, with the final accuracy for the diseases such as bacterial leaf blight, brown spot, healthy leaf, and rice blast being 95.20 percent, 97.60 percent, 99.20 percent, and 98.40 percent, respectively, and 95.40 percent for the disease brown spot.
 
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Fupenzi (Rubus chingii Hu) is a dried and immature fruit in East China, which has effects of nourishing kidneys, solidifying essence, and otherwise. Because Fupenzi was often adulterated and replaced with inferior things, this paper had researched Fupenzi and its adulterant raspberry. A new type of visible sensor was constructed by using Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), which was modified by the surface-active agent and combined with the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum technology. It was found that the change in particle size after the interaction of AuNPs and adulterants will lead to color change. In this paper, the RGB (red, green, and blue) values of the solution were extracted to correlate the color with the concentration of adulterants, and the relationship between the absorption peak intensity and the concentration of adulterants was established. The results showed that the intensity of an absorption peak is related to adulteration concentration, and the color of the solution changed from red to gray as the particle size changed. The visual sensor constructed based on the above principle is a fast and precise method to detect adulteration with different concentrations, which has a potential application value in real-time and rapid detection of Fupenzi’s quality.
 
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Balangu (Lallemantia royleana) seed oil is a valuable source of omega-6 fatty acids that reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Due to the high sensitivity of this oil to environmental factors, microencapsulation has been recommended to preserve valuable compounds of oils and prevent adverse environmental effects. In this study, the oil of balangu seeds was extracted using a combination of ultrasound and shaking incubation and was microencapsulated using an emulsification method. The process was optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM). For this purpose, the effect of three independent variables such as chitosan concentration (0–1.5%), sodium alginate concentration (0–4.5%), and pH (3–7) on emulsification and microencapsulation condition was analyzed. The results showed that the optimal conditions for emulsification and microencapsulation included 0.30% chitosan, 0.14% sodium alginate, and pH 3. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the structure of the optimal sample was smooth, spherical, and without cracks, which confirms the success of emulsification and microencapsulation processes.
 
Article
Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and is crucial in the economy of many developing countries. e search to improve coffee quality comes from many fronts, as do the many ways to measure quality and the factors that affect it. Several techniques are used to measure the different metrics to assess coffee quality, across different types of coffee samples and species, and throughout the entire process from farm to cup. In this work, we conducted a systematic mapping study of 1,470 articles to identify the aspects of quality that are the most important in the scientific literature to evaluate coffee throughout the processing chain. e study revealed that cup quality and biochemical composition are the most researched quality attributes. e main objective of the reviewed studies is the correlation between different quality measurements. e most used techniques are the analytical chemistry methods. e most studied species is Coffea arabica. e most used sample presentation is green coffee. e postharvest stage is the most researched, in which quality control receives more attention. In the preharvest stage, management practices stand out. Finally, the most used type of research was the evaluation research.
 
Journal metrics
16 days
Submission to first decision
87 days
Submission to final decision
18 days
Acceptance to publication
38%
Acceptance rate
$2,300
APC
3.200 (2021)
Journal Impact Factor™
4 (2021)
CiteScore
Top-cited authors
H. Russell Cross
  • Texas A&M University
Mary Susan Brewer
  • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Robert L Shewfelt
  • University of Georgia
Vo Bui Anh
  • Ton Duc Thang University
Hoang Chinh Nguyen
  • Ton Duc Thang University