Wiley

Journal of Food Biochemistry

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1745-4514
Discipline: Food Science & Technology
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Aims and scope

The Journal of Food Biochemistry publishes fully peer-reviewed original research and review papers on the effects of handling, storage, and processing on the biochemical aspects of food tissues, systems, and bioactive compounds in the diet.

Researchers in food science, food technology, biochemistry, and nutrition, particularly based in academia and industry, will find much of great use and interest in the journal.

 

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Recent publications
Schematic illustration of the experimental design.
LC–MS/MS fingerprint of beetroot juice. (+)‐ESI base peak (upper panel) and UPLC‐PDA (lower panel). Data was acquired via a thermo LTQ orbitrap XL mass spectrometer and an Acquity UPLC system with a BEH C18 (1.7 μm; 50 × 2.1 mm) column and a CH3CN/H2O (acidified with 0.1% formic acid) gradient that started with 15:85 then increased linearly to 100% CH3CN within 8 min.
Effect of beetroot juice intake on inflammatory cells in allergen‐driven murine model of asthma. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected and analyzed for (a) Total inflammatory cells, (b) eosinophils, (c) neutrophils, (d) lymphocytes, and (e) monocytes. Values represent the mean ± SEM of data from 10–12 mice in each group. p < .05 was considered statistically significant.
Effect of beetroot juice intake on (a) IL‐10, (b) IL‐13, and (c) IL‐18 levels in an allergen‐ driven murine model of asthma. Values represent the mean ± SEM of data from 10–12 mice in each group. p < .05 was considered statistically significant.
Effect of beetroot juice intake on (a) glutathione peroxidase (GPx), (b) catalase, and (c) thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in the lung tissues homogenate of allergen‐driven murine model of asthma. Values represent the mean ± SEM of data from 10–12 mice in each group. p < .05 was considered statistically significant.
Article
The effects of beetroot juice on airways inflammation, cytokine levels, and oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated using an allergen‐induced murine model of asthma. Ovalbumin (OVA)‐sensitized and challenged BALB/c mice were used as an asthma model. BALB/c mice were randomly assigned into four groups: control (Ova sensitization and normal saline challenge), control and beetroot (Ova sensitization and normal saline challenge plus beetroot juice), Ova S/C [Ova sensitization and challenge (Ova S/C)], Ova S/C and beetroot juice (Ova S/C plus beetroot juice). The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed for total and differential inflammatory cells count. The levels of cytokines [interleukin (IL)‐10, IL‐13, and IL‐18], and oxidative stress biomarkers [glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)] were analyzed in the lung tissue. Simultaneous administration of beetroot juice and Ova S/C significantly increased the total inflammatory cells compared to the control (p = .0001) and Ova S/C (p = .013) groups and significantly increased the number of eosinophils (p ˂ .0001) and macrophages (p ˂ .0001) compared to the control. Moreover, the simultaneous administration of beetroot juice and Ova S/C did not affect the level of IL‐10, IL‐13, IL‐18, GPx, or TBARS compared to the control (p > .05), but it significantly increased the level of catalase (p = .002). Results suggest that beetroot juice aggravates asthma by enhancing airway inflammation. However, it does not affect airway inflammation in healthy mice. Practical applications Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease that is characterized by variable degrees of airways inflammation and obstruction. Paradox data are reported in the literature regarding beetroot and asthma. The present study revealed that beetroot juice exacerbates asthma by enhancing airway inflammation. However, it is safe and has no effects on airway inflammation in healthy mice. Patients having asthma or a history of asthma are advised to avoid the consumption of beetroot.
 
Article
The use of glucocorticoids in the treatment of inflammatory disorders can result in myocardial injury. This study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Gongronema latifolium (GL) in dexamethasone (DEX)‐induced myocardial injury. Wistar rats were assigned to 4 groups (n = 6) namely, control, GL, DEX, and DEX+GL groups. DEX (35 μg/kg body weight) was administered subcutaneously to induce myocardial injury, while GL leaf extract (200 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally. Both agents were administered to their respective groups for 14 days. DEX (p < .05) decreased nitric oxide and increased angiotensin‐converting enzyme activity compared with the control. Serum superoxide dismutase activity and bilirubin level were decreased (p < .05), while malondialdehyde level was increased (p < .05) in the DEX group. Serum liver enzymes, inflammatory biomarkers (C‐reactive protein and interleukin‐6), and cardiac injury biomarkers (creatinine kinase, cardiac troponin‐T, and lactate dehydrogenase) were significantly (p < .05) increased in the DEX group relative to the control. Administration of GL leaf extract attenuated these changes significantly. The study therefore suggests that GL is beneficial in the treatment of myocardial injury via the downregulation of high serum concentration of cardiac biomarkers, oxidative stress markers, and inflammatory biomarkers released as a result of the insult caused by glucocorticoid administration. Practical applications In this study, we demonstrated that prolonged use of dexamethasone resulted in myocardial cell injury via increased production of reactive oxygen species, inflammatory biomarkers, and inhibition of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator. The leaves extract of Gongronema latifolium elicits the anti‐inflammatory and cardioprotective potential as an efficient inhibitor of free radicals with good antioxidant properties. The study provides scientific evidence of the therapeutic ability of the extract of G. latifolium in the treatment of DEX‐induced myocardial injury and could be a drug candidate for the treatment of myocardial injury and inflammation in humans.
 
Article
In this paper, a pectin polysaccharide AP2‐c with molecular weight 6.69 × 10⁵ Da was obtained from the lignified okra. The monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that AP2‐c consisted of galactose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid in a molar ratio of 2.3: 1.5: 1.5. The structural characterization indicated that the main chain of AP2‐c was composed of →2)‐α‐L‐Rhap‐(1→ and →4)‐α‐D‐GalAp‐(1→. →2)‐α‐L‐Rhap‐(1→ was branched at position O‐4 and the branched chain consisted of →3,6)‐β‐D‐Galp‐(1→, →6)‐β‐D‐Galp‐(1→, α‐L‐Rhap‐(1→ and β‐D‐Galp‐(1→. AP2‐c could inhibit the mRNA expression levels of TNF‐α, IL‐1β and iNOS in LPS‐induced macrophages with a dose‐dependent manner. Furthermore, AP2‐c inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB and p65 via NF‐κB pathway. The results indicated that AP2‐c had obvious anti‐inflammatory activity. Practical applications When okra seeds were harvested, lignified okra was always abandoned as waste and had not been fully used for exploitation. Nevertheless, it accounted for more than half of the total plant's weight and was abundant in cell wall polysaccharides, which were the main components of okra to perform a variety of biological functions. In the research, the purified pectin polysaccharide AP2‐c was obtained from lignified okra and its physicochemical properties, structural features and anti‐inflammatory activity were systematically researched. It was detected that AP2‐c exhibited anti‐inflammatory activity by blocking NF‐κB pathway and thus lowering the expression of related inflammatory factors. The results have significant implications for the value‐added application of okra and its processing side products can obviously help to promote the anti‐inflammatory application of AP2‐c and avoid wasting resources.
 
Article
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a highly prevalent and severe diabetic complication. It is urgent to explore high efficiency and minor side effects therapy for DN. Chrysin is a natural flavonoid with various biological activities found in honey and propolis, and has considerable potential to improve DN. The study was designed to explore the effects and the specific underlying mechanism of chrysin for DN in high‐fat‐diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ) induced DN mice. Firstly, the study revealed that chrysin effectively improved obesity, insulin resistance (IR), renal function, and pathological injury in DN mice. Secondly, the study found that chrysin improved the key indices and markers of lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, and inflammation which are closely related to the development or progression of DN. Moreover, chrysin markedly modulated lipid metabolism by regulating Adenosine 5′ monophosphate‐activated protein kinase (AMPK) and essential downstream proteins. Furthermore, AMPK inhibitor (Dorsomorphin) intervention partially suppressed the positive effects of chrysin on all testing indicators, indicating that activated AMPK is crucial for chrysin action on DN. The present study demonstrated that chrysin may improve DN by regulating lipid metabolism, and activated AMPK plays a critical role in the regulation of chrysin. Practical applications The study verified the positive effects of chrysin on obesity, insulin resistance, kidney injury, renal function, lipid accumulation, inflammation, and oxidative stress, which are closely related to the development or progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Moreover, we explored that chrysin improves DN by regulating AMPK‐mediated lipid metabolism. Furthermore, the AMPK inhibitor was used to confirm that activated AMPK plays a critical role in the effects of chrysin. These results could offer a full explanation and a potential option for adjuvant therapy of DN diabetes with chrysin.
 
Article
The inhibition of aldose reductase is an effective strategy to alleviate symptoms of diabetic complications. The p‐coumaric acid ethyl ester (p‐CAEE) was taken as an example to investigate the inhibition of aldose reductase from p‐coumaric acid derivations. The results showed p‐CAEE strongly inhibited aldose reductase with the half inhibitory concentration of 1.92 μM, following the noncompetitive manner with a Ki value of 0.94 μM. After binding with p‐CAEE, the enzyme showed increased β‐sheet content, and the α‐helix content, random coil content, and intrinsic fluorescence strength decreased. p‐CAEE bonded with aldose reductase at the anionic, hydrophobic, and selective pockets of the enzyme, via hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions with Thr113, Cys80, Trp111, and Leu300, etc. The strong inhibition was related to the high oil–water partition coefficient and special esterify group. This study provides new information to develop aldose reductase inhibitors from p‐coumaric acid derivations. Inhibition of aldose reductase is an effective strategy to alleviate and control the symptoms of diabetic complications. In this study, it has been shown that p‐coumaric acid ethyl ester could strongly inhibit the aldose reductase. In addition, the inhibition of aldose reductase was been correlated with structures and oil–water partition coefficients of p‐coumaric acid derivatives. It provides a theoretical basis for the development of effective aldose reductase inhibitors. p‐Coumaric acid ethyl ester is a strong and noncompetitive aldose reductase inhibitor. p‐Coumaric acid ethyl ester alters the secondary and tertiary structure of aldose reductase. p‐Coumaric acid ethyl ester forms different interactions with the amino acids of aldose reductase.
 
Pathogenesis of liver cancer in association with a risk factors
Nrf2/ARE/HO‐1 signaling pathway
Nrf2 plays an anti‐carcinogenic action by targeting certain genes
Article
Liver cancer (L.C.) is the most common cause of cancer death in the United States and the fifth most common globally. The overexpression of nuclear factor E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO‐1) caused by oxidative stress has been associated with tumor growth, aggressiveness, treatment resistance, and poor prognosis. Nutraceuticals that inhibit Nrf2/HO‐1 signaling may become the most effective strategy to treat liver cancer. Phytochemicals found in fruits and vegetables, also known as nutraceuticals, tend to emerge as chemopreventive agents, with the added benefit of low toxicity and high nutritional values. This paper reviews the present scientific knowledge of the Nrf2/HO‐1 signaling as a possible target molecule for chemotherapeutic agents, its basic control mechanisms, and Nrf2/HO‐1 inducers produced from natural products that might be employed as cancer chemopreventive drugs. The growing interest in the contribution of the Nrf2/ARE/HO‐1 signaling in the development of liver cancer and the Use of nutraceuticals to treat liver cancer by targeting Nrf2/ARE/HO‐1. Practical applications An increase in Nrf2 expression indicates that Nrf2 is the most important player in liver cancer. Cancer patients are more resistant to chemotherapy because of this erroneous Nrf2 signaling. Furthermore, an increasing body of evidence indicates that activation of the Nrf2/HO‐1 pathway results in the production of phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes, which serve a defense purpose in cells. As a consequence, treating liver cancer. This master regulator may be a possibility. Nutraceuticals that reduce Nrf2/HO‐1 signaling may be the most effective strategy for preventing liver cancer. The methods of action of numerous natural substances are examined in this article.
 
Number of scientific publications focusing on anti‐atherosclerotic polysaccharides published from 1966–2022 (a) and number of publications on anti‐atherosclerotic polysaccharides from different sources (b).
The chemical structures of Laminaria japonica polysaccharide LJP61A.
The chemical structure of Cipangopaludina chinensis polysaccharide CCPSn(a) and Bordetella species extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) (b).
The potential mechanisms of bioactive polysaccharides in preventing atherosclerosis.
Article
Atherosclerosis is a kind of lipid‐driven chronic inflammatory disease of arteries and is the principal pathological basis of life‐threatening cardiovascular disease events, such as strokes and heart attacks. Clinically, statins are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the treatment of atherosclerosis, but prolonged use of these drugs exhibit many adverse reactions and have limited efficacy. Polysaccharides are important natural biomacromolecules widely existing in plants, animals, microorganisms and algae. They have drawn considerable attention worldwide due to their multiple healthy functions, along with their non‐toxic property. Importantly, a growing number of studies have demonstrated that bioactive polysaccharides exhibit prominent efficiency in controlling atherosclerotic risk factors like hyperlipemia, hypertension, oxidative stress, and inflammation. In recent decades, various bioactive polysaccharides with different structural features and anti‐atherosclerotic potential from natural sources have been isolated, purified, and characterized. The aim of this review is to focus on the research progress of natural polysaccharides in reducing the risks of atherosclerosis based on evidence of in vitro and in vivo studies from 1966 to 2022. Practical applications In the future, it is still necessary to strengthen the research on the development and mechanism of polysaccharides with anti‐atherosclerotic potential. These anti‐atherosclerotic polysaccharides with different structural characteristics and physiochemical properties from different sources will constitute a huge source of materials for future applications, especially in functional foods and drugs. The information summarized here may serve as useful reference materials for further investigation, production, and application of these polysaccharides in functional foods and therapeutic agents.
 
Flow diagram for isolation of antimicrobial peptides from plant sources.
Membrane targeting mechanism of antimicrobial peptides.
Non membrane targeting mechanism of antimicrobial peptides.
Article
Antimicrobial resistance is a global health and development threat which is caused by the excess and prolonged usage of antimicrobial compounds in agriculture and pharmaceutical industries. Resistance of pathogenic microorganisms to the already existing drugs represent a serious risk to public health. Plant sources such as cereals, legumes, fruits and vegetables are potential substrates for the isolation of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi and viruses with novel immunomodulatory activities. Thus, in the quest of new antimicrobial agents, AMPs have recently gained interest. Therefore, AMP can be used in agriculture, pharmaceutical and food industries. This review focuses on various explored and unexplored plant based food sources of AMPs, their isolation techniques and antimicrobial mechanism of peptides. Therefore, the literature discussed in this review paper will prove beneficial the research purposes for agriculture, pharmaceutical and food industries. Practical applications Isolation of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can be done on industrial scale. AMP isolated from food sources can be used in pharmaceutical and agriculture industries. AMP from natural sources mitigate the problem of antimicrobial resistance. AMP isolated from food products can be used as nutraceutical.
 
Article
Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become a leading cause for cancer burden across the globe, and incidences have tripled since the last two decades. Poor diagnosis of primary liver cancer and limited treatment strategies aggravate the challenges. Researchers globally have shown a steep inclination toward the exploration of plant‐based compounds for their nutraceutical and anticancer potential to fit into the role of novel chemotherapeutics. Coleus aromaticus is a well‐known culinary herb that earlier has been reported for several medicinal attributes. The current investigation deals with exploring the anticancer potential of ethanolic leaf extract of C. aromaticus (CoL‐EtOH) against hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. The observations made it evident that CoL‐EtOH extract impeded the viability of HepG2 at 400 μg/ml (p < .01). Additionally, the extract also succeeded in escalating ROS production (p < .01) which aided dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and disruption of nuclear morphology. CoL‐EtOH further activated caspase‐8, −9, and −3 which was reaffirmed by increase in apoptosis at 400 μg/ml (p < .01). Moreover, post treatment with CaLEt‐OH extract significantly reduced the expression of JAK‐1 & STAT‐3 genes (p < .01) along with regulated expression of Mcl1, Bcl‐2, cyclinD1, p21, and p27 within HepG2 cells. This evidence portrays the promising anticancer potential of CoL‐EtOH projecting it as a novel chemotherapeutic agent against HCC. Practical applications The herb Coleus aromaticus belonging to Lamiaceae family and Coleus genus is known by various names in different regions of the world and several language‐specific vernacular names. The herb has been used in therapeutic and medicinal applications as well as in culinary preparations. Various attributes of the nutritional strength and functional characteristics of the leaves in terms of carotenoids, minerals, phenols, dietary fiber, and antioxidant activity have been reported by several researchers. Carvacrol and thymol are majorly found in the plant, while chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid etc. as the phenolic components. The herb has been used in therapeutic and medicinal implications as well as in culinary preparations.
 
The 3D pictures of flavonoid aglycones with TMA‐lyase, (a) baicalein, (b) fisetin, (c) acacetin, (d) myricetin, (e) apigenin, (f) chrysin, (g) hesperetin, (h) luteolin, (i) quercetin, (j) diosmetin, (k) kaempferol, (l) daidzein, (m) genistein, (n) biochanin A, (o) nobiletin
Binding of flavonoid aglycones to amino acid residues of TMA‐lyase, (a) baicalein, (b) fisetin, (c) acacetin, (d) myricetin
The 3D pictures of flavonoid glycosides with TMA‐lyase, (a) baicalin, (b) naringin, (c) hesperidin, (d) icariin, (e) puerarin, (f) rutin, (g) chrysontemin
Binding of flavonoid glycosides to amino acid residues of TMA‐lyase (a) baicalin, (b) naringin, (c) hesperidin
Article
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is defined by atherosclerosis, which can result in stenosis or blockage of the arterial cavity, leading to ischemic cardiac diseases such as angina and myocardial infarction. Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota plays a vital role in the beginning and progression of CHD. The gut microbial metabolite, trimethylamine‐N‐oxide (TMAO), is intimately linked to the pathophysiology of CHD. TMAO is formed when trimethylamine (TMA) is converted by flavin‐containing monooxygenases in the hepatocytes. Therefore, inhibition of TMA production is essential to reduce TMAO levels. Flavonoids may reduce the risk of death from cardiovascular disease. In this article, we reviewed and evaluated twenty‐two flavonoids for the therapy of CHD based on their inhibition of TMA‐lyase by molecular docking. Docking results revealed that baicalein, fisetin, acacetin, and myricetin in flavonoid aglycones, and baicalin, naringin, and hesperidin in flavonoid glycosides had a good binding effect with TMA‐lyase. This indicates that these chemicals were the most active and could be used as lead compounds for structural modification in the future. Practical applications Flavonoids are a large class of polyphenolic compounds found in fruits, vegetables, flowers, tea, and herbal medicines, which are inexorably metabolized and transformed into bioactive metabolites by α‐rhamnosidase, β‐glucuronidase, β‐glucosidase, and nitroreductase produced by the gut microbiota, which plays a beneficial role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Because flavonoids protect the cardiovascular system and regulate the gut microbiota, and the gut microbiota is directly connected to TMAO, thus, reducing TMAO levels involves blocking the transition of TMA to TMAO, which may be performed by reducing TMA synthesis. Molecular docking results found that baicalein, fisetin, acacetin, and myricetin in flavonoid aglycones, and baicalin, naringin, and hesperidin in flavonoid glycosides had good binding effects on TMA‐lyase, which were the most active and could be used as lead compounds for structural modification.
 
Article
Purified soya bean proteins (glycinin and conglycinin) are known to form amyloid‐like aggregates in vitro at a higher temperature. Soya beans (chunks) are textured proteinaceous vegetables made from defatted soya flour by heating it above 100°C and extruding under high pressure. Therefore, it was assumed that subjecting the soya bean proteins to high temperatures raises the possibility of forming amyloids or amyloid‐like protein aggregates. Hence, the present study aimed to examine the presence of amyloid‐like protein aggregates in soya beans. The isolated protein aggregates from hydrated soya beans displayed typical characteristics of amyloids, such as the red shift in the absorption maximum (λmax) of Congo red (CR), high Thioflavin T (ThT), and 8‐Anilinonapthalene‐1‐sulfonate (ANS) binding, and fibrilar morphology. Furthermore, these aggregates were found to be stable against proteolytic hydrolysis, confirming the specific property of amyloids. The presence of amyloid‐like structures in soya beans raises concerns about their implications for human nutrition and health. Practical applications Protein aggregation has usually been considered detrimental. The traditional food‐processing conditions, such as thermal processing, are associated with protein denaturation and aggregation. The formation of ordered protein aggregates with extensive β‐sheet are progressively evident in various protein‐rich foods known as amyloid, which expands food safety concerns. Instead, it is also associated with poor nutritional characteristics. The present study concerns the presence of amyloid‐like protein aggregates in widely consumed native soya beans, which are manufactured by extensive heat treatment of defatted soy flour. Although there is no indication of their toxicity, these aggregates are found to be proteolytically resistant. The seminal findings in this manuscript suggest that it is time to adapt innovative food processing and supplementation of bioactive molecules that can prevent the formation of such protein aggregates and help maximize the utilization of protein‐based nutritional values.
 
Hyperglycemia induces overproduction of ROS in mitochondrial. Increased ROS leads to nuclear DNA damage and activates nuclear PARP, which inhibits GAPDH activity, shunting early glycolytic intermediates into pathogenic signaling pathways, including activation of the polyol pathway, PKC, and AGE. These pathways intensify the production of ROS and facilitate pathogenic inflammation progression.
Turmeric and chemical structure of curcuminoids and curcumin metabolites.
Effect of curcumin on the pathological complications of T2DM via multiple mechanisms.
Curcumin antioxidant mechanism. There are a couple of tools for generating phenoxyl radicals. The primary mechanism (a) begins through the first electron shift to the free radical; therefore, a radical cation is shaped, which provides a phenoxyl radical through a proton loss. The other mechanism (b) is joined to direct hydrogen absorption. Based on the band separation energies, many authors recommend that the most responsive target for free radicals in curcumin is phenolic OH.
Multiple molecular targets of curcumin in diabetes. Diverse types of signaling molecules can be regulated by curcumin through downregulation or upregulation mechanism.
Article
Owing to its prevalent nature, diabetes mellitus has become one of the most serious endocrine illnesses affecting a patient's quality of life due to the manifestation of side effects such as cardiovascular diseases, retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy. Curcumin ((1E, 6E) 21, 7‐bis (4‐hydroxy‐3‐methoxyphenyl)‐1,6‐heptadiene‐3,5‐dione), a major compound of turmeric, has been used in conventional medicine because of its safe nature and cost‐effectiveness to meliorate diabetes and its comorbidities. These effects have also been observed in rodent models of diabetes resulting in a reduction of glycemia and blood lipids. Both the preventive and therapeutic activities of this compound are due to its antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory characteristics. Furthermore, preclinical outcomes and clinical investigation demonstrate that the use of curcumin neutralizes insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperglycemia. Despite the many benefits of curcumin, its two limiting factors, solubility and bioavailability, remain a challenge for researchers; therefore, several methods such as drug formulation, nano‐drug delivery, and the use of curcumin analogs have been developed to deliver curcumin and increase its bioavailability. Practical applications The rise of people with type 2 diabetes has become a major concern at the global healthcare level. The best diabetes treatments today are anti‐diabetic drug administration, lifestyle‐related interventions (such as healthy eating and daily physical activity), arterial pressure detection, and fat control. The polyphenol curcumin, found in turmeric, can promote health by acting on a variety of cellular signaling pathways. This review article discusses curcumin and its role in the treatment of diabetes.
 
Molecular fingerprint similarity and MCS results. Hierarchical clustering results and maximum common molecular skeleton of similar molecular fingerprints of a and b (Cys at C‐terminal); Hierarchical clustering results and maximum common molecular skeleton of c and d (Cys at N‐terminal) subfingerprints.
20 natural amino acids composed of the maximum common molecular framework (MCS) and extra groups. a is 20 dipeptides of Cys at the C‐terminal; b is 20 dipeptides with Cys at the N‐terminal.
QSAR linear regression. a and b are the training models of 20 peptides at the C‐terminal and N‐terminal of Cys.
The molecular dynamics (100 ns) results of tyrosinase‐NP1, tyrosinase‐NP2 and tyrosinase‐NP3. Root mean square deviations (RMSD, nm) of a; Root mean square fluctuation (RMSF, nm) of b; Comparison of three natural inhibitors screened with maximum common molecular skeleton similarity of c.
Article
Considering that natural products as tyrosinase inhibitors are considered to be safe, with little or no toxic side effects and friendly to the environment, it is urgent to develop a new recognition strategy for natural tyrosinase inhibitors. In current study, an integrated computational analysis was conducted on Cys‐containing dipeptides with high tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Firstly, molecular fingerprint similarity (FS) clustering analysis was performed on the target molecule using machine learning. Secondly, genetic algorithm was used to construct two kinds of highly accurate QSAR models (R² = .978 and .984, respectively) with Cys at C‐terminal and N‐terminal. Finally, three novel natural candidate inhibitors (NP1, NP2, NP3) were discovered using Molnatsim natural product cluster library, automated screening process and QSAR based on the maximum common substructure (MCS) algorithm, their IC50pre were 260.96, 3.37 and 0.05 μm/mol. Pharmacokinetic predictions showed that NP2 and NP3 had high Bioavailability Score (BS) and Gastrointestinal (GI) absorption, and molecular dynamics simulations further validated the stability of these novel natural candidate inhibitors in binding to tyrosinase. In conclusion, our results provide new ideas for discovering new activities of natural products, and provide an accurate QSAR model for developing novel tyrosinase inhibitors based on MCS Cys‐containing dipeptides. Practical applications Tyrosinase is related to the occurrence of diseases such as excessive melanin deposition such as freckles and chloasma, and studies have shown that neurodegeneration associated with Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease is also related. In addition, enzymatic browning on the surface of fresh fruit and vegetable slices will shorten the shelf life and affect their quality. Therefore, screening, designing and developing efficient tyrosinase inhibitors is very important in the fields of medicine, cosmetics, food and so on.
 
Article
The effects of dietary inclusion of Bambara groundnut and sweet orange peels composite bread on low‐dose streptozotocin and high‐fat diet (HFD)‐induced type‐2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) complications was evaluated in the present study. Male experimental rats‐induced T2D were administered with acarbose (standard) and fed with Bambara groundnut and sweet orange peels composite bread for a period of 14 days while monitoring their blood glucose levels. More so, the activities of angiotensin‐I‐converting enzyme (ACE), serum aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase activities, as well as nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), albumin, total bilirubin, creatinine, urea, and uric acid serum concentrations were assayed for. Diabetic untreated rats showed disorders in ACE, AST, ALT, and ALP activities, and NO, ROS, glucose, albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, urea, uric acid levels, as well as lipid profiles. Interestingly, these disorders were significantly ameliorated in composite bread diet‐fed rats in comparison to the diabetic untreated rats. Meanwhile, the presence of polyphenols in the Bambara groundnut and sweet orange peels composite bread diet could have aided the amelioration of these metabolic disorders after the 14th day of administration. Finally, it was proposed that the ability of Bambara groundnut‐wheat and sweet orange peel composite bread to treat T2D and its complications makes it a more successful therapy than medications that just target one of the diseased states. Practical applications Diabetes mellitus is a global and chronic disease that presently affects 536.6 million people alongside 1.5 million deaths directly attributed to it yearly. Several drug and medicinal agents have been employed for the management of diabetes but those drugs are mostly limited to the management of diabetes while the associated complications are most untreated, while drugs that can manage diabetes and its related complications mostly come at high prices. Therefore, there is an urgent need to evaluate legumes, such as Bambara groundnut, with proven therapeutic potential in the management of diabetes and its complications. However, the Bambara groundnut takes a long period to prepare for a meal, therefore including it in a ready‐to‐eat product will not only improve its acceptability but also add to economic improvement. Furthermore, adding a waste product, sweet orange peels, will both add flavor and source of additional antioxidant attributes.
 
Article
In this study, a turmeric polysaccharide (TP‐0) was isolated through hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation to produce a novel active polysaccharide from turmeric other than curcuminoids. TP‐0 was found to be primarily composed of eight different monosaccharides, such as galactose (15.9%), galacturonic acid (15.2%), arabinose (11.4%), and rhamnose (9.7%), which are typical rhamnogalacturonan (RG)‐I sugars. When stimulated with TP‐0, peritoneal macrophages secreted a variety of immunostimulatory cytokines. In addition, intravenous and oral administration of TP‐0 significantly enhanced the natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)‐mediated cytotoxicity against tumor cells. In an assay for lung cancer induced by Colon26‐M3.1 carcinoma, prophylactic intravenous and oral administration of TP‐0 effectively inhibited lung cancer. These findings reveal that TP‐0, a typical RG‐I‐type polysaccharide that is isolated from turmeric, has potent anti‐metastatic activities, and these activities are linked to various immunological factors such as macrophages, NK cells, and CTL. Practical applications Many studies related with turmeric have only focused that a curcuminoid of turmeric has beneficial effects on human health system. Nevertheless, in this study, it was confirmed that polysaccharide isolated from turmeric showed potent anti‐cancer effects via activities of various immunological factors such as macrophages, NK cells, and CTL. These results suggest the high potential for development value of turmeric as a new candidate for immunostimulating‐related health functional food ingredients.
 
Mouse plasma metabolic total ion chromatogram obtained from LC–MS analysis. (a) Control group, (b) HFD group, (c) BWS group, and (d) BWP group.
Effects of Tartary buckwheat starch and Tartary buckwheat protein on blood TG, TC, LDL, AL in mice.
PCA score chart of LFD, HF‐CS, HF‐BWP, and HF‐BWS four groups (a) PCA, (b) PLS‐DA, (c) Permutation of the samples, and (d) OPLS‐DA score plots of control, HFD, BWP, and BWS group samples.
PCA score chart of HF‐BWP and HF‐BWS two groups (a) PCA, (b) PLS‐DA, (c) Permutation of the samples, and (d) OPLS‐DA score plots of BWP and BWS group samples.
Metabolic pathway analysis showing 1. linoleic acid metabolism, 2. synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, 3. phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis, 4. glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, 5. arachidonic acid metabolism, 6. valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis, 7. citrate cycle (TCA cycle), and 8. biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids.
Article
Tartary buckwheat can improve hyperlipidemia and affect the changes of metabolic pathways to the body. In this study, we use LC/MS to obtain metabolic fingerprints of plasma samples collected from control (LFD), high‐fat diet (HFD), Tartary buckwheat protein (BWP), and Tartary buckwheat starch (BWS). Using the metabolic network database, through OPLS‐DA, the potential biomarkers and pathways of BWP and BWS intervention in hyperlipidemia mice are initially determined. The results showed that there are 30 metabolites in total, among which linoleic acid, glycerol, phosphatidyl, ethanolamine, and galactose ceramide are the most important differentially expressed metabolites in BWP and BWS plasma samples. These metabolites are involved in eight metabolic pathways, such as linoleic acid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism. Tartary buckwheat can alleviate the symptoms of hyperlipidemia in mice by affecting the above‐mentioned metabolic pathways. This research has a profound impact on the development of nutritious foods of buckwheat. Practical applications Tartary buckwheat, also known as wild buckwheat, is a typical embodiment homology of medicine and food. We have clarified that the protein and starch extracted from tartary buckwheat have the function of reducing blood lipids. It is expected to be applied to functional food materials in the health food market. Also, the effects of tartary buckwheat protein and starch in improving metabolic pathways can be generally applied as a physiological active compound of functional food supplements.
 
Scheme for the isolation and purification of dietary proteins and peptides with osteo‐modulatory properties.
Mechanisms of inhibition of osteoclastogenesis, and promotion of osteoblast differentiation and intraosteocytic calcium bioavailability by dietary proteins and peptides.
Article
The integrity of the bone is dependent on the strict balance between osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis, and any imbalance results in bone diseases. Dietary proteins (DP) have been shown to promote osteogenesis while inhibiting bone resorption in cultured osteoblasts, and in animal models of bone diseases such as ovariectomy, 1α,25‐dihydroxy‐vitamin D3 (VD3), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)‐induced bone resorption. Hydrolysis of some of these DPs with osteo‐modulatory properties has been shown to generate hydrolysates with bioactive peptides that exhibit higher osteo‐modulatory properties in comparison to intact (parent) proteins. The higher bioactivity of the isolated peptides and protein hydrolysates compared to intact proteins indicates that the osteo‐modulatory properties are dependent on the degree of exposure of the functional groups of amino acid residues involved in target interaction. This review provides an overview of the preparation of DP and select peptides with osteo‐modulatory properties, and summarizes the potential underlying mechanisms of action through which the bioactive peptides help maintain bone health. Practical applications Bone diseases such as osteoporosis (OP), osteoarthritis (OA), bone cancer (BC), and others have negative impacts on the quality of life, especially in older women after menopause. Current drugs used in treating many bone diseases such as bisphosphonates, anabolic steroids, and selective estrogen receptor modulators have been limited by worrisome adverse effects such as organ toxicity, increased risk of cancer, and cardiovascular abnormalities, and gastrointestinal discomfort. There is growing scientific evidence that certain multifunctional dietary proteins and bioactive peptides may positively modulate bone health by modifying risk factors for bone diseases including inflammation, oxidative stress, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia.
 
Article
Polysaccharides derived from edible mushrooms were sources of new prebiotic compounds. Limited studies of their prebiotic effects, as well as the presence of residual dark colors, impede their use as prebiotics in the food industry. To boost the prebiotic value of polysaccharides from the edible mushroom Ramaria flava, a decolorization method, and the physicochemical characterization and prebiotic potential of the decolorized polysaccharide (DRFP) were investigated in this study. The reversed micelle system consisting of n‐hexanol/isooctane (3:7, v/v) and 200 mM surfactant (CTAB) was an appropriate decolorized method for R. flava crude polysaccharide. That decolorized polysaccharide was 101.68 kDa and contained glucose, galactose, mannose, fucose, xylose, rhamnose, arabinose, and glucuronic acid in a ratio of 40.61:26.97:17.72:7.78:6.31:0.11:0.06:0.44. Furthermore, DRFP exhibited typical shear‐thinning behavior and possessed good thermal stability. And 98.76% of DRFP was allowed to transit through the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract nearly indigestibly in vitro fermentation. It also revealed a prebiotic availability through stimulating Lactobacillus rhamnosus proliferation and inducing enterocoel acidification. When utilized as a carbon source, DRFP significantly improves the production of short‐chain fatty acids by L. rhamnosus, particularly acetic, propionic, isobutyric, and hexanoic acids. Therefore, this work suggests the further application of R. flava polysaccharides as emerging prebiotics, which may be used as an ingredient in functional food and nutraceutical products. Practical applications Prebiotics could regulate gut microbial community and are closely associated with host health. This work reported that a decolorized polysaccharide (DRFP) prepared from the edible mushroom Ramaria flava was indigestible and could improve Lactobacillus rhamnosus proliferation and short‐chain fatty acid production, which could provide useful information for the application of DRFP as a prebiotic additive in the food industry.
 
Article
Current medications used to treat alcoholic liver injury (ALD) can cause secondary damage to the liver. Therefore, it is important to improve alcoholic liver injury from the perspective of dietary and nutritional supplementation. Nucleic acids, as functional biomolecules, are present in almost all foods, especially in aquatic products, but their edible research has been neglected for a long time. Hence, the effects of a typical aquatic nucleic acid, namely, salmon sperm DNA, in acute, and chronic alcoholic liver injury model of male ICR mice were studied. The results showed that salmon sperm DNA significantly attenuated the accumulation of cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) in acute alcoholic liver injury, and it was further demonstrated to mainly regulate lipid metabolism by fluorescent quantitative PCR and immunoblotting experiments. In addition, nucleic acid intervention alleviated inflammation and apoptosis in mice with chronic alcoholic liver injury. Practical applications These results suggest that salmon sperm DNA can prevent and ameliorate alcoholic liver injury and can be used as an effective dietary and nutritional supplement for the prevention and treatment of ALD. Moreover, this study provided some new ideas for the development and utilization of large aquatic nucleic acid resources, promoted the comprehensive use of fish processing waste, such as fish sperm, and provided new directions for reducing emissions.
 
Article
Since the outbreak of novel Coronavirus Pneumonia 2019 (COVID‐19), the role of Almonds (Xingren) in the protection and treatment of COVID‐19 is not clear. Network pharmacology and molecular docking were used to explore the potential mechanism and potential key targets of Xingren on COVID‐19. A total of nine common targets between them were obtained, and these targets were involved in multiple related processes of GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Molecular docking showed that licochalcone B has the best binding energy (−9.33 kJ·mol⁻¹) to PTGS2. They are maybe the important ingredient and key potential target. Its possible mechanism is to intervene anxiety disorder in the process of disease development, such as regulation of blood pressure, reactive oxygen species metabolic process, leishmaniasis peroxisome, and IL‐17 signaling pathway. Practical applications Xingren is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used and developed in China for many years. It contains a variety of active ingredients and also has the functions of relieving cough, relieving asthma, enhancing human immunity, delaying aging, regulating blood lipids, nourishing brain, and improving intelligence. In this article, the possible mechanisms of action and important targets of Xingren in the prevention and treatment of COVID‐19 were discussed through network pharmacology and molecular docking. We also found that active ingredient licochalcone B and the potential target PTGS2 are worthy of further research and analysis. At the same time, the study also provides a theoretical basis and reference for the prevention and treatment of COVID‐19 and the development of new drugs.
 
Article
Garcinia indica Choisy (kokum), a plant from Clusiaceae family, is an underexplored fruit tree in the Western Ghats region. Kokum has been studied for its health benefits, associated with numerous bioactive compounds, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, citric acids, and others. Among all, garcinol, hydroxycitric acid, and anthocyanins (cyanidin‐3‐glucoside and cyanidin‐3‐sambubioside) are major bioactive compounds. G. indica fruit and fruit rinds have been reported to possess numerous therapeutic applications in various health conditions such as cancer, inflammation, diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and neurologic disorders. In this review, information has been provided on the bioactive compounds present in kokum and their significant health benefits. In vitro and In vivo studies of bioactive components on various diseases have also been reported. The limited information about human studies and G. indica fruit and fruit rinds is also presented. Practical applications Bioactive compounds present in Garcinia indica can be utilized for nutraceutical preparations. G. indica can be added to food products to make them functional foods. Extraction of bioactive compounds can be done on an industrial scale. Bioactive compounds can be extracted and used to commercialize lifesaving drugs.
 
Article
Heart failure (HF) is a serious disease with high mortality. Oxidative stress plays a vital role in its occurrence and development. Licorice is commonly used to treat HF in traditional Chinese medicine. Liquiritin, the main ingredient of licorice, has antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory properties, but the mechanism against oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes has not been reported. Establishment of oxidative damage model in H9c2 cells by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Liquiritin (5, 10, 20 μmol/L) could significantly prevent the loss of cell viability and decrease the apoptosis rate. It can reduce the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malonedialdehyde (MDA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), tumor necrosis factor‐alpha (TNF‐α), interleukin‐1β (IL‐1β), interleukin‐6 (IL‐6), and increase the activity of ATP, superoxidedismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxide (GSH‐px), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) to alleviate oxidative stress and inflammation in a dose‐dependent manner. Liquiritin was found to be related to AMP‐Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) pathway by molecular docking. Western blotting (WB) and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT‐qPCR) confirmed that liquiritin could promote AMPKα phosphorylation and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) protein expression, and inhibit phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa B p65 (NF‐κB p65). Compound C, EX 527, and PDTC can reverse the effects of liquiritin, indicating that its antioxidant effect is achieved by regulating AMPK/SIRT1/NF‐κB signaling pathway. Practical applications Heart failure is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases, and its treatment remains a worldwide problem. Licorice is a food and dietary supplement that has been used widely in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Liquiritin is one of the main active components of licorice, which has antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory pharmacological effects. This study revealed the mechanism of licorice against oxidative damage of H9c2 cardiomyocytes, and provided a scientific basis for liquiritin as an antioxidant in the treatment of heart failure.
 
Article
Natural supplements are important in diabetes and oxidative stress management. A complexation‐mediated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant synergism between zinc(II) and p‐coumaric acid was investigated. p‐Coumaric acid was complexed with ZnSO4 and characterized by FT‐IR, ¹H NMR, and mass spectroscopy. The antioxidant and antihyperglycemic potential of the complex and precursors were evaluated with different experimental models. Molecular docking with target proteins linked to diabetes was performed. A Zn(II)‐bicoumarate.2H2O complex was formed. The in vitro radical scavenging, α‐glucosidase inhibitory, antiglycation, and anti‐lipid peroxidative activities of the complex were several folds stronger than p‐coumaric acid. In Chang liver cells and rat liver tissues, the complex inhibited lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 56.2 and 398 μM) and GSH depletion (IC50 = 33.9 and 38.7 μM), which was significantly stronger (2.3–5.4‐folds) than p‐coumaric acid and comparable to ascorbic acid. Zn(II) and p‐coumaric synergistically modulated (1.7‐ and 2.8‐folds than p‐coumaric acid) glucose uptake in L‐6 myotubes (EC50 = 10.7 μM) and rat muscle tissue (EC50 = 428 μM), which may be linked to the observed complexation‐mediated increase in tissue zinc uptake. Glucose uptake activity was accompanied by increased hexokinase activity, suggesting increased glucose utilization. Docking scores α‐glucosidase, GLUT‐4, and PKB/Akt showed stronger interaction with the complex (−6.31 to −6.41 kcal/mol) compared to p‐coumaric acid (−7.18 to −7.74 kcal/mol), which was influenced by the Zn(II) and bicoumarate moieties of the complex. In vitro, the complex was not hepatotoxic or myotoxic. Zn(II) complexation may be a therapeutic approach for improving the antioxidative and glycemic control potentials of p‐coumaric acid. Practical applications In functional medicine, natural supplements, plant‐derived phenolics, and nutraceuticals are becoming popular in the management of diseases, including diabetes and oxidative stress. This has been largely attributed to their perceived holistic medicinal profile and the absence of notable toxicity concerns. In the past two decades, considerable attention has been drawn toward zinc mineral as a possible therapeutic supplement for diabetes due to its role in insulin secretion and reported insulin mimetic potentials. p‐Coumaric acid is a known natural antioxidant with reported diabetes‐related pharmacological effects. In this study, we took advantage of these properties and complexed both natural supplements, which resulted in a more potent nutraceutical with improved glycemic control and antioxidant potential. The complexation‐mediated synergistic interaction between zinc and p‐coumaric acid could be an important therapeutic approach in improving the use of these natural supplements or nutraceuticals in managing diabetes and associated oxidative complications.
 
The design of animals experiment group. The 40 male mice were randomly classified into three groups and fed different diets for 8 weeks.
Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus B10 on lipid profiles in mice fed with alcohol. Liver TG (a), serum TG (b), and TC (c) were measured by commercial assay kits. Histological changes of liver were measured by H&E staining (d). The scale bar in all figures was 50 μm. *(p < .05), **(p < .01), and ***(p < .001) indicated the significant differences between the groups. Values were represented as the mean ± SEM (n = 9–10). PF, control mice; AF, alcohol fed mice; AFLC, alcohol + L. rhamnosus B10 treatment mice.
Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus B10 on liver injury in mice fed with alcohol. Liver ALT (a) and AST (b), serum ALT (c) and AST (d) were measured by commercial assay kits. Serum LPS (e) and TNF‐α (f) were measured by ELISA kits. *(p < .05), **(p < .01) and ***(p < .001) indicated the significant differences between the groups. Values were represented as the mean ± SEM (n = 9–10). PF, control mice; AF, alcohol fed mice; AFLC, alcohol + L. rhamnosus B10 treatment mice.
Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus B10 on the gut microbial biodiversity and gut microbial composition in mice fed with alcohol. Venn diagram based on the OTU distribution between PF, AF, and AFLC (a). The PCA principal component analysis results showed the distance between different samples (p < .05) (b). Taxonomic distribution of bacterial communities at the phylum level (c). Taxonomic distribution of bacterial communities at the genus level (d). PF, control mice; AF, alcohol fed mice; AFLC, alcohol + L. rhamnosus B10 treatment mice.
The heat map of top 50 genera of abundances from each sample. The red color represented the genera with a higher abundance in the corresponding sample, and the green color represented the genera with a lower abundance (a). The violin plot of predicting human diseases based on microflora metabolism. The horizontal coordinates in the graph represented the second level functional groups of KEGG, and the vertical coordinates represented the relative abundance of each functional group in the samples (b). PF, control mice; AF, alcohol fed mice; AFLC, alcohol + Lactobacillus rhamnosus B10 treatment mice.
Article
Lactobacillus rhamnosus B10 (L. rhamnosus B10) isolated from the baby feces was given to an alcohol mice model, aiming to investigate the effects of L. rhamnosus B10 on alcoholic liver injury by regulating intestinal microbiota. C57BL/6N mice were fed with liquid diet Lieber‐DeCarli with or without 5% (v/v) ethanol for 8 weeks, and treated with L. rhamnosus B10 at the last 2 weeks. The results showed that L. rhamnosus B10 decreased the serum total cholesterol (1.48 mmol/L), triglycerides (0.97 mmol/L), alanine aminotransferase (26.4 U/L), aspartate aminotransferase (14.2 U/L), lipopolysaccharide (0.23 EU/mL), and tumor necrosis factor‐α (138 pg/mL). In addition, L. rhamnosus B10 also reduced the liver triglycerides (1.02 mmol/g prot), alanine aminotransferase (17.8 mmol/g prot) and aspartate aminotransferase (12.5 mmol/g prot) in alcohol mice, thereby ameliorating alcohol‐induced liver injury. The changes of intestinal microbiota composition on class, family and genus level in cecum were analyzed. The intestinal symbiotic abundance of Firmicutes was elevated while gram‐negative bacteria Proteobacteria and Deferribacteres was decreased in alcohol mice treated with L. rhamnosus B10 for 2 weeks. In summary, this study provided evidence for the therapeutic effects of probiotics on alcoholic liver injury by regulating intestinal flora.
 
Article
Berberine (BER) possesses dissolution rate limited oral bioavailability. The present study deciphers the formulation of nanosuspension loaded with BER for enhancing its cardioprotective potential. The nanosuspension was prepared by a liquid antisolvent precipitation technique using sodium lauryl sulfate as a surfactant and polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30) as a polymer. The optimized formulation showed a particle size of 251.32 ± 4.18 nm, zeta potential of −24.10 ± 1.16 mV, and drug loading capacity of 98.22 ± 2.24%. The results showed about 6.01‐fold and 3.54‐fold enhancement in the dissolution rate and permeability, respectively, upon loading berberine into nanosuspension. About 8.44‐fold increase in Cmax, 27.22‐fold increase in AUC0–t, and 27.38‐fold increase in AUC0–∞ were observed in the case of BER nanosuspension, compared to its naïve form. The results of particle size, zeta potential, and drug loading showed a nonsignificant change in the response of fresh and aged nanosuspension, which indicated that the formulation was stable. In vitro results on H9C2 cell line indicated a lower cellular proliferation rate after treatment with BER nanosuspension with decreased cytoplasmic expression of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) protein. Overall, the results indicated the successful development of BER nanosuspension with an enhanced dissolution rate, permeability, bioavailability, and cardioprotective activity. Practical applications The present study provides the evidence that the formulation of nanosuspension loaded with berberine enhance the cardioprotective activity of berberine. The results of the study supports the improved bioavailability of nanosuspension of berberine showed enhanced cardioprotective activity.
 
Article
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune progressive disease, associated with many pathophysiological consequences. Owing to the adverse effects and higher costs of pharmaceuticals, people are now looking for complementary and alternative remedies. In this milieu, the present study was designed to explore the therapeutic potential of walnuts against FCA‐induced arthritis in rat models. Purposely, 50 Sprague Dawley rats were housed in a well‐ventilated animal room and separated into 5 groups of 10 rats each. The rats were categorized as G0 (negative control), G1 (positive control, i.e., FCA induced untreated arthritic rats), G2 (arthritic rats treated with MTX), G3 (arthritic rats treated with walnut feed), and G4 (arthritic rats treated with walnut extract), with an efficacy trial lasting for 42 days. The physical analysis explicated that paw swelling was significantly improved by 10%–12.8% in treatment groups after the intervention when compared with positive control. Moreover, biochemical analyses revealed significantly lower levels of ESR, CRP, and RF in rats treated with walnut‐based interventions when compared to positive control. ESR values were decreased by 62.4% and 69.92% in G3 and G4, whereas CRP levels were improved by 56.20% and 77.78% in G3 and G4 when compared with G1. Likewise, RF values decreased in G2, G3, and G4 by 64.71%, 55.88%, and 69.24%, respectively when compared to G1. The histological examination demonstrated the potential role of walnut‐based interventions in reducing the severity of disease by decreasing cell infiltration, bone erosion, and paw inflammation. Meanwhile, the gene expression analysis revealed that walnut‐based interventions protected the paw joints from damage by downregulating the RANKL‐OPG pathway. Conclusively, walnut feed and extract may serve as potent anti‐arthritic interventions with no side effects. Practical applications Plant‐based therapeutics are effective in the prevention and management of various chronic diseases. The current research explored the anti‐arthritic potential of walnuts. Walnut feed and extract effectively reduced the serum arthritic biomarkers as well as downregulated the genes involved in bone destruction. Thus, the inclusion of dietary ingredients having therapeutic potential such as walnuts may be synchronized in clinical practices to ameliorate arthritis.
 
Changes in phenolic and protein content of plain and fortified yogurts with extracts from P. torulosus (1a) and P. igniarius (1b) during refrigerated storage (4°C). The values are presented as mean ± SD (n = 3). Total phenolic compounds (mg GAE/100 g), total protein content (g/100 g). *indicate statistical significance p < .05 of the yogurts throughout storage time (Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance followed by Duncan post hoc test). P.i, P. igniarius; P.t, P. torulosus; Y, yogurt.
Changes in percentage of inhibition of DPPH radical—antioxidant activity in yogurt during storage period (4°C). The values are presented as mean ± SD (n = 3). Different small letters indicate statistical significance p < .05 of the yogurts throughout different points of storage (Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance followed by Duncan post hoc test). Different capital letters indicate statistical significance p < .05 between the yogurts on the same day of storage (One‐way Analysis of Variance followed by Duncan post hoc test). P.i, P. igniarius; P.t, P. torulosus; Y, yogurt.
Changes in inhibition percentage of ABTS scavenging activity during refrigerated storage (4°C). The values are presented as mean ± SD (n = 3). Different small letters indicate statistical significance p < .05 of the yogurts throughout different points of storage (Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance followed by Duncan post hoc test). Different capital letters indicate statistical significance p < .05 between the yogurts on the same day of storage (One‐ way Analysis of Variance followed by Duncan post hoc test). P.i, P. igniarius; P.t, P. torulosus; Y, yogurt.
Changes in concentration of Fe²⁺‐ phenanthroline complex—antioxidant capacity of the plain and fortified yogurts, during storage (4°C). Results are presented as mean ± SEM (n = 3). Different small letters indicate statistical significance p < .05 of the yogurts throughout different points of storage (Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance followed by Duncan post hoc test). Different capital letters indicate statistical significance p < .05 between the yogurts on the same day of storage (One‐ way Analysis of Variance followed by Duncan post hoc test). P.i, P. igniarius; P.t, P. torulosus; Y, yogurt.
Changes in inhibition percentage of lipid peroxidation—antioxidant activity of the plain and fortified yogurts, during refrigerated storage (4°C). The values are presented as mean ± SD (n = 3). Different small letters indicate statistical significance p < .05 of the yogurts throughout different points of storage (Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance followed by Duncan post hoc test). Different capital letters indicate statistical significance p < .05 between the yogurts on the same day of storage (One‐ way Analysis of Variance followed by Duncan post hoc test). P.i, P. igniarius; P.t, P. torulosus; Y, yogurt.
Article
In light of the powerful therapeutic features of Phellinus species and due to the absence of toxic compounds, our investigations were aimed at screening of the antioxidant profile of fortified yogurts with hot water extracts from Phellinus torulosus and Phellinus igniarius leveled to 10%, 5%, and 1% final fortification concentrations after acknowledging their superior bioactive content and radical scavenging capacities (59.77% and 56.73% of DPPH inhibition, respectively) versus cold water extracts (29.87% and 33.18% inhibition rates). Fortified samples signified dose‐dependent increases in their inhibition rates during the storage period, with significant differences between 10% fortifications on the 7 day of storage in favor of the samples fortified with P. torulosus. Explicitly, P. torulosus showed 16% higher DPPH and 62.5% higher LPO neutralizing activity than yogurt enriched with P. igniarius. However, prolonged refrigeration tended to equalize antioxidant profiles in both fortified yogurts. Total titratable acidity and pH levels of the fortified yogurts as most important parameters for consumer acceptance were unaltered during storage. Practical applications It is a common scientific perception that bioactive compounds present in wild medicinal fungi are the main contributors for their in vitro antioxidant efficiency. On account of these attributes, Phellinus species have been exploited in Far East Asia as safe remedies for many disorders thus making them attractive fortifying ingredients; however, according to our knowledge these mushrooms have never been used as natural additives in beverages. Given the current popularity of yogurt consumption as seen from the global market profits, as well as experimental evidences of enhanced potency of extract in comparison with powder due to maximal bioavailability of antioxidants, it is our belief that this study will increase the interest in the manufacture of functional foods with extracts from wild mushrooms.
 
Article
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, is largely associated with cognitive disability, amnesia, and abnormal behavior, which accounts for about two third of people with dementia worldwide. A growing body of research demonstrates that AD is connected to several factors, such as aberrant accumulation of amyloid‐beta (Aβ), increase in the hyperphosphorylation of Tau protein, and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inordinate production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Despite remarkable efforts to realize the etiology and pathophysiology of AD, until now, scientists have not developed and introduced medications that can permanently cease the progression of AD. Thus, nowadays, research on the role of natural products in the treatment and prevention of AD has attracted great attention. Kaempferol (KMP), one of the prominent members of flavonols, exerts its ameliorative actions via attenuating oxidative stress and inflammation, reducing Aβ‐induced neurotoxicity, and regulating the cholinergic system. Therefore, in this review article, we outlined the possible effects of KMP in the prevention and treatment of AD. Practical applications Kaempferol (KMP) exerts its ameliorative actions against AD via attenuating oxidative stress and inflammation, reducing Aβ‐induced neurotoxicity, and regulating the cholinergic system. The beneficial effects of KMP were addressed in both in vitro and in vivo studies; however, conducting further research can warrant its long‐term effects as a safe agent. Therefore, after confirming its favorable functions in the prevention and treatment of AD, it could be used as a safe and effective agent.
 
Article
Abnormal uric acid level result in the development of hyperuricemia and hallmark of various diseases, including renal injury, gout, cardiovascular disorders, and non‐alcoholic fatty liver. This study was designed to explore the anti‐inflammatory potential of stevia residue extract (STR) against hyperuricemia‐associated renal injury in mice. The results revealed that STR at dosages of 150 and 300 mg/kg bw and allopurinol markedly modulated serum uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine in hyperuricemic mice. Serum and renal cytokine levels (IL‐18, IL‐6, IL‐1Β, and TNF‐α) were also restored by STR treatments. Furthermore, mRNA and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis revealed that STR ameliorates UA (uric acid)‐associated renal inflammation, fibrosis, and EMT (epithelial‐mesenchymal transition) via MMPS (matrix metalloproteinases), inhibiting NF‐κB/NLRP3 activation by the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway and modulating the JAK2‐STAT3 and Nrf2 signaling pathways. In summary, the present study provided experimental evidence that STR is an ideal candidate for the treatment of hyperuricemia‐mediated renal inflammation. Practical applications The higher uric acid results in hyperuricemia and gout. The available options for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout are the use of allopurinol, and colchicine drugs, etc. These drugs possess several undesirable side effect. The polyphenolic compounds are abundantly present in plants, for example, stevia residue extract (STR) exert a positive effect on human health. From this study results, we can recommend that polyphenolic compounds enrich STR could be applied to develop treatment options for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout.
 
GCMS chromatogram of infused aqueous curry tea extract. The most abundant compounds in the fingerprint include Peaks 10, 13, 14, 19, 32 and 41 representing Butanol, 3‐methyl‐, formate, Catechol, Benzo furan, 2‐Methoxy‐4‐vinylphenol, 1,4‐Dimethylindanyl acetate and 4‐Isopropenyl‐4,7‐dimethyl‐1‐oxaspiro [2.5] octane respectively
GCMS chromatogram of infused aqueous curry‐thaumatin tea extract. The most abundant compounds in the fingerprint include Peaks 8, 13 and 54 representing 1‐Butanol, 2‐p‐Aminobenzamido‐5‐oxohexanoic acid and cis‐Z‐.alpha.‐Bisabolene epoxide
Effect of curry tea on serum nitrite concentration in L‐NAME treated rats. Values are expressed as mean ± SD (n = 8). With * and *** specifying groups that are significantly different from group 1 (control) at p < .05 and p < .001 respectively. Whereas ### specifies groups that are significantly different from group 4 (L‐NAME alone) at p < .001 respectively. L‐NAME treatment caused very significant decrease in serum nitrite levels (group 4) which was ameliorated by co‐treatment of either CT or CTT (groups 5 and 6). Strangely, animals treated with CT alone or CTT alone (groups 2 and 3) had significantly lower serum nitrite levels when compared with control (group 1)
Photomicrographs of liver sections of curry tea treated rats that were co‐treated with or without L‐NAME. The alphabets are group representatives as follows (a) control (group 1), (b) curry tea alone (group 2), (c) curry thaumatin tea (group 3), [D] L‐NAME alone (group 4), (e) curry tea + L‐NAME (group 5) and (f) curry thaumatin tea + L‐NAME (group 6). Congestion involving the veins and sinusoid are indicated with blue arrows, focal area of periportal infiltration by inflammatory cells are indicated with black arrows, mild disseminated microvesicular steatosis are indicated with green arrows and mild disseminated infiltration of zone 2 by inflammatory cells are indicated with slender arrows. Photomicrographs from rats untreated or administered with either CT or CTT alone (a–c) show heathly histoarchitexture with very mild disseminated microvesicular steatosis. Photomicrographs from L‐NAME alone treated rats (d) show marked congestion involving the veins and sinusoid, focal area of periportal infiltration by inflammatory cells, mild disseminated microvesicular steatosis and mild disseminated infiltration of zone 2 by inflammatory cells. Photomicrographs from rats co‐treated with CT and L‐NAME (e) show moderate disseminated congestion, mild focal disseminated microvesicular steatosis involving the sinusoid and mild disseminated infiltration of zone 2 by inflammatory cells. Photomicrographs from rats co‐treated with CTT and L‐NAME (f) show mild focal congestion, mild focal disseminated microvesicular steatosis
Effect of curry tea intake on hepatic NF‐kB expression in L‐NAME treated rats. Photomicrographs (a–f) are group representative photomicrographs of hepatic NF‐kB expression in rats examined by immunohistochemical staining (×400 magnification). Figure (g) is the graphical representation of the effect of Curry tea intake on hepatic NF‐kB expression in L‐NAME treated rats (p < .001). Animals treated with L‐NAME alone (group 4) had significant increases in hepatic NF‐kB expression which was ameliorated in animals co‐treated either with CT or CTT (groups 5 and 6).
Article
Background: Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Rutaceae) has been reported to positively affect liver function. However, the effect of M. koenigii leaves on Nω‐Nitro‐L‐Arginine Methyl Ester (L‐NAME) induced liver dysfunction is unknown. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the effect of M.koenigii leaves as tea on L‐NAME induced liver dysfunction. Methods: Two variants of curry tea were formulated; one was formulated entirely from leaves of M. koenigii, the other was formulated with thaumatin‐rich aril obtained from seeds of Thaumatococcus danielii (Benn.) Benth. (Marantaceae). Group I animals served as control and were untreated. Groups II and V animals were administered curry tea (CT). Group III and VI animals received curry‐thaumatin tea (CTT). Concurrently, L‐NAME (40 mg/kg) was administered to groups IV‐VI respectively for 21 days. Blood and liver samples were collected at the end of the study for biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical analysis. Results: L‐NAME induced liver dysfunction evidenced by liver histology, increased activities of ALT, AST, hyperlipidemia, hepatic oxidative stress and increased hepatic NF‐kB expression. Administration of CT and CTT ameliorated the L‐NAME induced liver dysfunction evidenced by liver histology, increased NO hepatic bioavailability, reduced activity of ALT and AST, increased hepatic antioxidant system and decreased hepatic NF‐kB expression. Thaumatin taste/flavor enhancer did not significantly reduce or potentiate the hepatoprotective, antioxidant and anti‐lipidemic property of aqueous curry tea extracts in rats. Conclusion: L‐NAME impaired liver function in rats. CT and CTT interfered with the ability of L‐NAME to inhibit NO synthesis which was associated with ameliorated hepatic dysfunction. Practical applications The study reports that non‐selective inhibition of nitric oxide by L‐NAME in rats impairs liver function and formulated curry tea types interfered with the ability of L‐NAME to inhibit NO synthesis which was associated with ameliorated hepatic dysfunction in rats.
 
(a) Heatmap diagram designed based on significant differential gene expression (p value <.01). (b) Construction of protein–protein interaction network and modularity of hub genes in Gephi visualizer software
(a–c) Enrichment of hub genes considering protein clusters in BioPlanet, KEGG, and Reactome database that revealed P53 signaling pathway is a remarkable process in skeletal muscle atrophy under the effect of diabetic condition in aging
(a) Pharmacophore project results based on five active small molecules, a suitable model with the HHRRR template for screening the best ligands targeting Trp53 protein and p53 signaling pathway in atrophy related to diabetes side effects in aging. (b) Verification of the influence of ursolic acid on Trp53 protein function with considering acceptable binding affinity score (−7.4 kcal/mol and RMSD < 2) by molecular docking method. (c) Computation of the binding affinity of ursolic acid on the chain surface of ATF4 protein (−6.4 kcal/mol and RMSD threshold < 2)
Phenotype of aging diabetic rats. (a) Bodyweight between diabetic and control in the first intervention, (b) glucose concentration in the first intervention, (c) body weight in the second intervention (d) determining maximum voluntary carrying capacity (MVCC), (e) running speed test for determining velocity at VO2max (vVO2max)
Exercise and supplementation of ursolic acid diminished the p53/ATF4/p21. (a) Indicated blots, (b) protein level of ATF4, (c) protein level of P53, (d) protein level of P21. @The Ursolic acid group, !The ET group, #The RT group, ^The ET + U group
Article
In this study, the effect of resistance and endurance training with/without ursolic acid supplementation was evaluated to identify atrophy‐related biomarkers in elderly rats induced by diabetes and a high‐fat diet (HFD) based on in silico analysis algorithms and pharmaceutical methods. The visualizer software found differential gene expression levels in skeletal muscle atrophy via computed hub gene network parameters. Also, the impact of ursolic acid, as a potent inducer of the Trp53 protein in ameliorating decreased muscle mass, was analyzed in diabetic rats. Fifty‐six‐old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into seven groups, including healthy control (Control), diabetic control (DM), Ursolic acid supplementation (UA), resistance training (RT), endurance training (ET), resistance training+ Ursolic acid supplementation (RT + U), and endurance training in combination with Ursolic acid supplementation (ET + U). Exercise intervention included 8 weeks of resistance or endurance training programs. Biomedical informatic outputs determined the P53 signaling pathway as a remarkable causative factor in the pathomechanism of atrophy. In addition, the results demonstrated that exercise and supplementation of UA impeded the interactions among p53/ATF4/p21. Moreover, ET and ursolic acid had a synergetic effect on the signaling pathway of p53/ATF4/p21 and probably could inhibit the aging process and modulate the p53/ATF4/p21 molecular pathway. The interaction between UA and endurance exercise significantly modified the activity of the p53/ATF4/p21 signaling pathway. Based on in silico studies, the p53/ATF4/p21 pathway plays an essential role in aging, and the inhibition of this pathway would be beneficial in decelerating the aging process. Practical applications Ursolic acid (UA) is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid found in apples (a major compound of apple wax) and other fruits; it is known to improve skeletal muscle function and reduce the muscular atrophy pathways. We indicated that p53/ATF4/p21 signaling is an essential factor in aging, and the suppression of this pathway could be beneficial in the deceleration of the aging process. Therefore, this work would shed light on understanding the effect of exercise and nutrition interventions on preventing atrophy markers of skeletal muscle in diabetic rats. Further studies are needed to seek the precise mechanism of the synergism between UA and exercise in ameliorating atrophy markers.
 
Article
Coffee is one of the most popular and preferred drinks in the world, being consumed for its refreshing and energizing properties. As a result, the consumption of coffee generates millions of tons of waste, in particular, spent coffee grounds (SCG). On the contrary, food waste recovery is an incredibly sustainable and convenient solution to the growing need for materials, fuels, and chemicals. SCG has been developed as a precious resource of several high value‐added products (oil, proteins, minerals, fatty acids, sterols….). Thus, a transformative pathway to a circular economy that involves the valorization of coffee wastes and by‐products is currently attracting the attention of researchers worldwide. The potential growth of scientific papers and publications promotes a comprehensive review to determine the research hotspots, knowledge structure, and to consider future avenues and challenges. Therefore, in this paper, we conducted a systematic review based on 275 indexed papers on the composition and valorization of SCG as a prospective environmental source. Practical applications SCG can be applied in agro‐food industries.
 
Article
Oxidative stress‐induced dysfunction of nerve cells has been implicated as a crucial cause of cell death in neurodegenerative diseases. In Asian countries, herbs, such as Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (DG) and Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaertn.) DC. (SDH), have long be considered to have antiaging abilities. The herbs act as neuro protectants that rescue nerve cells from oxidative stress damage and apoptosis. Thus, developing herbal formulas can potentially lead to new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we compared the effective active components and antioxidant properties of extractive of DG and SDH (DG‐SDH) when formulated at different ratios. DG‐SDH formulated at a ratio of 3:2 (DG‐SDH [3:2]) produced the highest content of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and flavonoids. It also showed the best ability in removing DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals compared to single herb or other compounding ratio. The antioxidant activity of DG‐SDH (3:2) showed best synergistic effects in scavenging activity assays of DPPH free radicals and hydroxyl free radicals. DG‐SDH (3:2) could increase the cell viability of SHSY‐5Y cells, PC‐12 cells, and BV‐2 cells. In particular, DG‐SDH (3:2) protected SHSY‐5Y cells from H2O2‐induced cell injury by inhibiting excessive expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reducing the rate of apoptosis and restoring mitochondrial membrane potential. Actin‐Tracker Green and DAPI staining and fluorescence microscope observation confirmed that DG‐SDH (3:2) helped in preserving cell morphology under oxidative stress. These findings support that DG‐SDH (3:2) promote the neuroprotection against hydrogen peroxide and can serve as a novel therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. Practical applications This is the first study to investigate DG and SDH interaction between effective ingredients. These findings support that DG‐SDH (3:2) has the best synergistic effects in antioxidant activity and promote the neuroprotection against hydrogen peroxide. Hence, DG‐SDH (3:2) will be an excellent candidate to be developed as a functional food ingredients or nutraceuticals for neurodegenerative diseases.
 
Article
Intestinal mucosal immunity is important to human body; however, obesity induced by high‐fat diet may bring a series of problems, such as chronic inflammation which may damage intestinal mucosal immunity. In this study, the effects of two different enzymatic hydrolysates of porphyra on the function of intestinal mucosal were explored in obese mice. The results showed that 10 consecutive weeks of high‐fat dietary intake resulted in weight gain and intestinal abnormalities in C57BL/6 mice. However, the administration of enzymatic hydrolysate of porphyra effectively protected the intestinal mucosa from these injuries while reducing levels of oxidative stress (MDA, GSH, and GSH‐Px). Specifically, they were found to improve small intestine morphological structure, increase growth of goblet cells and mucous, raise expression levels of lysozyme, and stimulate SIgA secretion, especially in the group administered with the enzymatic hydrolysate containing protease and polysaccharide enzyme (EHPP). The results showed that the enzymatic hydrolysates of porphyra may provide a protective measure to maintain intestinal mucosal barriers, which is beneficial to overall health. Porphyra is widely distributed all over the world. Moreover, an increasing number of studies have described its diverse biological functions. Therefore, it is necessary to find a way to develop products related to porphyra. In this study, a new type of polysaccharide enzyme of porphyra found in our previous research was used to make a clear porphyra energy drink with a lower molecular weight polysaccharide. Our findings highlighted the repaired intestinal barriers in obese bodies after the treatment with the enzymatic hydrolysate. Practical applications Porphyra is widely distributed all over the world. Moreover, an increasing number of studies have described its diverse biological functions. Therefore, it is necessary to find a way to develop products related to porphyra. In this study, a new type of polysaccharide enzyme of porphyra found in our previous research was used to make a clear porphyra energy drink with a lower molecular weight polysaccharide. Our findings highlighted the repaired intestinal barriers in obese bodies after the treatment with the enzymatic hydrolysate.
 
(a,b) representative Western blots of HIF‐1α in control and treatment. GAPDH was used as loading control (a,b). Relative values were calculated as the intensity of the HIF‐1α band over that at 0 hr. HIF‐1α levels of yak meat in the two groups were stored at 4°C for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 120 hr as shown. PC and PT represent the plain beef cattle group. LC and LT represent the low‐altitude yak group. HC and HT represent the high‐altitude group. (c,d) representative Western blots of GLUT‐1 in control and treatment. GAPDH was used as loading control (c,d). The capital letters represent the difference between all control groups, and the lowercase letters represent the difference between the all YC‐1 treatment groups (p < .05). Error bars indicate the standard errors of the mean
PC and PT represent the plain beef cattle group. LC and LT represent the low‐altitude group. HC and HT represent the high‐altitude group. (a) Representative hexokinase (HK) activity in control groups and treatment groups. (b) Representative lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in control and treatment groups. The capital letters represent the difference between all control groups, and the lowercase letters represent the difference between all YC‐1 treatment groups (p < .05). Error bars indicate the standard errors of the mean
(a) Apparent change of mitochondrial morphology by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 120 hr. (b) Representative ΔΨm in all control and treatment groups. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential as shown by the red/green fluorescence intensity ratio with JC‐1 aye. (c,d) representative Western blots of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK‐1) in control and treatment. GAPDH was used as loading control (c,d). Relative values were calculated as the intensity of the PDK‐1 band over that at 0 hr. PDK‐1 levels of yak meat in the two groups were stored at 4°C for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 120 hr as shown. PC and PT represent the plain beef cattle group. LC and LT represent the low‐altitude yak group. HC and HT represent the high‐altitude group. The capital letters represent the difference between all control groups, and the lowercase letters represent the difference between all YC‐1 treatment groups (p < .05). Error bars indicate the standard errors of the mean
PC and PT represent the plain beef cattle group. LC and LT represent the low‐altitude group. HC and HT represent the high‐altitude group. (a) Representative F0F1 ATP activity in all control and treatment groups. (b) Representative lactate content in all control and treatment groups. (c) Representative pH value in control groups and treatment groups. (d) Representative share force in all control and treatment groups. The capital letters represent the difference between all control groups, and the lowercase letters represent the difference between all YC‐1 treatment groups (p < .05). Error bars indicate the standard errors of the mean
Working model of several elements regulating glycolysis pathway and pH decline of postmortem
Article
The study investigated the glycolysis pathway mediated by hypoxia‐inducible factor‐1α (HIF‐1α) and the mechanism of its regulation. The results indicated that HIF‐1α expression initially increased before subsequently decreasing with aging time during postmortem (p < .01). Glucose transporter‐1 (GLUT‐1), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and hexokinase (HK) displayed a similar trend with aging time (p < .01) while pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK‐1) increased gradually within the first 12 hr before decreasing at 24–120 hr. However, after treatment with a HIF‐1α inhibitor, no significant differences were observed in the mitochondrial morphology. Furthermore, lactate content decreased, along with LDH, HK, and F0F1‐ATP activities as well as GLUT‐1 and PDK‐1 expression (p < .01). The shear force for all groups also increased during postmortem aging (p < .01), with that of the controls being significantly higher compared with the treatment groups (p < .01). These findings confirmed that, after slaughter, the hypoxic environment within the muscles provided essential conditions for HIF‐1α expression, which, in turn, activated the glycolysis pathway by mediating changes in the activities of glycolytic enzymes and mitochondrial function. Moreover, in accelerating glycolysis rate, the expression of HIF‐1α further played a negative role in meat tenderization during postmortem aging. This, it was concluded that HIF‐1α expression plays a significant role in postmortem yak meat tenderization by regulating the glycolysis pathway. Pratical applications While converting muscle into meat through hypoxic glycolysis during postmortem aging is undeniable, the biochemical mechanism of this process mediated remains quite obscure. However, the meat quality difference which impact muscle regulation mechanism during postmortem aging has not been reported. The study investigated the HIF‐1α played a major role in both the glycolytic pathway and as well as meat tenderness during the postmortem aging of yak meat. The glycolysis pathway is mediated by hypoxia‐inducible factor‐1α (HIF‐1α), the mechanism of its regulation, and meat tenderness during the postmortem aging of yak meat.
 
Article
Plumula nelumbinis has great medicinal potential as a herbal tea and traditional drug in China. This study was aimed to evaluate the anticardiac fibrosis of the total alkaloids of P. nelumbinis (TAP). TAP at 50 mg/kg/day significantly ameliorated isoproterenol‐induced cardiac fibrosis in mice (p < .05). The circulating lipidomics study revealed that TAP improved the lipid metabolism dysfunction in cardiac fibrosis. Meanwhile, TAP suppressed the lipid accumulation, decreased MDA level (p < .01) in heart, and increased FFA level (p < .01). Furthermore, integrating lipidomics, chemical profiles and pharmacology network analysis found that AMPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways were the potential targeted pathway by TAP to regulate lipid metabolism dysfunction including glycerophospholipid metabolism. Above all, TAP provided a potential anticardiac fibrosis effect partly through regulation of lipid profiles. Practical applications The total alkaloids of Plumula nelumbinis (TAP) suppressed ISO‐induced cardiac fibrosis in mice. Network pharmacology analysis and experiments revealed that TAP‐regulated AMPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway to improve lipid metabolism disorder in cardiac fibrosis. This study provides evidence to the therapeutic potential of TAP in the treatment of ISO‐induced cardiac fibrosis and could be a drug candidate for prevention and treatment of cardiac fibrosis.
 
Metabolic profile derived from the UHPLC‐Q‐TOF/MS in longissimus thoracis (LT) of Sunit sheep (n = 12) in electrospray ionization (ESI) positive and negative ion mode. (a) The total ion chromatogram (TIC) for quality control (QC) samples. (b) The principal component analysis (PCA) score map for the non‐Lactobacillus dietary group (C, green dots) and the Lactobacillus dietary group (R, blue dots) in ESI positive mode (R²X = 0.566) and ESI negative mode (R²X = 0.543). R²X means the interpretation rate of the model to X variable. (c) The orthogonal partial least square‐discriminant analysis (OPLS‐DA) score for the non‐Lactobacillus dietary group (C, green dots) and the Lactobacillus dietary group (R, blue dots) in ESI positive mode (R²Y = 0.991, Q² = 0.396) and ESI negative mode (R²Y = 0.998, Q² = 0.533). R²Y and Q² mean the interpretation rate of the model to the Y variable and model prediction capability, respectively. (d) the permutation test of OPLS‐DA score for the non‐Lactobacillus dietary group (C, green dots) and the Lactobacillus dietary group. (e) Unsupervised hierarchical clustering the heatmap of metabolites. Red and blue cells of heatmap represent increased and decreased metabolites, respectively
KEGG pathways analysis related to lipid metabolism in the longissimus thoracis (LT) of Sunit sheep (n = 12). (a) Enrichment analysis of pathways related to lipid metabolism from the longissimus thoracis (LT) of sheep in the KEGG pathway. Each circle displays one matched pathway, and its color and size are based on the p value and the pathway impact value, respectively. (b) The key metabolites and pathways related to lipid metabolism in the longissimus thoracis (LT) of Sunit sheep. TCA cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle; DAG, diacylglycerol; PC, phosphocholine, CDP‐choline, cytidine diphosphate choline; GPC, glycerophosphocholine; TAG, triacylglyceride
The correlation among meat quality traits in the longissimus thoracis (LT) of Sunit sheep (n = 12)
Article
To investigate the impacts of dietary Lactobacillus supplementation on meat quality such as edible quality and nutritional value of Sunit sheep, a 90‐day feeding experiment (Lactobacillus dietary group, R group; non‐Lactobacillus dietary group, C group) using twelve 3‐month‐old Sunit sheep was conducted. The deposition of intramuscular fat (IMF) was increased (p < .05) while the share force and cooking loss were decreased (p < .05) in the R group compared with the C group. The proportions of seven kinds of fatty acids (FAs) have changed significantly (p < .05), especially with higher functional FAs and lower trans‐FA in the R group. Metabonomics analysis showed that the metabolites and pathway‐related lipid syntheses, such as carnitine cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and glycerophosphocholine metabolic pathway, have significantly changed in the R group. The Lactobacillus dietary supplements impacted the variation of IMF deposition and FAs composition by altering the lipid metabolism pathways of Sunit sheep and then changed the edible quality and nutritional value. Practical applications It is well known that the intramuscular fat (IMF) and fatty acids composition in livestock is positively correlated with various aspects of meat quality such as edible quality and nutritional value, which are related to consumer preference. The present study analyzed the effects of Lactobacillus supplement on the intramuscular fat deposition and meat quality of Sunit sheep, which resulted in the increase of IMF, and the differences of fatty acids composition, especially the functional fatty acids. It was explored the mechanism of Lactobacillus affect the variation of lipid metabolism pathways and key metabolites in sheep, which suggested that altering the feeding regimen could improve the meat quality of agri‐animals.
 
Optimized configuration of delphinidin (a) and pelargonidin (b)
Transition state of anthocyanin and superoxide anion reaction. (a) Transition state of delphinidin C4' and superoxide anion reaction. (b) Transition state of pelargonidin C3 and superoxide anion reaction. Gray atom is carbon atom, red atom is oxygen atom, white atom is hydrogen atom. Arrow indicated the transition state bond lengths
Article
The quantum chemical density functional theory and in vitro chemical‐based antioxidant assays were used to research the reaction mechanism of delphinidin/pelargonidin with free radicals including superoxide anion radicals (O2⁻∙) and hydroperoxide radicals (OOH∙). The geometric configuration, bond dissociation energy, PCM (polarizable continuum model) solvent model reaction enthalpy changes were studied to explain the transition states, and the reaction enthalpy change value was calculated to determine the active site. From the results of spatial configuration, delphinidin showed a stronger conjugation effect than that of pelargonidin. The dihedral angle between the three rings of delphinidin was almost 180°, and the angle between the B and C rings was only −2.81868°. Both coplanar and antioxidant activity of delphinidin was better than pelargonidin. The consequences of reaction enthalpy change in PCM were consistent with the bond dissociation energy. The phenolic hydroxyl bond dissociation energy of delphinidin was slightly smaller than that of pelargonidin. Moreover, the C4' site of delphinidin and the C3 site of pelargonidin were the active sites for scavenging free radicals. The free radical scavenging ability of delphinidin was marginally higher than that of pelargonidin. On the other hand, in vitro antioxidant results proved the scavenging ability of delphinidin and pelargonidin on superoxide anions, DPPH, and ABTS∙+ free radicals. It was shown that the chemical‐based antioxidant activity was consistent with the theoretical calculation results, with delphinidin showing greater antioxidant activity. These results could explain the antioxidant mechanism of delphinidin/pelargonidin in scavenging free radicals from chemical reactions. Practical applications This manuscript explained the antioxidant mechanism of delphinidin/pelargonidin in scavenging free radicals through the analysis of the geometric configuration of delphinidin/pelargonidin and the theoretical calculation of the reaction transition state. It could also speculate on the possible reaction sites, and provide a basis for judging how to efficiently select antioxidants with great antioxidant activity.
 
Article
The crude Hedysarum polysaccharides (HPS: HPS‐50 and HPS‐80) obtained from Radix Hedysari exhibited great pharmacological activities in our previous research. This study investigated the effects of HPS on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D‐galactosamine (D‐GalN)‐induced acute liver injury (ALI) in mice and LPS‐induced injury in LO2 cells, as well as the relationship between structural characteristics and hepatoprotective activities. The in vivo results showed that compared with HPS‐80, HPS‐50 showed stronger hepatoprotection, which improved histopathological changes to normal levels. HPS‐50 significantly decreased the levels of ALT, AST, MPO, and MDA, increased the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH, and suppressed the LPS/D‐GalN‐triggered production of TNF‐α, IL‐1β, and IL‐6 (p < .05). The results in vitro showed that HPS‐50‐P (HPS‐50‐1, HPS‐50‐2, and HPS‐50‐3) purified from HPS‐50 played significant protective roles against LPS‐induced injury in LO2 cells by reducing cell apoptosis and relieving cell cycle arrest. HPS‐50‐2 restored the percentage of normal cells from 54.8% to 94.7%, and reduced the S phase cells from 59.40% to 47.05% (p < .01). By analyzing the structure of HPS‐50‐P, including monosaccharide composition, molecular weight, chain conformation, and surface morphology, we speculated that the best protective effect of HPS‐50‐2 might be attributed to its beta configuration, highest molecular weight, and high glucose and galactose contents. These findings indicate that HPS‐50 might be a promising source of functional foods for the protection and prevention of ALI. Practical applications In this study, the protective effect of HPS on ALI was evaluated from multiple perspectives, and HPS‐50‐2 was screened as a potential active ingredient. This study has two practical applications. First, it provides a new way to improve ALI, and a new option for patients to prevent and treat ALI. Second, this work also complements the pharmacological activity of Radix Hedysari and provides a basis for the development of Radix Hedysari as a functional food.
 
Article
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disabling disease and seriously affects the quality of life of patients. is A potential medicine for the treatment of OA is Eucommia ulmoides leaves (EULs). However, its active compounds and therapeutic mechanisms are unclear. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a method using LC–MS and network pharmacology for the detection and identification of compounds and the mechanisms of action of EULs. The compounds were detected and identified based on ultra‐high‐performance liquid chromatography coupled with Quadrupole Exactive‐Orbitrap MS (UHPLC‐Q Exactive‐Orbitrap MS) and followed by the network pharmacology analysis. Seventy‐three compounds, including 15 flavonoids, 8 iridoids, 10 lignans, 24 phenolic acids, and 16 additional compounds, were identified by UHPLC‐Q Exactive‐Orbitrap MS. The network of the pharmacological analysis revealed that 29 active compounds regulated 17 main pathways through 38 target genes, including NF‐kappa B signaling pathway, PI3K‐Akt signaling pathway, AMPK signaling pathway, etc. In conclusion, EULs were effective in the treatment of OA by regulating the abovementioned key pathways. This study showed that LC–MS/MS followed by network pharmacology analysis is useful to elucidate the complex mechanisms of action of Chinese herb. Practical applications This study describes a rapid method of detecting and identifying the constituents and systematic mechanism of Eucommia ulmoides based on LC–MS and network pharmacology. Our results show that 73 compounds of E. ulmoides leaves were identified and predicted that E. ulmoides leaves were effective in the treatment of OA by regulating key pathways, including NF‐kappa B signaling pathway, PI3K‐Akt signaling pathway, and AMPK signaling pathway by network pharmacology, which lays the foundation for subsequent research.
 
Article
Inflammation is a characteristic of obesity. The rich compounds in lemon peel have anti‐inflammatory effects. This study examined whether fermented lemon peel can have an anti‐obesity effect on obese mice induced by a high‐fat diet (HFD) by regulating inflammation. The lemon peel fermentation supernatant (LPFS) could inhibit the weight gain of mice and improve the lesions of the liver and epididymal adipose tissue. In addition, LPFS regulates blood lipids, liver function, and inflammation‐related indicators in the serum of obese mice. LPFS plays a positive role in regulating the inflammation and obesity‐related genes in liver tissue and adipose tissue of obese mice. High‐performance liquid chromatography showed an increase in the contents of compounds with antioxidant or/and anti‐inflammatory effects and compounds with anti‐obesity effects. These results suggest that the LPFS could help reduce obesity in obese mice induced by an HFD by adjusting the balance of the inflammatory response. Practical applications Obesity often increases the risk of chronic diseases, and mild inflammation is a feature of obesity. Therefore, timely suppression of inflammation in the body can help control the occurrence of obesity. This study clarified the anti‐obesity effect of fermented lemon peel on a high‐fat diet (HFD)‐induced obese mice by regulating the body's inflammatory response and confirmed that fermentation improves the anti‐inflammatory activity of lemon peel. This study provides important references for future investigation, prophylaxis, and treatment of inflammation and obesity‐related diseases, as well as the advances in functional foods and fermented foods with anti‐inflammatory and anti‐obesity activities.
 
Article
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea catechin, has gained the attention of current study due to its excellent health‐promoting effects. It possesses anti‐obesity, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti‐inflammatory activities, and is under extensive investigation in functional foods for improvement. It is susceptible to lower stability, lesser bioavailability, and lower absorption rate due to various environmental, processing, formulations, and gastrointestinal conditions of the human body. Therefore, it is the foremost concern for the researchers to enhance its bioactivity and make it the most suitable therapeutic compound for its clinical applications. In the current review, factors affecting the bioavailability of EGCG and the possible strategies to overcome these issues are reviewed and discussed. This review summarizes structural modifications and delivery through nanoparticle‐based approaches including nano‐emulsions, encapsulations, and silica‐based nanoparticles for effective use of EGCG in functional foods. Moreover, recent advances to enhance EGCG therapeutic efficacy by specifically targeting its molecules to increase its bioavailability and stability are also described. Practical applications The main green tea constituent EGCG possesses several health‐promoting effects making EGCG a potential therapeutic compound to cure ailments. However, its low stability and bioavailability render its uses in many disorders. Synthesizing EGCG prodrugs by structural modifications helps against its low bioavailability and stability by overcoming premature degradation and lower absorption rate. This review paper summarizes various strategies that benefit EGCG under different physiological conditions. The esterification, nanoparticle approaches, silica‐based EGCG‐NPs, and EGCG formulations serve as ideal EGCG modification strategies to deliver superior concentrations with lesser toxicity for its efficient penetration and absorption across cells both in vitro and in vivo. As a result of EGCG modifications, its bioactivities would be highly improved at lower doses. The protected or modified EGCG molecule would have enhanced potential effects and stability that would contribute to the clinical applications and expand its use in various food and cosmetic industries.
 
Article
The current research examines the effects of administration of 150 and 250 mg/kg body weight/day of ethanolic Ferula assa‐foetida L. oleo gum resin extract (FAE) for 42 days in streptozotocin‐induced diabetes in rats. On day 42, all rats were euthanized; HOMA‐β, HOMA‐IR, and QUICKI levels in pancreas were examined histopathologically and ultrastructurally . Low‐dose FAE (150 mg/kg) treatment resulted in significant improvement in serum glucose, insulin and superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and catalase levels (p < .05). It also improved β‐cell function, restored pancreatic β‐cells, and reduced insulin resistance compared to the diabetic control rats. Necrotic and degenerative alterations in the islets, pyknotic β‐cell nuclei, β‐cell degranulation, reduced islet cellular density, and significant vacuolation were found in the islets of STZ‐diabetic control group ratsby the histomorphological and ultrastructural examination. The pancreatic histomorphology of low dose of FAE‐treated diabetic rats showed remarkable improvements in the islets, such as the β‐cell number and the area of the pancreatic islets. Practical applications The experiment revealed that Ferula assa‐foetida L. may exert antihyperglycemic activity in STZ diabetes via β‐cell regeneration and its high antioxidant capacity. This work elucidates the role of Ferula assa‐foetida L. in diabetes management. Ferula assa‐foetida L. gum extract improved the morphological changes of the diabetic pancreas and stimulated the regeneration of the β cells. The findings demonstrated positive results for the long‐term cure of diabetes. Additionally, this study showed the potential of isolating nutraceuticals for the development of medications.
 
Fasting blood sugar (FBS), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase‐muscle/brain (CK‐MB) levels of control, diabetes, cinnamon extract (C100, C200, and C400), metformin, valsartan, metformin/valsartan (met/Val) groups. Values are expressed as means ± SEM (n = 6). *p < .05, **p < .01 and ***p < .001 compared to the control group; +++p < .001 compared to the diabetes group; #p < .05, ##p < .01 and ###p < .001 compared to the C100 group; $p < .05, $$p < .01 and $$$p < .001 compared to the C200 group; &p < .05, &&p < .01 and &&&p < .001 compared to the C300 group; @p < .05 and @@@p < .001 compared to the metformin group; ФФp < .01 and ФФФp < .001 compared to the valsartan group
Malondialdehyde (MDA), thiol content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities of control, diabetes, cinnamon extract (C100, C200, and C400), metformin, valsartan, metformin/valsartan (met/Val) groups. Values are expressed as means ± SEM (n = 6). *p < .05, **p < .01 and ***p < .001 compared to the control group; +p < .05, ++p < .01, +++p < .001 compared to the diabetes group; #p < .05, ##p < .01 and ###p < .001 compared to the C100 group; $$p < .01 and $$$p < .001 compared to the C200 group; &&p < .01 and &&&p < .001 compared to the C300 group; @@p < .01 and @@@p < .001 compared to the metformin group; ФФp < .01 and ФФФp < .001 compared to the valsartan group
Histopathologic comparison of the left ventricular tissue subjected to hematoxylin–eosin staining between control (a), diabetes (b), cinnamon extract (C100;c, C200;d, C400;e), metformin (f), valsartan (g), metformin/valsartan (met/Val; h) groups. Bar graph shows the number of inflammatory cells in the studied groups (i). Values are expressed as means ± SEM (n = 6). Arrows indicate inflammatory cells. Original magnification: 40×. **p < .01 and ***p < .001 compared to the control group; +++p < .001 compared to the diabetes group; ##p < .01 compared to the C100 group; $$p < .01 compared to the C200 group; &&&p < .001 compared to the C300 group; @p < .05 and @@@p < .001 compared to the metformin group
Histopathologic comparison of the left ventricular tissue subjected to Masson trichrome staining between control (a), diabetes (b), cinnamon extract (C100;c, C200;d, C400;e), metformin (f), valsartan (g), metformin/valsartan (met/Val; h) groups. Bar chart of collagen levels between the studied groups (i). Values are expressed as means ± SEM (n = 6). Arrows indicate fibrotic regions. Original magnification: 10×. *p < .05 and ***p < .001 compared to the control group; +++p < .001 compared to the diabetes group; #p < .05 and ###p < .001 compared to the C100 group; $$$p < .001 compared to the C200 group; &&&p < .001 compared to the C300 group; @@@p < .001 compared to the metformin group
Relative gene expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and β‐myosin heavy chain (B‐MHC) in control, diabetes, cinnamon extract (C100, C200, C400), metformin, valsartan, metformin/valsartan (met/Val) groups. Values are expressed as means ± SEM (n = 6). *p < .05 and ***p < .001 compared to the control group; +p < .05, ++p < .01 and +++p < .001 compared to the diabetes group; #p < .05 and ##p < .01 compared to the C100 group; $p < .05 and $$p < .01 compared to the C200 group; &p < .05 and &&p < .01 compared to the C300 group; @p < .05 and @@@p < .001 compared to the metformin group; Фp < .05 and ФФФp < .001 compared to the valsartan group
Article
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a chronic complication of diabetes that emphasizes the urgency of developing new drug therapies. With an illustrious history in traditional medicine to improve diabetes, cinnamon has been shown to possess blood lipids lowering effects and antioxidative and anti‐inflammatory properties. However, the extent to which it protects the diabetic heart has yet to be determined. Forty‐eight rats were administered in the study and grouped as: control; diabetic; diabetic rats given 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg cinnamon extract, metformin (300 mg/kg), valsartan (30 mg/kg), or met/val (combination of both drugs), via gavage for six weeks. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) and markers of cardiac injury including creatine kinase‐muscle/brain (CK‐MB), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated in blood samples. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, the total contents of thiol, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were measured. Histopathology study and gene expression measurement of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), beta‐myosin heavy chain (β‐MHC), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were done on cardiac tissue. FBS and cardiac enzyme indicators were reduced in all treated groups. A reduction in MDA level and enhancement in thiol content alongside with increase of SOD and CAT activities were observed in extract groups. The decrease of inflammation and fibrosis was obvious in treated groups, notably in the high‐dose extract group. Furthermore, all treated diabetic groups showed a lowering trend in AT1, ANP, β‐MHC, and BNP gene expression. Cinnamon extract, in addition to its hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties, can prevent diabetic heart damage by alleviating cardiac inflammation and fibrosis. Practical applications This study found that cinnamon extract might protect diabetic heart damage by reducing inflammation and fibrosis in cardiac tissue, in addition to lowering blood glucose levels and increasing antioxidant activity. Our data imply that including cinnamon in diabetic participants' diets may help to reduce risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.
 
Effect of MV on NO formation in C6 glial cell treated with LPS (5 μg/ml) plus IFN‐γ (10 ng/ml). Values are represented as mean ± SD. Bars with the different alphabets are significantly different at p < .05 by Duncan's multiple range test. MV; mulberry vinegar; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; IFN‐γ: interferon‐γ
Effect of MV on ROS generation in C6 glial cell treated with LPS (5 μg/ml) plus IFN‐γ (10 ng/ml). Time course of changes intracellular ROS fluorescence levels with MV during 60 min (a). Intensity of ROS generation treated with MV at 60 min (b). Values are given as mean ± SD. Bars with the different alphabets are significantly different at p < .05 by Duncan's multiple range test. MV; mulberry vinegar; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; IFN‐γ: interferon‐γ
Effect of MV on TNF‐α (a), IL‐6 (b), and IL‐1β (c) production in C6 glial cell treated with LPS (5 μg/ml) plus IFN‐γ (10 ng/ml). Values are given as mean ± SD. Bars with the different alphabets are significantly different at p < .05 by Duncan's multiple range test. MV; mulberry vinegar; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; IFN‐γ: interferon‐γ
Effect of MV on inflammation‐related protein expressions in C6 glial cell treated with LPS (5 μg/ml) plus IFN‐γ (10 ng/ml). Expression levels of iNOS, COX‐2 proteins (a) and NF‐κB pathway‐related proteins (b). Values are represented as mean ± SD. Bars with the different alphabets are significantly different at p < .05 by Duncan's multiple range test. β‐actin was used as a loading control. MV; mulberry vinegar; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; IFN‐γ: interferon‐γ
Effect of MV on glial activation‐related protein expressions in C6 glial cell treated with LPS (5 μg/ml) plus IFN‐γ (10 ng/ml). Values are represented as mean ± SD. Bars with the different alphabets are significantly different at p < .05 by Duncan's multiple range test. β‐actin was used as a loading control. MV; mulberry vinegar; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; IFN‐γ: interferon‐γ
Article
The present study evaluated the effect of mulberry vinegar (MV) on the regulation of the inflammatory responses using C6 glial cells. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon‐γ (IFN‐γ) induced the nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species generation, while pre‐incubation with MV inhibited these formations in a concentration‐dependent manner. MV treatment also decreased the production of pro‐inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin‐1β (IL‐1β), IL‐6, and tumor necrosis factor‐α in C6 glial cells stimulated by LPS/IFN‐γ. Compared to the LPS/IFN‐γ‐treated control group, the MV‐treated group exerts downregulation in the protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase‐2, through inhibition of nuclear factor‐κB activation. Protein expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein and ionized calcium‐binding adapter molecule 1 were also decreased in the MV‐treated group. These findings suggest that MV prevents neuroinflammation by regulating the NF‐κB signaling pathway and glial activation. Practical application Mulberry fruits (Morus alba L.) have been commonly consumed as juice or jam. It is a rich source of anthocyanins that might be associated with beneficial effects on human health, including the anti‐oxidant, anti‐inflammatory, anti‐obesity, and anti‐diabetic effects. Mulberry vinegar was produced by alcohol and acetic fermentation of mulberry juice, and they possessed a protective effect against LPS/IFN‐γ‐stimulated inflammatory responses in glial cells via regulation of glial activation and NF‐κB signaling pathway (i.e., downregulation of iNOS, COX‐2, TLR4, p‐IκB, and NF‐κB p65 protein expressions). Although further research especially animal and clinical trials are still necessary, the present study will be helpful to scale‐up the production of functional vinegar with neuroprotective and anti‐inflammatory properties using mulberry.
 
Flow chart of the study
Negative correlation between baseline plasma TMAO (ng/μl) and total fiber intake (r = −0.385; p = .02). TMAO, Trimethylamine‐N‐oxide. Spearman correlation was utilized to evaluate this association
Article
The purposes of this study were to assess the effect of Brazil nut supplementation on trimethylamine N‐oxide (TMAO) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients with CAD were randomly assigned to two groups, Brazil nut group (23 patients, 48% male, 62.7 ± 6.8 years, 29.4 ± 5.8 kg/m²), which received one Brazil nut per day for 3 months, and the control group (14 patients, 43% male, 63.7 ± 8.7 years, 28.4 ± 4.2 kg/m²) who did not receive any supplementation. After 3 months, TMAO levels and their precursors did not change in either group. Although not significant, GPx activity increased by 41% in the Brazil nut group. TMAO levels were negatively associated with total fiber intake (r = −0.385 and p = .02). A 3‐month Brazil nut supplementation did not change TMAO levels and GPx activity in CAD patients. Practical applications Trimethylamine N‐oxide (TMAO) has been associated with oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, the increase in antioxidants enzymes production could be a promising strategy to reduce TMAO‐mediated oxidative stress. In this context, nutritional strategies are well‐known as activators of cellular antioxidant responses. As Brazil nuts have a known role in reducing oxidative stress by increasing glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (a selenium‐dependent antioxidant enzyme), this study hypothesized that Brazil nuts could be a strategy that, via antioxidant capacity, would reduce TMAO plasma levels. Although no changes in TMAO levels and GPx activity can be observed in this study, it is believed that other results can be obtained depending on the dosage used. Thus, this study can open new paths and direct other studies with different doses and treatment times to evaluate the effects of Brazil Nuts on TMAO levels.
 
Cytoprotective effects of 6‐OHDA‐induced cell injury in PC12 cells determined by MTT assay. (a) PC12 cells were treated with the indicated concentrations of SCMAC extracts for 4 h. (b) PC12 cells were induced by different concentrations of 6‐OHDA for 4 hr. (c) PC12 cells were preincubated with various concentrations of SCMAC extracts for 4 hr and then exposed to 300 μM 6‐OHDA. **p < .01 and ***p < .001 indicated a significant difference from the untreated control group. ##p < .01 and ###p < .001 indicated a significant difference compared with 6‐OHDA‐only group. SCMAC solid‐state‐cultured mycelium of a. camphorate
SCMAC extracts elevated the neuro‐related protein expressions of DAT (a) and TH (b), and down‐regulated protein expressions of α‐syn (c) and Caspase‐3 (d) in the 6‐OHDA‐induced PC12 cells, analyzed by Western blot assay. Cells were pretreated with 0 or 1.0 ppm SCMAC extracts for 4 hr and then induced by 0 or 300 μM 6‐OHDA for 4 hr. protein levels (DAT, TH, α‐syn, and Caspase‐3) were corrected to β‐Actin and were expressed relative to the control group (set as 1). ***p < .001 versus control group, ###p < .001 versus 6‐OHDA group. SCMAC, the solid‐state‐cultured mycelium of a. camphorate
Apoptotic nuclei changes of PC12 cell induced by SCMAC extracts or 6‐OHDA were evaluated using Hoechst 33342 under an inverted fluorescence microscope microscopy. (a) Control group. (b) Cells were treated with only SCMAC extracts. (c) Cells were treated with only 300 μM of 6‐OHDA. (d) Cells were pretreated with SCMAC extracts (1.0 ppm) for 4 hr and then exposed to 300 μM 6‐OHDA. SCMAC, the solid‐state‐cultured mycelium of a. camphorate
SCMAC extracts inhibited the 6‐OHDA‐stimulated accumulation of intracellular ROS level in PC12 cells, measured by DCFH‐DA assay. Cells were pretreated with 0 or 1.0 ppm SCMAC extracts for 4 hr and then induced by 300 μM 6‐OHDA for 4 hr. ***p < .001 versus control group (normal PC12 cells without SCMAC extracts or 6‐OHDA), ###p < .001 versus 6‐OHDA group (0 ppm of SCMAC extracts). SCMAC, the solid‐state‐cultured mycelium of a. camphorate
The identified compounds 1–11 of SCMAC extracts. The structures of 1–11 were identified as 5‐(methoxymethyl)‐1H‐pyrrole‐2‐carbaldehyde (1) (Don et al., 2005), 2,3‐dimethoxy‐5‐methyl‐1,4‐benzoquinone (2) (Yu et al., 2016), 2,3‐dimethoxy‐5‐methylhydroquinone 4‐methyl ether (3) (Yu et al., 2016), 2,4‐dimethoxy‐6‐methylbenzene‐1,3‐diol (4) (Shen et al., 2008), 4,7‐dimethoxy‐5‐methyl‐1,3‐benzodioxole (5) (Shie et al., 2016), mandelic acid methyl ester (6) (Maczka et al., 2014), antroquinonol N (7) (Chen et al., 2017), 4‐acetyl‐antroquinonol B (8) (Yang et al., 2009), (+)‐antroquinonol (9) (Lee et al., 2007), antrodin B (10) (Boukouvalas et al., 2012), and versisponic acid D (11) (Yoshikawa et al., 2000). SCMAC, the solid‐state‐cultured mycelium of a. camphorate
Article
Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is an edible fungus containing various bioactive compounds generally used for health benefits. This study aimed to explore the potential neuroprotective activities of solid‐state‐cultured mycelium of A. camphorata (SCMAC) against Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as the underlying mechanism using an in vitro 6‐hydroxydopamine (6‐OHDA)‐induced PC12 cell model. The results showed that SCMAC extracts alleviated cell toxicity induced by 6‐OHDA and the loss of dopaminergic neurons, which was confirmed by the increase of cell viabilities, inhibition of cell apoptosis, the upregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter (DAT) levels and the downregulation of α‐Synuclein level. After purification, 11 compounds were identified by the NMR technique, including a quinone, four phenolic acid derivatives, three ubiquinone derivatives, two alkaloids, and a triterpenoid. The present study suggests that SCMAC could be an attractive candidate for the prevention or treatment of PD. Practical applications Parkinson's disease seriously affects the lifetime and quality of the elder population for a long history. Long‐term consumption of L‐DOPA will result in side effects, such as developing abnormal involuntary movements called dyskinesia. This study showed that natural SCMAC extracts could be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorder.
 
The flowchart and timeline of the study. AT, aerobic training; DE, dill extract, HFD, high‐fat diet; NC, nonobese control; OC, obese control; SD, standard diet
Change of body mass (a), Lee obesity index (b), and food intake (c) in rats following 10 weeks of treatments. AT, aerobic training; DE, dill extract; NC, nonobese control, OC, obese control
Effect of the AT and DE on TC (a) and HDL‐C (b) in liver and Apo B (c), Apo A‐1 (d), AST (e), ALT (f), and AST/ALT ratio (g) in plasma following 10 weeks of interventions. Apo A‐1, Apolipoprotein A‐1; AST, Aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, Alanine aminotransferase; AT, Aerobic training; Apo B, Apolipoprotein B; DE, dill extract; HDL‐C, high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol; NC, nonobese control; OC, obese control; TC, total cholesterol. *p ≤ .05, significant difference with the OC group
Effect of the AT and DE on the expression of miR‐33 (a) and miR‐223 (b) in rats liver tissue following 10 weeks of interventions. AT, aerobic training; DE, dill extract; NC, nonobese control; OC, obese control. *p ≤ .05, significant difference with the OC group; †p ≤ .05, significant difference with the AT + DE group
Article
Exercise training and medicinal herb supplementation may improve microRNAs (miRNAs) expression associated with obesity. This study aimed to assess the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic training (AT) and dill extract (DE) on miR‐33 and miR‐223 expression of liver in high‐fat diet (HFD)‐induced obese rats. Forty male Wistar rats were fed a defined high‐fat (n = 32) and standard (n = 8, nonobese control [NC]) diet. After obesity induction, obese rats were randomly allocated to four groups: AT, DE, AT + DE, and obese control (OC). Rats were euthanized and plasma and liver tissue samples were collected after the intervention. The liver expression of miR‐33 was lower in the AT, DE, AT + DE, and NC groups compared with the OC group. Also, the liver miR‐223 expression was higher in the AT, DE, AT + DE, and NC groups compared with the OC group. Moreover, the liver expression of miR‐223 in the AT + DE group was higher compared with the AT and DE groups. The AT, DE, AT + DE, and NC groups had lower liver TC compared with the OC group. Also, the plasma level of apolipoprotein B (Apo B) was significantly lower, and liver HDL‐C was significantly higher in the AT + DE and NC groups compared with the OC group. These findings show that long‐term AT combined with the intake of DE may improve the plasma levels of Apo B, and TC and HDL‐C levels in the liver, which is probably due to AT and DE positive effects on miR‐33 and miR‐223 in the liver of obese rats. Practical applications Aerobic training reduces overweight and obesity health problems, however, the duration and intensity of the exercise training distinguish between individuals. We used an integrated approach combining pharmacological and non‐pharmacological as a medical strategy to prevent HFD‐induced metabolic injury in obese rats. The present results discovered that a combination of AT + DE intervention improves the miR‐33 and miR‐223 in the liver of obese rats.
 
Article
Punica granatum (Pomegranate fruit) and its constituents are proven effective against various cancer types. However, a kinome‐wide screening for the active phytochemicals against kinases is not reported. This study aims in validating pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, and computationally identifying the phytochemicals interacting with active kinases. PFE was made with Soxhlet extractor using absolute ethanol. Gas‐chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) for phytochemical identification and MTT assay for cytotoxicity in AML (THP‐1, TF‐1 and HL‐60) cells were performed. Apoptosis, CDK5 and CDK8 were assessed with flow cytometry. Kinase profiling was performed using In silico kinome screening. GC–MS analysis revealed 38 bioactive phytochemicals in PFE including pyrazoles, aldehydes, phenols, esters, pyranosides, and octadecadienoic acids. The extract inhibited the AML cell proliferations with GI50 values of 195.5 μg/ml, 289.1 μg/ml, and 353.5 μg/ml in THP‐1, THP‐1, and HL‐60 cells, respectively. PFE also exhibited a dose‐responsive increase in apoptotic cell populations when treated to the AML cells. Computational screening and modeling predicted three critical constituents, viz., Deoxyartemisinin, 3‐Methyl‐3‐phenyl‐3H‐indazole, and 8‐fluoro‐5,6‐dimethoxy‐3,4‐dihydro‐2H‐naphthalen‐1‐one of pomegranate extract to interact mainly with cyclin‐dependent kinases, including CDK5 and CDK8. Proteinand ligand docking predicted binding energies, and binding pose for top candidate lead molecules. In vitro assay exhibited the anticancer properties of PFE in AML cells. Computational kinome screening predicted top three PFE constituents targeting CDKs which may be responsible for the demonstrated anticancer efficacy of the extract against AML. This hypothesis further aligned with observed efficacy of PFE to inhibit CDK5 and CDK8 in all AML cells tested. Practical applications Though Punica granatum (Pomegranate fruit) and its constituents are proven effective against various cancer types, a kinome‐wide screening for the active phytochemicals against kinases is not reported. In this study, we have conducted GC/MS characterization of the active phytochemicals of PFE and have performed a kinome‐wide screening for all the 38 identified compounds toward 310 active kinases commonly expressed in cancers. These observations warrant isolation and further evaluation of these phytochemicals or their analogues as effective CDK inhibitors against AML proliferation. Further, the computational methods used in this study will throw light on literature for new options of kinome panel screening of active phytochemicals or small molecules.
 
Article
In this research, the beneficial roles of aqueous leaf extract of Solanum macrocarpon (SM) on diabetic cardiomyopathy were evaluated. Diabetic rats (induced with alloxan) were given varying doses of SM aqueous leaves extract for 28 days, and the animals were sacrificed. A series of diabetic cardiomyopathy parameters were determined. Diabetic rats showed hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, with a momentous upsurge in lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, cardiac troponin I activities as well as inflammatory markers. Also, diabetic rats demonstrated a substantial decline in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in relation to other groups. Administration of different doses of SM aqueous leaf extract to diabetic rats demonstrated normoglycemia, normolipidemia, reduced the activities of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, cardiac troponin I, and inflammatory levels as well as an increase in the antioxidant enzyme activities. In conclusion, the results suggest that SM aqueous leaf extract ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy. Practical applications This study examined the role of Solanum macrocarpon (SM) aqueous leaf extract in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Results revealed that SM might be useful in ameliorating diabetic cardiomyopathy.
 
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3 days
Submission to first decision
30%
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$3,600 / £2,400 / €3,000
APC
3.654 (2021)
Journal Impact Factor™
4.4 (2021)
CiteScore
Top-cited authors
Kalidas Shetty
  • North Dakota State University
Soottawat Benjakul
  • Prince of Songkla University
Maurice R Marshall
  • University of Florida
Rickey Y Yada
  • University of Guelph
Wonnop Visessanguan
  • National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC)