Journal of Experimental Agriculture International

Published by Sciencedomain International
Online ISSN: 2457-0591
Publications
Fresh mass loss (A), soluble solids (B), titratable acidity (C) and soluble solids ratio and titratable acidity (D) in Tahiti acid fruits irrigated with salinities of 0.3 dSm-1 (S 1 ) and 3.0 dSm-1
Objective: The objective of this study was to verify the post-harvest quality of fruits of the acid lime fruits ‘Tahiti’ of the genotype TSKC x (LCR x TR) – 017, under saline stress. Experimental Design: The experimental design was completely randomized from the factorial arrangement (2x5), where factor 1 corresponded to irrigation water salinity levels (0.3 and 3.0 dSm-1) and factor 2, storage time (0.5, 10, 15 and 20 days). Location and Duration of the Study: The experiment was conducted at the Center of Science and Technology Agrifood of the Federal University of Campina Grande, Pombal Campus, Paraíba, from February 2016 to February 2017. Methodology: The effect of the treatments was analyzed from the following evaluations: loss of fresh weight (%),soluble solids(%),titratable acidity (%),soluble solids and titratable acidity, hydrogen potential, concentration of H + ions (μM), electrical conductivity (dSm-1),ascorbic acid (mg 100 mL-1), total soluble sugars (mg 100 mL-1),phenolic compounds(mg 100 mL-1) and flavonoids (mg 100 mL-1). Results: It was observed the interaction between the saline concentration and the time of storage, on the physical-chemical and chemical characteristics in the acid file 'Tahiti'. Conclusion: The salinity of 3.0 dSm-1 showed the highest values for soluble solids, SS/AT ratios, total soluble sugars, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids during storage, indicating that the quality of these fruits was better when compared to fruits of the acidic 'Tahiti' file with 0.3 dSm-1 of salinity.
 
Grain transport losses occur due to road conditions, trucks' state of repair, types of bodies, overload, loading and transport speed. These losses, besides affecting the economy, are also considered waste of food, environmental and social aspects. The objective of this work was to collect information from the drivers, through the application of questionnaires, on the type, age and state of conservation of trucks, car bodies, roof covers and tires, as well as conservation conservation of BR-163 highway in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The study was carried out on the BR-163 highway, which is the one with the highest cargo flow for maize in the state of Mato Grosso. Interviews were conducted with approximately 500 truck drivers transporting grain cargoes of maize, in order to obtain information regarding: (a) State of conservation of the highways where they travel; (b) which part of the highways the greatest grain losses occur; (c) which grain is the most lost in road transport; (d) whether the truck driver has received any specific training to avoid grain losses; (e) whether the trucker adopts any procedure to reduce grain losses; among other information relevant to the study in question. It was observed that 59.70% of the trucks are owned by the companies, the other 40.30% are owned by the driver or are not tied to any company. It was observed that 42.90% of the trucks were manufactured between 2011 and 2015, that is, they are less than 8 years old. Of the evaluated trucks 39% of the evaluated trucks are bitrens, 32% rodotrens. The predominant bodies in the transport of grain in bulk are of the bulk type and bucket, with great predominance for grain. The data indicate that 87% of the trucks and 84% of the bodies are in good or excellent condition. The grain that is most lost in transportation, according to the drivers, is corn and soy, which together account for approximately 40% of the losses. It is concluded that grain losses in corn transport are occurring mainly due to poor conservation of BR-163 in the state of Mato Grosso. Holes and trepidation are the main culprits.
 
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of poultry waste meal (PWM) on growth of Clarias gariepinus juveniles The growth response of juveniles of average weight 6.5g fed poultry waste meal (PWM) was studied for 70 days. The poultry waste meal comprised the droppings from the layers pen, some maggots, broken eggs and feeds that fell during the course of feeding. The proximate analysis of PWM had crude protein value of 9.795 %, crude fibre 8.700 %, ash 25.174 %, moisture 10.794%, carbohydrate 44.286% and fat 1.250% respectively. Five diets were formulated; which were Diet A (Control: with 0% inclusion level of poultry waste meal, B (25%), C (50%), D (75%), and E with 100% inclusion level (total replacement with poultry waste meal). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) between the control and all other diets in the values recorded for growth and nutrient utilization, even up to 100% substitution of maize with PWM. The cost of feed production decreased with increase in inclusion levels of PWM in the diets. The results of the study showed that the use of PWM could be considered in the diet of C. gariepinus even up to 100% substitution level; considering the huge cost of maize and competition for its use whereas PMW is obtainable at little or no cost.
 
Larvae of Clarias gariepinus at the age of 14 days
Formulation and chemical composition of the experimental rations
Evolution of temperature and pH of the rearing medium according to weeks
To assess the effects of two rations on growth performance of Clarias gariepinus fry, a study was carried out at the Peyrie fish farm station in Libreville, Gabon. To this effect, 3000 fry aged 14 days with 80 mg live weight were used. The animals were randomly distributed into six plastic tanks of 0.62 m3 each with three replications per treatment. They were fed the ration T, a ration formulated with fishmeal and broiler chick feed, and the commonly used ration (CR), within 4 weeks. Weight growth, mean weight gain (MWG), daily individual growth (DIG), specific growth rate (SGR), survival rate (SR), nutrient quotient (NQ), protein efficiency ratio (PER), quantity of feed distributed and manufacturing cost per kg of feed were evaluated. It appears that there is no significant difference (p> 0.05) between the growth parameters of the fry regardless of the ration (T and CR). Thus, at the end of the study, for the CR and the ration T, a final mean weight of 3.481 ± 1.02 g vs 3.409 ± 0.97 g respectively was obtained; a MWG of 3.401 ± 0.31 g vs 3.330 ± 0.23 g; a DIG of 20.24 ± 7.44 mg/day vs 19.82 ± 5.58 mg/day, a SGR of 1.54 ± 0.22% mg/day vs 1.49 ± 0.27% mg/day and a SR of 26.13 ± 4.44% vs 20.60 ± 1.47%. In addition, a NQ of 1.52 ± 1.08 vs 1.21 ± 0.65 and a PER of 1.41 ± 0.81 vs 1.84 ± 0.39 and the quantity of feed of 1.96 kg vs 1.77 kg were also determined. In view of all these results, the ration T can be recommended for feeding Clarias gariepinus fry at the age of 14 days.
 
Introduction: People are facing uncertain and challenging times in the surge of COVID-19 Pandemic; unemployment rate increases, incomes dramatically decline, and movement restrictions are evident in every household here in the Philippines. Due to income disruption, the underprivileged encounter shortage of their food resources. As such, home gardening becomes a popular initiative of the government and non-government agencies. Objectives: The primary aim of this paper is to determine the level of interest and attitude of the residents from the Municipality of Cantilan, Surigao del Sur towards home gardening during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Methodology: The study made use of the descriptive normative design by using a convenience sampling method. The sample selection was based on participants’ willingness to answer the questionnaire which serves as the primary tool in gathering the data. Wherein there are 115 total of respondents participated in the study. The collected data were treated using a simple percentage and weighted mean. Results and Conclusions: The result shows that majority of the respondents were interested in home gardening and believed that it helps their family to eat better and save money during a pandemic. It also indicates that they have time to work in their garden, to be recreational, and conform that they enjoy this activity. It would strengthen their family values and the benefits of home gardening to our environment. However, they are not fully aware of the other benefits of home gardening. Meanwhile, they are unsure if they became successful in home gardening or not.
 
The coffee red mite [Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917)] (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) is one of the main causes of conilon coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre & Froehn) crop damage due to its phytophagous habit. Nowadays, environment and human harmful synthetic pesticides are used to control this pest. In this context, plant-derived bioactive compounds have been studied as a sustainable alternative for the pest mite management in crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate the castor (Ricinus communis) seed oil action on eggs, larvae, nymph (protonymph and deutonymph) and adults of O. ilicis. Coffee leaf discs (4 cm in diameter) containing 12 individuals of O. ilicis were sprayed with castor seed oil at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0% (v/v) using airbrush. The ovicidal and mortality activity of this extract were evaluated against O. ilicis. The effective concentration of castor oil to cause 50% inhibition of O. ilicis larvae hatching (LC 50) was 1.26% (v/v). Oligonychus ilicis treated with this oil at a concentration of 3.0% presented a larvae hatching percentage of 29.3%, lower than that obtained for the control treatment (79.1%). Castor seed oil 3.0% (v/v) was highly toxic to nymphs and adults of O. ilicis with mortality of 96 and 88%, respectively. Castor seed oil was effective for larvae hatching inhibition and nymphs and adults mortality of O. ilicis, being promising for the coffee red mite sustainable biocontrol.
 
This study evaluates the insolation calculations and their analysis soon after plotting their respective local historical average graph from 1962 to 2019 for some municipalities in Pernambucana. Monthly and annual insolation data for the study period was obtained from the National Institute of Meteorology.After homogenization, data consistency and failure filling of each series, the spatial and temporal insolation densities were performed for municipalities like Arcoverde, Cabrobó, Garanhuns, Ouricuri, Petrolina, Recife, Surubim and Triunfo. The average and its historical average were calculated and appropriate analysis was performed. The spatial distribution of the monthly insolation data showed great variability for the months studied, ranging from approximately 3 to 4 hours. The median values most likely occured during the months for the eight municipalities under study. The municipality of Garanhuns presented higher insolation values than Petrolina. Comparing the values obtained in this study with the values of the Solarimetric Atlas of Brazil, indicated a good similarity of the recorded data.
 
Aims: With the goal of obtaining Coffea arabica varieties with greater productivity and resistance, researchers in Brazil have been conducting experiments on elite plant propagation through in vitro techniques, such as somatic embryogenesis. This large-scale multiplication method has great potential for exploration and could enable maximization of coffee propagation. The aim of the current work was to compare the effects of different 2,4-D concentrations and two pre-established methodologies for obtaining embryogenic calli of Coffea arabica, and to evaluate whether the foliar explant source can affect somatic embryogenesis. Place and Duration of Study: The experiments were conducted in the Central Laboratory of Molecular Biology at the Federal University of Lavras, (Brazil), between 2016 and 2017. Methodology: The calli of Coffea arabica cv. Catiguá MG2 were obtained using two well-known methodologies and from two explant sources: seedling leaves cultivated both in vitro and in a greenhouse. The quality of potentially embryogenic calli was verified by morphological analysis by light microscopy, and the quantity was determined by analysis of variance. Results: After five months of culture, all treatments generated potentially embryogenic calli. The calli were histologically characterized as having a homogeneous tissue consisting of small isodiametric cells and aggregates displaying a dense cytoplasm and clear nuclei. Numerous small starch grains were also noted. Conclusion: The plant leaf explants grown in vitro showed a high percentage of potentially embryogenic calli after inoculation in a culture medium containing a low 2,4-D concentration. Morphological characteristics may therefore be used as structural markers to select embryogenic cultures.
 
Mean values for the effect of 2,4-D rate on parameters from OJIP fluorescence analysis performed on cotton at the nine-leaf growth stage at Tifton, GA
Mean values for the effect of 2,4-D rate on parameters from OJIP fluorescence analysis performed on cotton at the first bloom growth stage at Tifton, GA
Mean values for the effect of 2,4-D rate on parameters from OJIP fluorescence analysis performed on cotton at the four-leaf growth stage at Moultrie, GA
Mean values for the effect of 2,4-D rate on parameters from OJIP fluorescence analysis performed on cotton at the nine-leaf growth stage at Moultrie, GA
Mean values for the effect of 2,4-D rate on parameters from OJIP fluorescence analysis performed on cotton at two weeks after the first bloom growth stage at Moultrie, GA
Aims: Determine if the use of novel chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters could be utilized to predict yield loss of cotton exposed to sublethal rates of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at various growth stages. Study Design: All trials were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatment means were subjected to analysis of variance and linear regression was utilized to determine relationship between chlorophyll a parameters and yield. Place and Duration of Study: University of Georgia Gibbs Farm in Tifton, GA, USA and the Sunbelt Agricultural Exposition in Moultrie, GA, USA during the 2013 growing season. Methodology: Two sublethal rates of 2,4-D were applied to cotton at six distinct growth stages. The rates consisted of 2 g and 40 g ae ha-1 equivalent to 1/421 and 1/21 of the full rate (0.532 kg ae ha-1), respectively. The sublethal rates were applied to cotton at six growth stages, including the four leaf, nine leaf, first bloom, two, four and six weeks after first bloom growth stages. A fluorometer was used to obtain the fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm, ΦEO and PIABS from the uppermost fully expanded leaves at various intervals after 2,4-D exposure. Results: Despite yield losses ranging from 20 – 90% of the non-treated control, no consistent patterns resulted from utilizing fluorescence transients to detect 2,4-D injury and overall instances of significant difference were minimal and typically not biologically relevant. In many cases, treatments exposed to 2,4-D that exhibited yield loss showed evidence of greater photosynthetic efficiency than the non-treated control. In the majority of instances, many of fluorescence parameters measured fell within ranges observed in previous studies in cotton produced under typical or non-stressed conditions. Conclusion: While it has been proven as a valuable tool in other plant screening endeavors, chlorophyll a fluorescence were not able to detect the effects of sub-lethal rates of 2,4-D on cotton, even in instances that resulted in severe yield loss.
 
Aim: Postemergence timing trials based on weed size were conducted near Lubbock, TX to assess the effectiveness of 2,4-D choline + glyphosate on control of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.), Russian-thistle (Salsola tragus L.), and kochia (Kochia scoparia L.) at three growth stages (3 to 5 cm, 10 to 15 cm, and 20 to 30 cm). Study Design: All trials were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Place and Duration of Study: Field experiments were conducted in 2013, 2014, and 2015 in Lubbock, TX at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center near Lubbock, TX. Methodology: Herbicide treatments consisted of a single postemergence application of 2,4-D choline + glyphosate at two rates, 2,4-D choline + glyphosate at two rates + glufosinate, 2,4-D choline + glyphosate + S-metolachlor, 2,4-D choline + glyphosate + acetochlor, 2,4-D choline + glufosinate, glyphosate, or glufosinate. Results: The greatest level of weed control for all three weed species was achieved at the 3 to 5 cm timing; however, weed size was most critical for Palmer amaranth and Russian-thistle compared to kochia. Averaged over all three years, Palmer amaranth control decreased from 93 to 74% when evaluated 21 days after treatment following applications that included 2,4-D choline when applied to plants 3 to 5 and 10 to 30 cm, respectively. For Russian-thistle, control decreased from 98 to 78% when evaluated 21 days after treatment following treatments that included 2,4-D choline when applied to plants 3 to 5 and 10 to 30 cm, respectively. For kochia, control decreased from 98 to 84% when evaluated 21 days after treatment following treatments that included 2,4-D choline when applied to plant 3 to 5 and 10 to 30 cm, respectively.
 
The study was conducted at Metahara Sugar Factory Citrus orchard fields in 2010/11 cropping season with the objective of evaluating the efficacy of Ethiodemethrin 2.5% EC and Karate 5% for the control of citrus leafminer. In this study, seven treatments were used i.e. Ethiodemethrin 2.5% EC at 20, 30 and 50 ml per tree and Karate 5% EC at 0.72 and 1.10 ml per tree including free checks. Treatments were given at once and twice application frequencies; the second application was applied after fifteen days of the first application. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with four replications. The study indicated that Ethiodemethrin 2.5% EC at 20, 30 and 50 ml tree-1 and Karate 5% EC at 0.72 and 1.10 ml tree-1 had satisfactory control potential of citrus leafminer (CLM) for a maximum of two weeks period as compared to the untreated check. Therefore, the orchard could use Ethiodemethrin 2.5% EC at 20 ml tree-1 and Karate 5% EC at 0.72 ml tree-1 for the control of leafminer. Moreover, using single control tactics does not provide utmost control of CLM in the orchard.
 
Simple linear regression graph of the price of fruits and vegetables (X 4 ) in Brazil in reals (R$)
Aims: Objective this work is to understand the price dynamics of foods basket products in Brazil and the world, based on multivariate analysis, for 14 years, with data from governmental and non-governmental organizations. Methodology: Data used for world food prices were taken from official documents provided by governmental and non-governmental organizations. The data were submitted to statistical analysis by Microsoft Excel 2016® and Minitab 16®. The statistical model used in the work is multiple linear regression. When significant linear regression was found, the parameters were compared by means of simple linear regression analysis, a significance of 5% probability (P<0.05) was considered. Results: The results showed that the items that most cost the foods basket in the world are meat, fruits, and vegetables, and it was noticed that with each increase of 1 dollar in the price of these products, increased 2 dollars in the price food basket. And in Brazil it would not be different, these same products represented an increase in the price of the basic food basket in more than 300% (adding meat) and 110,67% (adding fruits and vegetables). Conclusion: Concluding that the increase of the basic food basket in Brazil and in the World is directly correlated with meat, fruits, and vegetables. Being an added value caused by the high cost of investment in these sectors, which require very high investment.
 
Standard deviation of the different components for every market
The fluctuation of the price of tomatoes during the year represents, for the Beninese population a real problem, both in terms of food and socio-economic. In this context, this work analyses the evolution of the selling prices of tomatoes in 11 Benin markets from 2006 to 2015. The tomatoes price experienced a high and strong fluctuation in most markets. The multiplicative model made it possible to isolate the trend and the seasonality. The trend has been adjusted by a 3rdorder centered moving average model. Seasonality indices showed that the price is higher than the monthly average in most markets during the months from March to June. These fluctuations depend on the production system and rainfall conditions.The understanding of the evolution of the price of tomatoes is therefore necessary for the formulation of the market stabilizationpolicies of this product. (18) (PDF) Chronological Analysis of the Price of Tomato Fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in Benin Main Markets from 2006 to 2015. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329685999_Chronological_Analysis_of_the_Price_of_Tomato_Fruit_Solanum_lycopersicum_L_in_Benin_Main_Markets_from_2006_to_2015 [accessed Dec 16 2018].
 
The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield of corn hybrids in west Bahia and south-west Goias in the agricultural year of 2017/2018. The study was carried out in the municipalities of Luís Eduardo Magalhães in west Bahia - BA and Mineiros in south-west Goias – GO, Brasil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design, the treatments being corn hybrids, 12 in west of Bahia and 23 in south-west of Goias. Each experimental unit was composed of 6 lines of 8 m in length spaced every 0.5 m and population of 70.000 ha-1 plants in 4 replications. The applications of pesticides were carried out in the morning, and the control of weeds, insects and diseases were carried out whenever necessary respecting the good practices of integrated pest management. After the harvest the yield was determined, correcting the grain moisture to 14%. Statistical analyzes were carried out at the Rbio and R interface. The analysis of variance analysis revealed that corn hybrids in the regions of west Bahia and south-west Goias were significant. The cultivation of the DKB390, MG711, DKB290 and 30F53 corn hybrids is recommended for west Bahia and the P3707 hybrid that has obtained yields above 170 sc ha-1 in south-west Goias. For both regions it was evidenced that the UPGMA grouping method using the generalized distance of Mahalanobis was efficient.
 
The oriental tobacco trial was planted to evaluate the possibility of producing Oriental tobacco in Vietnam. Vietnam Tobacco Institute tested six oriental tobacco varieties in Ninh Son district under Ninh Thuan province in 2019 - 2020. Those varieties originated from Bulgaria country were bred and multiplied for other countries researching the adaptability of variety. The test results showed that oriental tobacco varieties were good growing and proper for soil and climate conditions in Ninh Thuan province. Using the trial varieties selected, we have collected the best two varieties to expand the growing area in Ninh Thuan and Dak Lak provinces in the year 2021, including the Basma 16 and Hanski 227 varieties. In 2021, we tried the Basma 16 with a planting density of 280.000 plants/ha, and Hanski 227 was 110.000 plants/ha. Based on results of the soil analysis, the fertilizer formula in Ninh Thuan province consisted of 2 levels as PB1 (30N + 0P2O5 + 50K2O kg/ha) and PB2 (40N + 0P2O5 + 50K2O kg/ha); whilst for Dak Lak province, the fertilizer formula was PB1 (30N + 30P2O5 + 50K2O kg/ha), PB2 was 40N + 30P2O5 + 50K2O kg/ha with N: (NH4NO3), P: (Ca(H2PO4)2) and K: (K2SO4). The experiments were pairs designed, with every formula of 500 m2. The trial results of 2021 showed that in two levels of fertilizer, the dry yield, nicotine content, sugar content, and chlorine content of oriental tobacco varieties in Ninh Thuan province ranged from 1.44 - 1.70 tons/ha, 0.68 - 1.33%, 19.2 - 22.2%, and 1.41 - 1.80%; meanwhile in Dak Lak province were 1.57 - 1.82 tons/ha, 1.0 - 1.39%, 9.8 - 12.0%, and 0.27 - 0.31%. Based on the results analysis of chemical compositions in tobacco leaves and smoking properties, the oriental tobacco in Dak Lak has good quality and was similar to the oriental tobacco imported from Bulgaria, Turkey and Greece countries. In contrast, in Ninh Thuan, oriental tobacco was not having good quality but hot smoke and poorly burning. So, the Dak Lak province was a good region for oriental tobacco in Vietnam with formulas of trial fertilizer above applied. In 2022, we will continue to expand the growing areas of oriental tobacco in Dak Lak province to limit the importation of oriental tobacco products from foreign countries.
 
In order to evaluate the effect of early upward tapping on rubber productivity of rubber trees and to determine its proportion relative to downward tapping, a study was conducted at SAPH Divo on the PB 260 clone of the fast metabolic activity class. The experimental set-up was a Fisher block with seven treatments and three replications. Tapping was carried out in d3 with 6 stimulations. Three upward tapping times at 6, 7 and 8 years, each coupled with two concentrations of the stimulating paste 2.5 and 5% of Ethephon and a downwardly tapped control stimulated with 5% of Ethephon were tested. The data collected were for rubber production, isodiametric growth, tapping panel dryness susceptibility and tree physiological profile. The results showed that the different treatments tapped in upward at 6, 7 and 8 years of age significantly improved the productivity of the PB 260 clone relative to the control by downward for nine years. All treatments combined, rubber productivity (4723 kg.ha-1.yr-1) and radial vegetative growth (3.8 cm.yr-1) were good. The gain in rubber productivity of the early upward tapping compared to the downward tapping was 42%. The tapping panel dryness rate was low at 2.6% and the physiological profile of the trees was well balanced. Our results suggest that PB 260, and therefore metabolically active clones, can be tapped in early upward tapping, especially at 6 years of age.
 
The downward tapping on virgin bark of the lower panel (BO) is immediately followed by the upward tapping on virgin bark of the upper panel (HO), consecutively. To determine the agro-physiological advantages of one tapping over another, a study of the downward and upward tapping of the GT 1 and PB 260 clones of Hevea brasiliensis was carried out in southwestern Côte d'Ivoire. For this purpose, the rubber trees were tapped in a downward half-spiral (S/2) at the opening for nine consecutive years, followed by upward quarter-spiral tapping (S/4U) for four consecutive years. The agronomic parameters (rubber production and vegetative growth), tapping panel dryness and the latex micro-diagnosis, were evaluated. For GT 1 clone, the transition from the downward tapping panels to the upward tapping panels resulted rubber productivity gain of 35%. Meanwhile for PB 260, rubber productivity gain was 37%. Regardless of the clone and tapping direction, the higher the rubber productivity of a respective tapping panel, the lower the isodiametric growth of the tree trunk was recorded. Latex harvesting systems, and clone’s combination, did not influence the tapping panel dryness or the physiological profile of the trees. Finally, it should be concluded that upward tapping is more productive than downward tapping, but the quantification of the gains in this rubber production depends on the clone.
 
This project aims to determine the optimal conditions for a good germination of the Rio Grande and Campbell 33 varieties of Lycopersicum esculentum. The several parameters were studied: The culture conditions, the tolerance to salinity, the total soluble aerial sugars levels, the dry matter of the aerial part and the sensitivity index. After 12 days, seed germination in a peat-sand mixture reached 10% in the Rio Grande variety and 4.8% in the Campbell 33 variety. When the seeds germinated in vitro, the percentage reached 75% for the Rio Grande variety and 60% for the Campbell 33. In petri dishes, the percentage of germination increased to 100% for both varieties. The salinity tolerance of both varieties was also studied. Significant decreases in capacity, speed, and germination rate were observed as a result of salt stress. The greatest reductions in germination were obtained at concentrations of 400 mM NaCl and MgSO4, and 200 and 400 mM CaCl2 for the Campbell 33 variety. Total soluble aerial sugars levels increased with salt concentrations, more markedly in Rio Grande, while the evolution of dry matter of the aerial part and the root volume decreased significantly. The variation of the sensitivity index as a function of the concentrations was treated.
 
Chilli is an important vegetable and spice crop in India. It is cultivated under both irrigated and rainfed conditions. Most of the local genotypes are grown in rainfed conditions and they are known to withstand drought to some extent with lowered yield. Since chilli varieties or hybrids are not developed for drought tolerance, an experiment was conducted to evaluate 34 genotypes of chilli collected from different regions for drought tolerance using polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000). Four genotypes viz., Arka Lohit, Arka Abhir, Byadgi Kaddi, and Byadgi Dabbi were used for standardization under different PEG concentrations from 2% to 12%. The 10% PEG was used as the optimum concentration based on the results of germination percent, root length, and shoot length. Among thethirty-four chilli genotypes screened using 10% PEG on the basis of highest germination percent, root length and shoot length chilli genotypes viz., Arka Lohit, DB variety, and Dappa were found superior over other genotypes.
 
Black pod disease is a major constraint to cocoa production in Côte d'Ivoire. Varietal selection and fungicide treatments are the principal means of control. Fungicide Ridomil Gold 66 WP (6% Metalaxyl and 60% copper oxide) is commonly used. This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of three doses of Ridomil Gold 66 WP in the control of black pod disease. An experiment on the rates of this fungicide was conducted in two localities (Aboisso and Duékoué). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four treatments, replicated four times. The treatments comprised untreated or controlled, single dose (3.3 g/l) or recommended dose, double dose (6.6 g/l) or 2×recommanded dose and triple dose (9.9 g/l) or 3×recommanded dose. All data collected were subjected to ANOVA with the test of Student and Newmann-Keuls at the 5% threshold. As result, no significant difference was observed between the treatments of the three doses of Ridomil. But, a significant difference was observed between the fungicide treatments and the control. In Duékoué, black pod rates ranged from 4.5 to 9.52% in fungicide treated plots against 33.8% in control plots. In Aboisso, black pod rates ranged from 7.11 to 13.83% for fungicide treated plots against 30.83% for the control plots. Fungicide treatments increased healthy cocoa pod yields in both localities. The yields were increased by 51.35 to 89.63% in treated plots of Aboisso and by 34.63 to 101.06% in treated plots of Duékoué. This study confirmed the efficacy of the recommended dose (3.3 g/l) of Ridomil Gold 66 WP in the management of black pod disease. Yet, even if high doses of Ridomil Gold 66 WP improved yield, it could also be led to the development of resistant strains of Phytophthora spp. and increase production costs.
 
Distribution of precipitation, maximum crop evapotranspiration (ETm) and real crop evapotranspiration (ETr) in the cotton crop of the 2009/10 (A) and 2010/11 (B) season. DAS: days after sowing Table 1. Cotton productivity (Yc), real yield (Yr), maximum yield (Ym), maximum evapotranspiration (ETm), real evapotranspiration (ETr) and yield response factor (Ky) of varieties FMX 993, FMT 701 and FMX 910 in the 2009/10 and 2010/11 seasons
Production of herbaceous cotton in rainfed is subject to water-deficit risks due to climatic variations, such as precipitation with non-homogeneous spatial-temporal distribution. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate the yield response factor to water of FMX 993, FMT 701 and FMX 910 cotton varieties, in Campo Verde County, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Real yield data of the 2009/10 and 2010/11 seasons of the three varieties were obtained. Meteorological data were used to estimate the maximum yield and to calculate the daily water balance for each variety and seasons. From these values the yield response factor to water (Ky) was obtained. Ky values ranged from 0 to 0.9, with the lowest and highest values for FMX 910 for the 2009/10 and 2010/11 seasons, respectively. These values obtained from Ky indicate that all varieties studied present increasing tolerance to water-deficit. The FMX 993 variety had a lower variation in Ky values between 0.3 and 0.5 for the 2009/10 and 2010/11 seasons, in that order. Therefore, among the cotton varieties evaluated in this study, recommend FMX 993 for the conditions of Campo Verde County, Mato Grosso State, due to its greater tolerance to the water-deficit.
 
Knowledge of optimum rates of poultry manure application is of immense significance in the correction of the soil nutrient deficiencies for crop production. Manure application is of importance to both the soil amendment and in the growth and yield of crops. Leaching, pattern of cropping, use of non-certified seeds and non-improved varieties have hampered the efficient growth and yield of okra. The study was conducted to examine the growth and yield responses of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) to poultry manure rates in Rivers State. The research study became imperative to examine how rate of poultry manure could affect the production of okra. The experiment utilized three rates of poultry manure, 0-tons (control), 5-tonsha-1 and 10-tonha-1and the treatment combination arranged in a Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) replicated three times. Growth characteristics measured were, plant height, stem thickness, leaf area and number of leaves per plant while yield parameters measured were pod length, seeds per pod, total number of pods, pod yield per hectare. The results revealed that appropriate rate of poultry manure application in the production of okra has the capacity to increase okra growth and yield in Rivers State. The use of 10-tonha-1 of poultry manure performed better than other poultry manure rates and so it’s recommended that okra farmers in the study area should apply 10-tonha-1 for high quality and quantity production of okra in Rivers State.
 
Effect of nitrogen levels and weed control methods on yield parameters of okra in early and late wet season of 2015 
Field trials were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria in the early and late wet seasons of 2015, to evaluate the effect of nitrogen levels and weed control methods on the growth and yield of okra. Treatments were laid out in a split-plot design with four replicates. The main plot treatments comprised of three nitrogen (N) levels (0, 60 and 90 kg N/ha), while the sub-plot treatments were made up of seven weed control methods (probaben [metolachlor 20% w/v + prometryn 20% w/v] at 2 kg a.i/ha; probaben at 2 kg a.i/ha followed by supplementary hoe weeding (SHW) at 6 weeks after sowing [WAS]; butachlor [50% w/v] at 2.0 kg a.i/ha; butachlor at 2.0 kg a.i/ha followed by SHW at 6 WAS; 2 hoe weedings at 3 and 6 WAS; 3 hoe weedings at 3, 6 and 9 WAS; and weedy check). Unchecked weed growth throughout the crop life cycle resulted in 51 and 59% reduction in potential okra fruit yield in the early and late wet seasons, respectively. Application of N at 90 kg/ha compared to lower rates, increased weed density and weed dry matter production in both seasons. N application at 90 kg/ha resulted in significant increase in growth and fruit yield of okra. All weed control methods resulted in significant reduction in weed growth, and subsequently increased okra fruit yield. The most effective weed control methods were pre-emergence application of probaben and butachlor at 2.0 kg a.i/ha each followed by SHW at 6 WAS. Results suggest that farmers can reduce the burden of hoe weeding and cut down on labour input with the use of pre-emergence herbicides for weed control in okra production, and increase okra yield with application of N into the low fertile soils of the forest-savanna transition zones.
 
Agricultural activities such as watering crops with nematode-infested water from wells and boreholes, and using infected plant debris as manure or mulch increase root-knot nematode infection. So, this study aims at assessing the influence of the inoculation method and inoculum level of Meloidogyne incognita on the development of root galls on okra plants. Two M. incognita inoculation methods (suspension of individuals and galled root explants) and six inoculum levels (0, 10, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 second-stage larvae/plant) were studied. The gall index, total numbers and reproductive factor of M. incognita were used to assess the effect of treatments on root gall development. Unlike the reproductive factor, gall index and the total numbers of M. incognita increased with their inoculum level. The pathogenic activities of M. incognita were most significant when crop soils were infested with galled root explants. However, an inverse relationship was found between the inoculum levels of M. incognita and the okra plant’s development. It is reflected by negative correlation coefficients ranging from -0.90 to -0.62. It is therefore important to burn roots infected with root-knot nematodes left in fields so that they do not act as an inoculum for crops.
 
The effect of air dried leaf powder and burnt leaf ash of different plants on the control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) on Okra was investigated in a pot experiment. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design with nine treatments each replicated four times. The treatments included: burnt leaf ashes and air dried leaf powders of Baphia nitida, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Delonix regia, a synthetic nematicide (Carbofuran 3G) and two control which included inoculated but untreated (control 1) and un-inoculated and untreated (control 2) pots. The plants were inoculated with 1000 nematode eggs (Meloidogyne spp.), two weeks after emergence. Three days after, the treatments were applied at the rate of 30 g each, while the synthetic nematicide (Carbofuran 3G) at 3 g/per pot. Parameters recorded were: plant height, number of leaves, fresh and dry shoot weights, fresh root weight, and number and weight of pods per plant as plant growth parameters. Number of galls, number of nematode eggs in roots and number of juveniles in soil as nematode parameters. Results obtained indicated significant differences among the treatments in most parameters recorded and compared to controls. Generally, results from air dried leaf powder of Baphia nitida and burnt leaf ash of Delonix regia were better and compared favorably with the nematicide treated plants.
 
A study was conducted to assess genotype x environment interaction and also to determine stability of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) genotypes for nine traits in Cameroon. Eight okra genotypes (including five parents of Cameroon and three exotics) were evaluated across three different locations (Dibang, Yagoua and Yaounde) using a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Each plot consisted of three rows of six plants each. Genotype x environment interaction has been evaluated using SAS Software. There was considerable variation for all traits studied among both genotypes and environments. Five different methods of stability analysis have been used for the comparison of the genotypes and also to determine the most suitable stability parameter of okra. The stability in relation to the characters is independent of the genotypes. A total correspondence (r=1) exist between the general mean and the Pi performance for characters such as 50 % flowering and the fruit peduncle length. For, the procedure of Lin and Binns appeared to be more of a genotype performance measure, rather than a stability measure. The Wricke’s and Shukla’s procedures of stability statistic showed the highest significant positive correlation (P<0.01) with the majority of the studied character. That makes these procedures equivalent for ranking purposes.
 
The study was carried out with the objective of estimating the combinatorial capacity of ornamental pepper (Capsicum. annuum L.) genotypes for flower traits, aiming to identify the best hybrids and the best parents for the synthesis of new populations. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in the Biotechnology Laboratory, Agrarian Center, Federal University of Paraíba (Laboratório de Biotecnologia Vegetal of Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal da Paraíba), State of Paraíba, Brazil. Seven accessions of Capsicum annuum were hand-crossed. Seven flower traits were evaluated including days for flowering, flower diameter, petal length, number of petals, number of stamens, anther length, and filament length. The diallel analysis using the Griffing method I of the data recorded showed that accessions 001, 004 and 099 were the best for flower characteristics based on their GCA values. There were significant reciprocal effects for days to flowering, filament length and anther length. The additive effects of the genes were predominant for most of the flower characteristics and the non-additive effects for the days for flowering only. Genotypes 001, 004 and 099 are indicated for crosses that aim to increase flower characteristics. In general, these genitors were involved in almost hybrids combinations with best SCA values. Those combinations should be used for to advance genarations in the breeding program. On the other hand, the best hybrids to be release for propagation were: 134 x 004, 137 x 001, 390 x 004, 77.3 x 099, 001 x 390, 001 x 77.3, and 099 x 77.3.
 
Effect of sawdust on the growth parameters of Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus pulmonarius
Effect of supplement on the growth parameters of Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus pulmonarius
Resident fungi isolated from the substrates and the mushrooms
Proximate analysis of P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius cultivated on sawdust of Tectona grandis and Celtis zenkeri
Mushroom cultivation has continued to receive growing attention because of its nutritional and medicinal values. However, this study examined the effect of hardwood sawdust on the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus pulmonarius were investigated. Relationship between fungal incidence of the substrates (sawdust) and that of the mushroom were examined. Both Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus pulmonarius were inoculated on fermented and unfermented sawdust of Tectonal grandis and Celtis zenkeri. The fruiting bodies of the mushrooms were harvested and the growth parameters and biological efficiency was recorded. The isolated resident fungi were identified after obtaining pure cultures. The collected data were subjected to analysis (ANOVA) using Generalized Linear Model Procedure (GLM) of Statistical Analysis software (SAS). Means were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at p ≤ 0.05. Some of the growth parameters of P. ostreatus were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) better than that of P. pulmonarius. Tectona grandis and Celtis zenkeri sawdust had significant (p ≤ 0.05) impact on different growth parameters of the two mushrooms. Fermentation or non-fermentation of the substrates (sawdust) had no significant (p ≤ 0.05) impact on growth parameters of the mushrooms. Growth parameters of the two mushrooms were significantly better in 0% additive (p ≤ 0.05) than in the other additive concentrations. Five fungi were identified as indigenous fungi of the unfermented sawdust which did not significantly differ from those of the fermented sawdust and mushrooms. Nutritional composition of the mushrooms that grew on fermented and unfermented sawdust were good and comparable. The mushrooms were rich in protein, fibre, ash, moisture, fat and carbohydrate. Cultivation of mushrooms on hardwood sawdust is thus an effective means of managing such waste.
 
Aims: Evaluate the effects of different concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) on adult plants of productive age of ‘Daiane’ and ‘Fuji Suprema’, to follow the ecophysiological effects and their efficiency in inducing leaf senescence, sprouting and productivity, in the Midwestern region of the state of Santa Catarina. Study Design: The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with six replications. Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out in the municipality of Caçador, Brazil (latitude 26º50’07” S, longitude 50º58’32” W, altitude 969 meters), during the growing seasons of 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. Methodology: The apple fruit tree were submitted to the following treatments: 1) Control (without treatment), 2) abscisic acid 750 mg L-1, 3) abscisic acid 750 + 750 mg L-1, 4) abscisic acid 1500 mg L-1 and 5) abscisic acid 1500 + 1500 mg L-1. ABA applications in the first year were carried out on May 2, 2013 in treatments 2, 3, 4, and 5, and after 11 days (05/13/13) the plants of treatments 3 and 5 were sprayed again. In the second year, ABA applications were carried out on May 6 and 15, 2014, following the same application methodology described for the first year. As the source of abscisic acid (ABA) the commercial product ProTone® (20% i.a.) was used, without the use of adjuvant. The exogenous application of ABA was effective in promoting the senescence and leaf fall of the ‘Daiane’ and ‘Fuji Suprema’ cultivars. In the 2013/2014 season, the concentration of 750 mg L-1 was enough to induce 100% leaf fall in 'Daiane' plants. However, a difference was observed between the concentrations of ABA used. There was a difference between concentrations and number of applications. Lower concentrations were efficient and deflated as much as the higher concentration. The application of ABA induces the abscission of apple leaves in early autumn in 'Daiane' and 'Fuji Suprema' apple plants. The ABA does not affect shoots of axillary buds and anticipates the beginning of shoots.
 
Effects of treatments on disease incidence (DI), severity (DS) of blights and infestations of Tuta absoluta at harvesting stage, 2015
Effects of fungicides on diseases incidence (DI) and diseases severity (DS) of the blight of tomato and insecticides on infestations of Tuta absoluta at Harvesting, 2016
Number of larvae and fruit damage at fruiting stage
Effect of Different pesticides on fruit infestation, total yield and yield attributing parameters of tomato during two years (2015 and 2016)
The cost-benefit ratio of tomato pest management for 2015 and 2016 cropping seasons
Tomato in Eritrea is affected by nearly 30 diseases and insect pests among which blight, leaf curl virus, root-knot nematodes, powdery mildew, Tuta absoluta, Helicoverpa armigera, aphids, whitefly and red spider mites are the most important. In the field, experiments were conducted in Hamelmalo Agricultural College for two consecutive seasons (2015 and 2016) in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Treatments used were pesticides (mancozeb, dimethoate, deltamethrin) and aqueous Neem seed kernel extract and their combinations. Disease incidence (DI), Disease severity (DS) of blights and infestations of Tuta absoluta [Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae] were assessed at different phenological stages of the crop. Mancozeb alone was not so effective to reduce either DI or DS or damage of plants but it causes declining the number of larvae of T. absoluta at flowering stage. T11 showed the highest control of DI, DS and reduced the larval population of T. absoluta per plot and minimized the damage level. Among all the treatments, T11 and T9 were the most effective to reduce the damage of plants and minimizing the larvae of T. absoluta at fruiting stage. Neem extract had the least effect than all treatments. Mancozeb (T1) and combinations of Mancozeb + Dimethoate + NSE (T11) gave significantly higher marketable yield than other treatments. The overall Cost-Benefit Ratio (CBR) was similar for all treatments during the two crop seasons, but the average CBR was higher for T11 whereas it was least for T3.
 
Height of A. mangium seedlings submitted to different biostimulant doses and micronutrient application
Shoot dry mass of A. mangium seedlings submitted to different biostimulant doses and micronutrient application
Aims: Evaluate the effects of applying biostimulant and micronutrients on Acacia mangium Willd seedlings. Study Design: A randomized complete block design was used in a 2x5 factorial scheme, with four replications. Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, at the Chapadão do Sul Campus, MS, with the geographical coordinates 18º46’ 44” S and 52º36’ 49” W, in a nursery area from October 2015 to January 2016. Methodology: The treatments consisted of a combination of the presence or absence of a solution containing micronutrients and five doses of biostimulant (0, 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, and 30.0 mL per L of water). The commercial product Stimulate™ was used as the biostimulant, and the micronutrient solution was prepared at the concentration of 1.0%. The micronutrients in the solution were in the following formulations: ZnS04, H3BO3 and CuS04. The seeds were sown in tubes containing the commercial substrate Carolina Soil do Brasil, together with the use of Osmocote Plus™ fertilizer. Results: The use of biostimulant associated with micronutrients favored the rate of emergency speed. The doses of 24.8, 14.0 and 26.1 mL L-1 of biostimulant water provided the highest values for leaf area, plant height and total dry mass, respectively, when associated with the use of micronutrients. The height / diameter ratio decreased with increasing doses of biostimulant, while the Dicson quality index increased in the same condition. Conclusion: The use of micronutrients and biostimulants were favourable for the production of A. mangium seedlings. Only the height/diameter ratio (HDR) reduced for all biostimulant doses.
 
Most plant powders possess insecticidal properties and can be used to control insect pests on stored products. This study was conducted to evaluate insecticidal properties of Solanum melongena, Parkia biglobosa. Ipomoea batatas, Colocasia esculenta, Tridax procumbens and Terminalia catappa against Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, an insect pest of stored Phaseolus vulgaris L. The leaves powder of these plants were assessed for aduticidal and reproduction inhibition potential as well as effect on seed weight in a completely randomized design at three treatment concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 0 as the control. All the test plants investigated exhibited insecticidal activity against A. obtectus. Results showed a trend of variation in adult A. obtectus mortality according to post-treatment days and plants powder concentrations. Results analysis revealed that at 14 days after treatment, T. catappa at 1.5% had the highest significant (P=0.05) mortality of 40.21±0.71i. This was followed by S. melongena which had a similar effect of 39.41± 0.52i at the same concentration (1.5%). The least significant mortality was observed in the control. At 0.5% T. procumbens, 0.5% Parkia biglobosa, 1.0% I. batatas and 1.0% C. esculenta, leaves powder had comparable effects. It was observed that the control had the highest number of progeny emergence of 181.33 ± 0.88g after six weeks while T. catappa significantly (P=0.05) inhibited progeny at 1.5% followed by 1.5% S. melongena and 1.5% C. esculenta. Seeds of P. vulgaris treated with 1.5% T. catappa also had the least significant weight loss of 0.93 ± 0.17 g compared to the control which had the highest significant weight loss of 55.68 ± 0.79 g. Though all the plants studied caused significant increase in adult A. obtectus mortality, reduction in progeny emergence and P. vulgaris seed weight loss than the control. Terminalia catappa however, exhibited the best insecticidal potential. Terminalia catappa and Solanum melongena were very effective in inhibiting the reproduction and progeny emergence of A. obtectus, but increased adult mortality resulting in weight loss suggesting their potential in controlling A. obtectus on stored P. vulgaris.
 
Acaricidal resistance studies were carried out Department of Veterinary Parasitology in Udaipur to detect resistance status against commonly used commercial acaricides, 1.25% Butox® (Deltamethrin) and 10% w/v DERMEEZ® (Cypermethrin) against ticks collected from three villages (Vallabhnagar, Ranchorpura and Kikawas) of Udaipur, Rajasthan using Adult Immersion test (AIT) and Larval packet test (LPT). Recommended concentration of acaricides for AIT and LPT were used. Deltamethrin (0.075 g L-1) and Cypermethrin (0.05 g L-1) in AIT and Deltamethrin (0.06%) and Cypermethrin (0.2%) in LPT were used to evaluate acaricidal resistance. The overall analysis of data of the two tests with reference drug wise resistance for all three villages revealed that resistance to the deltamethrin was statistically higher than Cypermethrin. The drug wise results of AIT for deltamethrin for Vallabhnagar, Ranchorpura and Kikawas villages was 50%, 45% and 40% and for cypermethrin the resistance was 15%, 10% and 10% respectively. The results of LPT revealed that highest resistance in Vallabhnagar (27.5%), followed by Ranchorpura (21%) and Kikawas (19%) for deltamethrin while cypermethrin showed 19%, 11.5% and 9.5% resistance in Vallabhnagar, Ranchorpura and Kikawas, respectively.
 
Top-cited authors
Ramon Amaro de Sales
  • Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV)
Ana Paula Candido Gabriel Berilli
  • Instituto Federal do Espírito Santo
E. N. Nukenine
  • University of Ngaoundere
Robson Prucoli Posse
  • Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Espírito Santo (IFES)
Railene Hérica Carlos Rocha
  • Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG)