Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry

Published by Informa Healthcare
Online ISSN: 1475-6374
Print ISSN: 1475-6366
Publications
A series of substituted 2,4,5-triphenylisothiazol-3(2H)-one 1,1-dioxides 9 was synthesized and investigated as inhibitors of human leukocyte elastase (HLE). All compounds were found to inhibit HLE in a time-dependent manner and most of them exhibited kobs/[I] values > 300M(-1)s(-1). The most potent 3-oxosultam of this series was 91 (kobs/[I] = 2440 M(-1)s(-1)). Kinetic investigations performed with 9g and different substrate concentrations did not allow to clearly distinguish between a competitive or noncompetitive mode of inhibition. A more complex interaction is supported by the failure of a linear dependency of kobs values on the inhibitor concentration.
 
The inhibitory activity of glucose-induced insulin secretion on isolated rat pancreatic islets and the contractile activity of KCl-depolarized rat aorta rings of the derivatives of 3-alkylamino-4H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide are quantitatively analyzed using multiple regression analysis. The study has helped to ascertain the role of different substituents in explaining these observed inhibitory activities. From a derived most significant correlation equation, it was concluded that a less hydrophobic 3-substituent and a less bulky 7-substituent in addition to a 3-aminoisopropyl and a 6-chloro substituent are advantageous to enhance the inhibitory action of a compound towards rat pancreatic islets. On the other hand, the more hydrophobic 6- and 7-substituents augment the contractile activity. The analysis, in this way, provided the grounds for rationalizing the substituent selection in designing the improved potency compounds in the series.
 
Compound 1 in ATP-binding site of CK2 (2D-model). 
Compound 1 (a) and compound 35 (b) bound to the active site of the CK2 catalytic subunit. The complex has been obtained with molecular docking. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds are shown as dotted lines.
Compound 31 (a) and compound 34 (b) bound to the active site of the CK2 catalytic subunit. The complex has been obtained with molecular docking. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds are shown as dotted lines.
Abstract The synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 40 new 2-phenylisothiazolidin-3-one-1,1-dioxide derivatives are described. The optimization based on biological screening data and molecular modeling resulted in a 10-fold increase in inhibitory activity compared with previously reported inhibitors of this class and led to the identification of 3-{[2-chloro-4-(1,1-dioxido-3-oxoisothiazolidin-2-yl)benzoyl]amino}benzoic acid, a potent inhibitor of human protein kinase CK2 (ІC50 = 1.5 μM).
 
Organometallic-based, 1,1'-diacetylferrocene-derived antibacterial and antifungal thiocarbohydrazone, carbohydrazone, thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone have been prepared by condensing equimolar amount of 1,1'-diacetylferrocene with thiocarbohydrazide, carbohydrazide thiosemicarbazide and semicarbazide, respectively. These were used as ligands for the preparation of their cobalt (II), copper (II), nickel (II) and zinc (II) metal complexes. All the synthesized ligands and their complexes were characterized by IR, NMR, elemental analyses, molar conductances, magnetic moments and electronic spectral data. These synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtillis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi, and for antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glaberata using the agar-well diffusion method. All the compounds showed good antibacterial and antifungal activity which increased on coordination with the metal ions thus, introducing a novel class of organometallic-based antibacterial and antifungal agents.
 
The malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD) inhibition activity of derivatives of N-alkyl-N-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropylphenyl)amide has been analyzed through combinatorial protocol in multiple linear regression (CP-MLR) using different topological descriptors obtained from Dragon software for the energy minimized 3D-structures of these molecules. Among the topological descriptor classes considered in the study, the MCD inhibition activity is correlated with simple topological descriptors (TOPO) and 2D-autocorrelation descriptors (2DAUTO). The complementary information contents having neighborhood symmetry of 2-order, CIC2 from the TOPO class, the Geary autocorrelations-lag 8, weighted by atomic Sanderson electronegativities, GATS8e and the Moran autocorrelations-lag 6, weighted by atomic Sanderson electronegativities, MATS6e both from 2DAUTO class have contributed significantly in the development of a statistical significant model.
 
Some 6-fluoro-5-substituted-benzimidazole derivatives in which indole and 1,1,4,4-tetramethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-naphthalene groups were attached to the 2-position of the benzimidazole ring were synthesized and tested for antioxidant properties in vitro. Almost all the synthesized compounds at the 10(-3) M concentrations showed superoxide anion scavenging activity. Compounds 5, 3, 9, 4, 17 and 13 have strong inhibitory effects on superoxide anion formation (98%, 93%, 91%, 88%, 85% and 81%, respectively) at 10(-3) M concentration and these results are better than 30 IU of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (76%). Compound 11 is the most effective scavenger of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) stable free radical at 10(-3)M (61%) concentration.
 
Diazepine analogs of thieno[2,3-b]pyrrolizin-8-ones were synthesized by aromatization of 2-hydroxypyrrolo[1,2-a]thieno[3,2-e][1,4]diazepines. These compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antiproliferative activity against the L1210 leukemia cell line. The activity of these compounds was in the micromolar range, the best result being for the mixture of the isomers 5 and 6 which showed a 0.35 microM IC50 against cell growth.
 
Structures of 2,3-diphenylquinoxaline I, pyrazinones II-III, quinoxaline IV and V (A6730), Akt kinase inhibitors.
General structure of synthesized substituted pyrrolo[1,2-a ]quinoxaline derivatives 1.
Scheme 1. Synthesis of the 1,3-dihydro-1-{1-[4-(pyrrolo[1,2-a ]quinoxalin-4-yl)benzyl]piperidin-4-yl}-2H-benzimidazol-2-ones 1a-g. Reagents and conditions: (i) DMTHF, AcOH, D; (ii) Method A: CuSO 4 , NaBH 4 , EtOH, RT for 3a-d; Method B: SnCl 2 , 2H 2 O, EtOH, D for 3e; (iii) CO(OCCl 3 ) 2 , toluene, D; (iv) POCl 3 , D; (v) Method A: OHC-C 6 H 4-B(OH) 2 , Pd[P(C 6 H 5 ) 3 ] 4 , Na 2 CO 3 , C 6 H 6 , EtOH, D; Method B: OHC-C 6 H 4-BF 3 K, PdCl 2 (dppf)·CH 2 Cl 2 , Cs 2 CO 3 , THF-H 2 O, D; (vi) 4-(2-ketobenzimidazolin-1-yl)piperidine, NaBH 3 CN, MeOH, D; (vii) 1e, NaN 3 , NH 4 Cl, DMF, D. 
Scheme 2. Synthesis of the 1,3-dihydro-1-{1-[4-(4-phenylpyrrolo[1,2-a ]quinoxalin-1-yl)benzyl-or-methyl]piperidin-4-yl}-2H-benzimidazol-2-ones 1h-i. Reagents and conditions: (i) C 6 H 5 COCl, toluene, pyridine, D; (ii) POCl 3 , D; (iii) POCl 3 /DMF, DMF, D; (iv) 4-(2-ketobenzimidazolin-1-yl)piperidine, NaBH 3 CN, MeOH, D; (v) NBS, CH 2 Cl 2 , RT; (vi) OHC-C 6 H 4-B(OH) 2 , Pd[P(C 6 H 5 ) 3 ] 4 , K 2 CO 3 , toluene, EtOH, D; (vii) 4-(2-ketobenzimidazolin-1-yl)piperidine, NaBH 3 CN, MeOH, D.
Akt kinases are attractive targets for small molecule drug discovery because of their key role in tumor cell survival/proliferation and their overexpression/activation in many human cancers. Recent efforts in the development and biological evaluation of small molecule inhibitors of Akt have led to the identification of novel Akt kinase inhibitors, based on a quinoxaline or pyrazinone scaffold. A series of new substituted pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline derivatives, structural analogues of these active quinoxaline or pyrazinone pharmacophores, was synthesized from various substituted 2-nitroanilines or 1,2-phenylenediamine via multistep heterocyclization process. These new compounds were tested for their in vitro ability to inhibit the proliferation of the human leukemic cell lines K562, U937 and HL60, and the breast cancer cell line MCF7. Three of these human cell lines (K562, U937 and MCF7) exhibited an active phosphorylated Akt form. The most promising active pyrroloquinoxalines were found to be 1a that inhibited K562 cell line proliferation with an IC(50) of 4.5 microM, and 1h that inhibited U937 and MCF7 cell lines with IC(50) of 5 and 8 microM, respectively. These two candidates exhibited more potent activities than the reference inhibitor A6730.
 
Two arylderivatives, 3a-Acetoxy-5H-pyrrolo(1,2-a) (3,1)benzoxazin-1,5-(3aH)-dione 3 and cis-N-p-Acetoxy-phenylisomaleimide 4, were synthesized from anthranilic acid and para-aminophenol, respectively. The inhibitory effects of these compounds on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were evaluated in vitro as well as by docking simulations. Both compounds showed inhibition of AChE activity (Ki = 4.72 +/- 2.3 microM for 3 and 3.6 +/- 1.8 microM for 4) in in vitro studies. Moreover, they behaved as irreversible inhibitors and made pi-pi interaction with W84 and hydrogen bonded with S200 and Y337 according to experimental data and docking calculations. The docking calculations showed deltaG bind (kcal/mol) of - 9.22 for 3 and - 8.58 for 4. These two compounds that can be use as leads for a new family of anti-Alzheimer disease drugs.
 
A novel series of isoindolo[2,1-a]quinoxaline and indolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline derivatives was synthesized and evaluated in vitro against various human cancer cell lines for antiproliferative activity. These new compounds displayed activity against leukemia and breast cancer cell lines in the 3- to 18-µM concentration range.
 
Camptothecin consists of a lactone E-ring adjacent to a tetracyclic A-D ring planar chromophore which are essential for topoisomerase I inhibition and DNA interaction, respectively. The A-D ring system can be exploited to develop DNA-binding molecules. Indolizino[1,2-b]quinoline derivatives substituted with a piperidinoethyloxy side chain on the A-ring and an aminomethyl function on the D one were synthesized and their DNA-binding properties and in vitro cytotoxicity investigated.
 
Increased oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of dopaminergic neurodegeneration leading to the development of Parkinson's disease. In this study, we investigated whether naphtha[1,2-d]thiazol-2-amine (NTA) may ameliorate haloperidol-induced catalepsy and oxidative damage in mice brain. Haloperidol-induced catalepsy was measured with the standard bar test. The extent of oxidative stress has been evaluated by measuring levels of MDA, GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GSH-Px) from brain homogenate. Haloperidol treatment significantly induced the catalepsy as observed from increased descent time measured in the bar test. Pretreatment with NTA significantly reduced the catalepsy induced by haloperidol in a dose-dependent manner. The elevated level of MDA in haloperidol-treated mice was significantly decreased by NTA pretreatment. The decreased level of GSH as well as SOD and GSH-Px activities in haloperidol-treated mice were significantly increased by NTA pretreatment. NTA reduces the oxidative stress allowing recovery of detoxifying enzyme activities and controlling free radical production, suggesting a potential role of the drug as an alternative/adjuvant drug in preventing and treating the neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease.
 
The binding and inhibition strength of a series of benzimidazo[1,2-c][1,2,3]thiadiazole-7-sulphonamides were determined for recombinant human carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, and IX. The inhibition strength was determined by a stop-flow method to measure carbon dioxide hydration. Inhibitor-enzyme binding was determined by two biophysical techniques--isothermal titration calorimetry and thermal shift assay. The co-crystal structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. Comparing the results obtained using three different inhibition and binding methods increased the accuracy of compound affinity ranking and the ability to determine compound inhibitory specificity towards a particular carbonic anhydrase isoform. In most cases, all three methods yielded the same results despite using very different approaches to measure the binding and inhibition reactions. Some of the compounds studied are submicromolar inhibitors of the isoform IX, a prominent cancer target.
 
The synthesis of new 4-[2-(alkylamino)ethylthio]pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline derivatives la-1 is described in five or six steps starting from various substituted nitroanilines 2a-e. The bioisostere 5-[2-(alkylamino)ethylthio]pyrrolo[1,2- a]thieno[3,2-e]pyrazine 1m was also prepared. The new derivatives were evaluated as efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) in a model targeting the NorA system of Staphylococcus aureus. The antibiotic susceptibility of two strains overproducing NorA, SA-1199B and SA-1, was determined alone and in combination with the neo-synthesised compounds by the agar diffusion method and MIC determination, in comparison with reserpine and omeprazole taken as reference EPIs. A preliminary structure-activity relationship study firstly allowed to clarify the influence of the substituents at positions 7 and/or 8 of the pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline nucleus. Methoxy substituted compounds, 1b and 1g, were more potent EPIs than the unsubstituted compounds (1a and 1f), followed by chlorinated derivatives (1c-d and 1h). Moreover, the replacement of the N,N-diethylamino group (compounds 1a-e) by a bioisostere such as pyrrolidine (compounds 1f-h) enhanced the EPI activity, in contrast with the replacement by a piperidine moiety (compounds 1i-k). Finally, the pyrrolo[1,2-a]thieno[3,2-e]pyrazine compound 1m exhibited a higher EPI activity than its pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline analogue la, opening the way to further pharmacomodulation.
 
A series of 6,7-dimethoxy-3-(4-pyridyl)-2,3,3a,4-tetrahydroindeno[1,2-c]pyrazol-2-yl-4-substituted phenylmethanone/ethanone derivatives were synthesized and in vitro activity against mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and INHR-MTB were carried out. Among the synthesized compounds, compound (4h) 6,7-dimethoxy-3-(4-pyridyl)-2,3,3a,4-tetrahydroindeno[1,2-c]pyrazol-2-yl-4-pyridyl methanone was found to be the most active agent against MTB and INHR-MTB with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.22 μM.
 
A series of fourteen 3a,4-dihydro-3H-indeno[1,2-c]pyrazole-2-carboxamide/carbothioamide analogues were synthesized and evaluated for anticonvulsant activity according to the Antiepileptic Drug Development Programme (ADD) protocol. Some of the synthesized compounds showed significant activity in minimal clonic seizure model (6 Hz psychomotor seizure test). 3-(4-Fluorophenyl)-N-(4-bromophenyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-3a,4-dihydro-3H-indeno[1,2-c]pyrazole-2-carboxamide (4c) was found to be the most active compound of the series showing 75% (3/4, 0.25-2.0 h) and 50% (2/4, 4.0 h) protection against minimal clonic seizure at 100 mg/kg without any toxicity. 3-(Pyridin-4-yl)-N-(4-chlorophenyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-3a,4-dihydro-3H-indeno[1,2-c]pyrazole-2-carboxamide (4f) showed protection in maximal electroshock (MES) seizure and subcutaneous metrazol (scMET) seizure at 300 mg/kg.
 
New pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline-2- or -4-carboxylic acid hydrazide derivatives were synthesized from nitroaniline or 1,2-phenylenediamine, and evaluated in vitro for their antimycobacterial activity as part of a TAACF TB screening program. Two compounds 7c and 13 showed an interesting activity at 6.25 microg/mL against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, with a 94 and 100 percentage inhibition, respectively.
 
Structures of chimanine B, previously synthesized 4-(E)-pentenylpyrrolo[1,2-a ]quinoxalines and new 4-(E)alkenylpyrrolo[1,2-a ]quinoxalines 1a-m. 
Log D / activity relationship for pyrrolo[1,2-a ]quinoxalines 1a-m L. amazonensis and L. infantum strains. 
A series of new 4-(E)-alkenylpyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline derivatives, structural analogues of alkaloid chimanine B, was synthesized in good yields using efficient palladium(0)-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions. These new compounds were tested for in vitro antiparasitic activity upon Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania infantum strains. Biological results showed activity against the promastigote forms of L. amazonensis and L. infantum with IC50 ranging from 0.5 to 7 microM. From a Structure-Activity Relationships point of view, these pharmacological results mainly enlightened the importance of the 4-lateral C6, C7 or C8 alpha-unsaturated trans-alkenyl chain of unsubstituted pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline moiety.
 
A revisited synthesis of 2-aryl-6-methyl-1,2-dihydro-1H-pyridin-4-ones and their saturated analogues 2-aryl-6-methylpiperidin-4-ols is described. A five steps procedure, using the sulfinimine chemistry, to prepare a key intermediate beta-(6-chloronicotinic)-beta-amino ester is also reported. In vivo spontaneous working memory activity of these compounds has been investigated in the mouse. Results obtained with 2-(3-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-1,2-dihydro-1H-pyridin-4-one 9b, the most effective derivative in this model, have been reported.
 
In a search for novel inhibitors of RA-metabolising enzyme inhibitors as potential anti-cancer agents some 1,2-ethandiones, 2-hydroxyethanones and 1-ethylenedioxyethanones based on aryl-substituted 1,2-diphenylethane have been examined. Several of the compounds were weak inhibitors of the non-specific rat liver microsomal P450 enzymes and moderate inhibitors of the RA-induced enzymes in cultured human genital fibroblasts, where the RA-specific enzyme CYP26 is probably expressed. The 2-hydroxyethanone (13) with a 1-(4-dimethylaminophenyl) substituent was overall the most potent compound for rat liver microsomal enzyme (IC50 = 52.1 microM; ketoconazole, 2.8 microM) and the RA-induced enzyme (100 microM, 65.9% inhibition; ketoconazole, 20 microM, 75.0%). Modification of the dimethylamino group in (13) with more hydrophobic dialkylamino functions or separate modification of the 2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) function did not improve potency.
 
Abstract A novel series of (1,2-benzothiazin-4-yl)acetic acid enantiomers was prepared by chiral resolution, and their absolute configurations were determined using the PGME method. The biological evaluation of the racemate and single enantiomers has shown a remarkable difference for the aldose reductase inhibitory activity and selectivity. The (R)-(-)-enantiomer exhibited the strongest aldose reductase activity with an IC50 value of 0.120 μM, which was 35 times more active than the S-(+)-enantiomer. Thus, the stereocenter at the C4 position of this scaffold was shown to have a major impact on the activity and selectivity.
 
Attenuation of protein kinases by selective inhibitors is an extremely active field of activity in anticancer drug development. Therefore, Akt, a serine/threonine protein kinase, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), represents an attractive potential target for therapeutic intervention. Recent efforts in the development and biological evaluation of small molecule inhibitors of Akt have led to the identification of novel inhibitors with various heterocycle scaffolds. Based on previous results obtained on the antiproliferative activities of new pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxalines, a novel series was designed and synthesized from various substituted phenyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid alkyl esters via a multistep heterocyclization process. These new compounds were tested for their in vitro ability to inhibit the proliferation of the human leukemic cell lines K562, U937, and HL60, and the breast cancer cell line MCF7. The first biological evaluation of our new substituted pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxalines showed antiproliferative activity against the tested cell lines. From a general SAR point of view, these preliminary biological results highlight the importance of substitution at the C-4 position of the pyrroloquinoxaline scaffold by a benzylpiperidinyl fluorobenzimidazole group, and also the need for a functionalization on the pyrrole ring.
 
The synthesis of 1,2-dioxolane derivatives in two different acetophenone series, as simplified models of natural coumarins is described. 2-Acetyl-3-acetoxy-4-(3-hydroperoxy-3-methylbut-1-enyl)phenyl acetate and 2-acetyl-5-acetoxy4-(3-hydroperoxy-3-methylbut-1-enyl) phenyl acetate synthons are used as precursors to these structures. In vitro antimalarial activity of the 1,2-dioxolane derivatives has been investigated.
 
In this study, a series of novel 3-(substituted phenyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-3a,4-dihydro-3H-indeno[1,2-c]isoxazole analogues were synthesized and evaluated for antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) H(37)Rv and isoniazid resistant M. tuberculosis (INHR-MTB). All the newly synthesized compounds were showing moderate to high inhibitory activities. The compound 6,7-dimethoxy-3-(4-chloro phenyl)-4H-indeno[1,2-c]isoxazole (4b) was found to be the most promising compound, active against MTB H(37)Rv and INHR-MTB with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.22 and 0.34 μM.
 
Structure of synthesized 2-methyl-3-[2-(2-methylprop1-en-1-yl)-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl]pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazol4(3H)-one (4a–r). 
Present communication deals with the synthesis of novel 2-methyl-3-[2-(2-methylprop-1-en-1-yl)-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl]pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazol-4(3H)-one derivatives under phase transfer catalysis (PTC) conditions using benzyl triethyl ammonium chloride (BTEAC) as PTC. It also elicits the studies on in vitro antimicrobial evaluation of synthesized compounds against a representative genera of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria i.e., Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas diminuta and Escherichia coli. All the compounds have been found to manifest profound antimicrobial activity. Moreover, extensive quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies have been performed to deduce a correlation between molecular descriptors under consideration and the elicited biological activity. A tri-parametric QSAR model has been generated upon rigorous statistical treatment.
 
Abstract The synthesis of some new pyrazino[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives and investigation of their anticancer activities were aimed in this work. Thus, 2-acetylbenzimidazole was reacted with appropriate α-bromoacetophenones and potassium carbonate in acetone to give 2-(2-acetyl-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)-1-phenylethanone derivatives (3a-d). These diketone compounds were reacted with varied benzylamines in acetic acid to obtain 2-benzyl-1-methylidene-3-aryl-1,2-dihydropyrazino[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives (4a-t). The structures of the obtained compounds were elucidated by using IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS spectral data and elemental analyses results. Anticancer activities of the selected compounds were investigated in National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD. 3c and 4n showed remarkable anticancer activity comparing with standard drugs, melphalan and cisplatin.
 
The reactivity of [1,2,3]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridines 1 is described. Triazolopyridines react with electrophiles in two contrasting ways, giving 3-substituted triazolopyridines 2, or products 3, resulting from triazolo ring opening with loss of molecular nitrogen. The triazolopyridines can be lithiated at -40 degrees C by lithium diisopropylamide in ether giving regiospecifically the 7-lithio derivative. Bromotriazolopyridines have activation towards nucleophilic substitution at position 5 and 7, and benzenoid inertness at position 6. The parent compound 1a is easily hydrogenated giving tetrahydrotriazolopyridine 11a in high yield; when the triazolopyridines have substituents, the hydrogenation reaction strongly depends on the position of the substituent. Triazolopyridinium ylides of type 18 and 26 react with acetylenic esters; these reactions are influenced by the nature of solvent and the acetylenic ester used, giving different types of adducts: stable disubstituted triazolopyridinium ylides of type 19 and 20, indolizines 21, or pyrroleninylpyrazolo[5,1-a] pyridines 22. Photochemistry, and photochemical reactions with MP and DMAD of these ylides are also described. A new way to 2,2'-bipyridines, in two steps from triazolopyridines is reported.
 
Compound 26 is more potent against Escherichia coli. and 24 is more active against Staphylococcus aureus, beta-Heamolytic streptococcus, Vibreo cholerae, Salmonella typhii, and Shigella flexneri than the standard drug ciprofloxacin. Moreover, of all the compounds tested, 26 is more effective against Aspergillus flavus and Mucor, than the standard drug fluconazole.
 
A new series of 5-(4-biphenylyl)-7-aryl[3,4-d]-1,2,3-benzoselenadiazoles were prepared, characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies, and tested for antibacterial activities. The compounds were very effective against the tested Gram-positive bacteria; 7b was the most effective compound.
 
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes catalyze the oxidative deamination of amines and neurotransmitters and inhibitors of MAO are useful as neuroprotectants. This work evaluates the human MAO-catalyzed oxidation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a dopaminergic neurotoxin, to the directly-acting neurotoxic metabolites, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-2,3-dihydropyridinium (MPDP(+)) and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) measured by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and this approach is subsequently used as a new method for screening of MAO inhibitors and protective agents. Oxidation of MPTP by human MAO-B was more efficient than by MAO-A. R-Deprenyl, a known neuroprotectant, norharman (β-carboline), 5-nitroindazole and menadione (vitamin K3) inhibited MAO-B and reduced the formation of toxic pyridinium cations. Clorgyline and the β-carbolines, harman and norharman, inhibited the oxidation of MPTP by MAO-A. Cigarette smoke, as well as the naturally occurring β-carbolines (norharman and harman) isolated from smoke and coffee inhibited the oxidation of MPTP by MAO-B and/or MAO-A, suggesting protective effects against MPTP. The results show the suitability of the approach used to search for new MAO inhibitors with eventual neuroprotective activity.
 
A new series of 3-(1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-4-thiazolidinone derivatives has been synthesized by the reaction of Schiff bases of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazoles with mercaptoacetic acid and 2-mercaptopropionic acid. Their antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, C. albicans and C. glabrata.
 
Synthetic route of newly synthesized componds 4a–h. 
Anti-HCV NS5B RdRp activity of etodolac derivatives.
Percent growth inhibition graphs of compound 4a, SGK-238 on liver cancer cell lines (Huh7, Mahlavu, HepG2, FOCUS).
IC 50 values in mM concentrations for compound 4a with 72 h of treatment on liver cancer cell lines a .
Abstract Arachidonic acid is an unsaturated fatty acid liberated from phospholipids of cell membranes. NSAIDs are known as targets of cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX-1, COX-2 and COX-3) in arachidonic acid metabolism. This mechanism of COX-2 in carcinogenesis causes cancer. In addition, COX-2 plays a role in the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of our study was to improve effective agents against HCV. A novel series of new etodolac 1,2,4-triazoles derivatives (4a-h) have been synthesized and investigated for their activity against HCV NS5B polymerase. Compound 4a was found to be the most active with IC50 value of 14.8 µM. In accordance with these results, compound 4a was screened for anti-cancer activity on liver cancer cell lines (Huh7, Mahlavu, HepG2, FOCUS). Compound 4a showed anti-cancer activity against Huh7 human hepatoma cell line with IC50 value of 4.29 µM. Therefore, compound 4a could be considered as a new anti-cancer and anti-HCV lead compound.
 
A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study was conducted on the antagonistic activities of derivatives of 2-aryl-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-alpha]quinoxaline at the human A3 adenosine receptor. As per the structural framework, the title analogues were subdivided into two congeneric series, namely the 1,4-dione and the 4-amino-1-one series. A majority of substituents occurred at the R- and a limited number at the X-positions in both of these series. In the case of the 1,4-dione series, the derived significant QSAR equation revealed that those substituents exhibiting a larger field effect at R renders the molecule to more efficiently bind at the receptor site. The study also extrapolated the requirement of electron-donor substituents at the X-position which, at present, is regarded as insensitive to any interaction due to limited substitution. However, the X-position may be explored in a further synthetic study. From the derived correlation equation for the 4-amino-1-one series, it appeared that a strong electron-withdrawing substituent at R will enhance the pK(i) value of a compound while a strong electron-donor at this position will have a detrimental effect on it. Based on correlation equations, derived using different electronic parameters, it may be interpreted that the two series of compounds attain different orientation inside the recognition site of the receptor.
 
Effect of compounds 1 on the activity of TcTIM. (a) Lineweaver-Burk plot of TcTIM alone and TcTIM+compound 1 (3.5 µM). (b) TcTIM activity dependence on compound 1 concentration.
Effect of compound 1 on Tc TIM stability. (a) Effect of compound 1 on Tc TIM stability. The enzyme was incubated at the indicated concentrations for 2 h at 37°C with (■) and without ( ⦁ ) 3.5 μM compound 1 and the activity of each of the samples was measured. (b) Effect of compound 1 on the formation of active Tc TIM from GdnHCl unfolded monomers. The experiment was performed as described in the Methods section. Activity was measured 15 ( ⦁ ) and 60 (■) min after the denaturing mixture was diluted one hundred fold. 
Stereoview of Tc TIM showing the regions of Tb TIM (in red) that were grafted in Tc TIM to generate the chimera studied herein. 
Context: Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) is a ubiquitous enzyme that has been targeted for the discovery of small molecular weight compounds with potential use against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have identified a new selective inhibitor chemotype of TIM from T. cruzi (TcTIM), 1,2,4-thiadiazol-5(4H)-one. Objective: Study the mechanism of TcTIM inhibition by a 1,2,4-thiadiazol derivative. Methods: We performed the biochemical characterization of the interaction of the 1,2,4-thiadiazol derivative with the wild-type and mutant TcTIMs, using DOSY-NMR and MS experiments. Studies of T. cruzi growth inhibition were additionally carried out. Results and conclusion: At low micromolar concentrations, the compound induces highly selective irreversible inactivation of TcTIM through non-covalent binding. Our studies indicate that it interferes with the association of the two monomers of the dimeric enzyme. We also show that it inhibits T. cruzi growth in culture.
 
The increasing clinical importance of drug-resistant mycobacterial pathogens has lent additional urgency to microbiological research and new antimycobacterial compound development. For this purpose, new alkylsulfanyltriazoles were synthesized and evaluated for antituberculosis activity. The reaction of thienyl-2-acetic acid with thiocarbohydrazide gave the mercaptotriazoles (II). The 4-amino-5-(2-thienylmethyl)-3-[1-(2-thienyl)-3-aryl) propion-3-yl] sulfanyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole (III) derivatives were synthesized by reacting the mercaptotriazoles with chalcones (I). Antituberculosis activities of the synthesized compounds were determined by broth microdilution assay, the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay, in BACTEC 12B medium and results were screened in-vitro, using BACTEC 460 Radiometric System against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27294) at 6.25 microg/ml and the tested compounds showed considerable inhibition ranging from 58-84%.
 
Inhibition of activity of commercially available glycosidases. 
Some new structural type inhibitors of urease, i.e. 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (4a-e) and 4,5-disubstituted-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones (5a-e) were synthesized in two steps from mandelic acid hydrazides (2a-e) and aryl isothiocyanates. The hydrazides in turn were synthesized from mandelic acid via esterification. Compounds 4a-e and 5a-e were evaluated against jack bean urease. Compounds 4d, 5b, and 5d were found to be more potent, with IC(50) values of 16.1 +/- 0.12 microM, 18.9 +/- 0.188 microM, and 16.7 +/- 0.178 microM, respectively, when compared to the standard (thiourea; IC(50) = 21.0 +/- 0.011 microM). These compounds may be subjected to further investigations for the development of antiulcer drugs.
 
Several 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (4a-f) and 3,6-disubstituted-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazoles (7a-f) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses and spectral data. These compounds were screened for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic, ulcerogenic and lipid peroxidation activities. Compound 7c showed excellent anti-inflammatory and remarkable analgesic activity with reduced ulcerogenic and lipid peroxidation activity when compared with ibuprofen.
 
A new bis schiffbases, 3 a-b were synthesized compound 2 with various bis aldehydes. Compounds 3 a-b have been reduced with NaBH(4) to afford the corresponding bis amino triazole compounds 4 a-b. The obtained products 3 a-b and 4 a-b were identified by FTIR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR. A series of triazol derivatives were evaluated for their antibacterial, antioxidant, antiurease and antielastase activities. The results showed that the synthesized new bis-1,2,4-triazole derivatives had effective antioxidant, antiurease and antielastase activities.
 
A series of metal complexes of cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) have been synthesized with newly derived biologically active ligands. These ligands were synthesized by the condensation of 3-substituted-4-amino-5-hydrazino-1,2,4-triazole and 8-formyl-7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin. The probable structure of the complexes has been proposed on the basis of elemental analyses and spectral (IR, Uv-Vis, magnetic, ESR, FAB-mass and thermal studies) data. Electro chemical study of the complexes is also reported. All these complexes are non-electrolytes in DMF and DMSO. All the ligands and their Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes were screened for their antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and antifungal (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and cladosporium) activities by MIC method. The brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out to study their in vitro cytotoxic properties.
 
Promising antiinflammatory activity together with low ulcerogenic properties of some Michael addition products of thiazolo[3,2-b]-1,2,4-triazole-5(6H)-ones which have been synthesized in our previous study, prompted us to investigate their antioxidant properties. Since compound Ib has both antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities beside the lowest ulcerogenic incidence, it was selected for investigation of its inhibitory effect on various cyclooxygenase ezymes. It was found that while it did not inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzyme, there was a small inhibitory effect (17%) on COX-2 enzyme. We concluded that the diminished harmful effects on the stomach of this novel antiinflammatory compound were related to its antioxidant properties since it is ineffective on COX-1 enzyme. In conclusion, the compounds having both antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities with a lack of COX-1 enzyme inhibitory effect may improve the gastrointestinal safety profile of such compounds.
 
Abstract This study presents the synthesis, antiproliferative and antimicrobial evaluation of a new series of Mannich base derivatives containing 1,2,4-triazole system. New compounds were prepared by the reaction of 4,5-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones with formaldehyde and various amines. The structures of the prepared compounds were confirmed by means of (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and elemental analyses. Twelve compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative activities against six chosen cancer cell lines. All synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity by using the agar dilution technique. For 17 potentially active compounds, their antibacterial activity was confirmed on the basis of MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) by broth microdilution method using the reference Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains.
 
(a) Average frequency contacts (expressed in %) of hydrogen bond interaction measured during the dynamic simulation of ligand-receptor complex. White columns, affine ligands; grey columns, low affine ligands; black columns, inactive ligands. (b) Average frequency contacts (expressed in %) of Van der Waals interaction measured during the dynamic simulation of ligand–receptor complex. White columns, affine ligands; grey columns, low affine ligands; black columns, inactive ligands.  
Principal components analysis. The ''biplot'' shows the value of the first two components of the original variables. The original variables considered are the average frequency (expressed in %) of hydrogen bonds (hb) and van der Waals (vdw) interactions between the ligand and the amino acids gT142, aY160, aY210, aV203, gM81, gY141, and aA161. The squares represent the ligands (white, affine; grey, low affine; black, inactive), the lines represent the component weights of the original variables.  
Interaction between affine compound 17 and receptor protein. Hydrogen bond interaction: blue solid line; Van der Waals interaction: pink dashed line.  
Interaction between affine compound 1b and receptor protein. In particular, only Van der Waals interactions are evidenced, pink dashed line and they lack the hydrogen bond interactions.  
To investigate the binding affinity of GABAA receptor subtype, new pyrazolo [1,5-a]quinazolines were designed, synthesized, and in vitro evaluated. These compounds, 5-deaza analogues of pyrazolo[5,1-c][1,2,4]benzotriazine derivatives which were already studied in our research group, permit us to evaluate the relevance of the nitrogen or the oxygen atom at 5-position of the tricyclic scaffold. Molecular dynamic study was done on a set of the new and known ligands to rationalize and to explain the lack of affinity on the 4- or 5-substituted new derivative. In fact, from biological results, it can be found that the only 5-unsubstituted new derivative, compound 15, has receptor recognition (Ki = 834.7 nM).
 
Abstract Two series of 8-alkoxy-4,5-dihydrobenzo[b][1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-d][1,4]thiazepine derivatives (6a-q and 7a-q) were synthesized and evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity using the maximal electroshock (MES) method. All of the compounds prepared were effective in the MES screens. Among which, compound 7j was considered as the most promising one with an ED50 value of 26.3 mg/kg and a superior protective index value of 12.6. The potency of compound 7j against seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole, 3-mercaptopropionic acid and bicuculline suggested that two different mechanisms of action might potentially be involved in its anticonvulsant activity, including the inhibition of voltage-gated ion channels and the modulation of GABAergic activity. A computational study was also conducted to predict the pharmacokinetic properties of the compounds prepared, with the results supporting the use of these compounds as a group of promising antiepileptic agents.
 
Abstract In the present study, 2-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl]acetohydrazide (1) was used as starting compound for the synthesis of 2-{[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl]acetyl}-4-thiosemicarbazides (2a-c) and 5-{[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl]methyl}-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thione (5). The cyclization of compounds 2a-c in the presence of NaOH resulted in the formation of 5-{[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl]methyl}-4-alkyl/aryl-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones (3a-c). Aminomethylation of compounds 3a-c and 5 with formaldehyde and N-methyl/phenylpiperazine furnished Mannich bases (4a-f and 6a-b). The newly synthesized compounds were well-characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, elemental analysis and mass spectral studies. They were also screened for their lipase and α-glucosidase inhibition. Among the tested compound 2c (IC50 = 2.50 ± 0.50 µM) showed the best anti-lipase activity and compounds 2c (IC50 = 3.41 ± 0.16 µM) and 6a (IC50 = 4.36 ± 0.10 µM) showed the best anti-α-glucosidase activity.
 
Abstract A series of benzenesulfonamides incorporating aroylhydrazone, piperidinyl, sulfone, [1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazinyl- or 2-(cyanophenyl-methylene)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-3(2H)-yl moieties was investigated as inhibitors of four α-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1), the human (h) isoforms hCA I, II (cytosolic, offtarget enzymes) and hCA IX and XII (transmembrane, tumor-associated isoforms). Low nanomolar activity was observed against hCA II (KIs of 0.56-17.1 nM) with these sulfonamides, whereas the slow cytosolic isoform hCA I was less inhibited by these compounds (KIs of 86.4 nM-32.8 µM). Most of these sulfonamides significantly inhibited CA IX, with KIs in the range of 4.5-47.0 nM, although some of the derivatives incorporating bulkier bicyclic moieties, as well as 2-thienyl fragments, showed a weaker activity against this isoform (KIs in the range 50.1-553 nM). All the investigated compounds also inhibited CA XII with KIs in the range 0.85-376 nM. The best inhibitors were those incorporating bulky [1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazinyl moieties and 1,3,4-thiadiazol-3(2H)-yl groups.
 
In this study, new 3-[(1(2H)-phthalazinone-2-yl(methyl/ethyl]-4-aryl-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione and 2-[[1(2H)-phthalazinone-2-yl]methyl/ethyl]-5-arylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives were synthesized. Antimicrobial properties of the title compounds were investigated against two Gram (+) bacteria (S. aureus, B. subtilis), two Gram ( - ) bacteria (P. aeruginosa, E. coli) and two yeast-like fungi (C. albicans and C. parapsilosis) using the broth microdilution method. Generally the compounds were found to be active against B. subtilis and the fungi. Derivatives carrying a 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring generally showed higher antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis and the fungi when compared to other synthesized compounds.
 
Scheme 1. The general synthetic reaction. 
The increasing clinical importance of drug-resistant mycobacterial pathogens has lent additional urgency to microbiological research and new antimycobacterial compound development. For this purpose, new triazoles were synthesized and evaluated for antituberculosis activity. A series of 4-arylidenamino-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol derivatives (2a-n) were synthesized from the treatment of 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazoles-3-thiol (1) with the respective aldehydes and were evaluated for antituberculosis activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27294), using the BACTEC 460 radiometric system and BACTEC 12B medium. Compound 2k showed an intereting activity at 6.25 microg/mL with a 87 percentage inhibition.
 
Mean descent time observed at different time intervals. 
Biochemical estimation from brain homogenate. 
A series of 3-alkyl/aryl-8-(furan-2-yl)thiazolo[5,4-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine-2(3H)-thiones (3a-3f) were synthesised in good yield and evaluated for their anti-Parkinsonian and neuroprotective potential. The structures of the synthesised compounds were confirmed on the basis of their spectral data and elemental analysis. All of the compounds were found to be active in haloperidol-induced catalepsy and oxidative stress in mice. The most active compound carried a propyl group at the 3-position of the thiazolotriazolopyrimidine nucleus while substitution with a phenyl ring produced the least active compound among the series. A computational study was carried out for the prediction of pharmacokinetic properties and none of the compounds violated Lipinski's rule of five, making them potentially promising agents for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
 
Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs, μM) for the title compounds. 
Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs, μM) for the title compounds. 
In attempt to make significant pharmacologically active molecule, we report here the synthesis and in vitro antimicrobial and antitubercular activity of various series of 3-(3-pyridyl)-5-(4-nitrophenyl)-4-(N-substituted-1,3-benzothiazol-2-amino)-4H-1,2,4-triazole. The antimicrobial activity of title compounds were examined against two Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes), two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and three fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus clavatus) using the broth microdilution method and antitubercular activity H(37)Rv using Lowenstein-Jensen agar method.
 
In this work, we reported the synthesis and evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activities of three new compound series obtained from 6-(phenyl/4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole-3-acetic acid hydrazide: 2-{[6-(phenyl/4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b]thiazol-3-yl]acetyl}-N-alkyl/arylhydrazinecarbothioamides (2a-d), 4-alkyl/aryl-2,4-dihydro-5-{[6-(phenyl/4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b]thiazol-3-yl]methyl}-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones (3a-n), and 2-alkyl/arylamino-5-{[6-(phenyl/4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b]thiazol-3-yl]methyl}-1,3,4-thiadiazoles (4a-g). The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR (APT), mass and elemental analysis. Their antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019, C. krusei ATCC 6258, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei NCPF 375, Microsporum gypseum NCPF 580, and T. tonsurans NCPF 245. 3c, 3f, 3m, 3n, and 4e showed the highest antibacterial activity. Particularly 3c, 3f, 3g, 3k, 3n, 4a, 4e, and 4g showed the highest antifungal activity against tested fungi.
 
Top-cited authors
Claudiu T Supuran
  • University of Florence
Clemente Capasso
  • Italian National Research Council
Ilhami Gülçin
  • Ataturk University
Ilhami Gülçin
  • King Saud University
Saleh Alwasel
  • King Saud University