Restrictive policies during the Covid-19 pandemic have significantly disrupted the distribution of trade between regions in Indonesia. The availability of production and affordability of prices is essential to always pay attention to during the Covid-19 period, especially for rice commodities, whose role is very strategic. Rice price stabilization will be more effective and efficient in an integrated market. This study aims to analyze the disparity of rice prices before and during Covid-19 and the spatial integration of the rice market in Indonesia. The data used is the daily price of rice at the consumer level from August 1, 2018, to August 31, 2021. The analysis area consists of 12 reference provinces, and the rest are assumed to be followers. The method used in this research is Johansen Cointegration, Causality, and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). The results showed that the inter-provincial rice marketing system in Indonesia in terms of price efficiency had already occurred. This can be seen from the results of the study, which show that the disparity in rice prices is not significant even during the Covid-19 period, and price transmission has been well integrated throughout the province in the long term. Meanwhile, in the short term, the deficit reference provinces, namely Jakarta and Papua, are more integrated with other provinces than surplus provinces. This allows rice supply from the surplus market to be very important in determining the price of rice in the two provinces. The adjustment rate to the average equilibrium price is 0.0086% per day, so the total adjustment time is three months and 26 days. Meanwhile, when Covid-19 occurred, the average adjustment rate was 0.00078% per day, so the total adjustment time was prolonged during Covid-19 by 1282 days or three years and six months. The results also show that East Java, West Java, Central Java, South Sulawesi, Riau, Papua, and DKI Jakarta are reference markets that can determine prices in other provinces while other provinces become follower markets.
The fruitfly Bactrocera dorsalis is an economically important pest that requires management for the sustainability of agriculture in South Africa. This pest has spread from the country's Northern parts within a decade, where it has completely established and spread to other neighbouring provinces. The pest spreads at various rates due to different factors given biotic and abiotic factors. Understanding factors that influence pest prevalence will assist with practical management strategies. Temperature is one of the factors that assist the invasive potential of B. dorsalis. KwaZulu Natal province is among the hotspot provinces in the country besides Limpopo and Mpumalanga. Trap catches in Northern KwaZulu Natal, uMkhanyakude and King Cetshwayo districts show that the seasonal populations of B. dorsalis are continuously present all year round, even with the application of management options to reduce pest populations. Host availability plays a significant role in the invasion and total outcompeting of other native fruitflies e.g. Ceratitis punctata.
The antifungal action of soaps prepared from sunflower oil (pure and amended with various organic materials) was examined towards bread mould. The results show that at 2-2.5 % percent concentration, pure (without any amendment) sunflower oil-based soap can completely block the development of mould on bread, just like 70 % ethanol solution. Amendment of the soap with different organic materials like dry shells from Rapana venosa, dry mapple leaves, dry olive pits, and so on can cause differences in the action of the soap towards mould. The highest effectiveness was observed in the soaps enhanced with Rapana venosa dry shells and dry pumpkin seeds.
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the most important oilseeds crops due to its wide adaptability, mechanization potential, low labor requirements, and high oil and protein content. The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of elite sunflower cultivars under Kabul agro-ecological conditions. The main objective of this research is to identify superior genotypes best adapted to Kabul agro-ecological conditions. Three improved cultivars of sunflowers, two from France (Robiacs and Imeriacs) and a local one were tested for two years, 2018-19, on the farm of Agriculture faculty at Kabul University. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Data were collected on achene's yield and other parameters. Analysis revealed a highly significant difference among cultivars for all parameters under study except the number of days to complete emergence, number of plants m-2, plant height and leaf area index. Among the cultivars examined, there were significant differences in achene yield. Local cultivar (4696.92kg ha-1) followed by Robiacs (4346.62 kg ha-1) yielded significantly higher than Imeriacs cultivar (3029). These cultivars have shown to be the best local and exotic genotypes in terms of achene's yield. With additional tastings, these potential lines could be released for specific environments in Afghanistan similar to the Kabul agro-ecology.
The adaptability of a variety is one of the determinants of the domestication conditions of a variety—fourteen varieties of onions, including those whose domestication is lowland adapted to the highlands. Fourteen varieties of shallots are Brebes Variety (V 1), Pikatan Variety (V 2), Thai Variety (V 3), Sumenep Variety (V 4), Super Philips Variety (V 5), Manjung Variety (V 6), Bauji Variety (V 7), Jeneponto Adaptation Bima Variety (V 8), Bima Variety enrekang adaptation (V 9), Bangkok Variety adaptation Jeneponto (V 10), Palu Local Variety (V 11), Katumi Varieties (V 12), Trident Varieties (V 13) and Mentes Varieties (V 14) conducted in the form of Group Randomized Designs (RAK), Results from this study found that flowering naturally occurs in 12 varitas that produce flowers from 14 varieties of tried onions, and can be found. The five varieties that flower more are the Bangkok Variety adaptation jeneponto, Bima Brebes, Manjung, Bauji, and the mentes variety. The growth and production of bulbs grown in the highlands are generally determined by the genetic traits and adaptability of each variety. This is indicated by the difference in the results of each component of observation parameters of the same variety. As produced, five varieties selected the production of different perhektar bulbs based on the location of planting. Bangkok Jeneponto varieties 11.5 tons h ̄¹, Bauji varieties 10.0 tons h ̄¹, Bima Brebes varieties 3.0 tons h ̄¹, Manjung varieties 7.5 tons h ̄¹, and Mente’s varieties 19.0 tons h ̄¹.
The aim of this study is to examine cocoa farmers' capacity to adapt to climate change in the Bantaeng district. This is a research study including qualitative-descriptive data analysis. This is a way of analyzing research data in order to arrive at a conclusion. Qualitative analysis is used to describe and characterize cocoa farming, as well as to analyze cocoa farmers' adaptation strategies in the research region. The findings indicated that cocoa farmers in Bantaeng, Gantarangkeke, and Tompobulu districts adapted by substituting coffee, cloves, and porang plants for their cocoa plants, but only in the Tompobulu region, where the plants had already matured. Cocoa plants are nearing the end of their useful lives.
Global Climate Change (GCC) and its responses are already changing how food is produced, processed, and consumed. The agriculture sector's recent history of hardships and challenges brought about by GCC has posed a significant danger to people's ability to acquire food, particularly in developing countries. Today, GCC impacts are already being felt across the globe, especially in remote and rural communities where vulnerability is high, adaptation capacity is limited, and resources are scarce. Therefore, finding sustainable, practical, and cutting-edge solutions to the challenges of GCC is essential. The United Nations 2030 agenda on sustainability aims to reshape the world's society by achieving a number of broad sustainable development goals (SDGs), which call for significant structural changes in society as well as profound transformations in policy, the economy, technology, and science. More specifically, agenda 2030 emphasizes the creation and effective application of models, technology innovations, and strategies that call for the full participation of all parties, including local and indigenous people and their experiences, traditions, and cultural practices. However, despite providing clear examples of sustainable lifestyles within their ecological environment, particularly in the equitable distribution of resources among community members, indigenous and local people's voices, knowledge, and concerns have remained underrepresented in the climate change and sustainability discourse. Thus, this paper advances the climate adaptation, resilience-building, and sustainability (CARS) model in agriculture in developing countries. The CARS model is meant for policymakers and hinges on integrating scientific knowledge with indigenous and local ecological knowledge (ILEK) in the climate change adaptation and sustainability discourse. This theoretical model supports the notion that an understanding of the indigenous and local ecological knowledge systems is critical to opening up an environment that supports community-based efforts to adapt to GCC by giving them options and engaging them in finding innovative, sustainable, and effective strategies to adapt to the impacts emanating from GCC. The ultimate goal of this model is to promote positive co-management and regional development through sustainability and climate change adaptation while generating a forum for discussion among indigenous and local communities and the relevant stakeholders.
Morocco ranks among countries with the greatest achievements in the field of dams in Africa but is affected by the sedimentation phenomenon due to soil erosion in upstreams. The assessment of Sediment Yield (SY) and Suspended Sediment Yield (SSY) remains a challenging global issue, especially in Morocco, characterized by a great diversity of morphological, climatic, and vegetation cover. The main objective of this paper was to perform advanced statistics and artificial neural networks (ANN) in order to understand the spatial distribution of sediment yield and the factors most controlling it, including factors of the RUSLE model (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation). In order to produce a model able to assess SY, we collected and analyzed extensive data of most variables that can be affecting SY using 42 catchments of the biggest and important dams of Morocco. Statistical analysis of the studied watersheds shows that SY is mainly related to the watershed area and the length of the drainage network. On the other hand, the SSY is higher in watersheds where gully erosion is abundant and lower in areas with no soil horizon. The SSY is mainly related to the altitude, aridity index, sand fraction, and drainage network length. In front of the complexity of preserving this phenomenon, the ANN was applied and gave very good satisfactory results in predicting the SSY (NSE=0.93, R2=0.93).
A field experiment was conducted on the Effect of phosphorus fertilizer and seed rates on the growth and yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) at the Farm of the agriculture faculty of Kunduz University during the spring season of 2023 to determine the optimum rates of phosphorus fertilizer and seed rates for maximum yield of common bean in the northeast of Afghanistan (Kunduz province). The treatment consists of three phosphorus levels (0kgP2O5ha-1, 40kgP2O5ha-1 and 80kgP2O5ha-1) and four combined seed rates (125 kgha-1, 150 kgha-1, 175 kgha-1 and 200 kg ha-1) laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The results revealed that phosphorus levels and different seed rates significantly affected on growth, yield attributes and yield of common bean on plant height, Leaf area/plant (cm2), Brunches/plant, Root dry weight/plant(g), Nodules/pant, No. of notes/plant, Pods/plant, Seeds/pod, 100 seed weight, seed yield/plant(g) and Grain Yield t/ha, the highest plant height (44.10cm), Leaf area/plant (217.18cm2), Brunches/plant(11.75), Root dry weight/plant (2.282g), Nodules/pant (12.16), Leaves/plant (47.833), No. of notes/plant (7.88), Pods/plant (16.98), Seeds/pod (6.97), 100 seed weight(34.536), seed yield/plant(8.83g) and Grain Yield (2.20t/ha) was in treatments 80kgP2O5ha-1 respectively. Seed rates were also significantly affected in treatment 200 kg ha-1 except for harvest index; all other yield attributes and yield was significant; the highest yield attributes and yield was in seed rate 200 kg ha-1. Thus 80kgP2O5ha-1with 200 kg ha-1 was found to be the best combination under northeast of Afghanistan agro-ecology as it gave higher values for yield and most yield related traits.
In light of Afghan environmental legislation and policy, the goal of this study is to analyze the citizenship rights of individuals with disabilities in the urban environment. It examines the issues faced by the disabled, particularly the physically challenged, who live in Afghanistan's cities in order to achieve this goal. The government's existing laws and regulations also include preparing for these issues. A descriptive-analytical approach has been adopted in the investigation. In this regard, the researcher has utilized the library study method to explain the concepts and give a theoretical framework to assess the course of domestic legislation after evaluating the development of domestic and international laws. This article comes to the conclusion that the physical and administrative requirements of disabled people cannot be met in Afghan cities. Think about the sidewalks. In reality, a wheelchair user is unable to use the sidewalks. Wheelchair users' rights have been violated as a result of the obstacles that the town has put in place to keep motorcycles off the pavements. Think about the sidewalks; in reality, a wheelchair user cannot utilize them. The right of wheelchair users has essentially been infringed due to the obstructions put in place by the municipality to prevent motorcycle riders from using the sidewalks. There are few organizations in the road and construction engineering sector, particularly in government departments, that have measured the essential facilities and measures for the disabled in their structures. The law of motion is one of the acknowledged tenets among philosophers. They hold the view that everything in the universe is in motion and that each living thing is gradually evolving to realize its potential. Therefore, all facets of society should have access to the amenities required for advancement. This rule applies to everyone, including those with disabilities, and the urban environment must be created and modified in a way that allows them to utilize all of its amenities. The road system in every city is what connects all of the metropolitan areas, and by making it accessible to people with disabilities, many of their difficulties are resolved. In cities, disabled persons are assessed. The necessary design requirements for people with disabilities are then presented.
At present, the problem of poor land utilization, reduced land production, and land desolation frequently happens in China's rural areas. As a new form of agricultural socialization service, agricultural production trusteeship can help farmers increase production and income, ensure food safety, and promote the organic connection between small farmers and modern agriculture. However, China's agricultural production trusteeship is still at a preliminary stage, and there are still certain shortcomings in terms of service quality and other aspects. To improve the service quality of agricultural production trusteeship, this paper constructs an evaluation system based on farmers' perceptions, combining Ridit analysis and multiplication scale method, with farmers' perceived service quality as the target, and six first-level indicators of plowing service, planting service, prevention service, harvesting service, selling service and complaint and risk handling, and puts forward relevant policy and suggestions for the high-quality development of agricultural production trusteeship.
This paper aims to analyze the relationship that may exist between climate change and cereal yield in Morocco. In order to study this correlation between variables, we used the most common form of regression model which is the multiple linear regression model. There are two main uses of multiple linear regression model. The first one is to quantify the weight of impact that the independent variables had on the dependent variable. The second use is to predict not only the relationship that may found between variables but also their impacts. In our case, we have chosen temperature and precipitation as an independent variables and cereal yield as dependent variable.
The current research endeavor was undertaken to explore the impact of varying administration schedules of medicinal plant infusions (Allium sativum and Berberis lycium) on the hepatic function and lipid profile of young broiler chicks. A total of 240 day-old broiler chicks were meticulously categorized into four distinct groups, namely TI-0D, TI-1D, TI-2D, and TI-3D. These designations corresponded to the administration schedules as follows: the TI-0D group received daily infusions, the TI-1D group received infusions every alternate day, the TI-2D group received infusions every alternate two days, and the TI-3D group received infusions every alternate three days. Each of these groups was subsequently subdivided into two subgroups based on their vaccination protocols. Each subgroup was composed of three replicates, with each replicate containing 10 chicks. Notably, the serum protein levels were observed to be comparatively lower in the group subjected to daily infusion administration, while the highest levels were recorded in the group receiving infusions every alternate two days. However, it is important to underline that these differences did not attain statistical significance. Remarkably, the serum triglyceride levels demonstrated a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the group receiving infusions every alternate two days (TI-2D), with the highest levels being observed in the TI-0D group, which received daily infusions. Additionally, the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were markedly elevated (P<0.05) in the TI-2D group compared to all other groups. In terms of serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, the TI-2D group exhibited the lowest levels, while the TI-0D group displayed the highest levels, although these differences were observed numerically rather than statistically. In conclusion, it can be deduced that the water-based infusion of Allium sativum and Berberis lyceum, administered every alternate two days, led to improvements in both the hepatic function and lipid profile of broiler chicks. This finding underscores the potential benefits of this specific administration schedule in enhancing the physiological parameters of the subjects under investigation.
The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, also known as the "third pole of the world", consists of widespread alpine grasslands, and the local community has taken advantage of this natural condition to develop alpine grassland livestock farming. In recent years, climate change and irrational human activities have led to serious degradation of the alpine grasslands on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which has constrained the development of traditional grassland husbandry. In order to promote the ecological protection of the plateau and improve the livelihood of the people in this region, the traditional grassland livestock industry needs to be transformed and upgraded. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau should study and reasonably learn from efficient modern pastoralism and development measures such as grass farming and migrant urbanization in the USA, Australia, and Northern Europe. Due to the special peculiarities of the natural environment and the limitations of the local socio-economic conditions, this essay combines the local natural and humanistic environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region and proposes modern measures such as grass-based storage, grazing in specific areas, and ecological migration to realize the sustainable development of alpine grassland animal husbandry, which is conducive to promote regional high quality development.
This study aims to determine: To determine the development of Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica) production over the last 5 years, to determine the availability of production factors (land area, seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, equipment, and labor) for the development of Arabica Coffee (Coffea Arabica, for knowing the relationship between the availability of production factors (land area, seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, equipment, and labor) in the previous year to the production of Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica), and to determine the business sustainability index of Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica) viewed from the economic, social aspects and the environment in the research area. The research was conducted in Purba District, Simalungun Regency, where the sample size was 25 Arabica coffee farmers. Data analysis used qualitative descriptive analysis, OLS (Ordinary Least Square), and sustainability index. The Arabica coffee production development index from 2015-2019 decreased from the total production of 555.98 tons to 497.51 tons or the index value decreased by 75The availability of production factors (land area, seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, equipment, and labor) for the Arabica coffee development index in the study area is available with an average value of 21.17. , fertilizers, pesticides, equipment and manpower) the calculated F value = 0.566 <F table 6.16 with a sig value of 0.595 > 0.05. In partial land area, seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, and labor have an effect on Arabica coffee production. the average (79.27) is categorized as very sustainable.
In view of the progressive retreat of groundwater due to rarity, continuous depletion and overexploitation of water, especially in mountainous areas, which are a major source of water, there is a need for artificial recharge for better management of these resources to ensure their long-term sustainability. The approach used is a contribution of new geomatic technologies; Remote Sensing coupled with Geographic Information Systems, for the mapping of potential areas of artificial recharge in the fractured medium of the Talmakent region, which is located in the western high atlas and is characterized by the presence of impermeable rocks. This study requires the consideration of different factors influencing the recharge potential, which are the characteristics of the land surface such as geology lineaments, geomorphology and drainage system. All these criteria are grouped in a GIS prototype in which a multi-criteria overlay analysis has been done for the cartographic restitution of the potential areas for artificial groundwater recharge. The existing basins in the area revealed that only 6% of the total area was identified as having a high potential for groundwater recharge, hence suitable for the implementation of new artificial recharge structures. While 94% of the area has a low to moderate recharge potential, hence unsuitable for groundwater recharge processes.
In this study, the aerobic composting in windrows of five mixtures of organic materials was compared. Composting temperatures rose to 60-67°C within 7 to 22 days and stayed above 45°C for 4-5 months before declining. Decomposition after 223 days was 40-43% for organic materials and 23-25% for carbon. The pH values decreased during the composting process and became neutral at maturation. Electric conductivity dropped to 3.6-5.22 mS/cm after 170 days. Dry matter increase to 96.2-97.8% within 182 days of composting and dropped to 70.13-73.87% at maturation. Bulk density increased from 0.20-0.26 g/cm3 to 0.34-0.55 g/cm3 and varied depending on composts. Porosity and water retention decreased during composting. Nutrient contents varied over composting times and wastes. Composts' phytotoxicity, evaluated on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds, decreased by 0.2-13.2% and 63.2-81.3% after 30 and 220 days of composting, respectively. Benefits of composting organic wastes into agriculturally valuable final products was discussed.
The application of specialized natural hazard mapping is an absolute necessity for the management and prevention of natural hazard events. This paper treats the description of all the procedures carried out in order to produce a map of vulnerability and susceptibility to cave-ins, calculated and evaluated by the multicriteria method (AHP) and by using the GIS tool in the old Medina of Beni Mellal, which is recognized from time to time by cave-ins. The objective of this study is to develop a new method for analyzing the vulnerability of cavities to collapse, which presents a real risk in the urban area of the old cities. The methodology, applied to the old city of Beni-Mellal, consists in identifying and quantifying the stakes linked to the collapse of a cavity using a geographic information system. The weight of each parameter and factor exposed in the vulnerability was estimated using the hierarchical multicriteria method (AHP). The result is presented in the form of a spatialized and synthetic vulnerability map. The detection, mapping and assessment of areas vulnerable to the collapse of these cavities, particularly for large areas of the city, offers the possibility of reducing damage by intervening upstream and introducing preventive and corrective measures against any risk of collapse in the areas deemed vulnerable by our study. The maps show three zones with different degrees of vulnerability. The low and medium vulnerability zones occupy respectively 30 and 20% of the total area of the old city, while the high and very high vulnerability zones occupy respectively 16% and 4%.
Having access to a reliable environmental source of education contributes to pro-environmental behaviors. Yet, it is unclear whether such environmental education should be centered on the current or the next generation. To investigate the possible impact of environmental education on sustainable development and make a comparison between the older and the future generations, this research surveyed 376 household heads (also farmers) from two municipalities and 200 Senior High School students from four municipalities/districts in the Eastern region of Ghana. The results revealed that both farmers and students demonstrated considerable environmental awareness. However, the students showed a higher and acceptable cumulative percentage environmental knowledge score than the farmers. The results from the Linear Probability Model estimates of perceived environmental knowledge indicate that being a male increases the probability of having perceived environmental knowledge by 30.8 percentage points, controlling other demographic characteristics. Whiles being enrolled in a Senior High School (young generation) increases the probability of having perceived environmental knowledge by 30.8 percentage points. Furthermore, over 98% of the students indicated their availability to equip themselves better to confront the deteriorating environment compared to 81% of the older generation. The results revealed that the younger generation has the motivation, readily available to gain more knowledge and skills to become and raise an environmental generation. These meet the three most important elements of the Environmental Generation Framework, which focus on the younger generation to achieve sustainable development.
This study aims to apply the process of the analytical hierarchy in geographic information system to the study of water erosion in the southern part of the Azilal region, Morocco. This method is an important tool to be used in the planning and management of natural risks; it has allowed us to obtain a multi-factorial sensitivity map to water erosion. This sensitivity map of erosive soil conditions in the study area shows that 6% of the area is (less) exposed to erosion risk while 85% of the mapped area is moderately exposed to erosion risk and only 8% of the mapped area is highly exposed to water weathering factors. Visually, the high-risk zones correspond to the area around ‘’Oued Lakhdar’’ and its tributaries.
Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination remains a major challenge confronting soil health, environmental sustainability, and food security in oil exploration areas. In this study, the effect of Bonny Light crude oil on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) was investigated with a view to assessing its toxicity to plant growth and performance. Pristine soil samples were collected in different pots and contaminated with crude oil to achieve 0.0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10.0% v/w contamination levels. Viable seeds of cowpea were planted and monitored for the emergence and subsequent growth for a period of 12 weeks. Results showed that the crude oil extended the period of seed germination and delayed the emergence of sprouts by 2 days at a rate of 96.7%, 80.0%, 50.0%, 96.7%, and 73.3% emergence respectively. The plants’ shoots, roots, and leaves lengths were longer in control than in the contaminated soil. Phytotoxicity study showed that shoots, roots and leaves lengths of the plants were significantly reduced by ≥ 50% of the control. The relative plants' weights, chlorophyll, and the number of leaves were worst affected especially in plants grown in higher crude oil concentrations where fewer or absence of leaves was observed at the end of the experiments. No yield parameter was observed in all plants grown in contaminated soil as opposed to the control where flowers, fruits, and seeds were produced. The findings illustrated that the growth rate of V. unguiculata was severely affected due to hydrocarbon contamination in a concentration-dependent manner. It further demonstrated the imminent danger to food security especially in frontier basins with impending oil exploration activities. Therefore, there is a need to identify and integrate effective measures that minimize or prevent oil spillage in the course of oil exploration activities with a view to avoiding the repeat of persistent pollution problems disturbing host communities.
Wediombo Beach, which is located in Gunungkidul Regency, Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, has the potential for beautiful and exotic coastal natural resources on the south coast. The potential for coastal tourism in Gunungkidul Regency still has the opportunity to be developed into mainstay tourism. This study aims to analyze the suitability of Wediombo beach tourism, Gunungkidul district, Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia. The research was conducted at Wediombo Beach. The research was conducted descriptively, using survey methods and direct measurements in the field. The study was conducted from March – to October 2021. The results showed that the value of the Tourism Suitability Index (IKW) for Wediombo Beach was 84.52% and was included in the very suitable category (S1).
Legumes are one of the most important sources of protein in the diet of many people in developing countries. The protein content of legumes is about twice that of grains, and plant based production of legumes has numerous advantages over animal protein supply in terms of cost and consumer health; the best plant based protein belongs to the common bean, which contains all essential amino acids for the human body. The experiment laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications; a field experiment was conducted at the agriculture faculty of Kunduz University farm during the cropping season of 2023; the study aimed to investigate the effect of different seeding rates on the growth and yield of common bean viz. 125 kg/ha, 150 kg/ha, 175 kg/ha, 200 kg/ha and 225 kg/ha. The result showed that the best seeding rate was 200 kg/ha, which resulted in significantly higher plant height (39.87cm), leaf area (335.88cm2), brunches/plant (9.89), dry Matter (6.43 gr/plant), pods/plant (13.27), seeds/pod (5.26), 100 seed weight (30.80gr), grain yield (2210.99 kg/ha), Stover yield (4500.00 kg/ha), gross return (265319 AFN/ha), net return (229233 AFN/ha) and B: Cost of Ratio (6.33) followed by seeding of 175 kg/ha, the minimum growth and yield were in seeding rate of 125 kg/ha. It can be concluded that selecting the appropriate seeding rate is crucial for optimizing the growth and yield of common beans.
Body measurements are important criteria in the selection of elite animals for breeding. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship, accuracy of prediction of body weight from body measurements, and identifying multicollinearity from three beef breeds. Four classes of stock (bull, cows, steers, and heifers) were considered. Correlation, simple, and multiple linear regression models were fitted with body weight (BW) as the dependent variable and body length (BL), heart girth (HG), height at wither (HW), muzzle circumference (MC), and shank circumference (SC) as the independent variables. The BW of the animals ranged from 218 to 630 kg, the least being heifers and bulls were the heaviest. The pairwise phenotypic correlations showed a high and significant positive relationship between BW and body dimensions (r = 0.751- 0.96; P<0.01). However, negative correlations were observed between BW with BL and MC of r = -0.733 and -0.703 and -0.660, -0.650, for cows and heifers, respectively. Regressing BW on BL, HG, and HW measurements gave statistically significant (P<0.01) equations with R2 ranging from 0.60 to 0.79. Collinearity, as portrayed by high variance inflation factors (VIFs), tolerance values, and low eigenvalues, was evident in four of the variables. It was concluded that the regression model was useful in BW prediction for smallholder farms and the relationship between BW and other body measurements was influenced by breed and class of stock. It is recommended that ridge regression or principal component regression be used in cases where multicollinearity exisists.
Indonesia is an agricultural country in the tropics, so agricultural waste appears and becomes one of the problems in the agricultural sector. These organic materials had good potential used as feedstock for biochar. Biochar is a solid material that is formed by the thermal degradation of organic materials in an oxygen-limited environment. This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition and structure of biochar from Cassava pulp, Sugarcane baggase and coconut husk. Its characterization included Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transforminfrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and chemical analysis. Biochar produced cassava pulp has the highest nutrient content, especially C, Ca, Mg, organic matter, ash, pH, but the lowest content of K, Na, Al Sugar care baggase biochar has the highest nutrient content of P, Na, S, Al, EC but lowest content of C, N, Ca, Mg, organic matter. Coconut husk biochar has the highest nutrient content of N, K but the lowest content of P.