Journal of Environmental Sciences

Published by Elsevier
Online ISSN: 1001-0742
Publications
Article
The simultaneous removal of NOx and particulate matter (PM) from diesel exhaust is investigated over a mixed metal oxide catalyst of La(0.9) K(0.1) CoO3 loaded on gamma-Al2O3 spherules with the assistant of plasma. It was found that NOx was reduced by PM in oxygen rich atmosphere, the CO2 and N2 were produced in the same temperature window without considering the N2 formed by plasma decomposition. As a result, the temperature for the PM combustion decreases and the reduction efficiency of NOx to N2 increases during the plasma process, which indicated that the activity of the catalyst can be improved by plasma. The NOx is decomposed by plasma at both low temperature and high temperature. Therefore, the whole efficiency of NOx conversion is enhanced.
 
Article
This study was conducted to assess availability, phytotoxicity and bioaccumulation of lead (Pb) to ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and millet (Echinochloa crusgalli) based on the 0.1 mol/L Ca(NO3), extraction. Effect of soil properties on availability, phytotoxicity and bioaccumulation of Pb to the two plants was also evaluated. Five soils with pH values varying from 3.8 to 7.3, organic carbon (OC) contents from 0.7% to 2.4%, and clay contents from 11.6% to 35.6% were selected. Soils were spiked with Pb to achieve a range of concentrations: 250, 500, 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg/kg. Pb availability in the spiked soils was estimated by extracting soil with 0.1 mol/L Ca(NO3)2. The results indicate that plants yield decreased with decreasing soil pH and increased with increasing soil clay and OC content. Negative relationship between available Pb and the relative dry matter growth (RDMG) of the two plants were significantly related. Available Pb used to assess EC20 (20% effective concentration) and EC50 (50% effective concentration) of millet was 119 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Available Pb used to assess EC20 and ECs, of ryegrass was 63 and 157 mg/kg, respectively. Bioaccumulation, expressed as bioconcentration factors of Pb, was inversely related to soil pH, soil OC and clay content. Strong relationships were found between available lead and uptake by the two plants (i was 0.92 and 0.95 respectively). In general, 0.1 mol/L Ca(NO3)2 available Pb may be used to assess the availability, phytotoxicity and bioaccumulation of lead to the two plants tested.
 
Article
A series of single-phase T-structured NdSrCu1-xCo(x)O4-delta with oxygen vacancies and T'-structured Sm1.8Ce0.2Cu1-xCo(x)O4-delta (x: 0-0.4) with oxygen excess were prepared using ultrasound-assisted citric acid complexing method, and characterized by means of techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis and NO temperature-programmed desorption (NO-TPD). The catalytic activities of these materials were evaluated for the decomposition of NO. It was found that the NdSrCu1-xCo(x)O4-delta catalysts were of oxygen vacancies whereas the Sm1.8Ce0.2Cu1-xCo(x)O4-delta ones possessed excessive oxygen (i.e., over-stoichiometric oxygen); with arise in Co doping level, the oxygen vacancy density of NdSrCu1-xCo(x)O4-delta decreased while the over-stoichiometric oxygen amount of Sm1.8Ce0.2Cu1-xCo(x)O4-delta increased. The NO-TPD results revealed that NO could be activated much easier over the oxygen-deficient perovskite-like oxides than over the oxygen-excessive perovskite-like oxides, with the NdSrCuO3.702 catalyst showing the best efficiency in activating NO molecules. Under the conditions of 1.0% NO/helium, 2800 hr(-1), and 600-900 degrees C, the catalytic activity of NO decomposition followed the order of NdSrCuO3.702 > NdSrCu0.8Co0.2O3.736 > NdSrCu0.6Co0.4O3.789 > Sm1.8Ce0.2Cu0.6Co0.4O4.187 > Sm1.8Ce0.2Cu0.8Co0.2O4.104 > Sm1.8Ce0.2CuO4.045, in concord with the sequence of decreasing oxygen vacancy or oxygen excess density. Based on the results, we concluded that the higher oxygen vacancy density and the stronger Cu3+/Cu2+ redox ability of NdSrCu1-xCo(x)O4-delta account for the easier activation of NO and consequently improve the catalytic activity of NO decomposition over the catalysts.
 
Article
HW-02 is a new organophosphates herbicide which is discovered and developed in China. The kinetics and mechanism of HW-02 photodegradation in the organic solvents were studied at 25 degrees C under the irradiation of ultraviolet light. The results showed that photochemical reaction of HW-02 in organic solvents such as n-hexane, methanol, dimethyl benzene and acetone under UV light could be well described by the first kinetic equation, and the photodegradation efficiency decreased with a order of n-hexane > methanol > xylene > acetone. The photodegradation efficiency constant of HW-02 in n-hexane, methanol, xylene and acetone were 4.951 x 10(-2), 3.253 x 10(-2), 2.377 x 10(-2) and 1.628 x 10-2 min(-1), and the corresponding half-lives were 13.99, 21.20, 29.15 and 42.56 min, respectively. By separation and identification of photoproducts using GC-MS, it could be concluded that HW-02 was photolyzed through ester cleavage, photo-dechlorination and photoisomerization of the molecule itself.
 
Article
Rhodococcus erythropolis USTB-03 is a promising bacterial strain for the biodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) via a sulfur-specific pathway in which DBT is converted to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2HBP) as an end product. The effects of nicotinamide and riboflavin on the sulfur specific activity (SA) of DBT biodesulfurization by R. erythropolis USTB-03 were investigated. Both nicotinamide and riboflavin were found to enhance the expression of SA, which was not previously reported. When R. erythropolis USTB-03 was grown on a medium containing nicotinamide of 10.0 mmol or riboflavin of 50.0 micromol, SA was raised from 68.0 or so to more than 130 mmol 2HBP/(kg dry cells. x ). When R. erythropolis USTB-03 was grown in the presence of both nicotinamide of 5.0 mmol and riboflavin of 25.0 Cmicrool, SA was further increased to 159.0 mmol 2HBP/(kg dry cells. x ). It is suggested that the biological synthesis of reduced form of flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2), an essential coenzyme for the activities of biodesulfurization enzyme Dsz C and A, might be enhanced by nicotinamide and riboflavin, which was responsible for the increased SA of R. erythropolis USTB-03.
 
Article
Statistical experimental designs were used to optimize the process of phenol degradation by Candida tropicalis Z-04, isolated from phenol-degrading aerobic granules. The most important factors influencing phenol degradation (p < 0.05), as identified by a two-level Plackett-Burman design with 11 variables, were yeast extract, phenol, inoculum size, and temperature. Steepest ascent method was undertaken to determine the optimal regions of these four significant factors. Central composite design (CCD) and response surface analysis were adopted to further investigate the mutual interactions between these variables and to identify their optimal values that would generate maximum phenol degradation. The analysis results indicated that interactions between yeast extract and temperature, phenol and temperature, inoculum size and temperature affected the response variable (phenol degradation) significantly. The predicted results showed that the maximum removal efficiency of phenol (99.10%) could be obtained under the optimum conditions of yeast extract 0.41 g/L, phenol 1.03 g/L, inoculum size 1.43% (V/V) and temperature 30.04 degrees C. These predicted values were further verified by validation experiments. The excellent correlation between predicted and experimental values confirmed the validity and practicability of this statistical optimum strategy. This study indicated the excellent ability of C. tropicalis Z-04 in degrading high-strength phenol. Optimal conditions obtained in this experiment laid a solid foundation for further use of this microorganism in the treatment of high-strength phenol effluents.
 
Article
Biodegradation of methyl parathion (MP), a widely used organophosphorus pesticide, was investigated using a newly isolated bacterium strain Acinetobacter radioresistens USTB-04. MP at an initial concentration of 1200 mg/L could be totally biodegraded by A. radioresistens USTB-04 as the sole carbon source less than 4 d in the presence of phosphate and urea as phosphorus and nitrogen sources, respectively. Biodegradation of MP was also achieved using cell-free extract of A. radioresistens USTB-04. MP at an initial concentration of 130 mg/L was completely biodegraded in 2 h in the presence of cell-free extract with a protein concentration of 148.0 mg/L, which was increased with the increase of pH from 5.0 to 8.0. Contrary to published reports, no intermediate or final degradation metabolites of MP could be observed. Thus we suggest that the cleavage of C-C bond on the benzene ring other than P-O bond may be the biodegradation pathway of MP by A. radioresistens USTB-04.
 
Article
A strain, USTB-05, isolated from Lake Dianchi, China, degraded the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-RR (MC-RR) at the rate of 16.7 mg/L per day. Analysis of 16S rDNA sequence showed that the strain was Sphingopyxis sp. Enzymatic degradation pathways for MC-RR by Sphingopyxis sp. USTB-05 were identified. Adda-Arg peptide bond of MC-RR was cleaved and then a hydrogen and a hydroxyl were combined onto the NH2 group of Adda and the carboxyl group of arginine to form a linear molecule as intermediate product within the first few hours. Then, through dehydration reaction, two hydrogen of amino group on arginine reacted with adjacent hydroxyl on carbon to form a linear MC-RR with two small peptide rings as the final product after 24 hr. These biodegradation pathways were different from those reported for other strains, implying that MC-RR may undergo different transformations and different products were formed due to various bacteria in natural lakes and reservoirs.
 
Article
Biosurfactant, produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa BSZ-07, was added to the rice straw decomposing process to enhance the production of reducing sugars. Observed by Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis, the purified biosurfactant was considered as a mixture of RL1 and RL2, which are two different types of rhamnolipids. Two different adding methods, adding the purified rhamnolipid and the on-site production of it were compared. The results showed that 0.5 g/L was the optimum concentration for adding purified rhamnolipid and the optimum temperature for on-site production was 30 degrees C for the first 48 h and 34 degrees C for the next 48 h. Under the optimum conditions, these two adding methods could improve the production of reducing sugar to 2.730 and 2.504 g/L, which was 22.30% and 12.20% higher than that of the rhamnolipid-free sample, respectively, which indicated that both of them were more effective than any other kind of surfactant discussed in this article. As the on-site production of rhamnolipid could omit the purification process, thus reducing the production cost effectively, it seemed to be a prospective adding method of the biosurfactant for enhancing rice straw decomposing.
 
Article
1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), a common chlorinated organic solvent and volatile organic compound (VOC), was removed from contaminated groundwater by using a bench-scale membrane pervaporation unit. The effects of TCA concentration, temperature, and flow rate on permeation flux and selectivity (a value) of the process were evaluated. In general, higher temperature leads to higher VOC flux but lower selectivity; higher flow rate of TCA feed stream results in higher VOC flux and selectivity, an indication of the effect of concentration polarization; higher TCA feed concentration produces higher TCA permeation, however, the selectivity was virtually unchanged.
 
Article
The conventional "pump-and-treat" technology for subsurface remediation of groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), a common chlorinated organic solvent, has limitation of prohibitively long treatment time due to extremely low water solubility of the VOCs. Surfactant-based soil remediation has emerged as the effective technology that substantially reduces the treatment time. In order to make the whole process economical, the surfactant used in soil washing has to be recovered and reused. This study examined the recovery of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), from soil remediation fluids containing TCA, using a bench-scale membrane pervaporation unit. The effects of high TCA concentration, surfactant dosage, and flow rate on permeation flux and selectivity (alpha value) of the process were evaluated. In general, higher surfactant concentration yielded lower TCA flux and constant water flux, resulting in declining a values; higher flow rate of TCA feed stream results in higher VOC flux and selectivity, an indication of the effect of concentration polarization; higher TCA feed concentration produces higher TCA permeation across the membrane, however, the selectivity was virtually unchanged unless the total TCA concentration exceeded 2000 ppm.
 
Article
1,2-Dichloroethane (DCA), a potential mutagen and carcinogen, is commonly introduced into the environment through its industrial and agricultural use. In this study, the impact of lead and mercury on DCA degradation in soil was investigated, owing to the complex co-contamination problem frequently encountered in most sites. 1,2-Dichloroethane was degraded readily in both contaminated loam and clay soils with the degradation rate constants ranging between 0.370-0.536 week(-1) and 0.309-0.417 week(-1), respectively. The presence of heavy metals have a negative impact on DCA degradation in both soil types, resulting in up to 24.11% reduction in DCA degradation within one week. Both biostimulation and treatment additives increased DCA degradation, with the best degradation observed upon addition of glucose and a combination of diphosphate salt and sodium chloride, leading to about 17.91% and 43.50% increase in DCA degradation, respectively. The results have promising potential for effective remediation of soils co-contaminated with chlorinated organics and heavy metals. However, the best bioremediation strategy will depend on the soil types, microbial population present in the soil matrices, nutrients availability and metal forms.
 
Article
1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD was administrated to juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) by peritoneal injections to explore the acute lethality and endocrine effects of 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD in vivo. The value of acute median lethal dosage (LD50) of 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD was determined in acute lethality tests. The endocrine effect of 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, whose exposed concentrations were determined based on the LD50 (1.84 mg/kg), was studied by measuring the plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) content in juvenile male goldfish with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Due to its significant induction of the plasma Vtg after one week's exposure in vivo in the 1/2 LD50 and LD30 groups, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD might be one of the important contributors to the estrogenic effect of PCDDs in the environment. The values of 1/2 LD50 and LD30 were within the range of the effective dosages of 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, indicating that there was a certain relationship between the estrogenic effective dosages and the LD50.
 
Article
The proteomic analysis of rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots and leaves responding to 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) stress was carried out by two dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometric (MS), and protein database analysis. The results showed that 5 mg/L TCB stress had a significant effect on global proteome in rice roots and leaves. The analysis of the category and function of TCB stress inducible proteins showed that different kinds of responses were produced in rice roots and leaves, when rice seedlings were exposed to 5 mg/L TCB stress. Most responses are essential for rice defending the damage of TCB stress. These responses include detoxication of toxic substances, expression of pathogenesis-related proteins, synthesis of cell wall substances and secondary compounds, regulation of protein and amino acid metabolism, activation of methionine salvage pathway, and also include osmotic regulation and phytohormone metabolism. Comparing the TCB stress inducible proteins between the two cultivars, the beta-glucosidase and pathogenesis-related protein family 10 proteins were particularly induced by TCB stress in the roots of rice cultivar (Oryza sativa L.) Aizaizhan, and the glutathione S-transferase and aci-reductone dioxygenase 4 were induced in the roots of rice cultivar Shanyou 63. This may be one of the important mechanisms for Shanyou 63 having higher tolerance to TCB stress than Aizaizhan.
 
Article
Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are globally recognized pollutant, an understanding of their resources as by-products in chemical industry is poorly investigated. This paper presents data from a study that was conducted in order to determine the extent of PCBs in 1,4-dichlorobenzene( p-DCB) mothballs. Total PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs were detected in five mothball samples. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 328 ng/g to 1798 ng/g, while the levels of WHO-TEQ were between 0.16 pg/g and 13 pg/g. Mean concentrations of total PCBs and WHO-TEQ in the samples were 724 ng/g and 3. 2 pg/g, respectively. The highest level of PCB congeners was that of trichlorinated biphenyls (537 ng/g), which maybe due to the relatively low chlorination in the process of p-DCB production. A mechanism of the formation of PCBs from polychlorinated benzene in the presence of chlorine is also suggested. The results suggested that re-estimation on the risk of p-DCB products, especially the products for daily use such as mothballs, is expected.
 
Article
Aqueous 1,8-diamino-p-menthane (KIER-C3) and commercially available amine solutions were tested for CO2 absorption. A 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) solution with an addition of KIER-C3 showed 9.3% and 31.6% higher absorption rate for CO2 than the AMP solution with an addition of monoethanolamine (MEA) and ammonia (NH3), respectively. The reaction rate constant for CO2 absorption by the AMP/KIER-C3 solution was determined by the following equation: k2,AMP/C3 = 7.702 x 10(6) exp (-2248.03/T). A CO2 loading ratio of the AMP/KIER-C3 solution was also 2 and 3.4-times higher than that of the AMP/NH3 solution and the AMP/MEA solution, respectively. Based on the experimental results, KIER-C3 may be used as an excellent additive to increase CO2 absorption capability of AMP.
 
Article
The development of low-cost and efficient new mineral adsorbents has been a hot topic in recent years. In this study, Friedel's salt (FS: 3CaO x A12O3 x CaCl2 x10H2O), a hexagonal layered inorganic absorbent, was synthesized to remove Cd2+ from water. The adsorption process was simulated by Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption mechanism was further analyzed with TEM, XRD, FT-IR analysis and monitoring of metal cations released and solution pH variation. The results indicated the adsorbent FS had an outstanding ability for Cd(II) adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity of the FS for Cd(II) removal can reach up to 671.14 mg/g. The nearly equal numbers of Cd2+ adsorbed and Ca2+ released demonstrated that ion-exchange (both surface and inner) of the FS for Cd(II) played an important role during the adsorption process. Furthermore, the surface of the FS after adsorption was microscopically disintegrated while the inner lamellar structure was almost unchanged. The behavior of Cd(II) adsorption by FS was significantly affected by surface reactions. The mechanisms of Cd2+ adsorption by the FS mainly included surface complexation and surface precipitation. In the present study, the adsorption process was fitted better by the Langmuir isotherm model (R2 = 0.9999) than the Freundlich isotherm model (R2 = 0.8122). Finally, due to the high capacity for ion-exchange on the FS surface, FS is a promising layered inorganic adsorbent for the removal of Cd(II) from water.
 
Article
The prediction and assessment of environmental pollution by arsenic are important preconditions of advocating environmental protection and human health risk assessment. A yellow fluorescent protein-based whole-cell biosensor for the detection of arsenite and arsenate was constructed and tested. An arsenic-resistant promoter and the regulatory gene arsR were obtained by PCR from the genome of Escherichia coli DH5alpha, and phiYFP was introduced into E. coli DH5alpha as a reporter gene to construct an arsenic-resistant whole-cell biosensor (WCB-11) in which phiYFP was expressed well for the first time. Experimental results demonstrated that the biosensor has a good response to arsenic and the expression of phiYFP. When strain WCB-11 was exposed to As3+ and As5+, the expression of yellow fluorescence was time-dependent and dose-dependent. This engineered construct is expected to become established as an inexpensive and convenient method for the detection of arsenic in the field.
 
Article
Temporal and spatial changes of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in a shallow lake, Lake Chaohu, China, were investigated using monthly monitoring data from 2001 through 2011. The results showed that the annual mean concentration ranges of TN, TP, and Chl-a were 0.08-14.60 mg/L, 0.02-1.08 mg/L, and 0.10-465.90 microg/L, respectively. Our data showed that Lake Chaohu was highly eutrophic and that water quality showed no substantial improvement during 2001 through 2011. The mean concentrations of TP, TN and Chl-a in the western lake were significantly higher than in the eastern lake, which indicates a spatial distribution of the three water parameters. The annual mean ratio of TN:TP by weight ranged from 10 to 20, indicating that phosphorus was the limiting nutrient in this lake. A similar seasonality variation for TP and Chl-a was observed. Riverine TP and NH4+ loading from eight major tributaries were in the range of 1.56 x 10(4)-5.47 x 10(4) and 0.19 x 10(4)-0.51 x 10(4) tons/yr over 2002-2011, respectively, and exceeded the water environmental capability of the two nutrients in the lake by a factor of 3-6. Thus reduction of nutrient loading in the sub-watershed and tributaries would be essential for the restoration of Lake Chaohu.
 
Article
A strain WL-11 with high laccase activity was isolated from activated sludge collected from the effluent treatment plant of a textile and dyeing industry. It was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila by physiological test and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. A gene encoding of laccase from a newly isolated Aeromonas hydrophila WL-11 was cloned and characterized. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed an open reading frame of 1605 bp encoding a polypeptide comprised of 534 amino acids. The primary structure of the enzyme predicted the structural features characteristic of other laccases, including the conserved regions of four histidine-rich copper-binding sites. The predicted amino acid sequence showed a high homology (more than 60%) with bacterial laccases in the genome and protein databases and the highest degree of similarity (61% identity) was observed with the multicopper oxidase of Klebsiella sp. 601. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant enzyme was overproduced in the cytoplasm as soluble and active form. The purified enzyme had an optimum pH of 2.6 and 8.0 for ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid) and DMP (2,6-dimethoxyphenol), respectively. The kinetic study on ABTS revealed a higher affinity of this enzyme to this substrate than DMP.
 
Article
Enhanced Cd uptake and Zn depletion in rice grains and high potential for food Cd exposure by the high-yielding hybrid cultivars of China had been addressed. A field experiment was conducted in 2006 to determine the difference in grain Cd and Zn between cultivars. Total 110 cultivars including super rice and common hybrid rice cultivars were grown on a single paddy soil (Entic Haplaquept) with a neutral reaction and low total Cd content. Grain Cd and Zn concentrations were determined with graphite atomic adsorption spectrophotometer (GFAAS) and flame atomic adsorption spectrophotometer (AAS) respectively. Wide variation of Cd content in grain was found in a range of 0.004-0.057 mg/kg, while the Zn content in a range of 10.25-30.06 mg/kg among the cultivars. Higher Cd but lower Zn concentration in grains of super rice cultivars was observed compared to the common hybrid ones. A highly significant positive linear correlation of grain Cd/Zn with grain Cd was found for super rice and common hybrid cultivars, meanwhile much higher slope for these hybrid cultivars than the reported non-hybrid cultivars was also observed. Using the limit value of the Chinese chemical guidelines for foods (MOHC and SSC, 2005), calculated potential risk of food Cd exposure with "Zn hungry" through diet intake was prominent with all the studied 110 hybrid rice cultivars, possessing high potential health problems for rice production in South China using the super rice cultivars. Breeding of genotypes of rice cultivars with low grain Cd and low Cd/Zn ratio is needed for rice production in acidic red soils where Cd bioavailability is prevalently high.
 
Article
The formation potential of four trihalomethanes (THMFP) and seven haloacetic acids (HAA7FP) in 13 source waters taken from four major water basin areas in China was evaluated using the simulated distribution system (SDS) chlorination method. The specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA254: the ratio of UV254 to dissolved organic carbon (DOC)), which ranged between 0.9 and 5.0 L/(mg x m), showed that the organic compounds in different source waters exhibited different reactivities with chlorine. The HAA7FP of source waters ranged from 20 to 448 microg/L and the THMFP ranged from 29 to 259 microg/L. The HAA7FP concentrations were higher than the THMFP concentrations in all but one of the samples. Therefore, the risks of haloacetic acids (HAAs) should be of concern in some source waters. TCM (chloroform) and BDCM (bromodichloromethane) were the major THM constituents, while TCAA (trichloroacetic acid) and DCAA (dichloroacetic acid) were the major HAA species. Br-THM (brominated THM species) were much higher than Br-HAA (brominated HAA species), and the formation of Br-DBP (Br-THM and Br-HAA) should be of concern when the bromide concentration is over 100 microg/L.
 
Article
A polyaluminum containing a high concentration of Al13 polymer and active chlorine (PACC) was successfully synthesized by a new electrochemical reactor using Ti/RuO2-TiO2 anodes. PACC can potentially be used as a dual-function chemical reagent for water treatment. The obtained results indicated that the formation of Al13 polymer and active chlorine, were the most active components in PACC responsible for coagulation and disinfection respectively. These components were significantly influenced by electrolyte temperature, current density, and stirring rate. It was observed that high electrolyte temperature favored the formation of Al13. Increasing current density and stirring rate resulted in high current efficiency of chlorine evolution, thus favoring the generation of Al13 and active chlorine in PACC. When the PACC (Al(T) = 0.5 mol/L, basicity = 2.3) was prepared at the optimum conditions by electrolysis process, the Al13 polymer and active chlorine in product reached above 70% of Al(T) and 4000 mg/L, respectively. In the pilot scale experiment with raw polyaluminum chloride used as an electrolyte, PACC was successfully prepared and produced a high content of Al13 and active chlorine products. The pilot scale experiment demonstrated a potential industrial approach of PACC preparation.
 
Article
Pure nano-Al13 and aggregates at various concentrations were prepared to examine the particle size effect of coagulation with inorganic polymer flocculant. The property and stability of various species formed were characterized using Infrared, 27Al-NMR, photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and Ferron assay. Results showed that concentration and temperature exhibited different roles on the stability of Al13. The quantity of Alb species analyzed by ferron assay in the initial aging period corresponded well with that of Al13, which has been confirmed in a dimension range of 1-2 nm by PCS. Al13 solutions at high concentrations (0.5-2.11 mol/L) were observed to undergo further aggregation with aging. The aggregates with a wide particle size distribution would contribute to the disappeared/decreased Al13 basis on the 27Al-NMR spectrum, whereas a part of Al13 would still remain as Alb. At low concentrations, Al13 solution was quite stable at normal temperature, but lost its stability quickly when heating to 90 degrees C.
 
Article
Pseudomonas otitidis WL-13, which has a high capacity to decolorize triphenylmethane dyes, was isolated from activated sludge obtained from a wastewater treatment plant of a dyeing industry. This strain exhibited a remarkable color-removal capability when tested against several triphenylmethane dyes under both shaking and static conditions at high concentrations of dyes. More than 95% of Malachite Green and Brilliant Green was removed within 12 h at 500 micromol/L dye concentration under shaking conditions. Crystal Violet lost about 13% of its color under the same conditions tested. The rate of decolorization increased when the M9 medium was supplemented with yeast extract. The optimum pH and temperature for color removal were 7-9 and 35-40 degrees C, respectively. The observed changes in the visible spectra and the inspection of bacterial growth indicated the color-removal by the adsorption of dye to the cells during incubation with strains.
 
Article
Four sediment cores were collected from Mikawa Bay, Japan, and excess 210Pb and 137Cs were measured by gamma spectrometry. Sedimentation rates for the four cores were determined by 210Pb method. The sedimentation rate range is 0.10-0.70 g/(cm2 x year). The bio-mixing depth for each core is less than 7.0 cm, and was determined by the excess 210Pb profiles as well. Therefore, the bioturbation is slight. The 210Pb-derived dates coincided with the results from 137Cs geochronology. Acceleration in sedimentation rate due to environmental alteration has been found in cores A2.5 and 05AS8, representing two depocenters due to their topography. Evidence of the Tokai Flood in 2000 was found in core 05AS8 according to the profiles of both radioisotopes and trace metals.
 
Article
Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl glycine) is the most used herbicide worldwide. The degradation of 14C-labeled glyphosate was studied under controlled laboratory conditions in three different agricultural soils: a silt clay loam, a clay loam and a sandy loam soil. The kinetic and intensity of glyphosate degradation varied considerably over time within the same soil and among different types of soil. Our results demonstrated that the mineralization rate of glyphosate was high at the beginning of incubation and then decreased with time until the end of the experiment. The same kinetic was observed for the water extractable residues. The degradation of glyphosate was rapid in the soil with low adsorption capacity (clay loam soil) with a short half-life of 4 days. However, the persistence of glyphosate in high adsorption capacity, soils increased, with half-live of 19 days for silt clay loam soil and 14.5 days for sandy loam soil. HPLC analyses showed that the main metabolite of glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) was detected after three days of incubation in the extracts of all three soils. Our results suggested that the possibility of contamination of groundwater by glyphosate was high on a long-term period in soils with high adsorption capacity and low degrading activities and/or acid similar to sandy loam soil. This risk might be faster but less sustainable in soil with low adsorption capacity and high degrading activity like the clay loam soil. However, the release of non-extractable residues may increase the risk of contamination of groundwater regardless of the type of soil.
 
Article
Azo dyes have received considerable attention because of their association with various human health problems. The aim of the investigation is to determine the adsorption behavior of azo dyes in aqueous solution on DG06, GSE17200, and GSE17201 soils using C. I. Acid Red 14 (AR14) as example. The experimental results indicate that the Freundlich model expresses the adsorption isotherm better than the Langmuir model and the pseudo-second-order model achieves adsorption of AR14 on the three soils well. Based on the pseudo-second-order model, the adsorption thermodynamic of AR14 on DG06 soil have been studied and the thermodynamics parameter of deltaG0 is determined and deltaG0 value shows the adsorption process of AR14 on DG06 is mainly physical in nature. Furthermore, the effects of temperature, pH and salinity (NaCl) on adsorption have been investigated. The decrease in pH or the increase in salinity enhances the adsorption of AR14 by DG06, GSE17200, and GSE17201.
 
Article
A new method for extracting the bound residue(BR) derived from 14C-labeled chlorsulfuron in soils was developed, and the technique of combining LC-MS with isotope tracing method was subsequently applied to identify the composition of the 14C-BR in a loamy Fluvent derived from marine deposit. The results showed that the 14C-[2-amino-4-methoxyl-6-methyl-1,3,5]-triazine, 14C-[2-amino-4-hydroxyl-6-methyl-1,3,5]-triazine and 14C-chlorsulfuron parent compound constituted the main composition of the 14C-BR derived from 14C-labeled chlorsulfuron in the soil. The radioactive ratio of three compounds accounted for 39.8%, 35.4% and 17.9% of total recovered radioactivity, respectively. However, a small amount(3.6% of total recovered radioactivity) of the complex of 14C-[2-amino-4-hydroxyl-6-methyl-1,3,5]-triazine might have existed in the 14C-BR in association with an unknown soil substrate. 2-chlorobenzenesulfonamide was also detected to be one of the components of the BR. The results could well explain the mechanism of phytotoxicity caused by the BR derived from chlorsulfuron in soil. In addition, the mechanism of BR formation in soil was also discussed in details.
 
Article
Bound residue(BR) of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl (14C-BR) in seven kinds of soil was significantly negative-related to soil pH and positive-related to the clay content during the initial 20 d of incubation, but only was significantly negative-related to soil pH after 30 d incubation. Again, the soil pH was found to be the dominant factor affecting BR formation from 14C-metsulfuron-methyl among the basic properties(soil pH, clay, OM and CEC etc.) of soil. The maximum content of 14C-BR in the 7 soils accounted for 19.3% - 52.6% of applied amount. In addition, the composition of the 14C-BR in fluvio marine yellow loamy (S7) at the 90 d of incubation was identified using the coupling technique of LC-MS and isotope tracing method. The results showed that the 14C-[2-amino-4-hydroxyl-6-methyl-1, 3, 5]-triazine, 14C-[2-amino-4-methoxy-6-methyl-1, 3, 5]-triazine and 14 C-metsulfuron-methyl parent compound constituted the main components of the BR derived from 14 C-metsulfuron-methyl in the S7. The relative percentage of the three compounds accounted for 41.4%, 35.8% and 19.3% of total recovery radioactivity, respectively. The results also indicated that a non-radioactive component, 2-methylformate-benzenesulfonyl-isocyanate, one of the degraded products of metsulfuron-methyl in soil, was also found to be one of the components of the BR. The parent compound in BR can well explain the phytotoxic effect on substitution crops caused by the BR derived from metsulfuron-methyl in soil.
 
Article
The bioavailability of bound residue (BR) derived from 14C-labeled chlorsulfuron in soil and effect of the main components of the BR on growth of rape (brassica napus) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) were investigated. The results showed that the BR with the concentration of 0.28 and 0.56 nmol/g air-dried soil, which was calculated by special radioactivity of 14C-labeled chlorsulfuron parent compound, resulted in significant depression effect on growth of rape seedling. It was assured that the main components (2-amino-4-methoxyl-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine, 2-amino-4-hydroxyl-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine, and 2-chloro-benzenesul-fonamide) of the BR did not inhibit the growth of rape and rice. LC-MS analysis demonstrated that the parent compound previously bound to the soil matrix could be again released and transformed into methanol-extractable residue during the course of rape growth. It was concluded that the molecular leading to the phytotoxicity to rape and rice in the BR is still the parent compound.
 
Article
15N isotope tracer techniques and ecological modeling were adopted to investigate the fractionation of nitrogen, its uptake and transformation in algae and snail (Bellamya aeruginosa Reeve). Different algal species were found to differ in their uptake of nitrogen isotopes. Microcystis aeruginisa Kütz. demonstrated the greatest 15N accumulation capacity, with the natural variation in isotopic ratio (delta 15N) and the isotope fractionation factor (epsilon, % per hundred) being the highest among the species investigated. The transformation and utilization of 15N by snails differed depending on the specific algae consumed (highest for Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick., lowest for M. aeruginisa). When snails was seeded in the experimental pond, the algae population structure changed significantly, and total algal biomass as well as the concentration of all nitrogen species decreased, causing an increase in water transparency. A model, incorporating several chemical and biological parameters, was developed to predict algal biomass in an aquatic system when snails was present. The data collected during this investigation indicated that the gastropods such as snails could significantly impact biological community and water quality of small water bodies, suggesting a role for biological control of noxious algal blooms associated with eutrophication.
 
Article
An improved method, suitable for collecting nitrate from surface waters in the watershed for 15N isotope tracing analysis, was developed on the basis of the anion exchange coupled with diffusion through systematic simulation and comparison experiments. The results showed that the nitrate could be separated and enriched from the waters efficiently by using the improved method. Being simple and practical in operation principle and procedures, cost-economic, and highly efficient in nitrate separation/enrichment, the method met the requirements of delta(15)N mass spectrum analysis and would lay a foundation for the application of 15N isotope tracing approach to the research on non-point source pollution in watershed.
 
Article
The adsorption of lead, cadmium and nicel from aqueous solution by sawdust of walnut was investigated. The effect of contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature on metal ions removal has been studied. The equilibrium time was found to be of the order of 60 min. Kinetics fit pseudo first-order, second-order and intraparticle diffusion models, hence adsorption rate constants were calculated. The adsorption data of metal ions at temperatures of 25, 45 and 60 degrees C have been described by the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The thermodynamic parameters such as energy, entropy and enthalpy changes for the adsorption of heavy metal ions have also been computed and discussed. Ion exchange is probably one of the major adsorption mechanisms for binding divalent metal ions to the walnut sawdust. The selectivity order of the adsorbent is Pb(II) approximately Cd(II)>Ni(II). From these results, it can be concluded that the sawdust of walnut could be a good adsorbent for the metal ions from aqueous solutions.
 
Percentage distribution of extracted metals after the five-step sequential extraction procedure. j e s c . a c . c n
Locations of sampling points and environmental parameters
Relative standard deviation (RSD) of total contents after the sequential extraction procedure
Distribution of heavy metals in five fractions
Article
This study concentrates on the environmental pollution level of sediments in the six branches of Poyang Lake, the biggest fresh water lake in China. This is the first systematic report on the speciation analysis of heavy metals (Cu, Co, Cd, Pb, and Ni) in the six branches of the lake. A reported analytical procedure involving a five-step sequential extraction is used for the partition of particulating heavy metals. The sediment samples are analyzed using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). Experimental results obtained from five replicate samples of fluvial bottom surface sediments at the sampling points demonstrated that the relative standard deviation of the sequential extraction procedure was generally better than 10% (Cd except). The average extracted contents of the five elements, analyzed after all five steps, are found to be (mg/kg) for Cu: 26.89, Co: 16.25, Cd: 1.08, Pb: 37.98, and Ni: 20.46. The content of the exchangeable species was generally lower. Except Cu, the percentage of the species bond to organic matter was lower than 20%. The fractions containing the most metal for Cu, Co, and Ni were the residues (52.26%, 45.28%, and 74.82%, respectively).
 
Article
Fluoride and arsenic are major anionic elements of concern in drinking water treatment. The effects of contact time, pH, surface loading and ionic strength on adsorption of fluoride and As(V) were investigated using batch methods. Adsorption of fluoride and As(V) onto goethite obeyed a pseudo second-order rate law. Through experimental data and adsorption kinetic analysis, the affinity of As(V) onto goethite was stronger than fluoride. Fluoride and As(V) uptake by goethite all decreased with pH increasing at the same surface loading; however, ionic strength had slight influence on their adsorption. A surface sites-species model was used to quantify the adsorption of fluoride and As(V) onto goethite as function of pH and surface loading. This model can satisfactorily predict their adsorption characteristics with several adsorption constants.
 
Article
OLAND (oxygen limited autotrophic nitrification and denitrification) nitrogen removal system was constructed by coupling with oxygen limited nitritation stage and anaerobic ammonium oxidation stage. Ammonia oxidizer, as a kind of key bacteria in N cycle, plays an important role at the oxygen limited nitritation stage of OLAND nitrogen removal system. In this study, specific amplification of 16S rDNA fragment of ammonia oxidizer by nested PCR, separation of mixed PCR samples by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the quantification of ammonia oxidizer by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were combined to investigate the shifts of community composition and quantity of ammonia oxidizer of the oxygen limited nitritation stage in OLAND system. It showed that the community composition of ammonia oxidizer changed drastically when dissolved oxygen was decreased gradually, and the dominant ammonia oxidizer of the steady nitrite accumulation stage were completely different from that of the early stage of oxygen limited nitritation identified by DGGE. It was concluded that the Nitrosomonas may be the dominant genus of ammonia oxidizer at the oxygen limited nitritation stage of OLAND system characterized by nested PCR-DGGE and FISH, and the percentage of Nitrosomonas was 72.5% +/- 0.8% of ammonia oxidizer at the steady nitrite accumulation stage detected by FISH.
 
Article
Biological risks of bioaerosols emitted from wastewater treatment processes have attracted wide attention in the recent years. However, the culture-based analysis method has been mostly adopted for detecting the bacterial community in bioaerosols, which may result in the underestimation of total microorganism concentration as not all microorganisms are cultivable. In this study, oligonucleotide fingerprinting of 16S rRNA genes was applied to reveal the composition and structure of the bacterial community in bioaerosols from an Orbal oxidation ditch in a Beijing wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Bioaerosols were collected at different distances from the aerosol source, rotating brushes, and the sampling height was 1.5 in which is the common respiratory height of a human being. The bacterial communities of bioaerosols were diverse, and the lowest bacterial diversity was found at the sampling site just after the rotating brush rotating brush. A large proportion of bacteria in bioaerosols were affiliated with Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Numerous bacteria present in the bioaerosols also emerged in water, indicating that the bacterial community in the bioaerosols was related to that of the aerosols' sources. The forced aeration of rotating brushes brought about observably distinct bacterial communities between sampling sites situated before and after the rotating brush. Isolation sources of closest relatives in bioaerosols clone libraries were associated with the aqueous environment in the WWTP. Common potential pathogens in bioaerosols as well as those not reported in previous research were also analyzed in this study. Measures should be adopted to reduce the emission of bioaerosols and prevent their exposure to workers.
 
Article
Tannery wastewater causes serious ecological and sanitary damage. Chemical analysis of water from Binlamdoune River of the medina of Fez was conducted and the results revealed the presence of toxic elements from tanneries and other industrial activities, which strongly affected water quality. To determine the effectiveness of bioremediation for depollution, we studied the abundance and diversity of bacteria residing in these polluted environments. Conducting denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of the 16S rDNA area using primers related to bacteria showed a bacterial community belonging to eubacterial groups, that is, Epsilonproteobacteria, Clostridia, Lactobacillales, Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria. In addition, cloning displayed the presence of clones belonging to the Firmicutes group. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy revealed a significant heterogeneity of microorganism forms and structures. These endogenous microbes could have a significant role in the purification of Binlamdoune River and Fez tannery wastewater.
 
Article
The effect and uptake of copper ion on SBR (sequence batch reactor) biological treatment system was studied. Special nutrient and powder activated carbon (PAC) additive were tested as uptake stimulation technique. Results showed that copper ion had higher effect on unacclimated activated sludge system than on acclimated one. The special nutrient adding could enhance the uptake of copper significantly, while PAC adding could improve the sludge settling and decrease the turbidity of effluent. The variation of bacterial community analyzed by 16S rDNA method showed the acclimation of copper could increase copper resistance species, and excess accumulation could cause some species diminish. It was confirmed that acclimation could improve the resistance and uptake ability of microorganism to heavy metal.
 
Article
The characterization of microbial communities of different depth sediment samples was examined by a culture-independent method and compared with physicochemical parameters, those are organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), pH and redox potential (Eh). Total genomic DNA was extracted from samples derived from different depths. After they were amplified with the GC-341f/907r primer sets of partial bacterial 16S rRNA genes, the products were separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The profile of DGGE fingerprints of different depth sediment samples revealed that the community structure remained relatively stable along the entire 45 cm sediment core, however, principal-component analysis of DGGE patterns revealed that at greater sediment depths, successional shifts in community structure were evident. The principle coordinates analysis suggested that the bacterial communities along the sediment core could be separated into two groups, which were located 0--20 cm and 21--45 cm, respectively. The sequencing dominant bands demonstrated that the major phylogenetic groups identified by DGGE belonged to Bacillus, Bacterium, Brevibacillus, Exiguobacterium, gamma-Proteobacterium, Acinetobacter sp. and some uncultured or unidentified bacteria. The results indicated the existence of highly diverse bacterial community in the lake sediment core.
 
Article
The sorption of 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), bisphenol A (BPA), and 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) in single systems and the sorption of EE2 with different initial aqueous concentrations of BPA or NP were examined using three soils. Results showed that all sorption isotherms were nonlinear and fit the Freundlich model. The degree of nonlinearity was in the order BPA (0.537-0.686) > EE2 (0.705-0.858) > NP (0.875-0.0.951) in single systems. The isotherm linearity index of EE2 sorption calculated by the Freundlich model for Loam, Silt Loam and Silt increased from 0.758, 0.705 and 0.858, to 0.889, 0.910 and 0.969, respectively, when BPA concentration increased from 0 to 1000 microg/L, but the effect of NP was comparably minimal. Additionally, EE2 significantly suppressed the sorption of BPA, but insignificantly suppressed that of NP. These findings can be attributed to the difference of sorption affinity of EE2, NP and BPA on the hard carbon (e.g., black carbon) of soil organic matter that dominated the sorption in the low equilibrium aqueous concentration range of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Competitive sorption among EDCs presents new challenges for predicting the transport and fate of EDCs under the influence of co-solutes.
 
Results matrix of orthogonal array designed experiments
Influence of pH and NOM on EE2 degradation efficiency. *: missing value.  
Influence of O 3 :TOC on EE2 degradation efficiency.  
Three dimensional schematic diagram of EE2 degradation efficiency affected by NOM and initial ozone concentration.  
Article
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the secondary effluent discharged from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are of great concern in the process of water reuse. Ozonation has been reported as a powerful oxidation technology to eliminate micropollutants in water treatment. Due to the complexity of the wastewater matrix, orthogonal experiments and single factor experiments were conducted to study the influence of operational parameters on the degradation of 17a-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in the synthetic secondary effluent. The results of the orthogonal experiments indicated that the initial ozone and natural organic matter (NOM) concentration significantly affected EE2 degradation efficiency, which was further validated by the single factor confirmation experiments. EE2 was shown to be effectively degraded by ozonation in the conditions of low pH (6), NOM (10 mg/L), carbonate (50 mg/L), but high suspended solid (20 mg/L) and initial ozone concentration (9 mg/L). The study firstly revealed that the lower pH resulted in higher degradation of EE2 in the synthetic secondary effluent, which differed from EDCs ozonation behavior in pure water. EE2 degradation by ozone molecule instead of hydroxyl radical was proposed to play a key role in the degradation of EDCs by ozonation in the secondary effluent. The ratio between 03 and TOC was identified as an appropriate index to assess the degradation of EE2 by ozonation in the synthetic secondary effluent.
 
Article
N,O-bis(trimethylsily)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and N-methyl-N(trimethylsily) trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) are common derivatization reagents used in the GC-MS analysis of estrogen steroids such as estrone (El) and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2). In this study, three trimethylsilyl (TMS) steroid derivatives, mono- and di-trimethylsilyl EE2 and mono-trimethylsilyl E1, were observed during the derivatization of EE2 with BSTFA or MSTFA and/or GC separation. Factors influencing the production of multiple TMS derivatives and their relative abundance were examined. It was found that both methanol and bisphenol A competed with estrogenic esteroids when reacting with silylation reagents, and thus affected the formation of TMS derivatives and their relative abundance in the derivatization products. Methanol was found to be more reactive than bisphenol A with the BSTFA reagent. None of the three solvents tested in this study could prevent the generation of multiple TMS derivatives during the derivatization of EE2 with BSTFA, followed by GC analysis. A similar result was observed using MSTFA as the derivative reagent followed by GC analysis. Thus, the suitability of BSTFA or MSTFA as the derivatization reagent for the determination of E1 and EE2 by GC-MS, under the conditions reported here, is questionable. This problem can be solved by adding trimethylsilylimidaz (TMSI) in the BSTFA reagent as recommended, and the performance of the method has been proved in this study.
 
Article
Estrogens are accumulating in environment and their effects on a variety of reproductive processes and tumorigenesis were reported by previous study, but the mechanism of estrogen promoting neoplasia was still not clear. F-box protein (FBP) is the component of E3 ubiquitin ligase which takes part in a variety of key biological processes. In this study, using mature male zebrafish, which are more sensitive to estrogen treatment, we examined influence of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) exposure on the expression of a series of hepatic FBP genes, which take part in a variety of biological processes, including tumorigenesis. The influence of EE2 on the expression of hepatic mRNA concentrations of FBP genes were quantified based on the expression of the optimal internal control gene in male zebrafish after 7-day exposure to EE2, from a low-dose concentration (1 ng/L) to environmentally relevant concentrations (10, 100 ng/L). Our results showed that EE2 exposure reduced the expression of fbxl14a, fbxl14b, fbxo25 and beta-TRCP2b, but enchanced the expression of skp2. While the alterations in fbxl2, fbxw7, fbxo9, beta-TRCP2a, fbxl18 and fbxo45 mRNA levels were not observed after EE2 exposure. Thus, our results showed that the expression of hepatic FBP genes exhibited differentially in male zebrafish exposed EE2. The changes of the expression level of FBP genes induced by EE2 may be an important clue to elucidate the correlations of estrogen and hepatic tumors.
 
Article
17beta-Estradiol (E2) is an endocrine disrupting chemical of harm to both animals and human beings at a low concentration level (ng/L). It cannot be completely removed by wastewater treatments, and is often detected in both environment and drinking waters. The purpose of this feasibility study, towards environmental engineering in the field of water analysis and treatment, was to remove E2 by extraction using non-imprinted polymer (NIP) submicron particles. Experimental results showed that 0.5 mg/L of E2 could be completely extracted by adding 10 mg of NIP particles directly into 10 mL of water. However, the extraction efficiency decreased to 64% for 100 mL of water, prefilling the NIP particles inside a membrane filter showed a potential for water treatment of a large volume, requiring no effort to distribute the particles uniformly in the water. High extraction efficiency (80 +/- 10)% for E2 was achieved for 100 mL of water. A total mass of 0.29 mg E2 was extracted from 1000 mL of water containing 0.8 mg/L E2 (by using only 10 mg of NIP particles). Both efficiency and mass capacity can be increased, by scaling up the amount of NIP particles, towards environmental engineering applications.
 
Article
The photodegradation of persistent and bioaccumulative perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in water by 185 nm vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light was examined to develop an effective technology to deal with PFOA pollution. PFOA degraded very slowly under irradiation of 254 nm UV light. However, 61.7% of initial PFOA was degraded by 185 nm VUV light within 2 h, and defluorination ratio reached 17.1%. Pseudo first-order-kinetics well simulated its degradation and defluorination. Besides, fluoride ion formed in water, 4 shorter-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), that is, perfluoroheptanoic acid, perfluorohexanoic acid, perfluoropentanoic acid, and perfluorobutanoic acid. These were identified as intermediates by LC-MS measurement. These PFCAs consecutively formed and further degraded with irradiation time. According to the mass balance calculation, no other byproducts were formed. It was proposed that PFCAs initially are decarboxylated by 185 nm light, and the radical thus formed reacts with water to form shorter-chain PFCA with one less CF2 unit.
 
Article
Air pollution control devices (APCDs) are installed at coal-fired power plants for air pollutant regulation. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems have the co-benefits of air pollutant and mercury removal. Configuration and operational conditions of APCDs and mercury speciation affect mercury removal efficiently at coal-fired utilities. The Ontario Hydro Method (OHM) recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was used to determine mercury speciation simultaneously at five sampling locations through SCR-ESP-FGD at a 190 MW unit. Chlorine in coal had been suggested as a factor affecting the mercury speciation in flue gas; and low-chlorine coal was purported to produce less oxidized mercury (Hg2+) and more elemental mercury (Hg0) at the SCR inlet compared to higher chlorine coal. SCR could oxidize elemental mercury into oxidized mercury when SCR was in service, and oxidation efficiency reached 71.0%. Therefore, oxidized mercury removal efficiency was enhanced through a wet FGD system. In the non-ozone season, about 89.5%-96.8% of oxidized mercury was controlled, but only 54.9%-68.8% of the total mercury was captured through wet FGD. Oxidized mercury removal efficiency was 95.9%-98.0%, and there was a big difference in the total mercury removal efficiencies from 78.0% to 90.2% in the ozone season. Mercury mass balance was evaluated to validate reliability of OHM testing data, and the ratio of mercury input in the coal to mercury output at the stack was from 0.84 to 1.08.
 
Article
Reactive Red 195, which is an azoic anionic dye characterized by the presence of five sulfonic groups and one azoic group, is efficiently removed using chitosan. The increasing chitosan dose had a dramatic positive impact on the achieved color removal, there was approximately a linear relationship between chitosan dose and color removal of dye before color removal reach maximum. Also, the increase of dye concentration led to the increase of chitosan dosage in order to get the same color removal. 92 mg/L of chitosan dosage was sufficient to achieve complete remove of dye at initial concentration of dye at 200 mg/L. For the higher concentrations of dye, high dosages were necessary to reach complete color removal. On the other hand, the use of adsorption interferents (Fe2+, Na+, HCO3- and others) can be interesting, addition of ions had effect on the color removal of Reactive Red 195. Comparing with blank, addition of chemical species approximately decreased the color removal except Na+ and combination of Fe2+ + HCO3-. However, comparing with Fe2+ alone and HCO3- alone, combination of Fe2+ + HCO3- increased the color removal.
 
Article
A comparative study of treatment of simulated wastewater containing Reactive Red 195 using zero-valent iron/activated carbon (ZVI/AC), microwave discharge electrodeless lamp/sodium hypochlorite (MDEL/NaClO) and the combination of ZVI/AC-MDEL/NaClO was conducted. The preliminary results showed the two steps method of ZVI/AC-MDEL/NaClO had much higher degradation efficiency than both single steps. The final color removal percentage was nearly up to 100% and the chemical oxygen demand reduction percentage was up to approximately 82%. The effects of operational parameters, including initial pH value of simulated wastewater, ZVI/AC ratio and particle size of ZVI were also investigated. In addition, from the discussion of synergistic effect between ZVI/AC and MEDL/NaClO, we found that in the ZVI/AC-MEDL/NaClO process, ZVI/AC could break the azo bond firstly and then MEDL/NaClO degraded the aromatic amine products effectively. Reversing the order would reduce the degradation efficiency.
 
Top-cited authors
Maohong Fan
Rajender Gupta
  • University of Alberta
Rachid B Slimane
  • Gas Technology Institute
Alan E. Bland
  • University of Wyoming
Zhenghe Xu
  • University of Alberta