Journal of Environmental Planning and Management

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Online ISSN: 1360-0559
Publications
Article
This study uses hedonic analysis to estimate the effects of flood hazard disclosure under the 1998 California Natural Hazard Disclosure Law (AB 1195) on property values throughout California. It finds that the average floodplain home sold for 4.2% less than a comparable non-floodplain home following AB 1195 while before that law there was no significant price differential. The introduction of interaction terms indicates that the magnitude of the price reduction due to AB 1195 varies positively with Hispanic population share. An average floodplain home in a half-Hispanic neighbourhood saw a $12 324 negative capitalization due to AB 1195, while that amount was only $2191 for a neighbourhood with 10% Hispanic residents. Results suggest that, in particular, homebuyers in Hispanic communities are better disclosed to under AB 1195 than they were under the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), which was the primary policy regulating flood disclosure in California prior to passage of AB 1195.
 
Article
Using the goal of a 10% reduction of SO2 emissions in China's 11th Five-Year Plan (2006-2010) as a case study, this paper analyses how environmental goals are used in a large country with multi-level governments and insufficient rule of law. After the central government set up the goal, the mitigation burden was shared among local governments, and mechanisms were designed to enhance their commitment to the goal. This paper found that in the 11th Five-Year Plan, both the central and local governments were much more committed to SO2 mitigation than previously, which could help to explain China's recent significant reduction of SO2 emissions. The case indicates that goals can effectively plan and manage environmental protection and other national government agendas.
 
Article
The worldwide trend of environmentalconcern has been driving manufacturers to strive to implement competitive strategies in environmental management.A study has been carried out to evaluate the initiatives and benefits/costs of implementing ISO 14000 Environmental Management System (EMS) standard (1996) in the Hong Kong PCB (printed circuit board) industry. The study found that manufacturers intended to implement the ISO 14000 based EMS to improve their environmental performance, and sustain their competitive position in the global market place.
 
ISO adoptions in Japan and the world, 1999-2004.
ISO 14001 adoption status by organisation type.
ISO adoption status by number of employees.
Descriptive statistics.
Regression analysis findings.
Article
Since establishment of the ISO 14001 environmental management system in 1996, Japanese facilities have led the world in numbers of certifications. This research utilises survey data from more than 1700 Japanese facilities as well as follow-up interviews to identify the determinants of ISO certification, to examine the differences between early, recent and in-process certifiers, and to understand how ISO 14001 certification affects various environmental and managerial outcomes in Japan. Findings show that ISO certified facilities are larger and report higher levels of environmental management capacity. In addition, early certifiers are more likely to have established voluntary environmental agreements and are more active in international trade and business. Findings also provide evidence that while many facilities believe that ISO 14001 certification is excessively costly, they also report that certification has resulted in the establishment of new energy efficiency and waste reduction targets and higher target levels. Nevertheless, evidence indicates that certification does not generally result in longer-term outcomes such as post-certification adjustment of non-regulated targets.
 
Article
The ISO 14001 environmental management system (EMS) standard has been adopted in many parts of the world. In order to evaluate current implementation in Hong Kong, a questionnaire survey was conducted of more than 200 local companies. ISO 14001 EMS adoption is still slow in Hong Kong, particularly for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The majority of SMEs do not have plans to implement the standard in the near future. However, the EMS standard has brought many advantages to the local ISO 14001 EMS certified companies, including the reduction of operating costs and the improvement of working efficiency. Recommendations are made for EMS standard implementation in local organizations, particularly SMEs.
 
Poverty-environment nexus. Sources: Duraiappah (1998), Yusuf (2004).
Augmented Dickey-Fuller test for the residuals -CECAG.
Empirical findings of Error Correction Model -CECAG.
Augmented Dickey-Fuller test for the residuals -WAG.
Augmented Dickey-Fuller test for the residuals -TCAG.
Article
The objective of this paper is to empirically investigate a two-way statistical relationship between the agriculture environment and rural poverty. To recognise the relationship between the two variables, a time series, co-integration and Granger causality tests have been employed. Secondary data pertaining to Pakistan from 1980-2009 on rural poverty and environmental factors (such as commercial energy consumption, water availability and total cropped area) have been used for the analysis. The empirical results only moderately support the conventional view that rural poverty has a significant long-term casual effect on environmental proxies in Pakistan. The present study finds evidence of uni-directional causality between poverty and the environment in the context of the agriculture sector in Pakistan.
 
Article
Much present research on the relationship between socio-economic factors and the siting of sources of environmental pollution has focused primarily on race and income. Using census data, timed-based data from multiple sources of pollution, and rates of cancers and low birth weight in the State of Michigan by zip code, we present a multivariate model that can distinguish the effects of race, income and other land use characteristics on: (1) the location of different sources of pollution; (2) progress toward clean-up of contaminated waste; and (3) how pollution is associated with measures of public health.
 
Article
This paper investigates the performance of district local authorities in their delivery of nature conservation in the 1990s, both through the land use planning system and in their wider operational functions. Studies conducted in the 1980s revealed a large gap in performance between the best and the worst performers.The last decade, however, has witnessed far reaching changes within local government as well as external influences which are likely to have affected the ability of local authorities to promote the conservation of nature. The research shows that performance has significantly improved in a number of the roles which local authorities exercise in relation to conservation. There still remains, however, a marked variation between the best performers and the remainder.
 
Article
Throughout the 1990s, forest planning and management in the south-west Pacific nation of Papua New Guinea (PNG) underwent an unprecedented period of reform. This paper evaluates the outcomes of this reform process against the backdrop of the country's unique system of land tenure. As the result of a long history of formal recognition of the rights of customary landowners, 97% of PNG remains under the ownership of the country's indigenous population. Despite this, indigenous landowners have historically been excluded from forest planning and management. A key question that arises as a consequence is what, if anything, the most recent reforms did to address this situation. The answer, unfortunately, is very little. This paper offers an equityoriented assessment of the key reforms to forest planning and management. The assessment suggests that the PNG government missed an unprecedented opportunity to redirect forestry toward the localized, developmental needs of the people at the centre of the entire forestry enterprise: PNG's traditional village communities.
 
Article
Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been required for certain proposed road developmentsin the UK since EC Directive (85/337) was implemented in 1988. The extent to which the requirements of the EIA Directive are met with respect to ecological issues has been explored in earlier reviews of road statements (Treweek et al., 1993) and of UK environmental impact statements (EISs) in general (Thompson et al., 1997). This paper describes the results of a further review of 40 EISs produced between 1993 and 1997 and also examines recent changes in the political context for EIA of proposed road developments,including developments in UK transport policy and the UK biodiversity process. The results of the review suggest that the ecological assessment of proposed road developments has improved in some respects, but also highlights the persistence of many shortcomings identified in earlier reviews. The reasons for ongoing failure to address these issues are explored. Key findings include a marked improvement in the extent of reference to consultation with statutory consultees and an increase in the proportion of EISs reporting the results of new ecological surveys. However, while potential ecological impacts were discussed in all the EISs reviewed, many still failed to predict the full range of potential ecological impacts.
 
Article
Public support for environmental protection in the US as a federal government priority has substantially dropped since 2001. Data for the years 1999 - 2004 show that the least support was from non-Hispanic white, middle-class, college educated and suburban residents. Poorer, black, and residents of large cities have become the strongest supporters. In addition, with the important exception of wanting the federal government to focus on job creation, the public is less interested in many other domestic program priorities, including crime prevention and regulating health care management. The results are not an ominous sign that the public has lost interest in environmental planning and management, but are interpreted here as a notice that there must be aggressive efforts to explain to the public, media and elected representatives that efforts are critically important to public health, job creation and economic development.
 
Article
This research suggests that consumers' marginal willingness to pay for environmental landscape attributes, such as water view, developed open space and forest-land open space, decreased during the 2008 recession compared to the 2000-2006 real estate boom. Estimates were obtained from a spatial hedonic housing price model after controlling for household location patterns and structural differences between the periods. Because the decline in amenity values was probably due to a temporary deterioration in economic conditions, the amenity values will probably rebound with economic recovery. Thus, development decisions based on the lower estimated amenity values measured during a temporary deterioration in economic conditions may be determined suboptimal post-economic recovery.
 
1 . 
Number and type of organisations and participants interviewed.
. Number of US newspaper articles mentioning key issues related to the 2008 farm bill between 2005 and 2007 a .
Article
From 2004 until 2006, reform of US agricultural subsidy programmes seemed a likely result of pressure from the World Trade Organization. Many groups saw this pressure as an opportunity to 'green' farm policy by crafting environmental service payments that could replace crop subsidies. Yet the 2008 US farm bill fell short of such drastic changes. This paper uses discourse analysis to trace the decline of prospects for reform of the farm bill, and a shift to incremental policy making between 2006 and 2008. It finds that, in addition to political and situational factors, striking discursive shifts altered policy debates and outcomes to create particular conservation impacts. It thus argues for broader use of rhetoric theory and discourse analysis to assess environmental policy. Implications for land conservation are presented in the context of interest group tactics.
 
Article
The aim of this paper is to understand how Local Agenda 21 (LA21) is contributing to update local policy and decision making towards sustainable development in Portugal. Departing from a theoretical view of governance for sustainable development - its core values and challenges - and the role of LA21 in its endorsement, the paper presents the main results of a questionnaire survey submitted to Portuguese municipalities, with the purpose of understanding how far LA21 is being incorporated into planning and management. The paper then tries to expose some of the main potential, limitations and challenges in the local Portuguese case for the short-term sustainable future.
 
Article
Local Agenda 21 stresses the importance of local accountability, interaction, active citizenship and quality of life. To be effective at local and regional levels, sustainability indicators must reflect community values, concerns and hopes for the future. Meaningful interactive participation in the development of a set of indicators demands enduring and effective communication between researchers, policy makers and 'user groups'. In 1998 the Centre for Environmental Research, University of Limerick, in association with the four main local authorities in the Mid-west region of Ireland (Limerick City Council, Limerick County Council, Clare County Council and Tipperary County Council) commenced a project to promote sustainable development in the region. This paper provides a description and critique of a case study in the interactive research process as a novel methodology designed to encourage active citizenship and participation. Interaction occurred among groups representative of the local authorities, the communities and university-based researchers. These groups collaborated in the iterative selection of a representative set of indicators for application in the region, as a prerequisite for incorporating sustainable development into local authority decision making. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the success of this application of the interactive research process.
 
Article
This paper looks at a recent example of local authority/academiccollaboration over a protracted period of time from the different perspectives of those people who were directly involved in the process as key role players. The arena within which this collaboration took place (Local Agenda 21 policy-making in Manchester) has some particular characteristics of its own which influenced this process, and these are identified alongside some of the theoretical issues which affect the way collaborations of this kind are perceived and (much more rarely) are written about. The perspectivesof the client and of the contractor, as the authors reflect on their experiences in these roles, show that in practice processes of adjustment and of learning were taking place, because both sides for various reasons found that the dynamics of this situation meant that their preconceptions both of each other and of the contractual relationship they had thought they were entering had to be modified as the process unfolded. The paper concludes with both specific observations about this collaboration, and more general and more tentative comments about issues that might be experienced in future collaborations of this kind.
 
Article
The post-Rio environmental accord has offered new opportunities for landscape planning linking global concerns with Local Agenda 21 through concepts of sustainable development. This paper analyses the potential for integrated landscape planning by linking the aims of global sustainability with a major initiative of the UK Government, the National Forest located in the English Midlands. A common commitment to concepts of partnership and participation facilitated by local authorities can be found in the National Forest Strategy and in the principles of Local Agenda 21. Using case studies comparing local fora created to implement parts of the National Forest Strategy with focus groups formed to prepare Local Agenda 21 Action Plans, it is argued that a common consensus between these endeavours has not so far been achieved. Problems associated with the interpretation of national government policy guidance following the Earth Summit coupled with the constitution, membership and goals of specific groups are viewed as the primary reasons for conflict. These have implications for achieving compatibility between the Forest ideals and those enshrined in Local Agenda 21, particularly in localities where mineral exploitation and landfill are contentious planning concerns.
 
Article
Local Agenda 21 has become well embedded as a mechanism for promoting sustainable development strategies at the municipal level. Quantitative studies indicate an impressive rate of progress on strategy production and adoption. This paper reports on qualitative research focused mainly on four innovative UK case studies, and explores the reality of experiences as revealed by participantsin Local Agenda 21. It considers the nature of claims made in relation to sustainability networks, the role of local government and stakeholder characteristics. The paper concludes that, whilst many of the claims about LA 21 are intractable to test, there is some evidence of genuine attainment. This relates mainly to processes of strategy production, stimulation of environmental citizenship, inclusion of various sectors, challenging traditional assumptions and actions, and assisting local democracy.
 
Article
Four small- to medium-sized municipalities in the south-east of Sweden were chosen for a 5-year study of their Local Agenda 21 (LA21) processes. The study shows that the LA21 processes have instigated many new ideas, brought fields together and introduced new subjects into the municipal world. In the decisions of the local governments environmental considerations are treated seriously. There are signs of an extended dialogue and of public influence, especially within fields where citizens are directly involved. LA21 does not seem to have great influence on which natural resources are dealt with, but does on how they are dealt with. New stakeholders within and outside the municipal organization have been identified through the LA21 processes, and more comprehensive ways of solving problems and a positive climate for testing new ideas have been created. In these respects LA21 has been and will be a significant support to the development of appropriate natural resource management at the local level.
 
Article
Four small- to medium-sized municipalities in the south-east of Sweden were chosen for a 5-year study of their Local Agenda 21 (LA21) processes. The study shows that the LA21 processes have instigated many new ideas, brought fields together and introduced new subjects into the municipal world. In the decisions of the local governments environmental considerations are treated seriously. There are signs of an extended dialogue and of public influence, especially within fields where citizens are directly involved. LA21 does not seem to have great influence on which natural resources are dealt with, but does on how they are dealt with. New stakeholders within and outside the municipal organization have been identified through the LA21 processes, and more comprehensive ways of solving problems and a positive climate for testing new ideas have been created. In these respects LA21 has been and will be a significant support to the development of appropriate natural resource management at the local level.
 
Article
Vermont's progressive land development and land use law (Act 250), now 30 years old, provides district and state control over major developments through the review of environmental and planning criteria. Although it is comprehensive in nature, the law is applied on a case-by-case basis, which can make the results inconsistent. Up to now, there have been no significant studies of the role of Act 250 in conserving water quality through stream buffers. This research uses four case-studies of stream buffer use along Vermont streams as a step toward understanding and improving the role of comprehensive land use regulation in protective buffers. Such a study, while directly applicable to Vermont, could be useful to other states that are interested in improving compliance with existing regulations or in adopting new land use legislation.
 
Article
Regulations to implement Directive 85/337/EEC have been in operation in the UK for over 10 years. Implementation of the amended Directive (97/11/EC) in March 1999 marked the start of a new phase in environmental impact assessment (EIA), and so a review of the impact of the original Directive upon EIA activity is timely. This paper examines the implementation of the Directive in the UK through an empirical analysis of the publication of environmental statements (ESs) between July 1988 and April 1998. ES submissions are analysed under Annexes I and II of the Directive and under the main UK regulations, and then development control decision outcomes are considered. The implications of selected legislation and policy initiatives for ES submissions are then investigated in detail for four types of project. The Directive has been a major force in stimulating the development and growth of EIA in the UK, although the interaction of policies and legislation (environmental and otherwise) can exert an important influence upon trends in ES submissions.
 
Article
This study examines the perceptions and coping strategies of the Aamjiwnaang First Nation, which is surrounded by 'Chemical Valley', the largest complex of petrochemical plants in Canada. Analysis of in-depth interviews showed that residents perceive 'Mother Earth to be sick'; however, a strong level of community cohesion prevails, with 'place' as a significant anchor to the culture and history of the community. Residents articulated a collective sense of responsibility for the well-being of members both within and surrounding the community, whereby some residents would never leave, regardless of the toxic environment and concern for high rates of cancer and respiratory diseases among both adults and children. Residents employed action-focused coping strategies such as 'indoor evacuation' and the 'Cop-sniff test', and emotional coping strategies including blocking out the effects of 'Chemical Valley' by frequently ignoring warning sirens from industry. The results call on the need for a collaborative environmental planning intervention involving clear community participation. Findings suggest the need for an indoor recreational facility for both children and adults, and a graded warning system.
 
Location map of the study sites in the context of the study area. 
Description rules for the recognition of agricultural and abandoned land
Change in the share of agricultural land between 1956 and 1993. Values of less abundant land use classes showed in Table 4 (built up areas, transport network, recreational areas, water bodies, open quarries) are grouped into the ‘others’ category. 
Land cover transition in percentages of the abandoned land (1993). Values of less abundant land cover classes showed in Table 5 (riparian forest, re-afforestation, rocky area, bare soil) are grouped into the ‘others’ category. 
Agricultural and abandoned patches: dynamics of landscape pattern
Article
Land abandonment is an important cause of changes in landscape patterns in the Mediterranean area. There is a need to monitor land use and land cover changes in order to provide quantitative evidence of the relationship between land abandonment and the formation of new landscape patterns. Appropriate management policies to encourage sustainable development can then be developed. This paper describes how to monitor landscape dynamics using different temporal land use and land cover data generated from field survey and airborne information. The results showed that the abandonment of agricultural land generally results in an increase of vegetation biomass. This process leads to homogenization of the landscape. In addition, abandonment promotes fragmentation of agricultural land. Based on these results, the paper discusses the implications for rural management policies concerning the abandonment of agricultural land and suggests recommendations for the development of such policies.
 
Article
This paper outlines a methodological framework for the economic evaluation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission abatement policies and measures, formulating a basis for the selection of those options of climate change mitigation interventions that minimize economic cost and maximize social welfare. To this purpose, a cost-benefit analysis has been implemented in order to evaluate a variety of CO 2 emission abatement measures in the Greek energy sector on the basis of their social (i.e. the sum of the private and external) costs and benefits, and it is compared with a cost-effectiveness analysis, which takes into account only the net financial costs of the examined interventions. The analysis clearly reveals that a significant decrease in CO 2 emissions is possible without great cost to the economy. Moreover, the monetization of environmental benefits (e.g. the restriction of impacts on human health, agriculture and biodiversity, etc.) associated with the above-mentioned interventions represents a powerful tool for highlighting priority actions in the context of a climate change mitigation policy and for quantifying their overall economic and environmental effectiveness.
 
Article
Research on attitudes toward environmental policy making has often overlooked the important role that risks play in forming individual attitudes towards the environment. Similarly, this research often assumes that the factors that affect attitudes are similar across different environmental domains. The purpose of this research is to examine how the factors that affect an individual's willingness to get involved in environmental policy making differ on two environmental issues - nuclear power and drinking water. The study utilises multivariate statistical techniques to explore the relationship that uncertainty, risk, and trust play in an individual's willingness to take action in environmental policy making. The data consist of responses to a national random telephone survey of 403 adults in the United States. The individuals surveyed are more likely to take action on the less avoidable potential threat of nuclear power than they are on drinking water. The respondents believe that the potential harm from nuclear power is greater than that from drinking water. The individuals most likely to take action are those who indicate that they are interested in environmental issues.
 
Article
High taxes on new cars in Israel provide an incentive for car owners to defer the purchase of new vehicles. The result is a vehicle fleet of older, more polluting vehicles, with air pollution costs estimated at up to $530 million annually. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a cost benefit analysis (CBA) of an accelerated vehicle-retirement (AVR) programme. The analysis considers the private car fleet as well as trucks and buses. The study develops an economic model to identify the optimal payment level that will maximise the net benefit of the programme, and then apply the model to three different vehicle categories. It finds that an AVR programme for private cars may indeed yield significant net benefits, while a similar programme for trucks and buses fails to meet the cost-benefit test. For private cars, the study finds that even according to a conservative estimate, the programme will result in the voluntary retirement of approximately 98,000 private cars, with a present value net benefit of more than $50 million. This is equal to a 17% reduction in total annual private car air pollution costs for the five-year time span of the proposed programme.
 
Article
Conflict around wind farm development has stimulated interest in 'community benefits' - the provision of financial or material benefits by the developers to the area affected by these facilities. By and large, both policy makers and researchers have couched the rationale for community benefits in instrumental terms, i.e. that an increased flow of community benefits will improve the social acceptability of these facilities and thereby expedite planning consent. This paper questions this conventional rationale. Proponents of this rationale neglect the institutionally structured terrain of the planning process; the provision of community benefits can shift in significance depending on whether or not the 'affected community' has any significant influence over wind farm projects. Similarly, our discourse analysis conducted in Wales shows that community benefits are seen predominantly as compensation for impacts, without any clear implication that they should change social attitudes. Our conclusion is that the dominant, instrumental rationale for community benefits obscures other, equally important justifications: the role of community benefits in promoting environmental justice; and how flows of community benefits might better serve the long-term sustainability of wind farm development areas.
 
Article
The cost-benefit ratio of heathland maintenance measures was assessed in the Lueneburg Heath nature reserve in North-West Germany. This nature reserve contains large areas of heathland and is of substantial ecological and historical importance. The heathland can only be preserved by regular maintenance. For this assessment the costs of the maintenance measures were traced and a survey of visitors was carried out. The willingness-to-pay of the visitors for the heathland maintenance was determined as an assessment of the benefit created. Furthermore, the social acceptance of each maintenance measure was examined as this variable can influence the economic data considerably. These aspects represent a basis for the assessment of the net costs and benefits and for the calculation of the net present value (NPV) provided by the maintenance of the area. The results show a substantial positive net benefit of the heathland maintenance as a whole and varying acceptance of the different maintenance measures.
 
Article
Given the ambitious government targets for renewable energy generation in the UK, there has been a push by government and industry towards various types and scales of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs). This paper explores the implications of commercial urban wind projects for local communities, drawing on a case study of proposals by ASDA to construct wind turbines in two semi-urban locations in the UK. The paper argues that community responses to the proposals were complex and varied and could not adequately be encapsulated by 'nimby' (not in my back yard) assignations. It concludes that while ASDA followed a process of consulting local people, this process highlighted the problems of the 'business as usual' approach to public engagement employed by ASDA, and assumptions made about public acceptance of RETs.
 
Matrix for sampling statements from Interview Material for Q-methodology (based on Dryzek and Berejikan (1993) 
Article
This paper explores the nature of public acceptance of wind farms by investigating the discourses of support and objection to a proposed offshore scheme. It reviews research into opposition to wind farms, noting previous criticisms that this has tended to provide descriptive rather than explanatory insights and as a result, has not effectively informed the policy debate. One explanation is that much of this research has been conceived within an unreflective positivist research frame, which is inadequate in dealing with the subjectivity and value-basis of public acceptance of wind farm development. The paper takes a case study of an offshore wind farm proposal in Northern Ireland and applies Q-Methodology to identify the dominant discourses of support and objection. It is argued that this provides new insights into the nature of wind farm conflicts, points to a number of recommendations for policy, and functions as an example of how this methodology can act as a potential bridge between positivist and post-positivist approaches to policy analysis.
 
The conceptual position of the NIMBY inclination
Explaining support of and opposition to cancelled projects (N = 793)
Explaining support and opposition in cases where facilities were built (N = 718)
Article
In environmental planning, decision making on land use for infrastructure increasingly causes conflicts, particularly with regard to contested waste facilities. Risk management and perceptions have become crucial. Empirical investigations of these conflicts brought clear advancement in the fields of environmental psychology, geography and risk research. However, in planning and policy design the dominant one-dimensional approach among planners remains, and the approach to address resistance to facility siting is not firmly founded in empirical evidence. Instead, it uses simplified assumptions about the motives of opponents, seeing residents as merely protecting their 'turf' and exclusively focusing on their own 'backyard'. This paper presents the findings of an empirical study on risk perceptions, based on a large-scale survey in six decision-making processes for different types of waste facilities. A scale is developed to measure the planners' perspective of the motives for opposition. The analysis shows that the crucial factors in perceived risk perceptions are not personality traits (e.g. selfishness, economic rationality) but perceived environmental injustice, fairness of the process, and personal commitment to others. Continual thinking in terms of 'backyard' motives disregards the socially motivated norms for equity, fairness, and commitment to others and may easily undermine co-operative behaviour.
 
Article
A contingent valuation survey of users of the 140 km Ridgeway National Trail was undertaken to estimate the value that users place on access to the Trail. The survey found that users had a mean willingness to pay for access to the Ridgeway of £1.24 per visit (£1.13- £1.36 95% Confidence Limits). With around 150 000 visits to the Ridgeway each year, this gives an estimated annual aggregate benefit of £186 000 (£169 500- £204 000 95% Confidence Limits) plus the economic benefits to local economies of visitor spending of some £0.8 million. This compares with the costs of Trail maintenance of around £154 000 per year. The development of National Trails in England for recreation and tourism is also discussed.
 
Article
It is sometimes suggested that land managers could better communicate with the general public by relying on people who are active in community affairs to frame the message. By comparing responses from the 'attentive' and general public on the Colorado Plateau in the USA, this study investigated the expected effects of using recreation access fees or road closures to manage recreation on public lands. Although neither the attentive nor general public strongly anticipated benefits from the two management options, the attentive public was more likely than the general public to report positive expectations. Those more likely to expect fewer benefits from the management options do so because of factors that are outside the influence of managers (e.g., socio-demographics and value orientation). The results point out challenges for building public support through mobilizing the attentive public to develop a positive management atmosphere with fees and road closures.
 
Simulated and observed hydrographs for storm 7 (Best Fit).
Hyetograph and simulated hydrographs for current and climate-changed design storms. 
Proposed adaptive measures used in this study
Simulated hydrographs for design storms: with and without adaptive measures. 
Article
Extreme rainfalls in southern Ontario may increase significantly as a result of climate change. This study was designed to determine the impact of a 15% increase in design rainfall intensities on drainage of a typical urban catchment and to investigate adaptive measures. A calibrated model (PCSWMM 2000) was used to: (1) determine the system performance under current and climate-changed design rainfalls; and (2) calculate the magnitudes of various adaptive measures required to reduce the peak discharge to current levels. For this type of catchment, effective retrofit options that provide the required peak discharge reductions included downspout disconnection (50% of connected roofs), increased depression storage (by 45 m3/impervious hectare), and increased street detention storage (by 40m3/impervious hectare).
 
Article
This paper uses the concept of 'governance' and the related notion of 'multi-layered' forest management decision making as an overarching framework for analysis of conflict between different stakeholder groups with contrasting perceptions about 'appropriate' use of indigenous forests in a New Zealand case study. In New Zealand, recent institutional reforms inspired by neo-liberal policy agendas have led to substantial conflicts between segments of society over the 'appropriate' governance of remnant indigenous forests. This study focuses on the West Coast Forest Accord (WCFA) as an illustration of the attempt to change governance structures of indigenous forest management by re-regulating the indigenous forest industry. It is argued that by seeking to accommodate multiple stakeholder interests, in particular industry, community and environmental groups, the WCFA was doomed to fail, as multiple, and often conflicting, stakeholder agendas focused on the goal of 'sustainable management' of indigenous forests could no longer be reconciled. Notwithstanding the shift in emphasis from government towards governance in the recent literature, the study findings confirm a continuing strong role by the state as an actor in the forestry sector in New Zealand.
 
Article
Sustainable development serves current needs without compromising the ability to serve future needs. Such is not likely given the structure of modern corporations and feeble attempts by governments to hold them accountable. This paper examines efforts by environment and labour coalitions in the United States to rein in the power of corporationsthrough such innovative practices as 'good neighbour' agreements aiming to reduce both community and worker exposure to pollution, repeal of the corporate charter for those businesses that are a public nuisance, and linking subsidies and tax relief routinely doled out to corporations to some accounting for pollution abatement, job security and economic justice.
 
Article
With the threat of wildfire hanging over many communities in the Western and Southern United States, wildfire mitigation is evolving into a significant public responsibility for rural and urban edge county governments. Regional governance is an important piece of the effort to reduce wildfire risks although still weakly developed as a policy arena. This project explores two dimensions in which planning support systems can support regional governance: assessing patterns of wildfire risk accumulation; and, evaluating land use planning alternatives and their effects on cumulative risk levels. These tools are examined for regional governance using a prototype planning information system, the Alternative Growth Futures (AGF) tool, a scenario-building approach developed at the University of Colorado Denver. The project develops a hybrid urban growth model that integrates logistic regression techniques and methods for simulation of growth alternatives. This model is used to evaluate the attractiveness of undeveloped building sites with respect to natural amenities, distance to primary urban services and site characteristics such as slope. The model and scenario-testing framework are reasonably robust and suggest that regional spatial accounting methods have potential as a framework for inter-governmental and public discussion around wildfire planning.
 
Article
This paper critically analyses the voluntary agreement of the European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) which is intended to ensure a significant reduction of average CO2 emissions from new passenger cars. It concludes that the voluntary agreement is far from being an adequate solution in terms of both ecological effectiveness and economic cost-efficiency. Therefore, the paper proposes to replace the voluntary agreement by an emission trading scheme which directly places car makers under obligation. This switch in policy should be accompanied by further phased increases in the ecotax levied on fuels and a vehicle taxation system that places greater focus on CO2 emission.
 
Article
Just as it is now widely accepted that the planning system has a role to play in achieving sustainable development, so the concept of environmental capacity has achieved increasing prominence as a means of realizing that role. This paper considers the debate on the concept of environmental capacity, reviewing both the mainstream model and Jacobs' more nuanced social constructionist model. In doing so, it raises concerns about the appropriateness of regulatory policy tools and the implications for the distribution of environmental and other impacts. The discussion highlights the potential for using the planning system to promote change rather than resist it. In doing so, it suggests the need to consider a wider range of policy tools to achieve change at the local level and to clarify the dimensions of sustainable development that local planning can contribute to.
 
Article
Growing Smarter: Achieving Livable Communities, Environmental Justice, and Regional Equity, Robert D. Bullard, editor; foreword by Carl Anthony. 2007. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
 
Article
The objective of this study is to assess how local planning can influence the acidity in the upper forest soil layer. Exceedance of soil acidity was determined by a steady-state mass balance model approach in relation to both present and future deposition. Future deposition scenarios were derived for Stockholm County based on transportation planning. Europe-wide scenarios were derived using the RAINS (Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation) model. The deposition changes were assessed in relation to two different types of forest harvesting practices: whole-tree harvesting; and stem harvesting. The results demonstrate that local emission reductions combined with tree stem harvesting give the greatest remediation of soil acidity. This implies that forest soil acidity can be introduced as an indicator in local environmental planning.
 
Article
Although contingent valuation is widely discussed in the literature as a technique for environmental valuation, it is well recognized that a number of problems are associated with its use. This paper seeks to address two of these problems: the difficulty of externally verifying the results of a CV study; and the choice of an appropriate level of information to provide to respondents. Four sites were evaluated, first by expert ecologists and then by the general public using the CV method. In conducting the CV, six different categories of information were presented to different groups of respondents to test which was most appropriate.The results show that, given an information set consisting of photographic,textual and ecological data, respondents to a CV study were able to rank the four sites in the same order as ecological experts. This may be seen as a form of external verification to the results of the contingent valuation.
 
Article
The Midlands Region of the Environment Agency has developed a management system, in the form of an Environmental Action Plan (EAP) to ensure that the constraints and mitigation measures identified in the Environmental Statement document are delivered on the ground. The reasons are considered for developing such procedures and examples are provided of the environmentalobjectives and targets which lie at the heart of the new procedures. The EAP is designed to provide a summary of the environmental constraints, adverse effects and their associated mitigation measures, and monitoring requirements, in an easily accessible document for both technical and non-technical readers.
 
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Climate change is conventionally recognised as a large-scale issue resolved through regional or national policy initiatives. However, little research has been done to directly evaluate local climate change action plans. This study examines 40 recently adopted local climate change action plans in the US and analyses how well they recognise the concepts of climate change and prepare for climate change mitigation and adaptation. The results indicate that local climate change action plans have a high level of 'awareness', moderate 'analysis capabilities' for climate change, and relatively limited 'action approaches' for climate change mitigation. The study also identifies specific factors influencing the quality of these local jurisdictional plans. Finally, it provides policy recommendations to improve planning for climate change at the local level.
 
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Water companies in England and Wales are responsible for the management of large areas of land. This land is under little pressure for development and is often free from the pollutants associated with conventional agriculture and is therefore a potentially valuable resource for biodiversity conservation. The value of this resource will only be realized if sufficient investment is made in the management of the habitats associated with these sites. This paper reports an exploratory case study based on customers of Southern Water which uses a mixture of questionnaire surveys and focus groups to investigate whether or not consumers are willing to pay higher utility bills to fund such management. In particular, it explores the public's willingness to forgo potential bill reductions in order to fund biodiversity conservation and examines how payment instruments could be designed to maximize and maintain the agreement from consumers. Results suggest that customers are willing to forgo a proportion of a potential bill reduction to pay for biodiversity schemes but are not necessarily willing to face a bill increase for the same public good benefits. Participants in the focus groups suggested that schemes could be made more acceptable to customers by ensuring that the outcomes were both visible and local and that their achievements were well publicized. Similarly, administration of the scheme through a trust fund alleviates some of the concerns of consumers while raising several new ones.
 
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In accordance with the Great Lakes Water Quality agreement and the Great Lakes Critical Protections Act, the Great Lakes States have developed (or are developing) remedial action plans (RAPs) for severely degraded areas of concern (AOCs). To provide citizen input into the planning process, state environmental agencies have established citizens' advisory groups (CAGs) for each AOC. These CAGs have been hailed as the key to RAP success, yet little is known about their role in the planning process. In this paper, we examine the constitution, organization and activities of CAGs in three Lake Michigan AOCs by comparing CAGs to municipal planning commissions, citizen advisory commissions and councils of government. We find that CAGs, like other advisory bodies, can provide public input into the planning process, foster communication between government agencies and special interest groups, and facilitate intergovernmental co-ordination. Also like other advisory bodies, however, CAGs can fail to represent all constituencies in the AOCs, have limited influence on agencies plans and activities, and lack the authority to assure the co-operation of local governments.
 
Top-cited authors
Jules N Pretty
  • University of Essex
Rachel Elizabeth Bragg
  • University of Essex
Geraint Ellis
  • Queen's University Belfast
Robert Ryan
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
Jo Barton
  • University of Essex