Faced with society's increasing expectations, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) review considers environmental management to be an ever more critical criterion in the allocation of farm subsidies. With the goal of evaluating the environmental friendliness of farm practices, France's agricultural research and extension services have built a range of agricultural/environmental diagnostic tools over recent years. The objective of the present paper is to compare the five tools most frequently used in France: IDEA, DIAGE, DIALECTE, DIALOGUE and INDIGO. All the tools have the same purpose: evaluation of the impact of farm practices on the environment via indicators and monitoring of farm management practices. When tested on a sample of large-scale farms in Picardie, the five tools sometimes produced completely different results: for a given farm, the most supposedly significant environmental impacts depend on the tool used. These results lead to differing environmental management plans and raise the question of the methods' pertinence. An analysis grid of diagnostic tools aimed at specifying their field of validity, limits and relevance was drawn up. The resulting comparative analysis enables to define each tool's domain of validity and allows to suggest lines of thought for developing more relevant tools for (i) evaluating a farm's environmental performance and (ii) helping farmers to develop a plan for improving practices within the framework of an environmental management system.
This paper presents a new kind of integrated modeling method for simulating the vulnerability of a critical infrastructure for a hazard and the subsequent interdependencies among the interconnected infrastructures. The developed method has been applied to a case study of a network of hydroelectricity generating infrastructures, e.g., water storage concrete gravity dam, penstock, power plant and transformer substation. The modeling approach is based on the fragility curves development with Monte Carlo simulation based structural-hydraulic modeling, flood frequency analysis, stochastic Petri net (SPN) modeling, and Markov Chain analysis. A certain flood level probability can be predicted from flood frequency analysis, and the most probable damage condition for this hazard can be simulated from the developed fragility curves of the dam. Consequently, the resulting interactions among the adjacent infrastructures can be quantified with SPN analysis; corresponding Markov Chain analysis simulates the long term probability matrix of infrastructure failures. The obtained results are quite convincing to prove the novel contribution of this research to the field of infrastructure interdependency analysis which might serve as a decision making tool for flood related emergency response and management.
Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) are major organic contaminants in soils, whose degradation process is mediated by microorganisms such as the filamentous fungi Cunninghamella elegans and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. However, little is known about the tolerance and the degradation capability of Trichoderma species when exposed to PH. This research evaluated the tolerance and growth of 11 Trichoderma strains to crude oil (COil), naphthalene (NAPH), phenanthrene (PHE) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) by using in vitro systems. Petri dishes containing solid mineral minimum medium were separately contaminated with COil, with seven doses of either NAPH or PHE (250, 500, 750, 1000, 2000, and 3000 mg L(-1)), and with six doses of B[a]P (10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg L(-1)). Non-contaminated plates were used as controls. Trichoderma strains were exposed to all the contaminants by triplicate, and the growth of each fungal colony was daily recorded. No significant differences were observed among Trichoderma strains when they were exposed to COil in which the maximum fungal growth was reached at 96 h. In contrast, Trichoderma strains showed variations to tolerate and grow under different doses of either NAPH, PHE or B[a]P. Increasing NAPH doses resulted on significant greater fungal growth inhibition than PHE doses. The exposure to B[a]P did not inhibited growth of some Trichoderma strains.
With China's rapid economic development, environmental problems have become more and more serious. Particulate air pollution is terrible in cities with large and dense population. It may lead to adverse health effects and economic costs. In this study, we calculated the health effects of pollution caused by particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 microm (PM(10)) in 111 Chinese cities in 2004 according to statistical data and epidemiological exposure-response functions. Using economic burden of disease analysis, an economic assessment of these health risks was also presented. In contrast to many previous studies that have examined individual cities, this study covered most large and medium-sized cities in China, which accounted for more than 70% gross domestic product (GDP) of China in 2004. The total economic cost caused by PM(10) pollution was estimated as approximately USD 29,178.7 million. Mega cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin contribute relatively more to the total costs. The results will help policy makers in formulating more effective countermeasures and increasing public awareness to enhance environmental protection.
This paper analyzes the United Nations Organization's Kyoto Protocol nations to address two questions. First, what are the environmental production efficiency rankings of these nations? Second, is there a relationship between a nation's ratification status and its environmental production efficiency ranking? Our findings suggest that the nations that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol are more likely to be environmentally production efficient as compared to the nations that have not ratified the Protocol.
In this research, the performance of Polyaluminium Chloride (PAC) and Polyaluminium Chloride sludge (PACS) as coagulants for acid red 119 (AR119) dye removal from aqueous solutions were compared. The sample of PACS was collected from "Baba Sheikh Ali" water treatment plant (Isfahan, Iran) where PAC is used as a coagulant in the coagulation/flocculation process. A response surface methodology was applied to evaluate the simple and combined effects of the operating variables including initial pH, coagulant dosage and initial dye concentration and to optimize the operating conditions of the treatment process. Results reveal that the optimal conditions for dye removal were initial pH 3.42, coagulant dosage of 4.55 g dried PACS/L and initial dye concentration of 140 mg/L for PACS, while the optimal initial pH, coagulant dosage and initial dye concentration for PAC were 3.8, 57 mg/L and 140 mg/L, respectively. Under these optimal values of process parameters, the dye removal efficiency of 94.1% and 95.25% was observed for PACS and PAC, respectively. Although lower amount of PAC in comparison with PACS was needed for specific dye removal, the reuse of PACS as a low-cost material can offer some advantages such as high efficiency for AR119 dye removal and economic savings on overall water and wastewater treatment plant operation costs.
Removal of direct red 12B and methylene blue by adsorption onto Fe (III)/Cr (III) hydroxide was studied using various parameters such as agitation time, dye concentration, adsorbent dose and pH. Equilibrium adsorption data followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Adsorption followed second-order rate kinetics. The Langmuir adsorption capacity (Qo) was found to be 5.0 and 22.8 mg dye per g of the adsorbent for direct red 12B and methylene blue, respectively. Acidic pH was favorable for the adsorption of direct red 12B and basic pH for methylene blue. Desorption studies showed that chemisorption seems to be the major mode of adsorption.
This work describes the efficiency of photoelectrocatalysis based on Ti/TiO2 nanotubes in the degradation of the azo dyes Disperse Red 1, Disperse Red 13 and Disperse Orange 1 and to remove their toxic properties, as an alternative method for the treatment of effluents and water. For this purpose, the discoloration rate, total organic carbon (TOC) removal, and genotoxic, cytotoxic and mutagenic responses were determined, using the comet, micronucleus and cytotoxicity assays in HepG2 cells and the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. In a previous study it was found that the surfactant Emulsogen could contribute to the low mineralization of the dyes (60% after 4 h of treatment), which, in turn, seems to account for the mutagenicity of the products generated. Thus this surfactant was not added to the chloride medium in order to avoid this interference. The photoelectrocatalytic method presented rapid discoloration and the TOC reduction was ≥87% after 240 min of treatment, showing that photoelectrocatalysis is able to mineralize the dyes tested. The method was also efficient in removing the mutagenic activity and cytotoxic effects of these three dyes. Thus it was concluded that photoelectrocatalysis was a promising method for the treatment of aqueous samples.
There is increasing awareness of the damage caused to valuable and often unique sensitive habitats by people pressure as degradation causes a loss of plant species, disturbance to wildlife, on-site and off-site impacts of soil movement and loss, and visual destruction of pristine environments. This research developed a new perspective on the problem of recreational induced environmental degradation by assessing the physical aspects of soil erosion using the fallout radionuclide caesium-137 ((137)Cs). Temporal sampling problems have not successfully been overcome by traditional research methods monitoring footpath erosion and, to date, the (137)Cs technique has not been used to estimate longer-term soil erosion in regard to sensitive recreational habitats. The research was based on-sites within Dartmoor National Park (DNP) and the South West Coast Path (SWCP) in south-west England. (137)Cs inventories were reduced on the paths relative to the reference inventory (control), indicating loss of soil from the path areas. The Profile Distribution Model estimated longer-term erosion rates (ca. 40 years) based on the (137)Cs data and showed that the combined mean soil loss for all the sites on 'paths' was 1.41 kg m(-2) yr(-1) whereas the combined 'off path' soil loss was 0.79 kg m(-2) yr(-1), where natural (non-recreational) soil redistribution processes occur. Recreational pressure was shown to increase erosion in the long-term, as greater soil erosion occurred on the paths, especially where there was higher visitor pressure.
(137)Cs activities in mosses and substrate (soil, bark) collected from W. Macedonia, Greece were measured 20 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Archive material from previous studies was also used for comparison and diachronic estimation of the radio-contamination status. A gradual decrease was detected which depended on various factors such as the collected species, location, growth rate and substrate. Maximum accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was observed in the epilithic mosses in comparison to the epiphytic ones. The (137)Cs content in the bark of the two broad-leaved species (oak and fagus) was higher than that of the conifer (pinus). Bark specimens of about 50 cm height were in general more contaminated than those of 200 cm. Autoradiography revealed an amount of (137)Cs distributed more or less uniformly in moss thalli. The high (137)Cs activities found in mosses 20 years after Chernobyl suggest that these primitive plants are effective, suitable and inexpensive biological detectors of the distribution and burden of radionuclide fallout pattern.
The sorption and desorption of cadmium and zinc on zeolite 4A, zeolite 13X and bentonite has been studied using batch sorption studies. Parameters such as equilibrium time, effect of pH and sorbent dose were studied. The sorbents exhibited good sorption potential for cadmium and zinc with a peak value at pH 6.0 and 6.5, respectively. The sorption followed the Freundlich sorption model. More than 70% sorption occurred within 20 min and equilibrium was attained at around 90 min for the three sorbents. The metals sorption by zeolite 4A was higher than that by zeolite 13X and bentonite. The desorption studies were carried out using NaCl solution and the effect of NaCl concentration on desorption was also studied. Maximum desorption of 76% for cadmium and 80% for zinc occurred with 10% NaCl.
This article investigates the impact of ISO 14001 certification on the compliance with environmental regulations by Korean companies. The impact of ISO 14001 certification on the industry was studied through a questionnaire survey and the compliance of environmental regulations were investigated using government-released data. The motivation for an environment management system was a result of the current international situation and the need to maintain fair competition. ISO 14001 certification has been recognized as an essential strategy for industrial competition and to improve company/product recognition. The certified and non-certified companies' environmental regulation violation (ERV) rates were 3.5% and 11.6%, respectively, in 1997. In 1998, the ERV rate had an eight-time difference with 1.0% and 8.5% for certified and non-certified companies, respectively. Annual regulation violation rates were reduced from 3.5% in 1997 to 1.0% in 1998 with certified companies and from 11.6% in 1997 to 8.5% in 1998 with their non-certified counterparts, respectively. ISO 14001 certified companies showed more improvement than non-certified companies in regards to environmental performance.
This study investigates the relationship between characteristics of environmental policy statements and the reputations of ISO 14001 registrars who had performed certification audits of firms operating in mainland China. Three characteristics of environmental policy statements were examined: (1) The conformance of the policy to strict interpretations of the international standard; (2) The policy statement's adherence to the good practice guidelines specified in ISO 14004; and, (3) Self-reported evaluations of the policy statement's effectiveness as implemented. Data from 106 facilities in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou reveal that registrar quality has a relatively weak, positive relationship with conformance to both ISO 14001 standards and to ISO 14004 guidelines, but no relationship was observed with the self-reported data. Additional findings are that the use of foreign registrars is significantly associated with the adoption of ISO 14004 guidelines and that conformance with ISO 14001 standards is somewhat higher for international joint ventures and foreign-owned firms than for state-owned enterprises.
This study proposes a model linking firm motivations for seeking ISO 14001 certification to the effectiveness of three major components of an environmental management system (EMS)--environmental policy, the assessment of environmental aspect and impacts, and management review. The relationship of these EMS components with a self-reported measure of environmental performance is also examined. From a sample of 29 ISO 14001 certified facilities in Hong Kong (of 71 total certifications at the time the data was collected), it was found that motivations to enhance firm reputation are positively related to perceptions of the effectiveness of the policy statement. Motivations for reputation enhancement and cost reduction were positively related to perceptions of EMS effectiveness in assessing environmental aspects and impacts. The effectiveness of the methodology for identifying environmental aspects and impacts was also found to be positively related to improved environmental performance.
In recent years, significant advances have been made in business organization and management. The growing demands of clients as well as the globalization of world markets are among the many factors that have led to the establishment of systems of quality control and environmental management as a competitive strategy for businesses. When compared to other professional sectors, the construction sector has been slower to respond to environmental problems and to adopt Environmental Management Systems (EMS). In the world today the ISO 14001 standard is currently the main frame of reference used by construction companies to implement this type of management system. This article presents the results of a general study regarding the evaluation of the application of the ISO 14001 standard at civil engineering construction worksites in the Community of Madrid (Spain), specifically pertaining to requirement 4.4.1, Resources, roles, responsibilities, and authority. According to requirement 4.4.1, company executives should appoint people responsible for implementing the EMS and also specify their responsibilities and functions. The personnel designated for supervising environmental work should also have sufficient authority to establish and maintain the EMS. The results obtained were the following: - EMS supervisors did not generally possess adequate training and solid experience in construction work and in the environment. Furthermore, supervisors were usually forced to combine their environmental work with other tasks, which made their job even more difficult. - Generally speaking, supervisors were not given sufficient authority and autonomy because productivity at the construction site had priority over environmental management. This was due to the fact that the company management did not have a respectful attitude toward the environment, nor was the management actively involved in the establishment of the EMS. - Insufficient resources were allocated to the Environmental Management Unit. As a result, the application of EMSs in construction projects often appeared to be more of a formality, which was merely a way of maintaining the certification of the Environmental Management System. It was more a means of meeting the requirements for submitting a tender to contracting organisms rather than an indicator of any real commitment to improving the environmental performance of construction companies.
Studies analyzing the effects of ISO 14001 certification and determinants of environmental performance tend to be based on a traditional and instrumental model of efficiency. Using structural equation modelling developed through a survey of 303 organizations, this paper compares the validity of this instrumental model with two alternatives models: the legitimacy-based model and the hybrid model. The findings question the efficiency of ISO 14001 and show that the traditional model does not explain the environmental performance of the surveyed organizations. Study results show that the legitimacy-based model, which questions the efficiency of ISO 14001 certification, is more pertinent in explaining the environmental performance but leads to a rather critical view of management practices. The development of a hybrid model based on the principal hypotheses of the legitimacy-based model, but integrating certain managerial and operational practices distinct from ISO 14001 certification, results in a less critical and more pertinent view of the determinants of environmental performance. Study results suggest that this hybrid model provides the best data fit.
After 50 years of steady increase, per capita visits to US national parks have declined since 1988. This decline, coincident with the rise in electronic entertainment media, may represent a shift in recreation choices with broader implications for the value placed on biodiversity conservation and environmentally responsible behavior. We compared the decline in per capita visits with a set of indicators representing alternate recreation choices and constraints. The Spearman correlation analyses found this decline in NPV to be significantly negatively correlated with several electronic entertainment indicators: hours of television, (rs=-0.743, P<0.001), video games (rs=-0.773, P<0.001), home movies (rs=-0.788, P<0.001), theatre attendance (rs=-0.587, P<0.025) and internet use (rs=-0.783, P<0.001). There were also significant negative correlations with oil prices (rs=-0.547, P<0.025), foreign travel (rs=-0.452, P<0.05), and Appalachian Trail hikers (rs=-0.785, P<0.001). Income was significantly positively correlated with foreign travel (rs=0.621, P<0.005) but negatively correlated with national park visits (rs=-0.697, P<0.005). There was no significant correlation of mean number of vacation days, indicating available vacation time is probably not a factor. Federal funding actually increased during this period, and so was rejected as a probable factor. Park capacity was rejected as limiting since both total overnight stays and visits at the seven most popular parks rose well into the mid-1990s. Aging of baby boomers was also rejected as they are only now reaching retirement age, and thus during the period of visitation decline were still of prime family vacation age. Multiple linear regression of four of the entertainment media variables as well as oil prices explains 97.5% of this recent decline (r=0.975, multiple r2=0.950, adjusted multiple r2=0.925, SE=0.015, F=37.800, P<0.0001). We may be seeing evidence of a fundamental shift away from people's appreciation of nature (biophilia, Wilson 1984) to 'videophilia,' which we here define as "the new human tendency to focus on sedentary activities involving electronic media." Such a shift would not bode well for the future of biodiversity conservation.
Soil analyses and measurements with the Portable In Situ Wind Erosion Laboratory (PI-SWERL) were conducted on 16 soil types in an area heavily affected by off-road vehicle (ORV) driving. Measurements were performed in ORV trails as well as on undisturbed terrain to investigate how ORV driving affects the vulnerability of a soil to emit PM10 (particles<10microm), during the driving as well as during episodes of wind erosion. Particular attention is paid to how the creation of a new trail affects those properties of the topsoil that determine its capability to emit PM10. Also, recommendations are given for adequate management of ORV-designed areas. The type of surface (sand, silt, gravel, drainage) is a key factor with respect to dust emission in an ORV trail. Trails in sand, defined in this study as the grain size fraction 63-2000microm, show higher deflation thresholds (the critical wind condition at which wind erosion starts) than the surrounding undisturbed soil. Trails in silt (2-63microm) and in drainages, on the other hand, have lower deflation thresholds than undisturbed soil. The increase in PM10 emission resulting from the creation of a new ORV trail is much higher for surfaces with silt than for surfaces with sand. Also, the creation of a new trail in silt decreases the supply limitation in the top layer: the capacity of the reservoir of emission-available PM10 increases. For sand the situation is reversed: the supply limitation increases, and the capacity of the PM10 reservoir decreases. Finally, ORV trails are characterized by a progressive coarsening of the top layer with time, but the speed of coarsening is much lower in trails in silt than in trails in sand or in drainages. The results of this study suggest that, to minimize emissions of PM10, new ORV fields should preferably be designed on sandy terrain rather than in silt areas or in drainages.
Activated (AC-PW) and non-activated (C-PW) carbonaceous materials were prepared from the Brazilian-pine fruit shell (Araucaria angustifolia) and tested as adsorbents for the removal of reactive orange 16 dye (RO-16) from aqueous effluents. The effects of shaking time, adsorbent dosage and pH on the adsorption capacity were studied. RO-16 uptake was favorable at pH values ranging from 2.0 to 3.0 and from 2.0 to 7.0 for C-PW and AC-PW, respectively. The contact time required to obtain the equilibrium using C-PW and AC-PW as adsorbents was 5 and 4h at 298 K, respectively. The fractionary-order kinetic model provided the best fit to experimental data compared with other models. Equilibrium data were better fit to the Sips isotherm model using C-PW and AC-PW as adsorbents. The enthalpy and entropy of adsorption of RO-16 were obtained from adsorption experiments ranging from 298 to 323 K.
This study comprises the development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the quantification of 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in complex aqueous matrices without any sample clean-up procedures. Salinity and dissolved organic matter were selected as potential interfering agents in the analysis of E2 and EE2. The optimization was performed in order to (i) overcome matrix effects, and to (ii) increase sensitivity. The addition of a sample buffer containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) prior to the sample was found to decrease the influence of matrix effects. Moreover, adjustments of this buffer's pH together with the optimization of tracer (T) dilution and incubation time were undertaken in order to lower the quantification range. The optimized methods allowed the quantification of E2 and EE2 in the ranges 0.03-200 μg L(-1) and 0.02-10 μg L(-1), respectively. The assays were applied to real aqueous samples. It was possible to do a first approach to the levels of E2 in Portuguese surface and waste waters; however, it was not feasible to detect EE2 in the samples tested.
Thirteen million [corrected] metric tons of poultry litter are produced annually by poultry producers in the U.S. Poultry litter contains the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, endocrine disruptors that have been detected in surface waters. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential impact of poultry litter applications on estradiol and testosterone concentrations in subsurface drainage and surface runoff in irrigated crop land under no-till and conventional-till management. We conducted an irrigation study in fall of 2001 and spring of 2002. Four treatments, no-till plus poultry litter, conventional-till plus poultry litter, no-till plus conventional fertilizer, and conventional-till plus conventional fertilizer, were evaluated. Flow-weighted concentration and load ha(-1) of the two hormones were measured in drainage and runoff. Soil concentrations of estradiol and testosterone were measured. Based on comparisons to the conventional fertilizer (and control) treatments, poultry litter did not add to the flow-weighted concentration or load ha(-1) of either estradiol or testosterone in subsurface drainage or surface runoff. Significant differences were, however, observed between tillage treatments: flow-weighted concentrations of estradiol were greater for no-till than conventional-till plots of the June irrigation; and runoff loads of both estradiol and testosterone were less from no-till than conventional-till plots for the November irrigation. Although the differences between no-till and conventional-tillage appeared to affect the hydrologic transport of both hormones, the differences appeared to have inconsequential environmental impact.
This paper develops an approach to modelling land use change that links model selection and multi-model inference with empirical models and GIS. Land use change is frequently studied, and understanding gained, through a process of modelling that is an empirical analysis of documented changes in land cover or land use patterns. The approach here is based on analysis and comparison of multiple models of land use patterns using model selection and multi-model inference. The approach is illustrated with a case study of rural housing as it has developed for part of Gallatin County, Montana, USA. A GIS contains the location of rural housing on a yearly basis from 1860 to 2000. The database also documents a variety of environmental and socio-economic conditions. A general model of settlement development describes the evolution of drivers of land use change and their impacts in the region. This model is used to develop a series of different models reflecting drivers of change at different periods in the history of the study area. These period specific models represent a series of multiple working hypotheses describing (a) the effects of spatial variables as a representation of social, economic and environmental drivers of land use change, and (b) temporal changes in the effects of the spatial variables as the drivers of change evolve over time. Logistic regression is used to calibrate and interpret these models and the models are then compared and evaluated with model selection techniques. Results show that different models are 'best' for the different periods. The different models for different periods demonstrate that models are not invariant over time which presents challenges for validation and testing of empirical models. The research demonstrates (i) model selection as a mechanism for rating among many plausible models that describe land cover or land use patterns, (ii) inference from a set of models rather than from a single model, (iii) that models can be developed based on hypothesised relationships based on consideration of underlying and proximate causes of change, and (iv) that models are not invariant over time.
The effectiveness of photolysis (UV), peroxidation (H(2)O(2)), peroxidation combined with UV light (UV/H(2)O(2)), Fenton reagent (H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+)), and the photo-Fenton process (H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+)/UV) at degrading the textile dye Reactive Blue 19 was evaluated. The efficiency of the photo-Fenton process for degrading raw textiles and biologically pre-treated effluents was also evaluated. H(2)O(2) (100-800 mg L(-1)) and UV light did not degrade dye when used separately. The UV/H(2)O(2) process was effective but slow: 91% of dye degraded within 3 h of reaction at a concentration of 500 mg L(-1) H(2)O(2). Fenton reagent reduced dissolved organic carbon by 36.8% and color was reduced by >98% within a few minutes of reaction. The photo-Fenton process was the most efficient, reducing 94.5% of dissolved organic carbon and 99.4% of color. The combination of a biological system and the photo-Fenton process degraded a high level of textile effluent degradation, reducing dissolved organic carbon by 88%, color by 85%, chemical oxygen demand by 80%, and biochemical oxygen demand by 93%.
In this research, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) models were applied for optimization of Reactive Blue 19 removal using combined electrocoagulation/coagulation process through Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO). By applying RSM, the effects of five independent parameters including applied current, reaction time, initial dye concentration, initial pH and dosage of Poly Aluminum Chloride were studied. According to the RSM results, all the independent parameters are equally important in dye removal efficiency. In addition, ANFIS was applied for dye removal efficiency and operating costs modeling. High R(2) values (≥85%) indicate that the predictions of RSM and ANFIS models are acceptable for both responses. ANFIS was also used in MOPSO for finding the best techno-economical Reactive Blue 19 elimination conditions according to RSM design. Through MOPSO and the selected ANFIS model, Minimum and maximum values of 58.27% and 99.67% dye removal efficiencies were obtained, respectively.
This paper reports the annual carbon (C) balance of China's forests during 1901-2001 estimated using the Integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem C-budget model (InTEC). Annual carbon source and sink distributions are simulated for the same period using various spatial datasets including land cover and leaf area index (LAI) obtained from remote sensing, soil texture, climate, forest age, and nitrogen deposition. During 1901-1949, China's forests were a source of 21.0+/-7.8 Tg C yr(-1) due to disturbances (human activities). Its size increased to 122.3+/-25.3 Tg C yr(-1) during 1950-1987 due to intensified human activities in the late 1950s, early 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s. The forests became large sinks of 176.7+/-44.8 Tg C yr(-1) during 1988-2001, owing to large-scale plantation and forest regrowth in previously disturbed areas as well as growth stimulation by nondisturbance factors such as climatic warming, atmospheric CO(2) fertilization, and N deposition. From 1901 to 2001, China's forests were a small carbon source of 3.32 Pg C, about 32.9+/-22.3 Tg C yr(-1). The overall C balance in biomass from InTEC generally agrees with previous results derived from forest inventories of China's forests. InTEC results also include C stock variation in soils and are therefore more comprehensive than previous results. The uncertainty in InTEC results is still large, but it can be reduced if a detailed forest age map becomes available.
In biologically mega-diverse countries that are undergoing rapid human landscape transformation, it is important to understand and model the patterns of land cover change. This problem is particularly acute in Colombia, where lowland forests are being rapidly cleared for cropping and ranching. We apply a conceptual model with a nested set of a priori predictions to analyse the spatial and temporal patterns of land cover change for six 50-100 km(2) case study areas in lowland ecosystems of Colombia. Our analysis included soil fertility, a cost-distance function, and neighbourhood of forest and secondary vegetation cover as independent variables. Deforestation and forest regrowth are tested using logistic regression analysis and an information criterion approach to rank the models and predictor variables. The results show that: (a) overall the process of deforestation is better predicted by the full model containing all variables, while for regrowth the model containing only the auto-correlated neighbourhood terms is a better predictor; (b) overall consistent patterns emerge, although there are variations across regions and time; and (c) during the transformation process, both the order of importance and significance of the drivers change. Forest cover follows a consistent logistic decline pattern across regions, with introduced pastures being the major replacement land cover type. Forest stabilizes at 2-10% of the original cover, with an average patch size of 15.4 (+/-9.2)ha. We discuss the implications of the observed patterns and rates of land cover change for conservation planning in countries with high rates of deforestation.
Land-cover changes are caused by human activities and natural ecological processes. Thus, our study uses an interdisciplinary approach to research land-cover changes. We present a method to (i) link socio-economic/environmental factors and land-cover changes, (ii) identify indicators of land-cover changes, and (iii) distinguish between socio-economic and environmental indicators associated with local types of overall land-cover changes. The study was conducted in the Lahn-Dill Highlands, Germany, a typical marginal rural landscape. In this region, we investigated land-cover changes occurring over the period 1945-1999. Land-cover data were derived from multi-temporal aerial photographs. Types of overall land-cover changes characterising the districts within the study area were differentiated. With the help of redundancy analysis (RDA), we analysed the relationships between land-cover changes and widely available socio-economic/environmental factors. The results reveal that both individual land-cover changes at patch level and types of overall land-cover changes characterising districts are correlated with socio-economic and environmental factors. Whereas the stable environmental factors are drivers of land-cover changes in our rural study area, socio-economic factors introduced into the analysis mostly result from land-cover changes. We identified correlative socio-economic indicators that cannot explain land-cover changes, but that in combination with the environmental factors can be used to greatly facilitate the reconstruction of past land-cover changes and thus lead to a better knowledge of land-cover history. Based on the types of overall land-cover changes, the results of the study can be adopted for the study of land-cover changes in other regions.
Reduction of carbon emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation is being considered a cost-effective way of mitigating the impacts of global warming. If such reductions are to be implemented, accurate and repeatable measurements of forest cover change and biomass will be required. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), which has one of the world's largest remaining areas of tropical forest, we used the best available data to estimate rainforest carbon stocks, and emissions from deforestation and degradation. We collated all available PNG field measurements which could be used to estimate carbon stocks in logged and unlogged forest. We extrapolated these plot-level estimates across the forested landscape using high-resolution forest mapping. We found the best estimate of forest carbon stocks contained in logged and unlogged forest in 2002 to be 4770 Mt (+/-13%). Our best estimate of gross forest carbon released through deforestation and degradation between 1972 and 2002 was 1178 Mt (+/-18%). By applying a long-term forest change model, we estimated that the carbon loss resulting from deforestation and degradation in 2001 was 53 Mt (+/-18%), rising from 24 Mt (+/-15%) in 1972. Forty-one percent of 2001 emissions resulted from logging, rising from 21% in 1972. Reducing emissions from logging is therefore a priority for PNG. The large uncertainty in our estimates of carbon stocks and fluxes is primarily due to the dearth of field measurements in both logged and unlogged forest, and the lack of PNG logging damage studies. Research priorities for PNG to increase the accuracy of forest carbon stock assessments are the collection of field measurements in unlogged forest and more spatially explicit logging damage studies.
Building on a description of the present situation in Shanghai, a series of ten regionally relevant indicators are identified and described. Using data from 1978-1998, relationships between these economic, social and environmental indicators are explored using correlation and regression analysis. The analysis indicated that, in Shanghai, conflict between economy and environment existed throughout the research period and the evolution of the city region system seems to lack regularity. The key elements affecting trends in the development of the Shanghai city region are Gross Domestic Product, Total Investment and Urban Living Area per Head. The city region system seemed more sustainable, indicated by an improvement in environmental quality and relative lower investment growth rate, when the annual change rate of Gross Domestic Product was less than 7-8%.
Field boundaries are man-made features found worldwide and their multiple functions in agricultural landscapes are now widely recognised. These landscape features have declined drastically in many developed countries as a result of agricultural intensification. In Great Britain, field boundaries are regarded as elements of particular significance in the countryside, both in term of extent and value, whether ecological, cultural, or aesthetic. The Countryside Surveys of Great Britain, a national ecological, surveillance programme initiated in the late 1970s, provides information about the change in extent and ecological condition of field boundaries. In this paper, we present the main results on field boundaries derived from the latest survey, Countryside Survey 2000. These include stock and change of boundaries for the 1990-1998 period as well as an update of the previously published 1984-1990 data. Special attention is given to the evolution of the length of hedges. Applicability of the Countryside Survey methodology to other monitoring programmes and further use of the data is discussed together with the potential ecological consequences of the changes described in the paper.
Urban waste collection system is a pivotal component of all waste management schemes around the world. Therefore, the efficient performance and the success of these schemes in urban pollution control rest on the ability of the collection systems to fully adapt to the prevailing cultural and social contexts within which they operate. Conceptually, institutions being the rules guiding the conduct of public service provision and routine social interactions, waste collection systems embedded in institutions can only realize their potentials if they fully evolve continuously to reflect evolving social and technical matrices underlying the cultures, organizations, institutions and social conditions they are designed to address. This paper is a product of an analysis of waste collection performance in Ghana under two different institutional and/or organizational regimes; from an initial entirely public sector dependence to a current mix of public-private sector participation drawing on actual planning data from 1985 to 2000. The analysis found that the overall performance of waste collection services in Ghana increased under the coupled system, with efficiency (in terms of total waste clearance and coverage of service provision) increasing rapidly with increased private-sector controls and levels of involvement, e.g. for solid waste, collection rate and disposal improved from 51% in 1998 to about 91% in the year 2000. However, such an increase in performance could not be sustained beyond 10 years of public-private partnerships. This analysis argues that the sustainability of improved waste collection efficiency is a function of the franchise and lease arrangements between private sector group on the one hand and public sector group (local authorities) on the other hand. The analysis therefore concludes that if such franchise and lease arrangements are not conceived out of an initial transparent process, such a provision could undermine the overall sustainability of private sector initiatives in collection services delivery in the long term, as in the case of the Accra example.
The present paper deals with the application of different chemometric methods to an environmental data set derived from the monitoring of wet precipitation in Austria (1988-1999). These methods are: principal component analysis (PCA); projection pursuit (PP); density-based spatial clustering of application with noise (DBSCAN); ordering points to identify the clustering structures (OPTICS); self-organizing maps (SOM), also called the Kohonen network; and the neural gas (NG) network. The aim of the study is to introduce some new approaches into environmetrics and to compare their usefulness with already existing techniques for the classification and interpretation of environmental data. The density-based approaches give information about the occurrence of natural clusters in the studied data set, which, however, do not occur in the case presented here; information about high-density zones (very similar samples) and extreme samples is also obtained. The partitioning techniques (clustering, but also neural gas and Kohonen networks) offer an opportunity to classify the objects of interest into several defined groups, the patterns of ionic concentration of which can be studied in detail. The visual aids, such as the color map and the Kohonen map, for each site are very helpful in understanding the relationships between samples and between samples and variables. All methods, and in particular projection pursuit, give information about samples with extreme characteristics.
Shanghai is a cosmopolitan city and one of the most important economic centers in China, but is saddled with serious environmental problems resulting from a recent industrial transformation. This paper examines the interactive relationships between economic growth, eco-efficiency of urban metabolism, and environmental performance of the Shanghai metropolitan area since the 1990s using 15 indicators. This study has revealed an enhanced eco-efficiency of water and energy use as well as an improved overall environmental quality in the central urban districts of Shanghai. Both TGDP (total GDP) and GDP per capita increased rapidly at the annual rate of 16.28% and 15.91%, respectively. In contrast, energy consumed per 10,000 RMB YUAN GDP (ECG), water consumed per 10,000 RMB YUAN GDP (WCG), wastewater discharged per 10,000 RMB YUAN GDP (WWDG), and waste gases emitted per 10,000 RMB YUAN GDP (WGEG) decreased at the annual rate of 9.34%, 10.69%, 14.57%, and 8.52%, respectively. The rapid decline in ECG, WCG, WWDG, and WGEG indicates an enhanced eco-efficiency of urban metabolism. However, uncontrolled emission of wastes from domestic instead of industrial sources adversely affected the overall environmental quality. In addition, suburban areas have undergone rapid economic growth at the cost of human health deterioration, as measured by mortalities and relative mortality ratios of three major diseases (tumor, respiratory disease, and trauma/toxicosis). With Shanghai serving as the "locomotive" driving the economy of the Yangtze River Basin, effective pollution control policies and a network of regional coordination are urgently needed in the globalization and ecological security of the entire area.
Patterns of vegetation across Great Britain (GB) between 1990 and 1998 were quantified based on an analysis of plant species data from a total of 9596 fixed plots. Plots were established on a stratified random basis within 501 1 km sample squares located as part of the Countryside Survey of GB. Results are primarily conveyed in terms of a classification of national land-cover into 22 mutually exclusive Broad Habitat types. Each of the fixed vegetation plots could be assigned to the Broad Habitat in which they were located in either year. Two types of analysis are reported, both based on changes in plant species composition within monitoring plots. The first examined turnover and net change between Broad Habitat types. The second quantified more subtle changes that had occurred within each Broad Habitat using a series of condition measures that summarized multivariate plant species data as a single scalar value for each plot at each time. There are major difficulties in using uncontrolled, large-scale surveillance data to unravel causal linkages and no attempt was made to quantitatively partition variation among competing causes. However, it was clear that results were broadly consistent with environmental drivers known to have operated prior to and during the survey interval. Large-scale vegetation changes could be summarized in terms of shifts along gradients of substrate fertility and disturbance. Changes implied increased nutrient availability across upland and lowland ecosystems while, in lowland landscapes, linear features and small biotope fragments saw a marked shift to species compositions associated with greater shade and less disturbance.
Recent landscape changes in a farmed landscape are analysed and related to farm and farmer characteristics. It is assumed that farm and farmer characteristics serve as mediators of large scale or macro driving forces of change-in the present case, a changing farming context including demands for a more environmentally friendly farming practise and a reduced output. The results are based on multivariate analyses of data collected from structured interviews of 160 farmers in a case study area, in central Jutland, measuring 5000 ha. The analysis shows that farmers are highly involved in landscape changes. The investigated landscape changes include creation and removal of landscape elements as well as certain management changes. The most common activity was creation of elements: hedgerows, small woodlands and conversion of rotational arable land to permanent grassland, whereas removal of elements, mainly hedgerows and semi-natural grasslands, were seen less frequently. Management changes like abandonment of permanent grassland were widespread. The results indicate a general extensification of the land use and the authors interpret the results partly as an indication of a change from productivism to a more multifunctional agricultural regime. The observed landscape changes at the farm level show a low, but structured relationship with the current farm and farmer characteristics, meaning that landscape changes were undertaken by various farmers and on various farms. On a general level, however, the age of the farmer and the duration of farm ownership seem to have a major influence on the landscape changes.
Data collected from the five air-quality monitoring stations established by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration in Taipei City from 1994 to 2003 are analyzed to assess the temporal variations of air quality. Principal component analysis (PCA) is adopted to convert the original measuring pollutants into fewer independent components through linear combinations while still retaining the majority of the variance of the original data set. Two principal components (PCs) are retained together explaining 82.73% of the total variance. PC1, which represents primary pollutants such as CO, NO(x), and SO(2), shows an obvious decrease over the last 10 years. PC2, which represents secondary pollutants such as ozone, displays a yearly increase over the time period when a reduction of primary pollutants is obvious. In order to track down the control measures put forth by the authorities, 47 days of high PM(10) concentrations caused by transboundary transport have been eliminated in analyzing the long-term trend of PM(10) in Taipei City. The temporal variations over the past 10 years show that the moderate peak in O(3) demonstrates a significant upward trend even when the local primary pollutants have been well under control. Monthly variations of PC scores demonstrate that primary pollution is significant from January to April, while ozone increases from April to August. The results of the yearly variations of PC scores show that PM(10) has gradually shifted from a strong correlation with PC1 during the early years to become more related to PC2 in recent years. This implies that after a reduction of primary pollutants, the proportion of secondary aerosols in PM(10) may increase. Thus, reducing the precursor concentrations of secondary aerosols will be an effective way to lower PM(10) concentrations.
In this paper we compute the genuine savings indicators for the Republic of Ireland over the period 1995-2005. We expand and improve existing World Bank's estimates by: a) using data collected from official Irish sources; b) employing the net present value method to assess resource depreciation; c) including external costs from SO(2) and NOx emissions; and d) estimating human capital accumulation using the returns to education. We also perform a sensitivity analysis to check the robustness of our estimates to different assumptions and parameters. Our estimates are consistently smaller than the World Bank's and negative in the first years of the period considered.
Ferreira and Moro's article is an important attempt to improve and expand the 'rough' World Bank genuine savings estimates of Ireland, based upon available official statistical sources of Ireland. Their main findings are that Irish genuine savings estimates are smaller than the Bank's estimates and - this may come as a surprise - even negative for a number of years. These results are primarily driven by their much larger estimates of environmental degradation. Unfortunately, when going over their calculations, I have come to doubt the main outcomes of their study due to two issues: CO2 damage values are overestimated by a factor 13 as a mistake is made in converting damage costs expressed in dollars per ton carbon towards dollars per ton CO2. Second, the implied average SO2 damage values per ton that they use are much higher than found in the literature.
Emission inventory is one of the required inputs to air quality models. To assist in the urban and regional modeling efforts, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has compiled a National Emission Inventory (NEI) for criterion pollutants, and the precursors of ozone and particulate matter (PM). In December 2002, EPA released the 1999 NEI estimates (NEI99), which represent the most recent national emission data. However, the data sets are not in model-ready format for air quality simulations. This present work converts the NEI99 Final Version 2 data sets into Inventory Data Analyzer (IDA) format and processes the data using the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) modeling system to generate a gridded emission inventory in a domain covering the west Gulf Coast Region, USA. The spatial and diurnal emission characteristics of the gridded emission inventories are then assessed and compared with those of the National Emission Trend 1996 (NET96). The NEI99 database contains more complete emission records in both area and point sources. It is also found that NEI99 data exhibit greater emissions with respect to point and mobile sources but smaller emissions with respect to area sources when compared to the corresponding gridded NET96 data in the same study domain. The most distinct differences between the NEI99 and NET96 databases are CO emission of mobile sources, SO2 emissions of point sources, and VOC/PM/NH3/NOx emissions of area and non-road sources. The gridded NEI99 data show low VOC/NOx ratios (<2-5) in the urban areas of the study domain.
The Colorado River system exhibits the characteristics of a heavily over-allocated or 'closing water system'. In such systems, development of mechanisms to allow resource users to acknowledge interdependence and to engage in negotiations and agreements becomes necessary. Recently, after a decade of deliberations and environmental assessments, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) was established to monitor and analyze the effects of dam operations on the Grand Canyon ecosystem and recommend adjustments intended to preserve and enhance downstream physical, cultural and environmental values. The Glen Canyon Dam effectively separates the Colorado into its lower and upper basins. Dam operations and adaptive management decisions are strongly influenced by variations in regional climate. This paper focuses on the management of extreme climatic events within the Glen and Grand Canyon Region of the Colorado River. It illustrates how past events (both societal and physical) condition management flexibility and receptivity to new information. The types of climatic information and their appropriate entry points in the annual cycle of information gathering and decision-making (the 'hydro-climatic decision calendar') for dam operations and the adaptive management program are identified. The study then describes how the recently implemented program, lessons from past events, and new climate information on the Colorado River Basin, facilitated responses during the major El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event of 1997-1998. Recommendations are made for engaging researchers and practitioners in the effective use of climatic information in similar settings where the decision stakes are complex and the system uncertainty is large.