Journal of Educational Psychology

Published by American Psychological Association
Online ISSN: 1939-2176
Print ISSN: 0022-0663
Publications
Although 135 females and 75 males were similar in cognitive skills and attitudes toward mathematics in Grade 8, males performed significantly better in mathematics by Grade 11, even with mathematics background controlled. No sex-related difference in spatial visualization developed. Measures included the Cognitive Abilities Test—Verbal Battery, Mathematical Concepts Test, and the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales II. Since during this period females' attitudes toward mathematics became less favorable than males' attitudes, the results appear attributable to sex-role sociocultural influences. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The goal of this first major report from the Western Reserve Reading Project Math component is to explore the etiology of the relationship among tester-administered measures of mathematics ability, reading ability, and general cognitive ability. Data are available on 314 pairs of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins analyzed across 5 waves of assessment. Univariate analyses provide a range of estimates of genetic (h(2) = .00 -.63) and shared (c(2) = .15-.52) environmental influences across math calculation, fluency, and problem solving measures. Multivariate analyses indicate genetic overlap between math problem solving with general cognitive ability and reading decoding, whereas math fluency shares significant genetic overlap with reading fluency and general cognitive ability. Further, math fluency has unique genetic influences. In general, math ability has shared environmental overlap with general cognitive ability and decoding. These results indicate that aspects of math that include problem solving have different genetic and environmental influences than math calculation. Moreover, math fluency, a timed measure of calculation, is the only measured math ability with unique genetic influences.
 
COMPARED THE LEARNING ABILITY OF 80 NORMAL AND RETARDED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN FROM HIGH AND LOW SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS (SES) BACKGROUNDS ON A SERIES OF LEARNING TASKS. ON THE 1ST DAY, ALL SS LEARNED A SERIAL AND A PAIRED-ASSOCIATE LIST. 24 HR. LATER, SS WERE DIVIDED INTO AN EXPERIMENTAL AND A CONTROL GROUP ON THE BASIS OF CA, IQ, AND SES. EXPERIMENTAL SS LEARNED A 2ND LIST OF PAIRED-ASSOCIATES, UNDER CONDITIONS OF MEDIATION, I.E., SENTENCES WERE PROVIDED LINKING THE PAIRS ON THE 1ST TRIAL. THE CONTROLS LEARNED PAIRED-ASSOCIATES WITHOUT INSTRUCTION IN MEDIATION. 1 WK. LATER, ALL SS LEARNED A 3RD LIST OF PAIRED-ASSOCIATES. RESULTS SHOWED IQ DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE IN BOTH SES GROUPS ON SERIAL AND PAIRED-ASSOCIATED LEARNING. A SIGNIFICANT MEDIATION EFFECT WAS FOUND ON THE 2ND DAY, BUT THIS EFFECT DID NOT TRANSFER TO THE LEARNING OF PAIRED-ASSOCIATES 1 WK. LATER IN ANY GROUP. HOWEVER, OVER THE 3 LISTS OF PAIRED-ASSOCIATES, AN INCREASING SUPERIORITY IN PERFORMANCE WAS FOUND FOR THE LOW SES RETARDATES AS COMPARED TO THE HIGH-SES RETARDATES. (18 REF.)
 
Academic failure and poor verbal abilities are commonplace in older children with aggressive behavior problems. The present study addressed the question of whether a similar pattern would be observed in young aggressive boys. A variety of verbal and nonverbal abilities were examined in 71 pairs of aggressive and normal boys in kindergarten-2nd grade. Significant differences favoring normals were observed on the WISC Information, Similarities, Block Design, Mazes, Performance IQ, and Full Scale IQ subscales; Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities Auditory Reception and Grammatic Closure subscales; and the Wide Range Achievement Test Reading subscale. Results do not indicate a generalized deficit in verbal development among young aggressive boys; however, findings support the interpretation that some deficit in mediational use of verbal ability may be present in aggressive boys. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
A standard intelligence test (CTMM) used as a measure of convergent thinking (CT), and a composite measure of divergent thinking ability (DT) were independent variables for a series of 2-factorial analyses of variance, based on 192 talented junior high-school pupils (X for CTMM = 124). High DT Ss scored higher on tests of word fluency, reading ability, and Holtzman Inkblot Technique scores for movement, anxiety, hostility, color, penetration, and use of large areas of the blots. On a biographical form, high CT Ss indicated higher grades, less trouble with schoolwork, and more parental interest in college. The Junior Personality Quiz failed to discriminate among the 4 subgroups. (15 ref.)
 
Describes a longitudinal study in which 67 children were given a battery of tests upon completion of Grades 3, 4, and 5. Scores on the WISC, Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test for Children, and Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities were compared with S's achievement, as measured by the Vocabulary, Reading, and Arithmetic subtests of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills. The statistical procedure utilized was the "stepregn" method of multiple-regression analysis. The data reveal that psycholinguistic ability was the only independent variable contributing significantly to the multiple correlations computed for 3rd grade achievement. The 4th and 5th grade findings were entirely different. Except for Grade 4 vocabulary achievement, visual-motor skills added significantly to the multiple correlations computed for Grades 4 and 5.
 
Examined the relationship between reading achievement and ability to process verbal information in 67 achieving and 67 nonachieving readers drawn from 4th-grade classes. Verbal processing abilities were evaluated with 10 instruments, which included measures of memory span, associative learning, semantic association, automatic word processing, and time taken to name pictures, read words, and recode (pronounce) pseudowords. Achieving readers performed better on all measures except automatic word processing. Factor analysis yielded 3 factors, labeled Verbal Coding Speed, Memory Span, and Verbal Operations. Reading comprehension had high loadings on the 1st and 3rd factors but had a low loading on Memory Span. Results suggest that 1 primary component of the reading achievement of 4th-grade children is the ability to perform operations or manipulations on verbal material. (43 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
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Reference Vector Structure for 44 Auditory Variables Factor 
Factor Intercorrelations Obtained Directly From Rotation (Below the Diagonal) and From Factor Score Estimates (Above the Diagonal) Factor 1 
Used established findings from studies of visual, musical, and speech perception abilities to guide the construction of auditory ability tests. 44 measures based on these tests were obtained from a sample of 241 adult males (mean age 25.64 yrs). Correlation and factorial analyses were used to indicate structural interrelationships and relationships with education, musical experience, general intelligence, and age. The results indicate separate capacities for Auditory Verbal Comprehension, Auditory Immediate Memory, Temporal Tracking, Auditory Cognition of Relationships, Discrimination Among Sound Patterns, Speech Perception Under Distraction/Distortion, and Maintaining and Judging Rhythm. (61 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Presented the Primary Mental Abilities Test and 30-item lists of noun pairs to a total of 160 middle- to lower-class kindergarteners and 2nd graders. Controls received no elaboration on any item, while experimental Ss received mixed lists of auditory-, visual-, and no-elaboration items. Based on relative performance on auditory or visual items, elaboration Ss were termed verbalizers or visualizers and then given a "pure list" of exclusively auditiory- or visual-elaboration items. Elaboration Ss recalled more than controls on no-elaboration items. 2nd-grade elaboration Ss recalled more than kindergarten ones; there were no grade differences for controls. On the pure list, verbalizers recalled more auditory-elaboration items, and visualizers recalled more visual-elaboration items. Kindergarten verbalizers did better on verbal meaning than kindergarten visualizers. (33 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
 
96 SS, TESTED IN 1919 AND IN 1950 WITH THE ARMY ALPHA, WERE AGAIN TESTED WITH THE SAME TEST IN 1961 AT AN AVERAGE AGE OF 61 YRS. THE 1950-1961 RESULTS ARE REPORTED. THE DECADE FROM AGES 50-60 WAS ONE OF RELATIVE CONSTANCY IN MENTAL ABILITY TEST PERFORMANCE FOR THE PRESENT SS. THE APPARENT TREND, WHICH IS STATISTICALLY INSIGNIFICANT, IS SLIGHTLY DOWNWARD. CONTRARY TO EXPECTATION, AGING DOES NOT SEEM TO HAVE INCREASED EITHER INDIVIDUAL OR TRAIT DIFFERENCES AMONG THE TESTEES OF 1961. CLEARLY, HOWEVER, MAJOR COMPONENTS OF THE PATTERN OF LIVING OF THESE SS HAVE SERVED AS MODERATORS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE AND MENTAL ABILITY. (22 REF.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Two-factor model of the structure of phonological processing abilities in younger preschool children (2-and 3-year-olds). Circles represent latent variables and rectangles represent observed variables. All values represent standardized coefficients. All factor loadings shown as solid lines are significant at p < .001 unless otherwise noted. N = 129. * p < .05.  
Two-factor model of the structure of phonological processing abilities in older preschool children (4-and 5-year-olds). Circles represent latent variables and rectangles represent observed variables. All values represent standardized coefficients. All factor loadings shown as solid lines are significant at p < .001 unless otherwise noted. N = 304. ** p < .01.  
The development of reading-related phonological processing abilities (PPA) represents an important developmental milestone in the process of learning to read. In this cross-sectional study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of PPA in 129 younger preschoolers (M = 40.88 months, SD = 4.65) and 304 older preschoolers (M = 56.49 months, SD = 5.31). A 2-factor model in which phonological awareness and phonological memory was represented by one factor and lexical access was represented by a second factor provided the best fit for both samples and was largely invariant across samples. Measures of vocabulary, cognitive abilities, and print knowledge were significantly correlated with both factors, but phonological awareness/memory had unique relations with word reading. Despite significant development of PPA across the preschool years and into kindergarten, these results show that the structure of these skills remains invariant.
 
SCORES FROM 16 TESTS, 2 FOR EACH OF 8 ABILITIES (GENERAL REASONING, VERBAL COMPREHENSION, INDUCTION, DEDUCTION, SPATIAL SCANNING, PERCEPTUAL SPEED, ROTE AND SPAN MEMORY), AND 18 SCORES FROM CONCEPT-ATTAINMENT AND INFORMATION-PROCESSING TASKS WERE OBTAINED FROM EACH OF 94 FEMALE SS ENROLLED IN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY CLASSES. THE 34 TASK AND ABILITY VARIABLES WERE INTERCORRELATED, THEN FACTORED USING ALPHA FACTOR ANALYSIS. THE 12 ALPHA FACTORS WERE ROTATED TO AN OBLIQUE SOLUTION ACCORDING TO THE HARRIS-KAISER CRITERION. GENERAL REASONING, INDUCTION, AND VERBAL COMPREHENSION WERE FOUND TO BE RELATED TO 3 CONCEPT-ATTAINMENT AND INFORMATION-PROCESSING FACTORS. THE CONCEPT-ATTAINMENT AND INFORMATION-PROCESSING TASKS WERE SEEN TO BE RELATIVELY DISTINCT RATHER THAN UNITARY ACTIVITIES. (15 REF.)
 
Studied the interrelationships of field independence, impulsiveness, and type of previous high school education in 15 female and 45 male undergraduates. Relationships between these variables and several measures of academic achievement were also investigated. Ss were given 7 cognitive-perceptual tests and asked to complete a questionnaire measuring emotionality and impulsiveness. Results indicate that paper-and-pencil tests of field independence might partially measure different abilities among math- and art-trained Ss. Math-trained students were relatively field independent and low impulsive. Although field dependence and impulsiveness were unrelated measures, it appeared that highly anxious impulsive Ss were relatively field dependent. A negative correlation between impulsiveness and grades in statistics was found. Results support the view of H. A. Witkin et al that cognitive styles might have relevance in predicting academic evolution. (30 ref)
 
A secondary analysis of a longitudinal study (W. B. Brookover et al, 1965, 1967) with 556 adolescents compared self-enhancement and skill development models of education. Cross-lagged panel correlation was used to analyze 5 yrs of data (8th-12th grade), resulting in 10 potential replications of any causal pattern. The self-enhancement model (that perceived evaluations of others cause self-evaluation of ability, which in turn causes academic achievement) was not supported; however, among females, academic achievement caused both self- and other-evaluations as well as aspirations. The causal patterns did not appear to vary across socioeconomic status level. The perceived evaluation of others' questions lacked discriminant validity and did not appear to measure anything different from self-concept. Results are compared to the findings of evaluations of compensatory education programs. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined a theoretical model derived from drive theory and trait-state anxiety theory which posits that trait anxiety (A-Trait) influences state anxiety (A-State) which influences achievement. Ss were 83 graduate students. Measures of A-Trait, A-State, and achievement were obtained using the State-Trait Anxiety Scale and course exam data in the pretest, midterm, and final exam periods. Data were analyzed using the "frequency-of-change-in-product-moment" technique. Findings suggest that A-Trait may have a direct influence on achievement in addition to influencing it through A-State. Results confirm expectations that A-Trait is relatively stable over time and that A-State is less stable.
 
Three behavior problem children, ages 11-14, who had been placed in a state mental health facility, were subjected to baseline and two sequential reinforcement conditions (reading reinforcement and chance reinforcement). The results indicate that free time can function as a reinforcer producing increases in the percentage of items answered correctly. Further, the results indicate that improvements can be affected in other academic subjects when only reading accuracy is reinforced. Finally, it was apparent that neither a reading reinforced nor a chance reinforcement condition produced consistently differential results. Results imply that a procedure which reinforces the qualitative aspects of academic performance can be effective in increasing the accuracy of academic performance. Moreover, these improvements in academic behavior were achieved using free time, a reinforcer which is inexpensive and readily available to the teacher. It should also be noted that a single 20-minute free-time period was effectively used to produce changes in three academic areas.
 
COURT COMMITTED 13-15 YR. OLD BOYS IN A TRAINING SCHOOL OBSERVED A DAILY TELEVISION NEWSCAST. THE FOLLOWING MORNING IN SCHOOL THEIR TEACHERS ADMINISTERED A 10-ITEM TRUE-FALSE TEST BASED ON PROGRAM CONTENT; SS WERE IMMEDIATELY SHOWN THEIR SCORES. AFTER SCHOOL, SS WERE PAID TOKENS REDEEMABLE FOR CANDY, GUM, ETC. DURING PHASE I (17 DAYS), GROUP I (N = 9) RECEIVED TOKENS CONTINGENT ON TEST PERFORMANCE; GROUP 2 (N = 6) RECEIVED TOKENS ON NONCONTINGENT BASIS. DURING PHASE II (12 DAYS), GROUP 1 RECEIVED NONCONTINGENT REINFORCEMENT AND GROUP 2 CONTINGENT REINFORCEMENT. HYPOTHESIS THAT TEST SCORES WOULD BE HIGHER UNDER CONTINGENT THAN NONCONTINGENT REINFORCEMENT WAS SUPPORTED IN BOTH BETWEEN-AND WITHIN-S COMPARISONS. CONCLUSION WAS THAT CONTINGENT TOKEN REINFORCEMENT STRENGTHENS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE. (15 REF.)
 
Administered the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS) to 52 psychology students and 54 mathematics students. Preceding course examinations in statistics and mathematics courses, worry (cognitive concern about test performance), and emotionality (physiological and affective arousal) were assessed. MARS scores were found to be higher for psychology students than for mathematics students, to be useful predictors of both worry and emotionality, and to be inversely related to performance for psychology students. A strong inverse relationship was found between worry and performance for both groups and between emotionality and performance for psychology students. (25 ref)
 
THE GRADE-POINT AVERAGE (GPA) OF 4 GROUPS OF COLLEGE JUNIORS, REPRESENTING HIGH AND LOW SCORERS ON THE CPI AC AND AI SCALES, WAS ANALYZED TO TEST THE HYPOTHESIS THAT CONFORMING AND INDEPENDENT ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION (AS MEASURED BY THE CPI) IS RELATED TO SCHOLASTIC ACHIEVEMENT REFLECTIVE OF CONFORMING OR INDEPENDENT BEHAVIOR. SPECIFIC HYPOTHESES REGARDING DIFFERENTIAL ACHIEVEMENT AS A FUNCTION OF AC AND AI SCORES WERE TESTED AND, IN GENERAL, SUPPORTED. THE RESULTS OBTAINED UNDERSCORE THE HEURISTIC VALUE OF SEPARATING GPA INTO SUBCATEGORIES REFLECTIVE OF DIVERSE DEMANDS. (16 REF.)
 
Representing an investigation of hypotheses concerning: (1) interaction between creativity and IQ as they affect achievement, and (2) IQ thresholds where creativity begins to affect achievement and where IQ itself has no further effect, the study involved 609 6th-grade pupils (IQ range 70-162), using a factorial design with 8 levels of IQ (CTMM) and 3 levels of creativity (Minnesota Tests of Creative Thinking). Measures of achievement were the Gates Basic Reading Tests and the California Tests of Arithmetic and Language. 12 combinations of creativity and achievement measures were used for separate analyses of variance. At the .05 level, results generally implied additivity and linearity instead of interaction and thresholds. The relationship between creativity and achievement was weaker than some previous studies suggested and varied with the measures used. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Path Model for Kindergarten Reading Achievement 
This study examined developmental associations between growth in domain-general cognitive processes (working memory and attention control) and growth in domain-specific skills (emergent literacy and numeracy) across the pre-kindergarten year, and their relative contributions to kindergarten reading and math achievement. One hundred sixty-four Head Start children (44% African American or Latino; 57% female) were followed longitudinally. Path analyses revealed that working memory and attention control predicted growth in emergent literacy and numeracy skills during the pre-kindergarten year, and furthermore, that growth in these domain-general cognitive skills made unique contributions to the prediction of kindergarten math and reading achievement, controlling for growth in domain-specific skills. These findings extend research highlighting the importance of working memory and attention control for academic learning, demonstrating the effects in early childhood, prior to school entry. We discuss the implications of these findings for pre-kindergarten programs, particularly those designed to reduce the school readiness gaps associated with socio-economic disadvantage.
 
Investigated the effects of feedback on fluctuations in immediately experienced test anxiety. In 2 studies, 55 and 144 college students responded to a brief test anxiety questionnaire in the context of a course examination, during which experimental Ss received item-by-item feedback. Worry, the cognitive component of anxiety hypothesized to be partially dependent on information available to the student during testing, was expected to decrease from preexamination to postexamination only in the feedback group. Study 1 results support the hypothesis. Emotionality, the physiological-affective component thought to be much less directly influenced by cognitive considerations, was not differentially affected by feedback conditions. Study 2 results indicate an interactive effect of test importance and feedback conditions on worry and emotionality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Distribution of mothers' academic gender stereotype scores (N = 304). Higher scores are indicative of bias toward girls in academic domains. Darker shading indicates stronger stereotype endorsement.  
The relation between mothers' academic gender stereotypes and educational expectations for sons and daughters. For sons, B = −.02, SE B = .01, p < .05. For daughters, B = .01, SE B = .01, ns.  
The relation between mothers' academic gender stereotypes and beliefs about the academic competence of sons and daughters. For sons, B = −.02, SE B = .01, p < .05. For daughters, B = .01, SE B = .01, ns.  
The role of African American mothers' academic gender stereotype endorsement in shaping achievement-related expectations for and perceptions of their own children was examined. Mothers (N = 334) of 7th and 8th graders completed measures of expectations for their children's future educational attainment, perceptions of their children's academic competence, and academic gender stereotypes. Consistent with hypotheses, mothers held less favorable expectations for sons and perceived sons to be less academically competent than daughters. In addition, mothers reported stereotypes favoring girls over boys in academic domains; stereotype endorsement, in turn, was related to mothers' educational expectations for and beliefs about the academic competence of their own children, even with youths' actual achievement controlled. Negative stereotypes about the academic abilities of African American boys may create a negative feedback loop, thereby contributing to the maintenance of the gender gap in African Americans' educational outcomes.
 
Investigated (a) the relationship of test anxiety to academic performance in college students, (b) differences in study-related behaviors between high and low test-anxious Ss, and (c) differential effectiveness of study-related behaviors for both groups. Undergraduate Ss were 65 high and 31 low scorers on the Test Anxiety Scale. Results demonstrate a significant decrement in GPA associated with test anxiety. High test-anxious Ss were also found to have poorer study skills. For high test-anxious Ss, quality of study habits and amount of study time were positively related to academic performance, whereas missing classes and delaying exams were inversely related to performance. Findings are discussed in terms of the prevailing interference model of test anxiety. (17 ref)
 
Administered a 122-item instrument measuring attitudes, study habits, and motivation, to 509 male and 529 female junior high school students and the interitem correlation matrices were factor analyzed. Factor scores were used to predict subsequent scores on 6 Metropolitan Achievement Test subtests. The multiple correlations ranged from .484-.593 for males (n = 428) and from .625-.689 for females (n = 456). The affective predictors significantly increased (p < .01) the multiple correlations for males when they were used in conjunction with aptitude scores on the School and College Ability Test. For females, 3 multiple correlations increased at p < .01 and 2 at p < .05 when affective predictors were added to the aptitude battery. Canonical correlations for .687 and .785 (p < .01) were obtained for males and females, respectively, between the linear composites of affective and achievement variables. (22 ref.)
 
Study goals were to assess: (1) the development of academic interests from middle childhood through late adolescence, (2) the degree to which junior high and high school transitions, parents' educational expectations, interests, and education, were related to changes in academic interests, and (3) the longitudinal links between youth's academic interests and school grades. Participants were mothers, fathers, and two siblings from 201, White, working and middle class families who were interviewed in their homes on up to 9 annual occasions. Multi-level model analyses revealed overall declines in youth's interests over time, with boys showing more rapid decline than girls. Mothers' educational expectations were positively related to youth's interests, and youth's interests declined less when fathers had more education. The transition to junior high, but not high school, was linked to decline in interests, but this was buffered by mothers' academic interests. Declines in youth's academic interests were linked to declines in school grades.
 
Separate samples of 233 Negro and 515 Caucasian high school students of both sexes, randomly selected to represent a wide range of socioeconomic environments, were tested as to verbal aptitude, academic achievement, and academic motivation. Except for Negro males, both samples obtained significant correlations between verbal aptitude and achievement. The Negro males showed no such relationship between aptitude and achievement, but academic-motivation tests correlated significantly with achievement for all groups of interest.
 
HYPOTHESIZED THAT INDIVIDUAL REACTION TO TEST TAKING MEDIATES THE EFFECT OF ITEM-DIFFICULTY SEQUENCE ON PERFORMANCE. 120 COLLEGE FRESHMEN WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED A FINAL EXAMINATION WITH ITEMS SEQUENCED EITHER HARD (H) TO EASY (E), E-H, OR AT RANDOM (R), AND WERE THEN CLASSIFIED WITHIN EACH SEQUENCE BY ACHIEVEMENT-ANXIETY TYPE. AS PREDICTED, A 3 (ITEM-SEQUENCE) * 4 (REACTION-TYPE) ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (N = 120) YEILDED SIGNIFICANT F RATIOS (P < .01) ONLY FOR REACTION TYPE AND INTERACTION; HOWEVER, SEVERAL SPECIFIC PERFORMANCES WERE SIGNIFICANT IN THE NONPREDICTED DIRECTION. RESULTS ARE EXPLAINED USING THE INVERTED-U HYPOTHESIS AND THE ASSUMPTION THAT ITEM SEQUENCES ARE PROGRESSIVELY MORE AROUSING IN THE ORDER OF R, E-H, H-E.
 
This study investigated prospective relations between (1) older siblings' support and academic engagement and (2) younger siblings' academic adjustment from 7(th) to 8(th) grade. The study was unique in that it incorporated a sample of both African American and European American adolescents. Also investigated was the extent to which the gender constellation (same-sex vs. mixed-sex) of sibling dyads moderated prospective associations. Findings revealed that, in mixed-sex dyads only, younger siblings' perceptions of support received from the older sibling and their positive image of the older sibling predicted declines in the younger sibling's academic self-perceptions and performance over time, even after controlling for younger siblings' background characteristics and support from parents. Older siblings' reported support to younger siblings also predicted declines in younger siblings' academic adjustment, whereas the older siblings' own level of academic engagement predicted an increase in younger siblings' academic adjustment over time. Overall, findings did not differ substantially for African and European American adolescents.
 
One hypothesis derived from social comparison theory is that the relationship between academic achievement and self-concept can best be understood in terms of the child's achievement standing compared with that of classmates. This hypothesis was tested on 159 6–12 yr old academic underachievers in 17 self-contained classrooms. Ss were administered the Metropolitan Achievement Test and the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale. When relative within-classroom achievement standing was not considered, reading achievement was not significantly related to self-concept, although mathematics achievement was. When relative within-classroom achievement standing was considered, both reading and math achievement were found to be significantly related to self-concept. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Replicated and extended a previous study by the authors on the relationship between academic performance and knowledge of test scores. 2 groups of 36 undergraduate volunteers at the University of Dundee, Scotland, were given Heim's AH5 test of intelligence, the Alpert-Haber Achievement Anxiety Test, and the Test Anxiety scale. Ss in Group NK received no such knowledge. The effects on work level, advantage taken of advice on study methods, satisfaction with academic life, subjective probability of success, and anxiety were explored. It was found that in end-of-year examinations, the 2 groups as a whole did not differ significantly in performance, but the middle section of Group K performed better than that of Group NK (p < .05). The differing results of this and the previous study indicate that the relationship is heavily dependent on the nature of the situation and the Ss. There is a particular need for further investigation of the effects on Ss with the lowest ability scores in their groups.
 
illustrates the findings from the full SEM model used to analyze this study's main hypothesis, that the FCU would lead 
the means, standard deviations, and correla- tions for the study's primary variables. Although a latent positive behavior support construct was estimated in the full SEM analysis, correlations are presented for the four indicators separately to provide a clearer picture of the associations among individual variables. As shown in Table 1, average positive parenting scores were consistent across ages 2 and 3. The Letter-Word, Calcula- tion, and Spelling subtest means represent the average number of correct items achieved by each child on the W-J at the age 5 and 
This project examined the hypothesis that the impact of the Family Check-Up on parent use of positive behavior support would indirectly improve academic achievement scores at school age. The study included a sample of 731 high-risk families recruited from Women, Infant, and Children Supplemental Nutrition Program settings in 3 geographically distinct areas. The results demonstrated that changes in positive parenting between the child ages of 2 and 3 were associated with higher scores on children's school-age academic achievement, as measured by the Woodcock-Johnson III (W-J) Academic Skills composite. Moreover, structural equation modeling revealed that random assignment to the intervention was associated with higher levels of children's academic achievement at age 5 and age 7.5 indirectly, through greater increases in parents' use of positive behavior support in intervention families than in control families. Results are discussed with respect to the potential of a brief parenting intervention for improving parenting practices that promote academic achievement up to 5 years later. The results have promising implications for efforts to promote child adaptation in the school environment.
 
In a sample of 7,262 college freshmen attending 24 colleges and universities, the student scores for several academic achievement tests, the student scores for several scales of extracurricular achievement, and the student average school grades were intercorrelated. The correlations between these measures of academic and nonacademic accomplishments are generally negligible (median r = .04). The results can be attributed neither to a narrow range of academic talent nor to nonlinear relationships. The results strongly suggest that academic and nonacademic accomplishment are relatively independent dimensions of talent. The implications of the findings for the selection of talented persons and the conservation of talent were discussed. (22 ref.)
 
COLLEGE FRESHMEN, REPRESENTATIVES OF 4 COMBINATIONS OF ACADEMIC APTITUDE (COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAMINATION SCORE) AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE (1ST-TERM GRADE-POINT AVERAGE), PARTICIPATED IN 2-PERSON GROUPS IN A DECISION-MAKING TASK IN WHICH THEIR CHOICES EITHER WOULD INCREASE THE LIKELIHOOD OF INDIVIDUAL GOAL ATTAINMENT AT THE EXPENSE OF GROUP GOAL ATTAINMENT, OR WOULD INCREASE THE LIKELIHOOD OF ATTAINING GROUP GOALS AT THE SACRIFICE OF INDIVIDUAL GOALS. AS EXPECTED, THERE WAS A GENERAL TENDENCY TO INCREASE THE FREQUENCY OF GROUP-ORIENTED CHOICES WHEN GROUP GOALS WERE GREATLY AFFECTED. WHEN CHOICES HAD RELATIVELY LITTLE EFFECT UPON THE LIKELIHOOD OF ATTAINING GROUP GOALS, THE FREQUENCY OF GROUP-ORIENTED CHOICES (CHOICES THAT WOULD INCREASE THE LIKELIHOOD OF GROUP GOAL ATTAINMENT) WAS RELATED POSITIVELY TO ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG BOTH MALES AND FEMALES. WHEN DECISIONS HAD RELATIVELY GREAT EFFECT UPON GROUP GOALS, THIS RELATIONSHIP OCCURRED ONLY AMONG SS OF HIGH ACADEMIC APTITUDE. RESULTS RAISED QUESTIONS CONCERNING THE GENERAL VALIDITY OF THE ASSUMPTION THAT SOCIALLY ORIENTED BEHAVIOR TENDENCIES ARE DETRIMENTAL TO ACADEMIC EFFECTIVENESS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Studied (a) the affect productivity of effort and (b) the ability self-attributions of success or failure. Three experiments collectively involving 315 college students were run wherein Ss had to indicate for either hypothetical academic success or failure the effort–ability attribution that would generate in them the greatest affect. Relative to those in effort, attributions to ability generated as much happiness, but less pride, in the case of success and more unhappiness, but less shame, in the case of failure. It is concluded that ability attributions have a greater affective impact when morally neutral affects (e.g., happiness and unhappiness), as opposed to morally unneutral affects (e.g., pride and shame), are involved.
 
Existing research suggests that there is a relation between academic/cognitive deficits and externalizing behavior in young children, but the direction of this relation is unclear. The present study tested competing models of the relation between academic/cognitive functioning and behavior problems during early childhood. Participants were 221 children (120 boys, 101 girls) who participated in a longitudinal study from age 3 to 6. A reciprocal relation (Model 3) was observed only between inattention and academic achievement; this relation remained controlling for SES and family stress. The relation between inattention and cognitive ability was consistent with Model 1 (cognitive skills predicting later inattention) with controls. For hyperactivity and aggression, there was some support for Model 2 (early behavior predicting later academic/cognitive ability), but this model was no longer supported when controlling for family functioning. These results suggest that the relation between academic achievement/cognitive ability and externalizing problems may be driven primarily by inattention. These results also suggest that this relation is evident early in development, highlighting the need for early assessment and intervention.
 
The authors examined the relations among children's effortful control, school relationships, classroom participation, and academic competence with a sample of 7- to 12-year-old children (N = 264). Parents and children reported on children's effortful control, and teachers and children reported on children's school relationships and classroom participation. Children's grade point averages (GPAs) and absences were obtained from school-issued report cards. Significant positive correlations existed between effortful control, school relationships, classroom participation, and academic competence. Consistent with expectations, the teacher-child relationship, social competence, and classroom participation partially mediated the relation between effortful control and change in GPA from the beginning to the end of the school year. The teacher-child relationship and classroom participation also partially mediated the relation between effortful control and change in school absences across the year.
 
REPORTS DATA RELATING FRESHMEN PREDICTORS TO INDEPENDENTLY COMPUTED GRADE-POINT AVERAGES FOR EACH OF THE 8 SEMESTERS OF UNDERGRADUATE COLLEGE RESIDENCE. A SUBSTANTIAL AMOUNT OF INSTABILITY OF INTELLECTUAL PERFORMANCE OVER THIS 4-YR TIME SPAN IS REVEALED. IMPLICATIONS FOR COLLEGE ADMISSION RESEARCH AND FOR POLICIES GOVERNING FAILURE AND PROBATION ARE DISCUSSED.
 
Predictions adduced from social comparison theory and group reference theory were tested in 2 experiments that assessed the impact of half-day integration into the educational mainstream on the self-concepts of academically handicapped children. In Exp I (50 Ss, 6 yrs 2 mo to 10 yrs 10 mo old), mainstreamed Ss exhibited significantly augmented self-concepts, a result attributed to the availability of multiple comparative reference groups. In Exp II (20 Ss, 8 yrs 3 mo to 11 yrs), a manipulation designed to restrict self-concept-relevant social comparisons to Ss in the academic mainstream produced decreased self-regard, while unrestricted utilization of multiple comparative reference groups produced increased self-regard. Results are interpreted as supportive of the theoretical viability of social comparison theory and group reference theory in educational settings. (23 ref)
 
This experiment refines and replicates an earlier investigation by the authors of differential susceptibility to distraction in academically underachieving and achieving male college students. Freshman underachievers and achievers performed a reading comprehension task once under ordinary test circumstances and once with auditory background of humorous conversation. Statistical analysis confirmed the 3 experimental expectations that (a) underachievers and achievers would not differ in performance on the benign condition, (b) both types of subjects would show impaired performance on the distraction condition, but (c) underachievers would show the greater impairment. The results were discussed as illustrating the principle that personality differences not apparent under benign circumstances may become so under more stressful circumstances, and implications of this for psychodiagnostic testing were considered.
 
BRIGHT OLDER CHILDREN ACCELERATED IN LOWER ELEMENTARY GRADES WERE COMPARED WITH NONACCELERANTS TOWARD THE END OF THE 9TH GRADE. SS WERE 22 CHILDREN ACCELERATED FROM GRADE 2-4, 14 CHILDREN ACCELERATED FROM GRADE 3-5, AND 4 NONACCELERANT GROUPS: 27 BRIGHT YOUNGER CHILDREN, 22 BRIGHT OLDER CHILDREN, 21 AVERAGE-ABILITY YOUNGER CHILDREN, AND 23 AVERAGE-ABILITY OLDER CHILDREN. ON 6 TESTS OF EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT, 9 TESTS OF DIVERGENT THINKING, AND 2 PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, BOTH ACCELERANT GROUPS WERE EQUAL TO OR HIGHER THAN THE OTHER 4 GROUPS. THE NONACCELERATED OLDER BRIGHT CHILDREN WERE HIGHER THAN AT LEAST 1 OF THE ACCELERATED GROUPS ON 4 TESTS OF EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT, 2 TESTS OF DIVERGENT THINKING, AND 2 PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS. THE ACCELERATED GROUPS PARTICIPATED IN SCHOOL ACTIVITIES, ADVANCED CLASSES AND VARSITY ATHLETICS, TO ABOUT THE SAME EXTENT AS THE OLDER BRIGHT NONACCELERANTS.
 
IN SAMPLES WITH A BROAD RANGE OF TALENT, THE ACADEMIC AND NONACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS OF COLLEGE STUDENTS WERE PREDICTED. CRITERIA INCLUDED COLLEGE GRADES, 12 SCALES MEAURSING EXTRACLASSROOM ACCOMPLISHMENT, AND 1 SCALE TO ASSESS RECOGNITION FOR ACADEMIC ACCOMPLISHMENT. PREDICTORS INCLUDED SCORES ON THE AMERICAN COLLEGE TESTING PROGRAM, HIGH SCHOOL GRADES, AND 6 SCALES MEASURING NONACADEMIC ACCOMPLISHMENT IN HIGH SCHOOL. RESULTS INDICATE THAT NONACADEMIC ACCOMPLISHMENT CAN BE ASSESSED WITH MODERATE RELIABILITY, THAT BOTH ACADEMIC AND NONACADEMIC ACCOMPLISHMENT CAN BE PREDICTED TO A USEFUL DEGREE, AND THAT THE LATTER IS LARGELY INDEPENDENT OF ACADEMIC POTENTIAL AND ACHIEVEMENT. (40 REF.)
 
Criterion measures of creativity based on biographical information can be scored for the number of accomplishments (Quantity) or for level of a single most outstanding accomplishment (Quality). The meaningfulness of this distinction is dependent upon the intercorrelation of the scores and their differential correlations with other variables. An activities questionnaire, composed of items describing achievements of a creative type, was developed for use as a criterion instrument in research on creativity. For a sample of entering college freshmen (total N = 292) Quality and Quantity scores were significantly correlated, but Quality was more highly related to academic aptitude whereas Quantity was more highly related to a measure of intellectual stimulation in the home.
 
The purpose of this study was to extend the literature on decoding by bringing together two lines of research, namely person and word factors that affect decoding, using a crossed random-effects model. The sample was comprised of 196 English-speaking grade 1 students. A researcher-developed pseudoword list was used as the primary outcome measure. Because grapheme-phoneme correspondence (GPC) knowledge was treated as person and word specific, we are able to conclude that it is neither necessary nor sufficient for a student to know all GPCs in a word before accurately decoding the word. And controlling for word-specific GPC knowledge, students with lower phonemic awareness and slower rapid naming skill have lower predicted probabilities of correct decoding than counterparts with superior skills. By assessing a person-by-word interaction, we found that students with lower phonemic awareness have more difficulty applying knowledge of complex vowel graphemes compared to complex consonant graphemes when decoding unfamiliar words. Implications of the methodology and results are discussed in light of future research.
 
Research supports the hypothesis that field dependence explains the poorer school achievement of Mexican-American children compared to Anglo-American children. To test that hypothesis, multiple regression and path analyses were used to interpret the relationships between culture, field dependence, and school achievement among 134 2nd-, 4th-, and 6th-grade Anglo-American and Mexican-American children. Results indicate that Mexican-Americans were significantly below Anglo-Americans in reading and math achievement, field independence was significantly correlated with both reading and math achievement, and Mexican-Americans were significantly more field dependent. Field dependence explains the cultural difference in math achievement but does not fully explain the cultural difference in reading achievement. Implications for understanding both field dependence and the nature of the observed cultural differences are discussed. (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
From 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-grade classes selected for their open characteristics, 49 children were matched on IQ, socioeconomic status, sex, age, and grade with 49 Ss from classrooms identified as traditional. Reading achievement and creativity were assessed with a 2 * 2 factorial analysis of variance, open and traditional * high and low IQ. All 98 Ss were administered the reading test, and 39 pairs were given the creativity measures. Both reading and figural creativity analyses showed significant main effects for IQ and significant interactions. Among low IQ groups, open and traditional Ss could not be distinguished on reading achievement or creativity. Among high IQ Ss, traditional Ss had significantly higher reading and figural creativity scores. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Randomly assigned 144 undergraduates to either a constructed response mode, with or without reinforcement, or to a reading condition. Stress instructions were used for 1/2 the sample. Multiple linear regression analysis indicates that the reinforced constructed response group achieved more than the reading group on technical, difficult material. A significant interaction among facilitating anxiety and other variables was interpreted in terms of achievement motivation. Debilitating anxiety interacted with stress on easy materials, but did not interact with other variables on complex, technical content. Implications of results for anxiety research in similar settings are discussed. (21 ref.)
 
Monitored personality and behavioral consequences of learned helplessness in children who had experienced extensive failure in school. Controlling for sex, race, age, and IQ, 3 groups of 20 9–12 yr old males (failing, average, and remedial) performed an experimental task and responded to questionnaires on self-concept and attributions for success and failure. To compare the predictive quality of learned helplessness theory with that of value expectancy theories, Ss were assigned to 1 of 2 reinforcement conditions (prediction of academic success and this prediction plus monetary reward) on a maze task. As predicted by value expectancy theories, failing Ss were significantly more persistent in the monetary reward condition than in the prediction of academic success condition. In agreement with learned helplessness theory, low self-concept was predicted independently and significantly by school failure, internal attributions for failure, and external attributions for success. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Top-cited authors
Reinhard Pekrun
  • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich (LMU); Australian Catholic University (ACU)
Mareike Kunter
  • DIPF - Leibniz Institute for Research and Information in Education
Oliver Lüdtke
  • IPN - Leibniz Institute for Science and Mathematics Education
Thomas Goetz
  • University of Vienna
Jürgen Baumert
  • Max Planck Institute for Human Development