Journal of Educational Administration

Published by Emerald
Print ISSN: 0957-8234
Publications
Current interest in distributed sources of leadership is pervasive among both researchers and practicing leaders (e.g., Harris, 2009; Hammersley-Fletcher and Brundrett, 2005; Storey, 2004). Nevertheless, systematic evidence is modest, at best, about the factors that influence the nature and extent of distributed leadership in schools, as well as the consequences of distributed patterns of leadership for schools and students. The study reported in this paper examined the relationships between four patterns of distributed leadership and a selected set of teacher beliefs likely influence teachers’ leadership distribution preferences. The study also examined the relationship between the four patterns of leadership distribution and teachers’ academic optimism.
 
Purpose – This paper aims to report multiperspective research on ten successful, experienced headteachers working in a range of urban and suburban schools of different sizes (with different school populations and free school meals indices of between 20 and 62 per cent). Design/methodology/approach – A discussion combining narrative and analysis. Findings – The research revealed that the headteachers sustained their success by the application of a combination of essential leadership values, qualities and skills and that these enabled them to manage a number of tensions and dilemmas associated with the management of change. Originality/value – Illustrates that successful headteachers are those who place as much emphasis on people and processes as they do upon product: all had raised the levels of measurable pupil attainments in their schools and all were highly regarded by their peers. A key characteristic among the heads was that all revealed a passion for education, for pupils and for the communities in which they worked that this was recognised and appreciated by them, that they had translated their passion into practice, and that pupils' achievements had increased over a sustained period of time.
 
In the face of mounting evidence that top-down, micro-managed educational change models have failed to enhance student achievement over time, alternative models of lateral and distributed leadership, cross-school networks and professional learning communities are now being promoted as ways to harness the energy, motivation and professional learning of teachers and school leaders to secure sustainable innovation and improvement. In contrast to technocratic emphases imported from the corporate world on performance targets, line management, and delivery systems, emerging models of distributed leadership, networks and communities of practice regard organizations more as “living systems” or complex, evolutionary, “networks” that are much less amenable to top-down regulation
 
When we started the International Successful School Principalship Project (ISSPP) in 2001, we were interested in finding answers to the question: What contributes to school principals’ success in leading schools so that students gain the most from their experience of school education? Teams of researchers from Sweden, Norway, Denmark, England, Canada, the United States, Australia and China participated and found a series of answers and arguments as the results from analysing a range of documentary, quantitative and qualitative data from approximately 30 schools. Five years later on, we went back to those schools which were led by the same principals in order to find out whether the success had been sustained and if so, how. This book reports our findings through country case stories and cross-cutting thematic chapters. First, we report briefly upon findings from the first phase. Following this, we describe the research methods that were used and the challenge of finding common international understandings of success in schools and in school principalship. Finally, we report findings about sustaining success from the second phase of the study.
 
Purpose:In this article we present the general situation in the Swedish compulsory school system and explore hypothesis about the relationship between structure, culture and leadership as preconditions for successful principalship. We outline, on the basis of earlier research, arguments that a successful principalship depend on how principals acts on structure and culture with a purpose to contribute to changes that should lead to successful schools. A successful school is defined in Swedish law and policy documents as a school that show high performance both in academic and social goals Methodology: Four different schools were chosen as successful schools. All schools have increased their academic results the last four years. If the social goals are reached, will be an empirical question in our analysis. The principals have been working in the schools for at least four years and are perceived by our informants as being successful principals Findings: The findings support our hypothesis that successful principals contribute to the success in reaching academic and social goals of their schools by their strategic work with changes of structure and culture. The principals act on structure and culture with a clear link to the opinions and culture in the school district. We find that a school can be viewed as successful of parents, students and teachers even if the social goals are not fulfilled. In conclusion, to be able to understand and work with the culture and structure of the school district, is vital for successful principalship
 
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a follow‐up study of two Swedish schools in which, five years previously, the principals had been successful leaders. Had this success been maintained? Design/methodology/approach – Two schools were revisited to enable the authors to interview principals and teachers as well as conducting observations of the schools in operation. Findings – The identification of sustained leadership success was compromised because the original principals were no longer at the schools, their replacements had also left and their (“third generation”) replacements had just arrived. Strong teacher teams had served to maintain school standards. Originality/value – The paper adds to the literature on the vital role of the principal in determining a school's success and also points to the value of strong, cohesive teacher teams.
 
Purpose To examine the effects of specific personal and job characteristics on year‐to‐year (2000‐2001) changes in teachers' frequency of absences. Design/methodology/approach With few exceptions, the population of elementary‐ and middle‐school teachers in the Israeli public education system ( N =51,916) was studied. Hierarchical regression analysis was used. Findings Prior absenteeism, age, education, and supervisory position were found to be significant predictors of absenteeism frequency, accounting for about 50 percent of the variance in absence frequency. Originality/value This study focuses on relatively stable individual‐difference predictors, including sociodemographic variables and work‐related characteristics, which have been downplayed in the literature. These predictors can be measured more reliably and validly, compared to complex psychological constructs, and are relatively easy to interpret and implement by decision makers.
 
This article argues that educational policy in England has passed through four main stages in the last three decades. The first three phases, Social democratic, Resource constrained and Market, all contain elements which now inform the Excellence phase which is being pursued by New Labour. This phase combines a determination to improve the quality of pupil learning with a much more interventionist set of strategies than has been witnessed in recent years. This set of policies has inherent weaknesses. Some of these are derived from the partial incorporation into current policy of the concept of the educational marketplace; others are associated with the concept based for New Labour educational policy, the school effectiveness movement; and yet others derive from an inadequate understanding of the nature of leadership and management in schools which leads to an over-emphasis on the role of the school principal. The article concludes by suggesting alternative forms of leadership which might be more appropriate for schools in a rapidly changing society.
 
Purpose This article aims to explore Tongan conceptualisations of social justice and leadership from a cultural perspective. Design/methodology/approach The approach taken is from a cultural perspective based on evidence that culture influences our thinking and consequently our behaviours, and the argument that social justice is about recognising our values, philosophies, processes and structures in our education system and that theorising social justice should be founded on our knowledge systems that are embedded in our cultures. Findings The Tongan conceptualisation of social justice is based on Faka'apa'apa (respect) while Tongan leadership is based on Va¯ (relationships); both concepts converge on the role of leadership. The example of the Tongan conceptualisation is given as a guide for other Pacific countries to consider when confronted with global educational instruments. Originality/value By conceptualising social justice from a cultural perspective, an alternative understanding is brought forward and a more global perspective is evident.
 
Strategic planning, in the form of school improvement planning, has become the dominant approach to school management in English schools. This has evolved from earlier forms of strategic planning and has significant inherent weaknesses that undermine the extent to which school improvement planning can contribute to the effective management of schools. The development of school improvement planning is examined in this article and its weaknesses analysed. Implied models of school management and leadership, the legacy of school effectiveness and improvement research and the role of the school principal are considered. Based on this analysis, an alternative approach to planning in schools and to school organisation and a more flexible approach to school organisation and leadership is proposed that is grounded in a shorter planning time scale and the development of structures that facilitate involvement, cooperation and collaboration.
 
The genesis of the moral leadership concept in educational administration and examples of studies exploring this idea during the 1979-2003 period are discussed. The author recommends more contextually sensitive descriptive studies with a focus on the social relations among school leaders and others, giving particular attention, in a phenomenological sense, to the meanings, perspectives, and espoused purposes of school leaders' actions, social relationships, and interpersonal orientations.
 
Purpose The paper seeks to examine the potential implications for leadership preparation programs of the intersection between emotions and leadership for social justice. Design/methodology/approach The methodology followed was grounded in an ethnographic case study of a Greek‐Cypriot principal who struggled to transform his elementary school into a community that truly included students from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Findings The findings of the case study highlight: the vision and practices of leadership for social justice; the ambivalent emotions of social justice leadership; and strategies for coping with the personal and structural dimensions of social justice leadership. Practical implications The practical implications are discussed in relation to the emotional knowledge and skills that are needed for preparing social justice leaders to navigate emotionally through existing school structures and to cultivate critical emotional reflexivity about the changes that are needed to school discourses and practices so that justice and equity are placed at the center of school leadership. Originality/value The paper offers insights into the emotional aspects of leadership for social justice, focusing on the implications for leadership preparation programs.
 
In his article “The Management of Schools in Ncw South Wales (1848–1886): Local Initiative Suppressed”, E. J. Payne has argued that “The distinctly centralised pattern of educational administration did not evolve but was deliberately imposed, acceded to, and perpetuated, by reasonable people with varied motives, but their compromise was such that it has restricted the exercise of local initiative and the development of local institutions”. The purpose of the present article is to understand Wilkins and his employers' administrative problems and decisions rather than to judge them. The complexity of the historical situation in which they found themselves, the range of their possible decisions, and their day to day dealings with teachers and Local Boards as contained in archival records form the basis of the story told. This is mainly a story of the failure of many of the Local Boards to fulfil their responsibilities and the assessment by the Central administrators of the circumstances of their educational enterprise in country areas. To illustrate the financial, administrative, and geographical problems facing both the central and the local Boards a case study which is both typical and a-typical of Local Patron performance is presented.
 
The educational restructuring movement began with the publication of the now famous A Nation at Risk report, which provided convincing evidence that the quality of American schools was unacceptably low. Two waves of reform rolled across the country during the decade. The first emphasised “top-down” initiatives put in motion by State governors who identified educators as the problem. The solution was greater accountability, closer supervision, tighter regulation, better teacher screening, tougher graduation standards, and a longer school year. Quickly disenchanted with the insensitivity and inflexibility of the first wave, a second began later in the decade which emphasised that educators were the solution, not the problem. The decade ended with importance given to “bottom-up” reform initiatives emphasising deregulation, choice, school-based management, and schools within schools.
 
The 1980's will be a period of restructuring for Australian education and four factors will be central to this process. 1. School-based decision-making will mean Principals are increasingly responsible for managing the education tax-dollar and accountable to the client community. The School council will be the arena in which educators must explain their actions to and receive approval from parents. 2. New administrative structures, manifested in the formulation of major policy decisions in a consultative arena and the organization of Head Offices along functional lines, means a breaking down of traditional “top down” bureaucracy. Schools and Head Offices will be forced to act collegially rather than hierarchically and Principals will be required to show a new independence and responsibility in management. 3. Regionalization, probably the strongest trend to emerge from the structural reform movement, is a result of the dysfunctions, diseconomies, inefficiency and alienation which set in beyond a certain point in system and geographical size. It is here that the difference between an autonomous school system and a region within a system emerge, and the issue of what functions each locus carries must be resolved. 4. Declining and shifting enrolments, a demographic phenomenon, will mean Principals must learn such new skills and responsibilities as the reduction of staff numbers and the improvement of education in the context of decreasing levels of resources and student numbers. By outlining some of the changes facing educational administrators it is hoped that a calculated and coherent response to the demands of the decade will be possible.
 
Incl. abstract, bibl. In the past two decades, Chile has implemented three reform strategies that shaped its educational decentralization process, each motivated by different goals. In the 1980s, during the military regime, an economic model structured a voucher system that created incentives for parents to choose schools for their children. In theory, bad schools would improve in quality or go out of business. The second reform began in 1990 and was embedded in the transition from autocratic to democratic government. Sociologists were the intellectual authors of this initiative which focused on improving the working conditions of teachers. In 1994, the third strategy began with educational researchers focusing attention on the classroom effectiveness and the need for better instructional materials and improvements in the teaching/learning process. The continued study of educational decentralization in Chile is important because it represents the only nation in the world with a nation-wide voucher system.
 
Gives direction as to how administrative quality at a university can be measured on an interval scale. The measure is based on a model of academic staff perceptions in relation to central, faculty or school administration (as the case may be). The Australian Government set up a new Australian University Quality Agency in 2001 and one of its objectives is to measure quality in administration (management). Proposes that academic staff perceptions of administrative quality consist of two first order aspects, operationally defined by a number of second order aspects. The 21 stem-items measuring each second order aspect are set up in Guttman patterns, conceptually ordered by increasing “difficulty”. Academics are asked to respond to each of the 21 stem-items in two parts, conceptually ordered from “easy” to “hard”. This model has been pilot tested successfully with a small sample (N = 27) and is now ready for a full test.
 
This study develops an empirical basis for examining role differentiation in Australian Universities and Colleges. Multiple discriminant analysis of the work-related attitudes of academics working at nine Australasian Universities and Colleges of Advanced Education is used to investigate their institutional culture and two discriminant functions are established. The first discriminant function clearly distinguishes between the universities and the colleges, in agreement with their commonly perceived emphases on academic and professional education. The second discriminant function can be interpreted as distinguishing the more conservative institutions. It is found that the cultural differences thus established between the institutions cannot be explained by the demographic differences recorded between their members. Several policy related questions are examined in the light of these findings and their implications discussed.
 
A decision support system (DSS) is a flexible, interactive, computerized approach intended to support administrators in their decision making activities and which is capable of providing direct, personal support for complex, managerial decisions. This paper presents an overview of DSS's major characteristics which can integrate the intellectual resources of individuals with the capabilities of the computer to improve the quality of decisions. Following a discussion of its capabilities, the various components of a DSS (database, model base, hardware and user-system interface) are examined as well as the development tools needed. Examples of the applications of DSSs in two universities provide insight into the benefits a DSS can bring to educational administration. Finally, the paper considers various development and implementation issues pertaining to a decision support system in academic administration.
 
Faculty expectations for non-academic staff participation in systems of shared authority (governance) define the parameters of legitimate interests. Delineates and analyses role sender (faculty) views of non-academic staff participation in organizational governance. Studies four issue areas (academic affairs, financial and personnel affairs, institutional affairs, and student affairs). There was considerable support for non-academic staff participation in governance. Results suggest limited roles in governance for non-academic employees in complex organizations where faculty are primary role senders, and no support for the significant redistribution of legitimate faculty rights and authorities.
 
Increased duration of courses, rises in the levels of awards, extension into new fields, competition for students, and overlap in the function of tertiary institutions resulted to a great extent from a lack of overall coordination and insufficient integration of the work of the various agencies involved. (Author/IRT)
 
A survey of the work-related attitudes and demographic charcteristics of academic staff is reported. Nine institutions were surveyed: two universities and two colleges of advanced education in each of Western Australia and New South Wales, plus the largest university in New Zealand. The attitudinal items related to publication, research, teaching methods, relevance of local needs, the reward structure, the administrative hierarchy, administrative duties, the work environment, colleagues, mobility, geographical isolation and professional association meetings. The demographic characteristics surveyed included faculty, sex, rank, age, level of qualification, publications and place of highest qualification. Differences between the demographic characteristics of universities and colleges, and between the institutions of each group are reported. The attitudinal items used and the method of extracting meaningful attitudinal variables from these items are discussed. The attitudinal analysis permits the role differentiation between the institutions to be examined, and this discussion is the subject of a companion paper.
 
Using data from a random sample of chief liberal arts academic officers in American colleges and universities, the authors have examined formal methods for evaluating the liberal arts, resource allocation policies of chief liberal arts academic officers, and factors which influence these evaluations. The liberal arts are defined as the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Data were presented on 14 evaluation factors related to distinct dimensions of department and program excellence. Findings suggest that “resources for excellence” are unevenly distributed among departments. If the educational goal of the 1980s — quality education — is to be met, these inconsistencies in resource allocations must be corrected.
 
Leadership was the central issue of concern when academic governance regulations were introduced at Lincoln Institute of Health Sciences in 1978. At the time there was considerable debate about the leadership role of Heads which surfaced again in 1981–82 when the authors undertook a review of the regulations. In this paper the authors analyse the review findings and relate these findings to contemporary theory which sees leadership in terms of the nature of the relationships between leaders and followers. They report that in spite of the existence of a uniform set of regulations the leadership styles of Heads of Schools and Departments varied considerably. Nevertheless it was only in those Schools and Departments where discordancy existed in the leader-follower relationships that dissatisfaction was expressed about the regulations. The authors conclude that regulations by themselves do not determine the quality of leadership and decision-making even though they may be intended to settle an agreed organization for decision-making. However, the introduction of regulations can lead to beneficial modifications to hierarchically based superior-subordinate relationships with more collegial forms of shared responsibility. “A larger slice of the cake isn't enough — we want a share in the ruddy bakery.” (Mrs. Sheila Egan, East Lancs representative at the 1972 National Conference of Technical Teachers, speaking about Academic Government.)
 
This paper reports an investigation into climate of an academic department of an English polytechnic. Background discussion is provided on “departmental” and climate concepts and the research approach and perspective employed for the investigation detailed. To collate and summarize “climate” data, a climate “cobweb” model is presented and then employed to examine and sum the data to form a multi-faceted climate picture of the department.
 
How the concept of organisational culture was applied to a recent study of academic organisations in an Australian university is the thrust of this article. Rather than use the more traditional approach of analysing functions and formal structures, the study added a different perspective by applying a cultural framework adapted chiefly from the works of three noted scholars of higher education. It examined academic culture, namely, the symbolic dimension of academic organisation embodying the traditions, myths, rituals, occupational beliefs and values and other forms of expressive symbolism that have grown up about universities and the life and work of academics. Different levels of culture are revealed, bases of conflict and aspects of a common culture are elucidated, their organisational implications are discussed and the value of a cultural perspective is addressed.
 
Investigates the views of university researchers towards their industrial sponsors. Faculty at five American universities completed a mailed questionnaire in which they were asked about their perceptions of the rewards and costs associated with collaboration with commercial organizations. Suggests that researchers who are highly dependent on private industry support tend to indicate, on the average, more rewards and fewer costs associated with that source than do their colleagues who do not receive such support. Discusses implications of the findings from the points of view of the university administrators, the academic researchers, and the funding sources.
 
This article analyzes the sex ratio, national origin, age distribution, and levels of qualification of academics in the education departments of Australian universities. The limited turnover in university positions that can be expected in the 1980s and 1990s will adversely affect the career prospects of recent and future graduates in education. The present underrepresentation of women in university appointments seems likely to be perpetuated. The many academics recruited by education departments in the 1960s and 1970s were mostly relatively young men. As the age distribution of academics shifts, the Australian education departments may be faced with problems of obsolescence and rigidity.
 
Social cognitive theory's triadic reciprocal causation model applied to low-performing schools where school leaders have low sense of agency 
The theory of change in student achievement once leadership efficacy is increased through leader development 
Social cognitive theory's triadic reciprocal causation model applied to low-performing schools where school leaders have high sense of agency and efficacy 
Depiction of hypothesized effect of the SSP intervention 
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between school principals’ sense of efficacy and their involvement with the Arkansas Leadership Academy's (the Academy) School Support Program (SSP). Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected from participating SSP principals to explore differences in mean principal self-efficacy given varied years of participation in SSP. The Principal Self-Efficacy Survey was used to measure the construct of principal self-efficacy of 27 principals participating in the Academy's SSP for low-performing schools. Findings – The findings suggest that principals of low-performing schools that participated in the Arkansas Leadership Academy's SSP for more years have a stronger sense of leadership efficacy than principals of low-performing schools that are just beginning the SSP. Post hoc qualitative data were collected through a focus group discussion to provide insight regarding actual practices that led to increased perceived self-efficacy as a result of participating in the SSP. Research limitations/implications – This study is highly contextualized to the principals and school systems participating in the SSP, a limited population due to conditions under which schools qualify to participate in the program. Practical implications – As schools continue to be identified as needing to improve based on accountability measures, external sources of leadership development for the principals leading these schools should be considered as a possible means for increasing their senses of efficacy, and indirectly supporting the potential for improved school performance. Social implications – The attributes of highly efficacious principals – self-regulating, confident, and calm in difficult situations – may be more critical to leaders engaged in systemic change in low-performing schools where the challenges may be more complex. Originality/value – There could be a strong argument that the influence of an outside support program might be one strategy to consider when addressing the improvement of low-performing schools through raising leader efficacy.
 
Effective administrative authority involves willing rather than forced compliance; hence, a major concern of school principals should be to find strategies to increase the zone of acceptance among teachers. This research investigates the leadership behavior of principals and the personal characteristics of teachers as both are related to elementary teachers' professional zone of acceptance. Data from 46 elementary schools support the hypothesis that a large professional zone of acceptance for elementary teachers is nurtured by a principal's leadership style that combines both structure and consideration. The personal characteristics of individual teachers, however, were not as strongly related to zone of acceptance as predicted.
 
Accountability is defined in terms of the monitoring of the rights and duties of teachers, which are themselves always open for negotiation and, therefore, change through time as in consequence must the mechanisms for monitoring them. In Australia accountability has grown less centralised and less bureaucratised as teachers have become more knowledgeable and better trained until to-day the situation may be seen as one where educational aims are uncertain and monitoring, except of academic knowledge at Year Twelve, is vestigial. Economic factors and the tradition of Australian administration are currently forcing a reconsideration of this position, but ideologies, held both internationally and within the Australian teaching force, operating particularly through teachers' unions, oppose great redefinition. In as multidimensional an administrative field as Australian schooling accountability can not be rendered through one mechanism, but, taking into consideration the varying expertise of all involved, the definition of what is on the educational agenda, and the distinction between consultation and making decisions, a complex, constantly changing system of monitoring must inevitably evolve.
 
Investigates the relationship between teachers' attitudes toward a change, as the dependent variable, and their knowledge about the change, their participation in the change, and their general attitudes to education, as independent variables, in the context of certain school and teacher situation variables. (Author/IRT)
 
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the connections between state education finance distribution models and student achievement. To date, lawsuits challenging the constitutionality of state finance systems have been heard in 45 states; the judicial interpretation of the requirement to provide equality of educational opportunity has led to changes in finance distribution models as well as the implementation of accountability policy. Design/methodology/approach – The study included district level finance and achievement data from five states. Researchers reviewed the relevant judicial interpretation of the finance system, the accountability policy, and the finance distribution system. Next, researchers calculated the equity of both the finance distribution model and measures of student achievement. Finally, an equity ratio was developed and calculated to discern the degree to which state distribution models resulted in equitable measures of student achievement. Findings – Findings reveal that no state has both an equitable system of finance and equitable measures of student achievement. The way that states define proficiency significantly impacts the percentage of students that reach proficiency. This impacts the provision of equality of opportunity. Originality/value – Traditionally, the measurement of equity has only been applied to finance distribution systems. The authors of this paper have applied these concepts to measures of student achievement and aligned the two concepts with the equity ratio. Since states are charged with providing sufficient resources to enable students to reach proficiency, an understanding of the interaction between resources and achievement is a critical tool in analyzing the provision of equal opportunity.
 
There is, in the literature on administration, a general implication that resource levels are to be largely taken as givens, operating as constraints within which the administrator must work. A contrary view may be taken, namely that the level of resources made available to a specific operating unit may be increased by the insightful administrator. Careful analysis of the situation coupled with a reasoned strategy which utilizes an expanded definition of resources, a definition which rejects superficial categorization in favor of intensive examination of its finer nuances, are necessary to the achievement of this end.
 
This article has no abstract
 
The categorization of different manifestations of teacher activist behaviour is the central focus of this paper. Evidence for the analysis is obtained from interviews with teacher activists and from an extensive period of participant-observation within an Australian teachers' organization. A matrix of nine categories of activism is described in which teacher unionists are classified according to the strength of their identification with the union (“Us”) or the union leadership's internal and external opponents (“Them”) during a period of intense political and industrial conflict. Some of the personal and attitudinal characteristics of the groups of activist teachers so described are discussed in general terms. The study presents a more complex picture of teacher activism than is implied by the more usual classifications of “left”, “right” and “moderate”. The conclusions drawn might also provide material for more extensive research, perhaps of an empirical nature, into teacher involvement in various forms of political and industrial activism.
 
The present study is concerned with assessing the factors which affect principals' roles as change facilitators in the area of curricular innovation. It is designed to identify the prevailing modes of principals' change facilitator leadership styles in curricular related activities and to estimate the relative predictive ability of policy, strategy (i.e. values), organizational and background factors in explaining the variance of these leadership styles. A random sample of 69 principals from the school district of one of the largest cities in Israel participated in the study. Three mutually exclusive modes of principals' change facilitator leadership styles — Responder, Manager and Initiator — emerged from the analysis. The totality of the factors in the research model explained 20, 31 and 48 percent of the variance respectively in the three styles. Results indicate that background and organizational factors contribute relatively more in explaining the variance in these modes than policy and strategy factors.
 
A two-year study of four effective secondary school principals generated the hypothesis that a principal's actions can be represented by a value-based model in which beliefs and values lead to goals, thereafter to activities (and constraints) and finally to outcomes. The model is conceptualised as consisting of a set of four states, values, goals, behaviours and outcomes, which can be represented formally by a Markov chain. Each of the four principals held significantly different value sets, but the analysis of the data from “Profile of the School” questionnaires indicate that no one value set brings about more effective leadership than another.
 
The major purpose of this study is to test the applicability of an eight-variable axiomatic theory of organizations to the secondary school. Three corollaries, derived from the seven major propositions of the theory, were tested with data from 36 secondary schools in Illinois. The methodological processes employed to obtain measures of complexity, adaptability, and job satisfaction are presented following explication of the larger theoretical framework. An extended discussion of the findings and their implications for the theory applied to schools concludes with suggestions for methodological changes and an expanded research approach.
 
This article is a philosophical investigation of the “Freedom and Authority Memorandum”, written by A.W. Jones then Director-General of Education in South Australia. The article has several purposes. First, it is an example of the contribution that philosophy can make to the formulation of educational policy. Second, it compares and contrasts two institutional styles for the purpose of elucidating the kind of bureaucratic organization commended by the memorandum. Third, the article attempts to demonstrate that contractual consent theory, in and of itself, does not dissolve many of the most serious problems that revolve around ideas of freedom and authority. Last, the article illustrates why, given the assumptions of institutional collectivism, the commitment to institutional individualism implicit in the “freedom and Authority Memorandum” cannot necessarily lead to happiness.
 
School development planning (SDP) is one outcome of education being managed by modes of management that originate in the corporate world of private enterprise. While the rhetoric indicates strongly that modes of management such as SDP are supportive of efficiency, effectiveness and public accountability, empirical evidence is slight. Provides a case study of SDP in a small rural disadvantaged primary school called Meiki in which SDP has proved to be a rewarding process for staff and has had a positive impact on student outcomes. However, it raises serious questions about the connection between SDP and claims for enhanced efficiency.
 
There is a persistent image of the Catholic Church as an authoritarian institution which is opposed to democratic practices. While it is true that the Church retains its right to be authoritarian in what pertains to faith and morals, it is not true that the Church believes it must or should be authoritarian in all matters. So long as the primary ends of administration are assured, the church is not necessarily concerned with the actual form of administration adopted. In recent times, although there has been no negation of the doctrine that all authority is granted by God, the Church has displayed an increasing sympathy for democratic ideals. Indeed, the Church's own institutions have for centuries followed democratic administrative procedures and the more wide-spread adoption of such procedures in Catholic schools is to be highly commended.
 
The administrative revolution has barely touched the schools of Australia. One reason for this is the preoccupation with teaching of those who should be administering. Although schools present remarkable opportunities for staff involvement, “the power of the group” is rarely released. The post-graduate courses in educational administration offered by the University of New England seek to challenge the administrator to look beyond the confines of his own experience, to recognize the powers inherent in group activity and to accept the existence of a discipline of administration. These goals are sought through the teaching of foundation and professional courses in which theoretical and comparative aspects of the discipline are emphasised. There is a marked paucity of research in educational administration. Administration is still largely a pragmatic process and it is likely to remain so until those teaching and researching in the area can clearly identify and organize in logical manner the content of the discipline and arrive at a common language to describe administrative behaviour.
 
In this paper, which was presented at a Conference for Lecturers in Educational Administration held in Melbourne in August 1981, the author expands upon past criticisms of the phenomenological and Marxist perspectives, provides an extensive analysis of the concept of loose coupling and puts forward a philosophical alternative to the phenomenological and positivistic positions. The interplay of philosophical viewpoints with issues in theory, research and preparation in educational administration is emphasized.
 
In August 1975, the Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration will be five years old. In furtherance of its seven-fold objectives CCEA has formulated and embarked on a publications programme, organized conferences and seminar/ workshops at which the principles and practice of educational administration were discussed, encouraged the foundation of affiliated groups of educational administrators in Commonwealth countries, carried out its first survey of aspects of educational administration within the Commonwealth, and arranged visits of specialists among countries. Recently its constitution was approved thus enabling CCEA to extent its activities further within the guidelines developed during its first quinquennium.
 
The major objectives of this study were to investigate the relative effectiveness of three types of selectors in the process of selecting new graduate students for an educational administration program and further to examine the usefulness of various pieces of information submitted by these graduate students when applying for the program in predicting both success in the graduate program and in later administrative practice. Groups of the three types of selectors were presented with the application files of six actual students who had enrolled in a graduate program of educational administration five years previous. The respondents were asked to predict on the basis of the information in the files whether the students would do well in the program and whether they would have successful administrative careers. The actual achievements of these students were known to the researchers. The findings indicate that the three types of selectors studied were equally effective in the selection process with some tendency for each group to select better for a particular aspect of success. It was also shown that most of the application materials requested from students are useful in predicting future success. Several recommendations based on these findings are presented.
 
Intensifying efforts to utilize behavioral science concepts and knowledge in administrative research and practice in education during the past quarter-century have produced an impressive body of literature, largely taxonomic in nature. Much of this literature involves system theory and attempts to identify and classify the various processes by which planned change may be controlled and directed. It thus gives rise to the concept of coherent change strategies and tactics: a concept useful to both the student of organizational change and the administrative practitioner. The author describes four major attempts to identify and classify strategies of organizational change and the tactice that “go with them. In general, these strategies address the problem of how to change organizations, but it is also necessary to know what to change. Leavitt has identified and described four crucial organizational variables which are amenable to administrative control and manipulation: (1) task, (2) structure, (3) people, and (4) technology. These variables are dynamically interrelated but are helpful to the researcher and the administrator in designing and monitoring systemic approaches to organizational change utilizing any strategy which may have been selected.
 
Traditional approaches to educational administration have generally reflected a managerial perspective which owed much to the principles of scientific management developed by F. W. Taylor. Technical concerns which have dwelt on “efficiency” and administration control have, however, ignored and masked the inequalities and ideologies around which organizations are structured. It is argued that critical theory may offer a means of exposing the forms of domination which repress human beings. For the German philosopher Jurgen Habermas critique is a powerful device to unmask unnecessary forms of domination which have been perpetuated by distorted communication. In contrast undistorted or ideal communication entails a pervasive democratic interaction which acknowledges that all participants have the capacity to take part in the making of meaningful decisions.
 
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