Journal of Education and Training Studies

Published by Redfame Publishing
Online ISSN: 2324-8068
Publications
Article
Recent studies show that a new strategy called differential-associative processing is effective for learning related concepts. However our knowledge about differential-associative processing is still limited. Therefore the goals of the present study are to assess the duration of knowledge that is acquired from using differential-associative processing, to determine whether the efficacy of differential-associative processing changes with the addition of a 10-minute pre-testing review, and to compare differential-associate processing to two conditions in which students select their own learning strategy. The results revealed that differential-associative processing was a better strategy for learning related concepts than were either of the two comparison conditions. They also revealed that a 10-minute pre-testing review had a positive additive influence on differential-associative processing. Finally, although the knowledge acquired from using differential-associative processing declined with an increase in delay between learning and testing, this decline was equivalent to the decline observed in both comparison conditions.
 
Article
In this research; aim was determining student achievement by comparing problem-based learning method with teacher-centered traditional method of teaching 10th grade chemistry lesson mixtures topic. Pretest-posttest control group research design is implemented. Research sample includes; two classes of (total of 48 students) an Anatolian High School student in 2014-2015 academic year. Treatment took place for 16 hours. Experiment group treated with problem-based learning method, control group was treated with teacher-centered traditional method. Data was conducted with scientific achievement scale and t-test was used to analyse data. Findings showed that there was a significant difference between two groups in favour of students treated with problem-based teaching in terms of scientific achievements in mixtures topic.
 
Article
The aim in this study, will comparison anthropometric characteristics and motor performance tests to be between according to the ages of boys and girls ski athletes. A total of 41 Girls and 47 Boys ski athletes participated in this study voluntarily. One Wey ANOVA and LSD tests were used.In this study, there were differences in height and body weights statistical (p <0.001). 12 year old girl ski athletes were taller. Again, the body weight of girls is higher than men. In this study, the Sit and Reach Test values of girls and boys at 11 years of age were significantly higher than the values of boys and girls at 12 years of age (p <0.001). There was no difference between boys and girls (p> 0.05). The flamingo test values of boys and girls 11 and 12 aged changed according to gender and age statistical (p <0.01). The plate tapping test values of boys and girls 11 and 12 aged changed according to gender and age not statistical (p >0.05). It was statistically significant that girls' sit up and Standing Long Jump value was better than boys (p <0.001). It was statistically significant that boys' Bent Arm Hang test and mini cooper test was better than girls (p <0.001).Conclusion: Anthropometric characteristics and motor performance tests were found to be within normal limits according to the ages of boys and girls ski athletes. Physical characteristics and motor performance parameters can change according age and sex for 11 and 12 aged Child. For ski training and education's plans, according age and gender should be taken into consideration on child.
 
Results of the Mann-Whitney U Test on the Difference of Scale Total Points of Pre-Test Scores of Control and Experiment Groups
Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test Results for Determining the Total Score Differences of the Pre-Test / Post-Test Scale for the Experiment Group
Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test Results to Determine Pre-Test / Post-Test Score Differences for Total Score for Control Group
T-Test Results to Determine the Difference in Total Score Related to the Sex of the Experiment Group
Article
In this study, it was investigated that effect of games including physical activity on digital game addiction of 11-14 age group middle-school students. Along with the determination of digital game addiction, conducting applied experimental study is important regarding showing results of application with theoretical knowledge towards solving problem. Within this framework, it was thought that “games including physical activity” will be important tool for decreasing the level of digital game addiction. Experimental Design method was used in the study in which was adopted Quantitative Research model. When 11-14 age group students who addicted digital games consisted of the population of the study, the sample of the study consisted of 29 girls and 51 boys who have studied. In the study, personal information form and digital game addiction scale that was developed by the researcher were used as measurement tools. During data collection period, by accepting applied pre-test to students as criterion sample process, students who have high addiction level (total scale score is 49 and above) were detected and control (n = 40) and experimental (n = 40) groups were created with unbiased assignment method. After the 12-weeks period “games including physical activity” training, the data which was collected from the control and experimental groups by taking post-test data was evaluated with SPSS 20 packaged software. It was found that there was a significant difference between pre-test and post-test of both sub-dimensions and total addiction scores and post-test scores were lower than pre-test scores. It was shown that post-test addiction scores were significantly higher than pre-test addiction scores in control group. When investigating post-test addiction scores of control and experiment groups, it was shown that addiction level of experimental group significantly decrease comparing control group. It was determined that pre-test/post-test scores of experimental group students did not show significant differences in terms of gender, age, education level of mothers, education level of fathers, number of siblings. It was also found that pre-test/post-test addiction scores of experimental and control groups showed significant differences regarding playing digital game duration. When playing digital game duration decreased in experimental group, playing game duration increased in control group. Therefore, it was concluded that addiction levels of students who are digital game addict decreased because of interesting games including physical activity. As a result; physical moving games and sports can be said to be an important tool in dealing with digital game addiction. It can also be said that an important way to protect children from such addictions is to do sports.
 
Moral Decision Making Attitudes Scale Mean Scores of the Athletes Partcipating In the Study According to Education Level Variable of Mother and Father Mann Whitney U Test Results
Article
The aim of this study is to examine and interpret the moral decision-making attitudes of athletes participating in the football branch studies in Konya Province in the 2017-2018 season within the scope of the infrastructure activities of the Atiker Konyaspor Club. The research group consisted of 234 athletes participating in the study voluntarily from the 274 athletes who participated in the infrastructure studies mentioned in 2017-2018 season .In this study which was conducted based on survey model, Moral Decision Making Attitudes Scale was used in the substructure sports developed by Lee et al (2007) and whose Turkish validity and reliability performed by Gürpınar (2014). SPSS 16.0 statistical package program was used to evaluate the data and to find the calculated values. Data were summarized with percentage, mean and standard deviations. The data were tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test if it showed normal distribution and it was determined that the data did not show normal distribution. Since the data is not normal distribution ,The independent group Mann Whitney U test for binary cluster comparisons, Kruskal Wallis-H test for more than two cluster comparisons was used. The Dunnett T3 test was used to determine the source of significant differences from the Kruskal Wallis-H test result.Within the scope of the study,Scale reliability coefficient was calculated as 0.76. The level of significance of the study was taken as 0.05.As a result of the research; As a result of the averages of the Moral Decision Making Attitudes Scale of 234 athletes participating in the mentioned infrastructure activities, While statistically significant differences were determined according to education level, father education level and age variable, No difference was determined according to mother education level variable.
 
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the attainments and their descriptions, and units of the 11th grade level Turkish Philosophy curriculum, introduced in Turkey in the academic year 2018-2019 in order to display its advantages and disadvantages. In this study, a qualitative research method ‘document analysis technique’ was used. The attainments of the curriculum what learning domains they corresponded to and what level of behavior they represented were analyzed. The study, found that all the attainments belonged to the cognitive domain and that out of the 21 attainments, 10 of them corresponded to representative behaviors at the comprehension level, 5 of them at the analysis level, 5 of them at the evaluation level and 1 of them at the knowledge level. The units integrated in the curriculum that referred to the periods of history of philosophy were named differently from widely accepted names used Philosophy literature. The descriptions of the attainments did not fully reflect the scope of some attainments and neglected some periods in the history of philosophy. Nevertheless, the curriculum had positive qualities such as philosophical writing, text reading and the inclusion of Turkish-Islamic philosophers. The study recommends that the identified problems should be resolved to make the curriculum functional and eliminate its defects.
 
The gender rates of the participating students
The ways the geography textbook was used in the geography classes
How was your 12 th -grade geography textbook in terms of handling the subjects?
At what level did your teachers use the geography textbooks when teaching the courses during your high school life (9 th , 10 th , 11 th , and 12 th grades)?
Article
Textbooks are one of the most used teaching materials for attaining educational goals in secondary education institutions. Textbooks still maintain their importance at the present time, when a lot of technological developments are taking place. It is important to evaluate textbooks, which also play an important part in geography education, from the perspective of students who have just completed their high school education. To this end, the purpose of this study is to determine to what extent the geography textbook is used by high school 12th graders in their classes. The study employs the mixed research model. A Likert-type survey composed of ten questions and five variables was prepared by obtaining expert opinion. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the survey was found to be 0.761. At the end of the survey, an open-ended question was addressed to the students. The study was conducted on the newly enrolled first-grade students of four verbal departments of Namık Kemal University Faculty of Arts and Sciences in the 2018-2019 academic year. The data obtained from the student survey are presented in tables along with frequency and percentage values.The students’ responses to the five-variable, ten-question Likert-type survey prepared by the researchers imply that students do not frequently use the geography textbook when they are in the 12th grade, especially in the process of preparing for the university entrance exam.
 
Descriptive Statistical Table of Physical and Biomorphological Characteristics of Tennis Players Attending to Study
The Relationship Table Between Biomotoric Properties and Bounce Performance
Article
Tennis is a sports branch with a lot of coordinated properties. The physical, physiological and motoric properties of the athlete are at optimum level, which influences the stroke performance positively. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between biomotoric properties and Hewitt test performance in 13-15 years old tennis players. 10 healthy female tennis players (age: 14.00±1.05 years, height: 158.60±3.69 cm, weight: 53.57±5.22 kg, experience: 3.40±1.58 years) who played in Pamukkale University tennis club participated in this study voluntarily. In anthropometric measurements height, body weight, leg lengths and dominant hand were recorded. Left and right hand grip, countermovement and squat jumps test, flexibility, standing long jump, static and dynamic balance, star test, Wall Catch coordination test and Hewitt performance test were applied to the tennis players. In the statistical analysis of the data, descriptive analyzes of all test performance characteristics of the tennis players were calculated as mean and standard deviation. The relationships between biomotoric properties and Hewitt test performance were evaluated using Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis. The statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Statistically significant correlation was found between Hewitt test (groundstroke performance) and Wall Catch coordination test (r= 0.865; p<0.01). There was no significant correlation between Hewitt test and leg lengths, dominant hand, left-right foot dynamic balance, standing long jump, flexibility, jump performance, left and right hand grip and star tests (p>0.05). As a result, the use of tests with similar movements special to tennis in evaluating the athlete's performance can accurately reflect the athlete's test values.
 
Comparison of Pretreatment Parameter Levels of Volleyball Training Group and Core Training Group 
Article
In this study, it was aimed to assess the effects of core training on the vertical jump strength and some motor characteristics of 14-16 aged female volleyball players. Thirty-four female athletes playing volleyball in Van province participated in the study voluntarily. The average age of volleyball players is 15.47, the weight average is 53.66 kg and the average height is 164.29 cm. The athletes participating in the study were randomly divided into two groups as control groups (n=17) and experimental groups (n=17). Control group joined only the volleyball training. Experimental group participated in the 10-week, 3-days-a-week core training in addition to the volleyball training. Measurements were taken before and after the study. Intra-group and inter-group, pre-test, post-test values were calculated using SPSS package program. The students’ t-test was used to compare pre-training and post-training tests of control group and experimental groups. The paired sample (dependent sample) t-test was used to compare the first and last tests of both groups. Vertical jumping, upper extremity strength, lower extremity strength, strength of the trunk muscles were found to be improved and body fat percentages were found to be decreased in the experimental group. As a result, it can be said that a 10 week core training improved jumping strength and core strength.
 
Comparison of Flamingo Balance Pre and Post Test Averages
Comparison of Technical Skill Pre-and Post-Test Averages
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of specific trainings applied to 14 age male soccer players on their balance, sprint and technical skills. 30 male soccer players, who attended the trainings at least 4 years in Çanakkale Beşiktaş Soccer School, joined to the study by having their parents confirm the “Parental Permission Form”. Soccer players mean of length was calculated 158.24±2.98 cm and mean of weight was calculated 46.37±3.44 kg. Soccer-specific trainings were applied to the players 12 weeks, 3 days a week, at least 90 minutes a day. Flamingo balance, 30 meters sprint and technical skill tests were applied before and after the training period. Datas were analyzed in statistic package programme by using “Paired t Test”. Results were evaluated according to “p<0.05” significance level. Significant differences were found in comparing the tests’ results of soccer players (p<0.05). As a result, it can be said that the inclusion of high-intensity deflection exercises instead of the high-rigidity, flat running conditions applied in soccer-specific training has improved the technical skills of 14-year-old footballers and additionally affects their balance and speed performance positively.
 
Pre-test and post-test analysis results of the experimental group
Pre-test and post-test analysis results of the control group
Comparison of the experimental and control groups.
Article
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of 8-week aerobic training program on respiratory and circulatory parameters in female swimmers between 12-14 years old. A total of 22 female swimmers, who were between 12-14 years old and joined to the national competitions in the province of Gaziantep, participated as volunteers. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups as experimental group (n=11, age:13.12±0.69) and control group (n=11, age:12.56±0.53). Aerobic training program was applied to the experimental group 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Both groups continued their regular swimming trainings. Resting heart rate (RHR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measurements of the subjects were performed as circulatory parameters before and after training. These values were measured by Omron M6 Comfort device. Measurements of vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and forced expiratory rate (FEV1/FVC) were performed as respiratory parameters. These values were measured by M.E.C. Pocket Spiro USB-100 instruments. For statistical analysis of data, Paired Sample t test was used for intra-group comparisons, and the Independent Sample t test was used for inter-group comparisons. The level of significance was determined as p<0.05. In the study we performed, the values of RHR, SBP, DBP, VC, FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC were found to be significant after the aerobic training program applied to the experimental group (p<0.05). The circulatory parameters of the control group showed significance at p<0.05 level in RHR value. There was no significant difference between SBP and DBP values (p>0.05). The respiratory parameters of the control group were significant in FVC and FEV1 values (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between VC and FEV1/FVC values (p>0.05). As a result, it is thought that aerobic trainings have positive effects on respiratory and circulatory parameters in swimmers. It can be said that regular aerobic training improves respiratory and circulatory parameters.
 
Descriptive Statistics of Participants
Control and Experimental Group Pre-Test Comparison
Control and Experimental Group Post-Test Comparison
Experimental Group Pretest-Posttest Comparison
Article
The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of imagination and cognitive learning exercises, which are applied to increase the success of elite handball players, on their balance skills.The research group consists of a total of 36 voluntary male athletes, 18 of which are the control group and 18 of them are the experimental group, aged between 14 and 16, with at least 5 years of sports experience, who have been playing handball in Kayseri Youth Sports Club. For the study group, 8-day, 30-minute cognitive training and imagination study program was applied as two sets per day. No exercise was applied to the control group. Static and dynamic balance tests were applied to all of the participants (study and control group at the beginning and end of the study. According to the results of the analysis performed at the end of the study, a significant difference was found between the post-test results of all balance parameters of the experimental and control groups (p <0.05). When the pre-test and post-test results of the control group were compared, there was a significant difference between the scores of Static, Level8, Level4 and Oscillation CE (p<0.05) and there was no significant difference between Level2 and Oscillation OE (p>0.05). When the pre-test and post-test results of the experimental group were compared, a significant difference was found between all equilibrium parameters (p<0.05).As the result, it was found that cognitive imagination programs have positive effects on learning the balance skills in handball players under the light of the obtained findings.
 
Physical and demographic characteristics of the study group 
Article
This study was conducted to determine some motoric characteristics of children football players in the 10-17 age group and to compare them according to their playing positions.The study was carried out with voluntary participation of a total of 190 licensed athletes in Turkey Football Federation "U" category playing in Çeliktepe, Aslantepe and Seyrantepe sports club (U10-U17).The athletes participated in the study were divided into the 10-13 and 14-17 age categories, and further divided into three groups, namely defensive, midfield and forward player groups according to their playing positions. Demographic information about the age, football sports age and playing positions of the athletes were recorded. The research measurements were made during the first week of the preparatory period at the start of the season. All participants were subjected to motoric tests that measure speed, agility, horizontal jump, endurance and balance parameters, which are considered important for football branch. In the analysis of the data, the SPSS 23.0 statistical program was used. The Kolmogorov Smirmov test was used to determine whether the data showed normal distribution, and "One-Way ANOVA", followed by "Tukey HSD" were used for the parameters with normal distribution, whereas "Kruskal-Wallis" and "Mann-Whitney U" test were used for the data with non-normal distribution; and p<0.05 was accepted as the level of significance.As a result of the analysis of the data, there were statistically significant differences between motoric test results in term of the playing positions of football players (p<0.05).As a result, it was determined that some of the motoric performance differences, prominent in early periods among football players playing in different positions, decrease in the following years due to age, training and experience factors and that all football players in all positions have similar motoric performances in today's football. Thus, it can be said that it is important for players to have similar motoric parameters in the sense that they can compete with each other, considering that the players playing in different positions (forward-defense, etc.) come across during competitions.
 
Article
The coronavirus epidemic was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on the 11th of March 2020. Two days later, King’s College London enacted plans to encourage all staff and students to teach online. This created a unique opportunity to both review and assess how teaching has changed in this institutional context. This report provides an overview of what has been done in institutions more broadly, the reaction to online learning, and gives feedback from users and from other data sources on the perceived impact on teaching. This research is novel in that it is one of the first largely reflective narrative accounts of how, and in what manner, changes to digital higher education were conducted and perceived during the COVID-19 pandemic.
 
Knowledge change by topic
Training program evaluation by topic
Article
Firearm deaths and related health issues have increased and disproportionately affected minorities in the COVID-19 era. We developed an accessible virtual training program, including topics on gun violence epidemiology, depression, substance use, intimate partner violence (IPV), intervention resources, safety planning, and COVID-19-related issues. The training program was distributed to participants from the Northeast region, particularly New Jersey, through text, email, and social media. Among the 202 survey responses from the participants, the mean age was 22.6, 50% were male, and 84.4% were minorities. Only 49.5% of participants were familiar with the related topics before the program, with participants having the least knowledge in gun violence epidemiology (9.5%). The mean test score for knowledge on all related topics after the training was 98.0 out of 100. Most participants were satisfied with the training program (92.1%), felt comfortable seeking help (86.1%), and would promote the program (83.7%). The participants were least comfortable seeking help for depression, particularly among non-African and non-Hispanic minority groups. We concluded that brief online interventions can improve community health outreach, knowledge, awareness, and likelihood of help-seeking and treatment. Tailored training programs are needed to target various populations for prevention and intervention.
 
Article
As a result of COVID-19 pandemic, medical training has been greatly impacted globally. In Canada, out-of-province visiting clinical electives were cancelled. In addition, the Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS) interviews were transitioned to being virtual since 2020. As residency programs are exploring new ways to overcome the challenges of elective cancellation, there has been a surge of residency program social media accounts on Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook. Social media serves as a platform for residency programs to promote themselves in addition to posting interactive educational materials. Moreover, social media residency accounts provide a platform for medical students to learn about the programs and network virtually with fellow applicants, residents, program directors, and faculty members. Overall, social media is becoming a popular and valuable tool for residency programs to connect with the applicants during COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. Among the different social media platforms, Instagram seems to be more appealing to both residency programs and the graduating medical students. We report our observations regarding selected Canadian residency program Instagram accounts. To maximize the success of using social media, it is important for the residency programs to consider the attitudes of applicants towards the residency social media accounts. Future studies are needed to assess the effectiveness of the Canadian residency program social media accounts for the final year students applying for these programs.
 
Article
The purpose of this study is to discover the factors behind the online engagement gaps among adult learners in their postgraduate educational studies in the post-COVID-19 era. The qualitative approach was conducted on postgraduate adult students from an open university in Malaysia, using interviews, observations, and document analysis techniques. The findings of this study show three main themes of factors that influence the online engagement gaps among adult learners; personal conditions, institutional conditions, and external digital technology conditions. The small sample size only involved participants from a similar postgraduate course. The results are accurate only for this group of participants, limiting the transferability of the findings. There is no rich data to affirm on the internet connection of all students since the data can only be collected via interviews of participants and observation of participative students during live sessions. The study revealed that the factors influencing online engagement among adult learners could be helpful for future conceptual framework development and ensure continued success in online learning engagement in the post-COVID-19 era.
 
Article
Due to the recent outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the institutions of higher education had to transform their educational function from face-to-face to e-learning. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of e-learning and the consequent disruption of the traditional educational function in higher education in Greece with special reference to the views of undergraduates compared to those of their peers collected via the same method and tool one year earlier in two regional Greek Universities, the University of Patras and the Democritus University of Thrace. The present research was conducted in May 2021 in order to explore students’ views and feelings one year after the sudden and total transition to online teaching during the pandemic. The results suggest that students seem to prefer face-to-face courses, but they provide interesting aspects regarding e-teaching and learning -thus valuable guidelines for higher educational institutions in developing didactic approaches, to motivate students on their academic pathway, emphasizing the necessity of University Pedagogy.
 
Article
Covid-19 resulted in a pivot to remote teaching and learning in most North American colleges and universities. All of a sudden faculty expected students to use a variety of digital technologies. Here we report on the technologies post-secondary students had to use and on the problems experienced by students with and without disabilities (e.g., mobility and visual impairments, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, mental health related disabilities). In a sample of 24 post-secondary students, we found a series of problems related to: software and platform issues; connectivity; how professors managed their courses; classmates’ computer behaviors; and equipment issues. We also learned about several beneficial practices and ways to avoid problems that can be retained for future hybrid and blended courses. By giving a voice to post-secondary students our research can inform policies and practices to create a more resilient and inclusive society.
 
Article
The abrupt transitions to online teaching during COVID-19 have exacerbated educational discrepancies worldwide. South Korean schools faced similar challenges primarily due to the insufficient infrastructure and pedagogical guidelines for online teaching. This mixed-method case study investigated how Korean K-12 teachers and administrators converted to online teaching and addressed related digital equity issues during their first semester of online teaching in response to the pandemic. Interviews, as well as survey responses at the beginning and end of the semester, were analyzed through Activity Theory (AT) and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) frameworks. The study's key insights were that the digital equity issue is related to quality teaching issues beyond infrastructural problems and that teachers took various strategies to maximize the effectiveness of their blended teaching. We aim to shed light on supporting equitable online learning and sustaining positive changes in the post-COVID era.
 
Article
This article will discuss women’s writing in the Ladino Zionist-literary periodical, El Maccabeo, during early twentieth century Thessaloniki. We will sketch the writers’ profiles, and examine their goals and the literary means used to realize them. These indices will help us evaluate women’s place in shaping Thessalonikian Jewry in general, the realization of the Zionist idea in particular, and how the articles serve as a literary and historical source for Thessalonikian Jewry during this period.Likewise, we will attempt to organize their articles along a historical-literary continuum and understand how they reflect the move from tradition to innovation.
 
Article
Tebliğler Journal has been published continuously since January 1939 and has worked as a media organ where all the regulations carried out by the Ministry of National Education are found. The topics relating to geography that are published here are significant in terms of understanding geography inclinations and instruction. This study reviewed all issues of Tebliğler Journal that were published between 1939 and 1942, examined the sections relating to geography found in these issues, and aimed, when necessary, to categorize and group the topics and thus make an understandable order. In this period, topics relating to especially textbooks and syllabi were found heavily in Tebliğler Journal. However, space was allocated to many matters such as inaccurate information found in geography textbooks and geography books and syllabi to be studied in the types of schools to be opened. In this framework, it is seen that geography classes in all types of schools generally took place in one hour, and in some cases two hours, each week. Medium atlases were used for middle schools and large atlases for high schools in addition to the geography courses at the schools.
 
Article
This study seeks to investigate the issue of violence in football in Turkey from 1960 up to present day along with incidents, riots and stampedes that occurred related to violence in football. The study was conducted considering three main periods, which are from 1960 to 1980, 1980 to 2000 and finally 2000 and today. The reason why these particular periods were chosen was that each period had its own characteristics related to football-related violence and other aspects that affected it. To collect data, 15 members of fan groups were interviewed related to the football-related violence. Furthermore, the study took into account not only physical aspect of violence but also social and psychological aspect of it. Findings revealed that Turkey has been a country where football-related violence has never been completely prevented due to reasons such as coups, coup attempts, political issues, social behaviors shaped by these political issues, regulations and media considering these periods. And based on the participant opinions, it was found that main actors responsible for the violence are top officials in the football federation, politicians and media. As a result, football-related violence remains to be a major problem in football games not only on the pitch but also off the pitch.
 
Article
In the current study, the aim is to investigate the theses addressing the issue of program evaluation in the field of Curriculum and Instruction (C&I) in 1997-2015. The study employed the survey model. The universe of the study consists of totally 87 theses addressing the issue of program evaluation in the field of C&I in 1997-2015. As the data collection instrument of the study, the document analysis technique was used in the current study. The master’s and doctorate theses to be analyzed in the current study were obtained by writing “curriculum and instruction” in the search engine of the national thesis center of the Council of Higher Education. The data collected in the study were analyzed by using NVivo10.0. program package through content analysis. The findings of the analysis revealed that nearly half of the theses addressed the issue of program evaluation in elementary education and the other half dealt with program evaluation in other levels of schooling (higher education, high school education, in-service training, pre-school education, adult education, special education). The number of theses addressing program evaluation within the context of in-service training, pre-school education, adult education and special education is quite small. Another important finding of the study is the paucity of the studies aiming to investigate/evaluate hidden curriculum in all the levels of schooling.
 
Skewness and Kurtosis value of CSR and Sub Scale Size
Arithmetic Mean and Standard Deviation Values of Spectator' Perception towards CSR and Subscale
Corporate Social Responsibility Perceptions of Sports Club Fans by Gender and Marital Status
Corporate Social Responsibility Components Perceptions of Sports Club Supporters
Article
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is among the duties and responsibilities of all kinds of organizations today. In the light of this approach, the responsibility activities of sports clubs that are active in the football industry may also attract the interest of fans that are dedicated to these clubs and shape their perceptions. This study aimed to investigate the awareness of sports club fans on the CSR activities of sports clubs based on their demographic variables and determine the CSR component pyramids of sports clubs that arise as a result of such perceptions. The population of the study consisted of the fans of Adanaspor and Adana Demirspor in the Turkish Football Federation’s (TFF) 1st League and Kahramanmaraşsports Club in TFF 2nd League. The sample consisted of 656 fans who were selected from this population by the method of unbiased sampling. The data of the study were collected by using the Corporate Social Responsibility Scale that was developed by Jung (2012) and tested for reliability and validity in the Turkish language by Sönmezoğlu et al. (2016). According to the findings of the study, perceptions of the fans on CSR activities were on a medium level, and there were significant differences based on the variables of gender, marital status, age, educational status, the supported sports club and occupation. Consequently, regarding the CSR pyramid components of the clubs, legal responsibility was in the first place for the fans of Adanaspor and Kahramanmaraş Spor, while philanthropic responsibility was in the first place for the fans of Adana Demirspor.
 
Article
In recent years, the number of studies on the organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) that reflect the mainstream tendencies has dramatically increased especially in the field of business and educational sciences in Turkey. On the other hand, there is a need for a new conceptualization of the OCBs better suited to educational organizations. An overall evaluation of education-related studies on the OCBs with a holistic approach would be highly fruitful to meet this need. Prompted by such a motive, the purpose of this study is to make a general evaluation on the course of studies on the OCBs in Turkey in the last decade, from 2000 to 2015. This study was designed as a qualitative research. Data were collected through the document analysis, and analyzed in light of the questions about conceptualization of OCBs, method, sample, related structures, etc. According to findings of the study, it is seen that quantitative studies predominate the field. The studies focus on the antecedents of OCBs and the relation between OCBs and such structures as the organizational justice, commitment, leadership, work performance, organizational trust and organizational culture. The studies on the OCBs strongly reflect the approaches developed for business organizations.
 
Article
The aim of this study is to examine the development of science concept in Turkey. It is seen that the historical process of science concept in Turkey has developed within two stages. The first setting is the later stages of the Ottoman State and the Republican Era, at which time positivism was prevalent as noted in the objectives of the national science curriculum. The second stage includes the period starting from 2004 to the present when the effects of postmodern epistemology started to partially be seen with the initiation of the new elementary curriculum based on a “constructivist approach”. Positivism entered into the Ottomans during the 19th century and it affected especially the school programs. During this process, at first the positivist/modernist paradigms and later on the postmodernist paradigms affected the curricula scientifically and epistemologically. This study was based on document analysis approach. The documents used in this study were selected to represent the science curriculum of 1913, 1924, 1926, 1930 and 2004 programs. The document analysis revealed that the remained effects of positivism is observed until 2004 program. Even though, there is no deviation from the basic paradigm regarding scientific understanding until the 2004 program, the 2004 program reflects a fundamental break from the traditional approach to constructivism.
 
Article
This study examines the tendencies of studies carried out using text mining methods under the title of “serious game”. A query was run for the “serious game” keyword in the Web of Science search engine to acquire the data. The study included publications that were scanned in the SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI and A&HCI indices between 2007-2017. Information could be acquired for a total of 1431 publications. Firstly, the obtained data were cleansed of erroneous and unnecessary information by way of a pre-process. According to the data set cleansed of errors, the total number of common citations was 12701, number of citations per publication was 8.88, whereas h-index was determined as 51. Analyses were carried out by examining all “serious games” publications on the basis of: year, author, journal/symposium name, keywords, research areas and common citation parameters. According to the results, there was a continuous increase over time in the number of publications and citations. Even though “serious games” is a topic that is frequently studied in the field of education technology studies in fields such as psychology, health care sciences, environmental sciences, ecology, public environmental occupational health, rehabilitation, business economics and psychiatry shows that “serious game” is also a popular topic for studies in different disciplines.
 
Article
This study aims to analyze running distances in national teams during 2010 and 2014 FIFA World Cup and to propose a new program which estimates oxygen consumption capacity based on running distances. The data were evaluated by SPSS 22.0 statistical package program. The findings demonstrate that among teams participating in 2010 and 2014 FIFA World Cup, the lowest average running distance and estimated VO2max values belong to Brazil with 7398.77 meters and 43.84 ml/kg/m, respectively. On the other hand, the highest average running distance and estimated VO2max values belong to Australia with 10598 meters and 67.69 ml/kg/m, respectively. The average running distance and estimated VO2max value in national teams participating in 2010 FIFA World Cup was 9635.54 meters and 60.52 ml/kg/m, while they were 9095.82 meters and 52 ml/kg/m in 2014 FIFA World Cup, respectively.
 
Article
Environmental chemistry has been a research subject for master thesis and doctoral dissertations since the end of 1980s. Because of the wide usage of in literature, it is essential to draw a framework about the subject. For this reason, content analysis is conducted to analyze master thesis and doctoral dissertations about Environmental Education, which were published in the last five years, 2011-2015. In this study 69 master thesis and 18 doctoral dissertations were analyzed regarding; “publication date, total page number, academic title of the advisors, gender of authors, research type, research model, sampling method, sample size, grade level of sample and analysis method”. Result of the study indicates that quantitative methods are preferred in master thesis, on the other hand mixed type methods are preferred in doctoral thesis and also “convenience sampling” was frequently preferred as sampling method and sample size was generally about “301-350 people” because researchers preferred survey model.
 
Sample Distribution According to Gender and Classroom Level 
Article
In this study, the predictive roles of intrinsic and instrumental motivations, science self-efficacy on success in the lower and upper quartiles of score distribution are analyzed in scientific domain of PISA 2015 Turkey sample. Since their index values can’t be calculated due to missing values, some students are excluded from the sample and the study sample is comprised of 5287 students. Regression models in which intrinsic and instrumental motivation, science self-efficacy are predictive variables and success is response variable are formed for the lower and upper quartiles of score distribution of science literacy. Models are analyzed by quantile regression analysis. It is found that self-efficacy in science, intrinsic and instrumental motivations towards science are significant predictors of science success. The predictive roles of science self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation towards science are much more effective in the upper quartile of score distribution than the lower quartile. Instrumental motivation has significant relationship with science success only in the lowest and highest 10th percentages. Based on these results, suggestions are made both for researchers and teachers regarding the classroom activities, assessment processes and possible future studies that might be conducted related with the success and motivation of the students.
 
Times of Goals Scored
Variances of goals according to shoting techniques and goal areas
Goals scored and conceded while flying keeper in game.
Article
The purpose of this study is to analyze the Serbia UEFA Futsal Euro 2016 competitions in terms of some variables. Range of goals scored by winner and defeated teams in form of 5 minute periods, shots on goal, corner, contributing to the score by starting 5 and substitutes, fouls, yellow-red cards, the range of goals according to shot techniques and goal zones were examined. While a total of 129 goals were scored with an average of 6.45 goals per game, with 25 goals (19.38%) most goals was scored between 36 and 40 minutes. 41.1% of goals were scored in penalty area, 58.9% of goals were scored from outside penalty area. While the rate of shots on goal in winner teams was 55.6%, this rate in defeated teams was 44.4%. In winner teams the players started in first 5 scored 50 goals (56.8%) and players joined from bench scored 38 goals (43.2%) and in defeated teams the first 5 scored 21 goals (60%) and the players joined from bench scored only 14 goals (40%). Winner teams while playing with flying keeper has scored 1 goal (16.7%) and conceded no goal; also, the defeated teams have scored 5 goals (83.3%) and conceded 13 goals when flying keeper in game. Substitutions in winner teams scored 133 goals, in defeated teams only 31 goals were scored by substitutions. As a result; accurate shots on goal, scoring in between 36-40th minutes, starting in first 5 and also joining from bench are accepted as an important factor to win a match, but despite providing an advantage of attacking with more player, the flying keeper tactic is not considered an effective element of winning the game according to the analysis of the data.
 
Numerical distribution of UNESCO Universal Values in children"s songs according to grades
Article
In this study, where the survey model is utilized, the aim is to analyze the compatibility of children songs available in Elementary School Music Lesson Curriculum, which was put into effect by the Ministry of National Education in 2017, with universal values. In line with this objective, qualitative research methods have been used. The data used in the research have been obtained through document analysis. Content analyses method have been utilized in the analysis of the collected data. Sample of the research represents the population. Research sample, on the other hand, consists of the children’s songs in 2017 Elementary School Music Lesson Curriculum. The songs used in the study have been analyzed in terms of the twelve values identified by UNESCO in Living Values Education Program. Collected data have been analyzed in frequency (f) and percentage (%). The research has concluded that; “love, responsibility and happiness” values have been given an extensive place, while “respect and tolerance” have been included a little, and “honesty, humility and simplicity” are not existent. No negative values have been identified in the songs.
 
Article
The aim of the research was to analyze the goals scored in Russia World Cup 2018.The sample of this research was composed of 64 games played and 169 goals scored in the 2018 Russia World Cup. No goals were scored only in one competition. Because of 12 goals scored were own goals, 157 goals scored were analyzed on eleven different ways. The research data were collected e-analysis soccer programme. Frequency, average, standard deviation which were descriptive statistics were used for analysis of the research data.Consequently it was observed that 61,14% of goals were scored in the 2nd half of the matches and most of goals in the last 15 minutes of the matches, 63,69% of goals were scored after organized attack (open play), 38,59% of goals were scored from penalty, 78,98% of goals were scored with foot shot, 72,61% of goals were scored with one touch, 84,71% of the goals were scored through the penalty zone and 60,50% of the goals were scored in 3rd zone which was determined in the penalty zone. Moreover, of the teams that scored first results showed that they won 71,42% of the matches. Scorer’s playing position was 32,48% striker. Asist player’s playing position was 44,03% midfielder. 11,92% of asist were passed from 9th zone which was determined outside the penalty zone.The work guided the coaches to design real competition-like trainings and tailor the game style to the match situation. Coaches can also use this information to set goals for players and teams that specifically refer to offense and defense games. It is advisable to coach to use the 3rd zone set in the penalty zone for more goals and to use the 3rd zone in the penalty zone for more effective defense for fewer goals.
 
Article
Career and Technical Education provides students of all ages with the academic and technical skills, knowledge, and training necessary to succeed in future careers and to become lifelong learners. It marries educational objectives and workforce skill sets identified by industry as critical and in high demand. Demand for employees with these skill sets are critical, yet employers are having an increasingly hard time filling these positions. Have stigmas and biases created by education policy such as A Nation At Risk, as well as, the resulting education shift from Career and Technical Education as a part of a well-rounded public education to College Preparatory curriculum in high schools created a “four-year or bust” societal norm?
 
Article
Institutions of higher education are widening access to meet demand and to realize the benefits of an educated citizenry. Widened access has resulted in increased learner diversity, and consequently, differing expectations for teaching and learning. Achieving desired learning outcomes in this context suggests the need to examine curricular design, pedagogical approaches, and related learning theories. This paper identifies curricular elements for learner success, such as the flipped classroom, course redesign, and high impact practices, and links these to self-regulated learning to increase learner responsibility for the achievement of desired higher education outcomes—21st century skills for a global world.
 
Article
This study investigated the teachers’ level of awareness of 21st century occupational roles in Rivers state secondary schools. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The population of study comprised of 247 public secondary schools and 57 private secondary schools in Port Harcourt metropolis of Rivers state which gave a total number of 9413 participants. The sample size for the study was 860 teachers selected by using the stratified random sampling, simple random sampling and the purposive sampling techniques. Instrument used was the questionnaire titled Teachers’ level of awareness of 21st century occupational roles questionnaire (TLATCORQ) and personally designed by the researcher using a modified Likert scale of four points. Face and content validities were carried out on the instrument. A reliability test using Cronbach alpha technique which gave an index of 0.80, was also conducted .Mean and rank order statistics were used to answer the research questions while the z-test was used to analyse the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. Findings revealed that teachers’ level of awareness of 21st century occupational roles is just moderate and not very encouraging, teachers do not use technology in classroom instruction and the 21st century environment has affected the areas of instructional materials, teaching strategies and others. Based on the findings, it was recommended that teachers be allowed to form self-development groups involving more technologically competent colleagues and that professional development programmes organized by the government for teachers should be more strategic and transformative in content and direction focusing more on 21st century skills and ICT based teaching and learning strategies.
 
Article
Virtually all North American two- and four-year colleges provide accommodations to their increasing numbers of students with disabilities. To explore technology and non-technology related accommodations for these students we surveyed 118 Canadian two- and four-year college students who self-reported at least one disability, including a mental health related disability, and indicated that they had registered for access services from their college. Seventy-four students without disabilities were included in some analyses. Our findings reveal emerging issues such as non-binary gender and multiple comorbidities, in addition to more targeted recommendations concerning technology use. For example, over half of our sample self-reported multiple disabilities; there is a large number of students with mental health related disabilities (e.g., anxiety disorders, mood disorders), many of whom have comorbid disabilities; binary (male, female) gender designations are outdated; and exam and classroom accommodations without technologies are still the most popular. Grades of students with and without disabilities did not differ. Similarly, the number of different types of accommodations in two- and four-year colleges did not differ. Students generally had high technology related self-efficacy and they saw the substantial benefit of technologies, especially of writing tools. Students with mental health related disability used somewhat fewer technologies for reading, writing and time management. Self-efficacy and perceived benefit were highest for writing technologies. General use technologies such as Microsoft Office and Google Docs that were reported by most students in this study are increasingly used as adaptive aids. In future, use of technology related accommodations is likely to include showing students how to use general use software.
 
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a physical education(PE) programme targeting strength and endurance development, in which the main activities were rope climbing, pull-ups, an obstacle course, 3000-m running and kickboxing, implemented over a 22-week period and for 260 minutes per week, on the physical development of students. A total of 477 students aged 19-21 (M= 20.1 ± 0.8) took part in the study, during which an intensive strength- and endurance-based physical training programme was carried out with the students by experienced physical training instructors over a period of 22 weeks. In order to assess the students’ physical development, weight measurement, hand grip, bent arm hang, push-up, sit-up, agility and 20-m shuttle run tests were carried out respectively as pretest and posttest. The tests were completed in two days. The obtained data were examined with paired samples t-test. The varied strength- and endurance-based activities (kickboxing, crossing obstacles, etc.) carried out with a certain intensity and over a specific period by the students made a positive contribution to the development of their strength, endurance (Vo2 Max) and agility characteristics.
 
Article
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a 24-week multifaceted sport training program on some physical and performance characteristics of 5-9 year old children. There are many researches about the necessities for children to start physical activity at an early age. According to the characteristics of different physical activities to be performed, children can endow with different developments. Multifaceted development in the motor properties of an unbranched individual will also benefit him/her in the branching phase. A branch that will be applied to children will develop the characteristics of that branch in the child. This study aims to determine the effects of the implementation of a training program consisting of the basic characteristics of different branches on the physical characteristics of children.A group of children with a mean age of 6.4 (SD 1.34) (n = 98) residing in Ankara participated in the study. A training program including basic techniques of many sports branches was applied to children in the form of 2 lesson hours per day for 2 days in each week. Lessons are scheduled for 45 minutes. During the 24-week training period, children were tested and measured three times; at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the study. All physical characteristics of the children within the scope of the study has improved, and the differences in the test of vertical jump, throwing medicine ball, right foot balance posture, left hand grip force, shuttle, horizontal jump and 10x5m running were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05).
 
Article
Lateralization, which is also known as hand preference, and 2D:4D finger ratio is a sign of prenatal testosterone and known to be associated with strength. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between 2D: 4D, lateralization and hand grip strength in relation to hand and forearm that are thought to be effective in handball in elite handball players. 67 female and 67 male elite players participated in this study. The height, weight, body-mass index and hand preference of these athletes have been identified and 2D: 4D finger measurements and hand grip strength tests were performed. When identifying the preferences regarding lateralization, the hand distribution preference was determined by the Oldfield questionnaire and evaluated using the Geschwind score. After photocopy images of the two hands of the athletes were taken, their finger lengths were measured Hand grip strength was determined by a Jamar hydraulic dynamometer. Strong correlation was found especially between 2D: 4D and dominant hand grip strength in male and female elite handball players. The ratio of left-handedness due to the positions of players during the game among male and female athletes has been found to be higher than that of the general population. With regard to gender, 2D: 4D was found to be lower in males than females but hand grip was found to be higher in males than females. Besides, a significant correlation between height and BMI with 2D:4D, sport age, height, body weight and hand grip strength was found. This study emphasizes the importance of 2D: 4D, handgrip strength and hand preference in handball.
 
Measurement parameters of the study group
Comparison of right hand 2D:4D and left hand 2D:4D averages of sedentary and athlete groups
Comparison of 2D:4D ratios and physical fitness tests of the athlete group
Article
The aim of this study is to examine the association between physical fitness and 2D:4D finger ratio of high school students engaged actively in sports. 23 licensed male athletes and 23 sedentary (n=46) high school students participated in the study voluntarily. The participants age, body weight, body mass index, 2D:4D finger measurement values were recorded and 20 meter shuttle run, 30 meter sprint, sit and reach test, standing long jump and hand grip strength tests were applied on the participants. The data obtained were assessed in SPSS 21 program and the results were assessed at p˂0.05 significance level. While the average age of athletes was 15.82±1.11 years, the average age of sedentary group was 15.13±0.96 years. While statistically significant difference was found between sedentary and athlete groups in terms of VO2max, right and left hand grip strength and long jump average values (p<0.05), no statistically significant difference was found between speed and flexibility measurement results (p>0.05). When the 2D:4D averages of sedentary and athlete groups were compared, statistically significant difference was found between right hand averages (p<0.05). When right and left hand 2D:4D was compared, no statistically significant difference was found in sedentary group (p>0.05), while significant difference was found in athletes (p<0.05). Statistically significant difference was found between 2D:4D averages of both hands with all physical fitness parameters (p<0.05). In the present study, finger ratio of the groups were found to be associated with some motoric and functional dominance parameters.
 
Article
The index finger and the 4th finger ratio (2D:4D) is the indicator of the prenatal testosterone. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between 2D:4D, hand preference and hand grip strength in swimmers. A total of 80 elite swimmers, participated in the study. Height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), hand 2D:4D finger measurements and hand grip strength tests were performed for athletes. The hand preference was determined by the Oldfield questionnaire and it was evaluated according to the Geschwind score. The data were recorded in the SPSS 20 program and p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. It was found that in both men and women, a negative correlation was found between right and left hand 2D:4D and both dominant (DHGS) and non-dominant hand grip strength (NDHGS) values. It was found that men had lower 2D:4D ratio than women. For both right and left handed, there was a statistically significant difference between the right and left hand 2D:4D ratios in both men and women (p<0.05) and the dominant hand (DH) 2D:4D ratios were found to be lower than non-dominant hand (NDH) 2D:4D ratios in both men and women (p<0.05) It can be said that the 2D:4D ratios may be the effect of determining the hand preference, the grip strength and therefore the strength.
 
The Results of the One-Way Variance Analysis (ANOVA) Made to Determine Whether the Average Scores of the Male Students Participating the Universities Handball 2 nd League Competitions Received from the "Body Parts and Body Features Satisfaction Scale" in Team Success Ranking Varied according to Team Success Variable; the Arithmetic Average Values, and Standard Deviation Values 
The Results of the Mann Whitney U-Test Applied to Determine the Differentiation of Average Scores Received by Female Students Participating in the Universities Handball 2 nd League Competitions from "Body Parts and Body Features Satisfaction Scale" according to University Team Success Level Variable 
Article
The study was conducted to determine and compare the satisfaction levels of the students participating in the Universities 2nd Handball League competitions on body parts and body features and the success of their teams. The study group consisted of n=213 (111 female, 102 male) students between 18-24 years of age who participated in 2016-2017 Universities 2nd Handball League competitions (8 Female Teams, 8 Male Teams). The “Body Parts and Body Features Satisfaction Scale” was used as the measurement tool. There are 26 items for women and 27 items for men in this scale. The One-Way Variance Analysis and Tukey Test were used in the comparison of the satisfaction scores of the male handball players from their body parts with the success levels in competitions, and the Kruskal Wallis Test and Mann Whitney U-Test were used in female participants.According to the satisfaction from body parts and features average scores, the differences between the male and female teams were found to be statistically significant (p<0,05). These differences were detected in İbrahim Çeçen, Erzincan and Doğu Akdeniz University teams in men; and in Atatürk, Sütçü İmam and Erciyes University teams in women.As a result, although there was a statistically significant difference between the average satisfaction scores of the teams, which were the 1st and the last in the tournament, in terms of body parts and features, it was also determined that this situation was not influential on the success rating of the teams.
 
Participant Demographics-2019 (N=29)
Article
This study compares a 300 level terrorism class taught using a flipped classroom to the same class taught one year earlier in the traditional, face to face method. While one examination score was better for the face to face class, the flipped class did better than the traditional class on the final examination. Every other point of comparison showed no difference between the classes, except for the end of semester student evaluations, which were significantly higher for the face to face class than the flipped classroom.
 
Article
This study compares a 300 level statistics class taught using a HyFlex classroom to the same class taught one year earlier in the traditional, face to face method. While one quiz score was better for the face to face class, the HyFlex class did better than the traditional class on one quiz and final the examination. Every other point of comparison showed no difference between the classes.
 
Article
The aim of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of the DeMoulin Self-Concept Developmental Scale for 36-72 month old children. In addition, it has been attempted to examine the effects of age and gender variables on the self-concept of children. The study is in survey method. The sample consists of 810 children who attend preschools in Istanbul, Turkey. Data collection tools used in the research are; the Demographic Form, the DeMoulin Self-Concept Developmental Scale for Children, the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale-30 and the Emotion Regulation Scale. The results of the item discrimination and criteria validity analyses support the validity of the scale. It could be said that the founded Cronbach's Alpha value of the total scale and subscales and the results of the split half method and test-retest method analyses indicate that the scale is a reliable measurement tool. In addition, it has been found that the age variable affected the self-concept scores, but the gender variable had no effect on it. The research findings are discussed within the framework of the related literature.
 
Correlation Values of Data Obtained from Study Group in Which Construct Validity of "TPASAF"
Correlation Values of Data Obtained from Study Group in Which "TPESPF" Construct Validity Study was Applied
Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Data Obtained from Study Group in Which "TPASCF" Construct Validity was Applied
Article
In accordance with the subject of this research, three different scales to measure preschool teachers’ performances with respect to school principals’, parents’ and children’s point of view were developed for the research. 51 principals, 893 parents and 256 children participated in the research.“Teacher Performance Evaluation Scale – Administrators’ Form” (TPESAF), “Teacher Performance Evaluation Scale – Parents’ Form” (TPESPF) and “Teacher Performance Evaluation Scale – Children’s Form” (TPESCF) are the scales that were prepared and used by the researcher. The data obtained were analysed by “SPSS 13 for Windows”. The main results of the research are as follows: Research, an exploratory factor analysis was carried out for each of the scales developed. In order to show the validity of the scales, the overall and sub-test content validity analysis and differentiation power of the (TPESAF), (TPESPF) and (TPESCF) were calculated. Following the factor analysis which gave the scales their final shape, statistical reliability analysis was carried out. In this study, Cronbach Alpha coefficients of the (TPESAF), (TPESPF) and (TPESCF) and their sub-tests’ means and standard deviations were calculated. Furthermore the test re-test reliability analysis was carried out. The scales were found to be reliable according to the reliability analysis (Cronbach Alpha Coefficients of Principal’s Form: 0,94, Parents’ Scale: 0,93, Children’s Scale: 0,84).
 
Experimental Interventions 
Means, standard deviations, and (t) of the mean scores of the experimental and control groups posttest in the attitudinal scale towards 3DL 
Growth rates of the logical thinking skills of for both experimental and control groups in the pre and posttests 
Article
This paper aims to measure the effectiveness of the 3DL on Omani students' acquisition of practical abilities and skills. It examines the effectiveness of the 3D-lab in science education and scientific thinking acquisition as part of a national project funded by The Research Council. Four research tools in a Pre-Post Test Control Group Design, findings show statistically significant differences in student achievement in favor of the experimental group. The results show students' attitudes are positive towards using 3D-lab in teaching. Improvements in logical and visual thinking are also observed. The paper then draws conclusions and recommendations.
 
Article
In this study, the effect of fluent reading (speed, reading accuracy percentage, prosodic reading), comprehension (literal comprehension, inferential comprehension) and problem solving strategies on classifying students with high and low problem solving success was researched. The sampling of the research is composed of 279 students at elementary school 4th grade. In the research, in order to figure out reading accuracy percentage and reading rate, 5 scales were used: a reading text, prosodic reading scale, literal comprehension scale, inferential comprehension scale and problem solving scale. In order to see the effect of fluent reading and comprehension skills on classifying students with high and low problem solving success, logistic analysis was conducted while discriminant analysis was conducted to determine the effect of problem solving skills. At the end of the study, it was seen that fluent reading skills had no effect on classifying students according to their problem solving success. It was concluded that both comprehension skills are 77% effective in classifying problem solving success, but inferential comprehension is more effective than literal comprehension. It was found that problem solving strategies were effective on classifying students with high and low problem solving success problem at 88% level; that the most important factors while classifying were estimation and control, systematic listing, looking for a pattern and drawing figures and diagrams respectively; and that backward-studying strategies were inadequate in classifying successful and unsuccessful students. At the end of the study, mathematical sentence writing strategy appeared to be the most important strategy in classifying students with high and low problem solving success, but it had a negative correlation. In other words, a rise in the usage rate of this strategy increased the likelihood for individuals to be in the group with low problem solving success.
 
Top-cited authors
Julie Ann Pooley
  • Edith Cowan University
Gerda Hagenauer
  • Universität Salzburg
Tina Hascher
  • Universität Bern
Pablo Fernández-Berrocal
  • University of Malaga
Ruth Castillo Gualda
  • Universidad Camilo José Cela