Journal of Education and Human Development

Published by American Research Institute for Policy Development
Print ISSN: 2334-296X
Publications
This study implemented a qualitative approach to examine the phenomenon of "inquiry-based science pedagogy or inquiry instruction" as it has been experienced by individuals. Data was collected through online open-ended surveys, focus groups, and teacher reported self-reflections to answer the research questions: 1) How do middle level science teachers conceptualize "inquiry-based instruction?" 2) What are preferred instructional strategies for implementation in middle level science classrooms? And 3) How do middle level science teachers perceive the connection between science instruction and student learning? The participants within this research study represent 33 percent of teachers in grades 5 through 9 within six school districts in northeastern Pennsylvania. Of the 12 consent forms originally obtained, 10 teachers completed all three phases of the data collection, including the online survey, participation in focus groups, and teacher self-reflection. 60 percent of the participants taught only science, and 40 percent taught all content areas. Of the ten participants, 50 percent were certified teachers of science and 50 percent were certified as teachers of elementary education. 70 percent of the research participants reflected having obtained a master's, with 60 percent of these degrees being received in areas of education, and 10 percent in the area of science. The research participants have a total of 85 collective years of experience as professional educators, with the average years of experience being 8.5 years. Analysis of data revealed three themes related to research question #1) How do middle-level science teachers conceptualize inquiry-based instruction? and sub-question #1) How do middle-level science teachers characterize effective instruction? The themes that capture the essence of teachers' formulation of inquiry-based instruction that emerged in this study were student centered, problem solving, and hands-on . Analysis of data revealed one theme related to research question #2) What are preferred instructional strategies for implementation in middle level science classrooms? and topical sub-question #2) How do middle level science teachers structure instruction. The theme that emerged was needs of students. Analysis of the data revealed one theme related to research question #3) How do middle level science teachers perceive the relationship between science instruction and student learning? and topical sub-question #3) How do middle level science teachers view their role in relation to student learning? This theme is meaning making. Analysis of the data related to meaning making revealed two sub-themes of application and relationships. It is clear that middle level science teachers have a vision for inquiry-based science instruction, but implementation is inhibited by a variety of factors including curricular programming that is very broad and lacks depth, the scheduling of time and resources for science, and the absence of a clear model of inquiry-based instruction. In addition, only one participant referenced students investigating their own authentic questions and no participants reflected on the importance of students using evidence in their explanations of scientific phenomenon. Additionally, participants continually reflected on the needs of their students informing instructional practices, and it is wondered if there is a clear understanding among middle level teachers of how students learn science. Real world applications were recognized as important within science learning and the researcher questions whether teachers of science have adequate opportunities to explore real world application of science concepts throughout their careers in order to foster connections within the classroom. These findings support the need for strong, job-embedded professional development, the cultivation of learning communities dedicated to the investigation and implementation of inquiry-based science, the focusing of curricular programming to allow for in depth investigation of scientific concepts, and the commitment of time and resources to support effective science instruction. In addition, it is recommended that additional support be provided to teachers of science to engage in job shadowing, field experiences and internships to allow for the uncovering of applications of science beyond the classroom. Throughout the United States, there continues to be a clear call for reform in the area of science education. These research findings must inform the work of the educational reformers, professional developers, teacher preparation programmers, and researchers as they aspire to improve the quality of student learning and science instruction. In addition, this research supports the need for ongoing reform efforts to science curriculum, instruction and assessment and the need for more effective teacher preparation programs and professional development programs for teachers of science.
 
New Light on Marietta Johnson (1864-1938) Jeroen F. Staring Abstract In 1885, Marietta (née Pierce) Johnson graduated from Third State Normal School at Saint Cloud, Minnesota. She built up professionalism in primary teaching in the Midwestern state of Minnesota (1885-1890) and in tertiary teaching of prospecting teachers at Normal Schools in diverse Midwestern states (1890-1900 and 1901-1902). In 1907, she founded the School of Organic Education at Fairhope in the Southern state of Alabama, and remained the school’s principal until her death. Additionally she amassed an impressive curriculum vita as a school principal lecturing throughout the country — especially in the Eastern states. She became an accomplished recruiter of students and progressive teachers. She was a capable speaker, able to explain a novel educational approach in terms of a drawn out emotional, personal, and professional struggle. In 1919 Johnson co-founded the Progressive Education Association (PEA) with four fellow progressive educators. Virtually unknown, however, is the fact that two years earlier she joined the Bureau of Educational Experiments (BEE) in New York City, and worked at Public Schools 64 and 95 during the 1917-1918 season, salaried by the BEE. This article will shed new light on Marietta Johnson and her meandering educational career with high ups and low downs. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n3a17 New Light on Marietta Johnson (1864-1938) Jeroen F. Staring Abstract In 1885, Marietta (née Pierce) Johnson graduated from Third State Normal School at Saint Cloud, Minnesota. She built up professionalism in primary teaching in the Midwestern state of Minnesota (1885-1890) and in tertiary teaching of prospecting teachers at Normal Schools in diverse Midwestern states (1890-1900 and 1901-1902). In 1907, she founded the School of Organic Education at Fairhope in the Southern state of Alabama, and remained the school’s principal until her death. Additionally she amassed an impressive curriculum vita as a school principal lecturing throughout the country — especially in the Eastern states. She became an accomplished recruiter of students and progressive teachers. She was a capable speaker, able to explain a novel educational approach in terms of a drawn out emotional, personal, and professional struggle. In 1919 Johnson co-founded the Progressive Education Association (PEA) with four fellow progressive educators. Virtually unknown, however, is the fact that two years earlier she joined the Bureau of Educational Experiments (BEE) in New York City, and worked at Public Schools 64 and 95 during the 1917-1918 season, salaried by the BEE. This article will shed new light on Marietta Johnson and her meandering educational career with high ups and low downs. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n3a17
 
Factors of Ethnic Identity and Parents’ Goals in Examining College Students’ Academic Achievement Goals Suzanne F. Lindt, Shirley L. Yu Abstract The present research was designed to establish the relationship of parental academic achievement goals and racial ethnic identity (REI) to minority college students’ adoption of personal achievement goals in college courses. Multiple regression analyses conducted revealed the influence of perceived parental achievement goals and racial ethnic identity on students’ adoption of mastery approach, performance approach, and performance avoid goals. The results of the current research suggest that increased parent academic communication may influence students’ personal goals for improving their skills and their grades in college. In addition, as these students form their identities, a greater belief of the importance of achievement to their ethnic groups may also play an influential role in their adoption of achievement goals. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n3a7
 
Significance of Time in Management of Socio-Academic Activities in Learning Institutions Rukangu, Simon Meru Abstract This literature review paper contends that managing socio-academic activities is a reflection of a wellexecuted plan within a specific period of time as a key resource. It first defines time as a contextual concept in which academic and other social activities are managed. This formed the basic time premises for discussion, and focused on how academic activities can be managed and why some individuals do not manage their own activities. Mathematical iterations were used to show that some people considered time to be an entity for accommodating activities rather than planning for such activities coverable within specific period on transitory; implying that time can be managed. In contrast; time is fluid and not manageable emphasizing on prioritizing activities manageable within available time. The paper has shown that this consider time as a resource in transitory embracing the PAST experiences supported by the NOW experiences while imagining the FUTURE which literarily becomes the past for successful and total development of humanity. The paper concludes that while time plays crucial role in managing human activities, by itself it is difficult to manage it. It recommends that a socio-academic environment that embraces prioritization academic activities need to be appropriately planned and managed within a contextualized time space while minimizing crash programmes in learning and teaching processes. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n4a28 Significance of Time in Management of Socio-Academic Activities in Learning Institutions Rukangu, Simon Meru Abstract This literature review paper contends that managing socio-academic activities is a reflection of a wellexecuted plan within a specific period of time as a key resource. It first defines time as a contextual concept in which academic and other social activities are managed. This formed the basic time premises for discussion, and focused on how academic activities can be managed and why some individuals do not manage their own activities. Mathematical iterations were used to show that some people considered time to be an entity for accommodating activities rather than planning for such activities coverable within specific period on transitory; implying that time can be managed. In contrast; time is fluid and not manageable emphasizing on prioritizing activities manageable within available time. The paper has shown that this consider time as a resource in transitory embracing the PAST experiences supported by the NOW experiences while imagining the FUTURE which literarily becomes the past for successful and total development of humanity. The paper concludes that while time plays crucial role in managing human activities, by itself it is difficult to manage it. It recommends that a socio-academic environment that embraces prioritization academic activities need to be appropriately planned and managed within a contextualized time space while minimizing crash programmes in learning and teaching processes. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n4a28
 
This text sets the need to identify indicators that account for the extent to which Higher Education Institutions promote equity of access, retention and graduation of socially vulnerable groups. The text begins with a characterization of the problem of poverty in Mexico in the Latin American context. Then comes the concept of equity in the access to higher education in Mexico, and ends with a set of indicators of equity in higher education subsystem capable of analyzing the structural conditions that within Higher Education Institutions favor or impede completing the formative processes of students who are in vulnerable situations. Next, we present the Likert Scale developed to evaluate on the basis of the perception of university officers the extent to which Higher Education Institutions attends the needs of vulnerable people. This study is in course but we advance that the analysis of this situation may provide feedback to design educational and university policy to reorient the programs and actions for students retention.
 
Understanding Asian International College Students’ Values and Beliefs, their Acculturative Stress and Coping Strategies Chi-Sing Li, Yu-Fen Lin Abstract Asian international students face a lot of adjustment issues while pursuing a college degree in the United States. Although they are confronted with different challenges and stress, they underutilize the mental health services. Even if they are willing to come to counseling, there is a tendency for Asian international students to prematurely terminate the service. This paper explores the values and beliefs, acculturative stress and coping strategies of Asian international students. Recommendations to college counselors and faculty advisors to support Asian international students are provided in the paper. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n4a5
 
The Scree Plot Graphic of Academic Self-Regulation Scale 
The Confirmatory Factor Analysis Diagram of Academic Self Regulation Scale When the values given in Table 3 and Figure 3 are evaluated together, it can be said that four factors 17 items structure is confirmed. 3.4. Findings and Comments on Test-Retest Method In order to find out reliability using the test-retest method, ASRQ was applied to 81students everyfour-week intervals. Later, Pearson correlation coefficient, which constitutes the new measure among 17 items, was calculated. As a result of the correlation analysis that was performed, amid the implementation of the measure every four – week intervals there was found a high level, positive and significant relevance (r= 0.85, p< 0.01). The correlation coefficient among the lower dimensions of the scale was found 0.63 (p< 0.01) for external regulation, 0.73 (p< 0.01) for introjected regulation, 0.71 (p< 0.01) for identified regulation and0.71 (p< 0.01) for intrinsic motivation. These results indicate that introjected, identified and intrinsic motivation is high level interrelated; external regulation is mid – level interrelated. 3.5. FindingsandComments on Cronbach’s Alpha Method The Cronbach’s Alpha method was implemented for 17 items using the data collected from 762 students.This method searches, whether the items that constitute ASRQ represent a whole that has homogeneous features or not (Kalaycı, 2006, p.405).If the alpha coef ficient is between 0.00 -0.40 the measure is not reliable, if it is between 0.40 – 0.60 the reliability is low, if it is between 0.60 – 0.80 the measure is reasonably reliable and if it is between 0.80 – 1.00 the reliability level of the measure is high. As a result of the analysis performed, the alpha coefficient of the measure was calculated as 0.78. This outcome indicates that the measure is reasonably reliable. The alpha coefficients of the substructure that constitute the scale are 0.58 for external regulation, 0.78 for introjected regulation, 0.67 for identified regulation and calculated as 0.71 for intrinsic motivation. These results indicate that introjected, identified regulation and intrinsic motivation are reasonably reliable, but external regulation has low level reliability. 
The Study of Adapting Self-Regulation Questionnaire into Turkish Birsen Bağçeci, Sedat Kanadli Abstract The purpose of this study is to adapt Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire, which was developed by Ryan and Connell (1989), into Turkish making sure that it is valid and reliable for Turkish conditions. In order to maintain the language equivalence of the questionnaire, two applications were carried out, leaving three weeks between them and consequently a high-level, positive and meaningful relation was found. For the validity and reliability study of the questionnaire of which language equivalence is provided, participants consist of 762 students who study at 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade in the education year of 2012-2013 at governmental secondary school in Gaziantep.As a result of the explanatory factor analysis, it was found that the questionnaire had a four-factored structure consisting of 17 items.The loadingvalues of these items changed between 0.477 and 0.818 and the item-total correlations were between .24 and .47. This structure was confirmed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis. The test-retest Pearson correlation factor of the questionnaire was 0.85 and its Cronbach Alpha was calculated as 0.78. Under the circumstances, we can say that the version of ASRQ which was adapted into Turkish is valid and reliable. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n3a22 The Study of Adapting Self-Regulation Questionnaire into Turkish Birsen Bağçeci, Sedat Kanadli Abstract The purpose of this study is to adapt Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire, which was developed by Ryan and Connell (1989), into Turkish making sure that it is valid and reliable for Turkish conditions. In order to maintain the language equivalence of the questionnaire, two applications were carried out, leaving three weeks between them and consequently a high-level, positive and meaningful relation was found. For the validity and reliability study of the questionnaire of which language equivalence is provided, participants consist of 762 students who study at 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade in the education year of 2012-2013 at governmental secondary school in Gaziantep.As a result of the explanatory factor analysis, it was found that the questionnaire had a four-factored structure consisting of 17 items.The loadingvalues of these items changed between 0.477 and 0.818 and the item-total correlations were between .24 and .47. This structure was confirmed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis. The test-retest Pearson correlation factor of the questionnaire was 0.85 and its Cronbach Alpha was calculated as 0.78. Under the circumstances, we can say that the version of ASRQ which was adapted into Turkish is valid and reliable. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n3a22
 
State funded preschool programs in the United States (US) increased substantially in the recent years, often times without evaluating how effective the programs are at meeting the needs of all children, including children with special needs. This study sought to investigate how families, teachers, and principals perceived how state funded preschool programs in an urban school district in the US met the needs of young children with special needsand their families. Participants included 301 parents of children with special needs,45 teachers, and 30 principals. Overall, all stakeholders identified the programs' structure, personnel, and home to school connections as strengths, and believed that the preschool programs were an appropriate place for young children with special needs. Parents and teachers indicated satisfaction with the frequency of communication; however, both parents and principals still wanted to see an increase in communication between home and school. Areas needing improvement included critical elements needed in preschool programs related to human resources, increased funding, and appropriate adult-child ratios.
 
Dual Language: A Study on Teachers’ and Administrators' Perceptions of Dual Language Effectiveness: Pre-K through Third Grade in Spain San Juanita G. Hachar Abstract It may appear, in some ways, Spain is like the United States of America, which, for the most part, has not sanctioned, nor fully supported, the acquisition of a second language. In the United States of America, there is a more common tendency to introduce a foreign language in high school, when, unfortunately, it is almost too late for the student to be able to acquire the language as a native speaker. Spain has had the same situation. Some English teachers are graduating from universities with a degree in English, but can not speak it fluently nor confidently. They can merely translate. Spain is now promoting a 100% effort to have English as a second language, not as a foreign language. This study will look at the rapid change in Spain that embraces a bilingual, bicultural program with an emphasis on teaching methods, attitude changes, and the importance of teacher development in the process of change. We need to see that change is constant. Without change and conflict, there is no growth. Spain is growing and enhancing a bilingual, Spanish / English world. How they are achieving this, quickly and with positive results, is the major thrust of this paper. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n4a8 Dual Language: A Study on Teachers’ and Administrators' Perceptions of Dual Language Effectiveness: Pre-K through Third Grade in Spain San Juanita G. Hachar Abstract It may appear, in some ways, Spain is like the United States of America, which, for the most part, has not sanctioned, nor fully supported, the acquisition of a second language. In the United States of America, there is a more common tendency to introduce a foreign language in high school, when, unfortunately, it is almost too late for the student to be able to acquire the language as a native speaker. Spain has had the same situation. Some English teachers are graduating from universities with a degree in English, but can not speak it fluently nor confidently. They can merely translate. Spain is now promoting a 100% effort to have English as a second language, not as a foreign language. This study will look at the rapid change in Spain that embraces a bilingual, bicultural program with an emphasis on teaching methods, attitude changes, and the importance of teacher development in the process of change. We need to see that change is constant. Without change and conflict, there is no growth. Spain is growing and enhancing a bilingual, Spanish / English world. How they are achieving this, quickly and with positive results, is the major thrust of this paper. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n4a8
 
Family dysfunction is a concern of the educational sector in Colombia, adolescents are affected by stressful situations into a family, this leads to having a poor school performance; this paper focuses to identify some mental health factors associated with family dysfunction in school teenagers in 2010. A cross-sectional association study was conducted with a random sample of 1411 high school students between 11 and 19 years old, were used as data collection instrumentsto measure risk suicide, psychoactive substance use, depression, vulnerability and family functioning. Using a logistic regression model, it was identified that the variables that best explain family dysfunction are: the presence of depression, risk in suicidal orientation,and vulnerability in family cohesion, family routines, adolescent's participation in problem solving, communication with mother and father, the feeling of happiness and support adolescents. The research shows that family adversities, the presence of risk of suicidal orientation and the presence of depression, affect the proper functioning of the family schooled teenager.
 
Statistical Comparison between the Control and Experimental Groups(MBT and FCI.)
Gains Statistical Comparison for MBT and FCI
Gain Comparison MBTControl Group (CNTRL) and Experimental Group (EXP) 
Gain Comparison FCI Control Group (CNTRL) and Experimental Group (EXP) 
The objective of this study was to know the impact exerted by the implementation of a strategy known as IDEA in a collaborative learning framework for problem solving in the subject Physics I for engineering students in the School of Engineering and Agro-Livestock Sciences (FICA). Basically, the following research questions were to be answered; namely: Does the educational strategy IDEA help students to improve their performance in Physics problem solving (PS) at Physics I for the engineering courses at FICA? , and a second question: Does the problem solving capability depend on the conceptual knowledge?The design of this proposal stems as an alternative to the traditional method of transmission-assimilation with the aim of achieving a favorable impact and responding to the previously formulated questions. The results coincided a great deal with what was expected.
 
Amelioration of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder’s Writing: The Usage of Electronic Journals Huda A. Almumen Abstract Identifying effective, evidence-based practices is essential for ensuring students’ amelioration in all aspects of learning. Since the first call of inclusively educational settings, many students with different disabilities have been gaining knowledge through the core instruction of general education classroom. Accordingly, these individuals have the right to access this type of instruction, and build their knowledge with the strategic techniques presented by the teacher to scaffold information for students, especially those with autism. The purpose of the current investigation is to review the literature that identifies pedagogical practices and empirically based strategies to ensure success of students with autism by developing their learning skills such as writing. The lack of adequate writing skill is a significant predictor of students who are at risk of failure. This is due to the fact that writing is a representative of students’ learning. This review of literature presents the effectiveness of using electronic writing journals for students with autism to improve their writing skill for more successful literal learning in inclusive environments. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n4a11 Amelioration of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder’s Writing: The Usage of Electronic Journals Huda A. Almumen Abstract Identifying effective, evidence-based practices is essential for ensuring students’ amelioration in all aspects of learning. Since the first call of inclusively educational settings, many students with different disabilities have been gaining knowledge through the core instruction of general education classroom. Accordingly, these individuals have the right to access this type of instruction, and build their knowledge with the strategic techniques presented by the teacher to scaffold information for students, especially those with autism. The purpose of the current investigation is to review the literature that identifies pedagogical practices and empirically based strategies to ensure success of students with autism by developing their learning skills such as writing. The lack of adequate writing skill is a significant predictor of students who are at risk of failure. This is due to the fact that writing is a representative of students’ learning. This review of literature presents the effectiveness of using electronic writing journals for students with autism to improve their writing skill for more successful literal learning in inclusive environments. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n4a11
 
Cloud of Prevalent Words in Recommendations for Teachers 
Recommendations for teachers' work with children were identified in eleven popular textbooks focused on child development. Coding yielded 2,200 recommendations. Recommendations emphasized cognition, behavioral learning, and social-emotional development; generally transcended a single age level; and typically did not refer to an underlying theory. Specific age levels were represented distinctively. Consensus practices found in six or more books concentrated on cognitive development, social-emotional development, family and community motivation, management, and self-regulation more so than on foundational principles, research and assessment, physical development, or language and literacy. Limitations and implications for future research and the preparation of teacher candidates are examined.
 
Univariate analysis of literacy, Primary and Secondary completion, and school years completed 
Completion of primary and secondary education, and literacy, are significant determinants of health and livelihood status in later life. Orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in sub-Saharan Africa have higher risk of lower education and literacy attainment than non-OVC. The present study evaluates factors associated with the ability to read two simple sentences and increase years of schooling among OVC heads-of-household participating in a multisectoral empowerment program in semi-rural Kenya. Methods of analysis include simple and multivariable quantile regression of school years completed, and simple and multivariable logistic regression of ability to completely read two sentences, primary and secondary completion. Findings show recency of sexual intercourse, orphan type, improved primary drinking water, resilience, self-efficacy, gender, age, household income and program participation are significantly associated with outcomes of interest. Support for multisectoral empowerment programs may successfully target multiple outcomes of interest, including increases in educational attainment.
 
Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers' Level of Mathematical Thinking and their Attitudes toward Mathematics Nahil M. Aljaberi Abstract The focus of this study is to examine the pre-service elementary school teachers' mathematical thinking and their attitudes towards mathematics. The researcher also examined the correlation between the students' mathematical thinking and their attitudes toward mathematics. The study sample consisted of eighty female students. The researcher employed two types of instruments: the Attitudes towards Mathematics Inventory (ATMI) and Mathematical Thinking Test (MTT). The research results revealed 1) there was a positive correlation between students' mathematical thinking and their attitudes toward mathematics. 2) That the average students in mathematical thinking test is moderate; and students' performance is the best in the Modeling and Induction aspects. In addition, the average is weak in Mathematical Proof and Generalization. 3) The students' performance in the mathematical thinking test in some aspects varies depending on the specialization in the secondary school in favor of students of the scientific stream. 4) The performance of students on mathematical thinking test shows the growth in some aspects of mathematical thinking while moving from one academic year to another. 5) The students have positive attitudes toward mathematics. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n3a15 Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers' Level of Mathematical Thinking and their Attitudes toward Mathematics Nahil M. Aljaberi Abstract The focus of this study is to examine the pre-service elementary school teachers' mathematical thinking and their attitudes towards mathematics. The researcher also examined the correlation between the students' mathematical thinking and their attitudes toward mathematics. The study sample consisted of eighty female students. The researcher employed two types of instruments: the Attitudes towards Mathematics Inventory (ATMI) and Mathematical Thinking Test (MTT). The research results revealed 1) there was a positive correlation between students' mathematical thinking and their attitudes toward mathematics. 2) That the average students in mathematical thinking test is moderate; and students' performance is the best in the Modeling and Induction aspects. In addition, the average is weak in Mathematical Proof and Generalization. 3) The students' performance in the mathematical thinking test in some aspects varies depending on the specialization in the secondary school in favor of students of the scientific stream. 4) The performance of students on mathematical thinking test shows the growth in some aspects of mathematical thinking while moving from one academic year to another. 5) The students have positive attitudes toward mathematics. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n3a15
 
Summary of the Multiple Regression Analyses of Emotional Intelligence and Work-Family Conflict on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour of Secondary School Business Subjects'teachers in Ogun State
Influence of Emotional Intelligence and Work-Family Conflict on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour of Secondary School Business Subjects’ Teachers in Ogun State Bukki, Abolaji Olugbenga Abstract This study examined the influence of Emotional Intelligence and Work-Family Conflict on Organisational Citizenship Behaviour of secondary school business subjects’teachers in Ogun state. Two hypotheses were formulated and tested in this study. The study involved a sample of 300 respondents. Three research instruments: Emotional Intelligence Scale (r = 0.78); Work Family Conflict Scale ( r =.85 ) and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Scale (r =.97 ) were used and regression analysis was used to analyse the data gathered. Result showed that there was significant composite and relative contribution of emotional intelligence and work-family conflict on Organisational citizenship behaviours of Secondary school Business subjects’teachers. Emotional Intelligence was the most potent predictor variable. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that the Organisations need to select teachers who have high emotional intelligence because this may have positive impact on the extent to which they can succeed in retaining their valuable workforce. Ministry of Education should organise intervention programmes that would enable the Business subjects’ teachers balance work and family needs so as to resolve any ensuing work-family conflict in order to encourage them to perform better in their contextual performance. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n3a24 Influence of Emotional Intelligence and Work-Family Conflict on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour of Secondary School Business Subjects’ Teachers in Ogun State Bukki, Abolaji Olugbenga Abstract This study examined the influence of Emotional Intelligence and Work-Family Conflict on Organisational Citizenship Behaviour of secondary school business subjects’teachers in Ogun state. Two hypotheses were formulated and tested in this study. The study involved a sample of 300 respondents. Three research instruments: Emotional Intelligence Scale (r = 0.78); Work Family Conflict Scale ( r =.85 ) and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Scale (r =.97 ) were used and regression analysis was used to analyse the data gathered. Result showed that there was significant composite and relative contribution of emotional intelligence and work-family conflict on Organisational citizenship behaviours of Secondary school Business subjects’teachers. Emotional Intelligence was the most potent predictor variable. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that the Organisations need to select teachers who have high emotional intelligence because this may have positive impact on the extent to which they can succeed in retaining their valuable workforce. Ministry of Education should organise intervention programmes that would enable the Business subjects’ teachers balance work and family needs so as to resolve any ensuing work-family conflict in order to encourage them to perform better in their contextual performance. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n3a24
 
The Qualities of Effective Literacy Teachers: The Dynamics of Effective Teachers’ Beliefs, Their Practices and Students’ Responses Meral Kaya Abstract This study explores effective literacy teachers’ beliefs, practices and students’ responses in a reading program based on children’s literature. Demanding and challenging classroom contexts in this century create a demand for effective teachers to meet the needs of students. This study illuminates the qualities of effective literacy teachers exploring what effective teachers believe about reading and teaching reading, how they reflect and implement their beliefs in their instruction and what impact their beliefs and practices make on students in their life long reading habits. Three effective teachers were the participants of this study. Data was collected through observations of teachers and students, interviews with teachers, teachers’ responses to questionnaires, and videotaping of instructional practices. These effective teachers provided literacy instruction within varied contexts. Analysis of the data indicates that they share common qualities that might help teacher education programs to select more effective literacy programs and practices to include in their curriculum. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n3a4
 
Teachers’ Beliefs about the Effects of High Stakes Testing Lantry L. Brockmeier, Robert B. Green, James L. Pate, Rudo Tsemunhu, Michael J. Bochenko Abstract Since the enactment of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, high stakes testing has continued to be one of the major driving forces behind educational reform. In this study, Georgia teachers’ beliefs about the effects of high stakes testing were examined. A random sample of teachers from 100 of Georgia’s elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools responded to a 49-item survey measured on a fivepoint Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Items were grouped into six domains: curriculum, teaching, work satisfaction, stress, accountability, and students. Teachers’ responses did not differ by gender, educational level, or school level. African American teachers responded more positively than White teachers on the survey. Teachers’ positive and negative responses were discussed and recommendations were made for teachers and school leaders. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n4a9
 
While few studies examine the rights of younger workers (under 35), young people in the American workplace are one of the few groups that do not invoke United States Title VII federal protection. Other groups based on race, gender, age and disability can seek legal protections to prevent or subdue harassment if such incivility can be directly tied to these aforementioned statuses. The central research question of this analysis is: What is the impact of workplace bullying on young employees in American higher education? One hundred and seventy-five baccalaureate year colleges and universities were surveyed with the 35-questionnaire instrument inquiring about the occurrences, duration and type of workplace bullying in American higher education. A total of 401 (n=401) higher education respondents completed the survey. An analysis of the data set revealed that 71% of young respondents face workplace bullying in higher education, which is higher than the 62% rate for the general population of the study who report being affected by workplace bullying. Analysis of the findings and subsequent discussion is guided by Bolman and Deal's human resource frame (2013).
 
Effectiveness of Self-Organised Learning by Children: Gateshead Experiments Sugata Mitra, Emma Crawley Abstract Children, working in groups and using the Internet, seem capable of learning content traditionally considered to be ahead of their time and comprehension levels. In this paper we describe four experiments to measure children’s achievements in learning in Self Organised Learning Environments (SOLEs). We report the results that seem to suggest that, in Self Organised Learning Environments, children can learn ahead of their time, retain the learning over time and enjoy the process enough to explore further on their own. The results also suggest that children in groups can read and comprehend at higher levels than the comprehension levels of each individual in the group. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n3a6
 
Results of the Regression Model 
Explained Variance of the Participation of Mothers by the Independent Variables of the Model 
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of family dynamics and the practices of teachers, in relation to the frequency with which the mothers reported to participate in activities related to the education of the children. For this purpose, an evaluation was carried out in four public primary schools of a municipality in the Northwest of Mexico, serving a population of low level economic income. As part of the study, 170 mothers were selected by means of a nonprobabilistic sampling. By using simple linear regression it was found that family dynamics, and the practices of teachers to involve the parents in education, explain a significant part (R 2 = .67) of mothers reporting participation in the education of the children. It was concluded that both variables exert a positive influence in the involvement of mothers in education.
 
Examination of Level, Trend, Variability, Immediacy, and Overlap across Children
Purpose: The first research aim was to examine whether children's interactive play with peers changed during the course of the intervention. The second research aim was to examine whether children generalized newly learned skills to the classroom or playground. The third research aim was to examine how children responded to the intervention based upon the presence of a disability and disability severity. Method: We examined the use of a social communication intervention to promote interactive play for children in dyads using a multiple baseline single subject design. The intervention consisted of three components: (a) a planning period for instructional purposes, (b) a play session to practice skills, and (c) a performance reporting period to review skills. Participants included preschool students (n = 34) enrolled in Head Start and collaborative classrooms and kindergarten students (n = 2) with language difficulties, social skill difficulties, and/or problem behavior. Results: Results indicated that interactive play with peers increased during the intervention sessions for most children. The greatest effects were observed for at-risk children and children with emotional and behavioral disorders experienced limited effects. Conclusions: The results support the use of the intervention package. We discuss implications and future directions.
 
Role-Playing and Role Interaction: A Case Study of Teachers’ Roles at ZG Open University in China Xia Zhang, Zhiyong Zhu Abstract The rapid development of Internet technology and online teaching greatly impacts the role of teachers, especially teachers at open universities in China. The paper aims to explore the roles that teachers play at ZG Open University and how teachers interact in these roles; it also examines elements that contribute to teachers’ role-playing and interaction.Four chaired professors at ZG Open University were chosen as research subjects for this research. Qualitative research methods, including interview, observation, and object collection methods, were adopted. It is found that the roles that the teachers play are overloaded, but these roles are somehow ambiguous and conflicted. We demonstrate the organizational, technological, personal, and social factors that influence teachers’ role-playing and interaction. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n4a25
 
The majority of studies regarding co-teaching have primarily looked at what specific instructional practices and teacher characteristics are needed to make co-teaching an effective practice. In contrast, this study investigates how co-teaching affects a teacher’s particular teaching style and behavior. Of greatest interest is how a teacher’s use of instructional technology is impacted by the presence of a co-teacher. With many schools making inclusion a priority, the number of co-taught classes is increasing. In order for students to gain the most from classes that are co-taught, it is important that we first understand the factors that affect co-teachers. Once we understand these factors, it will be possible to increase the effectiveness of co teachers.
 
Models of collaboration between education professionals extol the advantages of inclusive classrooms and encourage Speech Language Pathologists (SLPs) and General Education Teachers (GETs) to apply the practice. However, instruction in a general education classroom may conflict with the therapeutic process, as the roles of the two professionals differ and skilled co-teaching poses implementation challenges. In this study we sought to discern the current practice trends occurring in classrooms in our area. We surveyed SLPs and GETs from several NJ public schools on their practices, preferences, and opinions regarding collaboration in treating and instructing children with speech and language problems.
 
Decisions about Postsecondary Education, their Returns in Colombia Monica Ospina-Londoño, Fabiola Saavedra-Caballero Abstract This study analyzes the economic returns to schooling decisions made by high school graduates in Colombia. We wanted to verify if the economic returns (wages) obtained by new postsecondary education graduates compensate for the economic and psychological investment they made to get that academic degree. To answer that question, we estimated these economic returns for each type of postsecondary degree available in Colombia (technical education, technological education, undergraduate studies, graduate studies) by origin of the institution (public or private). Our methodological strategy includes the generation of a micro-database that contains agents’ socio-economic backgrounds and also their individual labor market outcomes. Because agents with very similar characteristics and the same schooling decisions might obtain different economic returnsfrom education, we considered as part of our empirical strategy the inclusion of an approximation of agents’ cognitive abilities. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n3a20
 
At-Risk Students and Communication Skill Deficiencies: A Preliminary Study Kevin T. Jones Abstract Early research has explored the relationship between at-risk students and communication apprehension. Atrisk students have been found to have high levels of apprehension in a variety of communication settings. However, little attention has been given to exploring at-risk students perceptions of their communication skills and other areas of communication competency beyond general communication apprehension or fear of speaking. This study explores the relationship between at-risk students; self reported levels of communication competence, communication apprehension, and additional areas of communication skills such as selfmonitoring and verbal aggressiveness. The results of this study show that at-risk students tend to report having high communication competency levels, while testing very low on communication skill areas. Study implications and suggested areas for future research and curriculum development for teachers are explored. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n3a1
 
The Average Points of Improvement in Competencies Indicated on a 6 Level Likert-Scale
Student mobility is consideredone of the mostexplicit forms ofthe internationalization of tertiary education. There are several positive effects of a study abroadexperience for a university student regarding personal and professional development, too. Creativity, flexibility and complex thinking could lead to better professional opportunities and greaterjob market success, which are all among the beneficial consequences of a study abroad experience.This study has processed the primary data collected by interviewing Hungarian mobile and non-mobile university students about their study experiences.The comparative analysis of the two groups has led to statistically significant differences regarding the satisfaction and development of university students.Mobile students tended to be more satisfied with their host institution on the basis of several factors like the quality of the program, technical equipment,administration anduniversity life.Students had various motivations and possibilities in the selection process for a home and a host institution.It was also important to analyze the personal and professional development of mobile and non-mobile students. Mobile students were more likely to improve their personal and language competencies abroad. The utmost results mobile students experienced were in openness, inquiry, adaptation and self-knowledge. The greatest differences in personal development between the two groups appeared in tolerance, self-confidence and self-knowledge.
 
Problem Based Learning: An Experience in Computer Engineering Gabriela Gonçalves, Susana Nicola, Luís Afonso, Marta Ferreira, Teresa Ferro, Jorge Mendonça Abstract Following the introduction of new methodologies focused in the improvement of student´s outcomes. The PBL model (Problem-based learning) was applied to support the teaching and assessment on a topic of statistics in the curricular unit Computational Mathematics. The aim of the proposed approach was to enhance the student development, by improving practice in the field of education and connections between research and practice. Following these guidelines we propose a practical work using the MS Excel, as the computational support, to 394 students of the Curricular Unit of Computational Mathematics (MATCP) of the course of Informatics Engineering of the Institute of Engineering of Porto, to be done in groups under the theme “Simple Regression and Linear Correlation”. In order to verify the receptivity of the students exposed to the proposed, a questionnaire was elaborated focusing on understanding and acquisition of the proposed contents method. Some conclusions were drawn. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n4a24
 
Number and Percentage of Respondent 
Landslide is one of the common hazards occurring globally and Malaysia is not spared as well. Over the past four decades, Malaysia has played host to a number of landslide incidents, resulting in significant loss of lives and damage to property. The magnitude of landslide destruction is quite high in Malaysia. A survey has been carried out on 143 respondents in selected areas. This paper presents the findings on how Malaysians react towards landslide incidents, who their landslide informer are and to whom they preferred to disseminate information on landslide incidents. The result from this study indicates that the majority of the respondents agree that factors such as education and proper land use are important to mitigate landslide incidences. Additionally, the respondents also agree that they will take action if landslide occurs in the future. Most of the respondents agree that they preferred information from landslide expert. However, majority of the respondents indicates that they have less trust towards the media's landslide information and are also reluctant to disseminate landslide information to the media. Therefore, a further research on media, public and landslide issues in Malaysia should be conducted in the future.
 
100+ Ideas for Directed Sandtrays in Counseling Marta Garrett Abstract This article developed out of a year-long project where the author challenged herself to complete a sandtray a day and journal about each tray. The author lists more than 100 ideas for directed sandtray interventions to help spur other therapists using the sandtray to be more creative in their sandtray work. These ideas may also translate to other expressive arts interventions in counseling. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v4n1a6
 
Family Life Course Development Framework Applied: Understanding the Experiences of Vietnamese Immigrant Families Natalie Ha Abstract Baumrind’s (1971) conceptualization of authoritarian parenting style has been utilized to characterize the parenting practices of Vietnamese American parents, who are known to practice strict discipline and have high expectations of their children. Research has documented the success of Vietnamese parents utilizing authoritarian practices with their children, especially in academic endeavors. Yet, research has tended to generalize the success of authoritarian practices for all Vietnamese American youth. There is a gap in the literature on the success of developmental outcomes for Vietnamese American adolescents. The point of interest is to investigate whether authoritarian parenting practices are effective for Vietnamese American adolescents as they once were as children. For adolescents, forming an identity is an important developmental task. Adolescents are influenced by their peers and question the traditional values of their families, which can lead to intergenerational conflict. Therefore, it is hypothesized that Vietnamese American adolescents who are more acculturated to the dominant culture, with parents who adhere strictly to authoritarian parenting practices, may experience higher levels of family conflict. Therefore, exploration of how authoritarian parenting practices can affect Vietnamese American adolescent’s developmental processes, which include but are not limited to areas of academic success, acculturation levels, and mental health, is important. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n4a27 Family Life Course Development Framework Applied: Understanding the Experiences of Vietnamese Immigrant Families Natalie Ha Abstract Baumrind’s (1971) conceptualization of authoritarian parenting style has been utilized to characterize the parenting practices of Vietnamese American parents, who are known to practice strict discipline and have high expectations of their children. Research has documented the success of Vietnamese parents utilizing authoritarian practices with their children, especially in academic endeavors. Yet, research has tended to generalize the success of authoritarian practices for all Vietnamese American youth. There is a gap in the literature on the success of developmental outcomes for Vietnamese American adolescents. The point of interest is to investigate whether authoritarian parenting practices are effective for Vietnamese American adolescents as they once were as children. For adolescents, forming an identity is an important developmental task. Adolescents are influenced by their peers and question the traditional values of their families, which can lead to intergenerational conflict. Therefore, it is hypothesized that Vietnamese American adolescents who are more acculturated to the dominant culture, with parents who adhere strictly to authoritarian parenting practices, may experience higher levels of family conflict. Therefore, exploration of how authoritarian parenting practices can affect Vietnamese American adolescent’s developmental processes, which include but are not limited to areas of academic success, acculturation levels, and mental health, is important. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n4a27
 
This article proposes to discuss the theme of docent formation in the perspective of creativity and emergent technologies pointed by the Horizon Report 2103, specifically games and gamification. Based on a literature review about the themes, through a systematic research and reading of authors which refer to these, it presents reflections, inquires and provocations with the objective to contribute with the change of the actual paradigm in the purposes of the Licensure courses in the Superior Teaching Institutions, with a cutout to the Federal Institutes of Education, Science and Technology from Brazil. These considerations are made from the principle that we live in a digital age and that the education did not follow the step and, because of this, it still needs a more creative view to the docent actuation in this aspect. It concludes that the use of games and specifically the gamification as an example of emerging technology can be a possible step to remit the schools, the space of knowledge construction, to creativity with a view to innovate the forms of teaching and learning.
 
HIV: A Psychosomatic Disorder Jacob O.Wasonga Abstract Despite the ever-changing dynamic of families that have teens across generations, Marriage and Family Therapy (MFT), a specialty of psychotherapy, has maintained its broader influence on the lives of not only teens, but the family at large. Psychosomatic illnesses that largely affect teens have been one of the many causes of change within family systems. In this paper, Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) is defined as a psychosomatic illness and the scope of the disease is narrowed to its effect on at-risk youth and their families.Structural Family Therapy (SFT) is one of the many approaches to family therapy and this paper gives a detailed description of the model’s context in treating at-risk teens and families affected by this disease under the constraints of a practicing clinician. This paper also takes an in-depth look at SFT as a preferred therapeutic approach and how it can be implemented in therapy to foster change,consideringits limitations and strengthsworking with this diverse population. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n4a6
 
Diversity in the Workforce Swinton W. Hudson, Jr. Abstract This paper explores the various ways in which a diverse workforce may contribute to innovation in an organization. This exploratory paper will present the theoretical foundation that this study is based upon, the definitions of innovation and diversity and the results of existing research on whether a diverse workforce contributes to the innovation of an organization. Finally, testable propositions will be developed for further investigation. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n4a7
 
Investigation of Pre-service Science Teachers’ Views and Opinions on the Use of Experiments in Science Education Burçkin Dal, Gonca Harman, Aytekin Cokelez Abstract The aim of this study were to investigate the methods used by pre-service science teachers when they are carrying out experiments; to see what needs to be done when test equipment’s are not sufficient, and to reveal out their views on the use of the simple tools that can be used in the experiments. To view these changes, the study has been carried out by using pre and post- test design. In the study, an open-ended questionnaire, which was analyzed by using the qualitative content analysis method, was used to determine the differences in the views of pre-service teachers before and after laboratory courses. The results showed that the important part of the pre-service teachers have stated that prior to lab practices students need to do experiments in groups, and after the lab practices, the other important part of them stated that every student should do the test individually. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n3a23
 
The Importance of Establishing Primary School Programs to form Positive Body Image Robert Osadan, Yasmin Safir Abstract This paper examines the literature on body image at the primary school level and the need for specific programs to exist in order to perpetuate a positive body image in students. The reasons for the importance of programs which promote a positive body image are explored in depth. Potential benefits of a positive body image are discussed. Media influences and body dissatisfaction which may be developed in childhood being responsible for a wide array of mental illnesses in adolescence are touched upon. Moreover, specific programs which involved research studies are looked at on the primary school level with their correlations to positive body image. Lastly, future directions for research are explored intended to build on the importance and need for increased awareness at the primary level in educators and parents alike. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n4a15
 
The purpose of this study is to determine the secondary school students' misconceptions about fractals. Three dimensions of students' misconceptions are examined: misconceptions on the definition of fractals, misconceptions of the recognition of fractals and errors in drawing fractal shapes. The study was conducted with 100 secondary school students (grade 8 and grade 10) with the use of an open-ended test consisting three questions prepared through literature review and Turkish mathematics and geometry curriculums (grade 8 and grade 10). The findings showed that students hold misunderstandings about formal definition of fractal. They had some problems in the drawing fractals although students could recognize intuitively the given shape as fractal or not.
 
The First Language (L1) or Mother Tongue Model versus The Second Language (L2) Model of Literacy Instruction Daria Mizza Abstract In several developing countries with linguistic minorities where the colonial language is preferred for educational purposes, curriculum content is often presented in a language unfamiliar to a significant portion of children beginning school. When the language used for instruction is not understood, pupils do not have the opportunity to learn, and therefore neither ableto understand the content nor to interact with it by participating in class.Researchers raise concerns that those children who do not acquire adequately the language used for instruction will facedifficulties in becoming fully literate (McLaughlin, 1984;Collier & Thomas, 1989; Collier, 1992, 1995; Collier & Thomas, 1995).In order to avoid this situation, children should learn the language used for instruction before learning basic literacy skills in it. Otherwise, pedagogical practices should be conducted in the mother tongue to support the initial stages of their literacy development. Bringing language theories and research findings in literacy development together, this paper advocates for a mother tongue-oriented approach to classroom practices related to literacy acquisition and claims that adequate pedagogical support in the pupil’s first language (L1)is crucial during the early acquisition process of literacy skills. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n3a8 The First Language (L1) or Mother Tongue Model Vs. The Second Language (L2) Model of Literacy Instruction Daria Mizza Abstract In several developing countries with linguistic minorities where the colonial language is preferred for educational purposes, curriculum content is often presented in a language unfamiliar to a significant portion of children beginning school. When the language used for instruction is not understood, pupils do not have the opportunity to learn, and therefore neither able to understand the content nor to interact with it by participating in class. Researchers raise concerns that those children who do not acquire adequately the language used for instruction will face difficulties in becoming fully literate (McLaughlin, 1984;Collier & Thomas, 1989; Collier, 1992, 1995; Collier & Thomas, 1995).In order to avoid this situation, children should learn the language used for instruction before learning basic literacy skills in it. Otherwise, pedagogical practices should be conducted in the mother tongue to support the initial stages of their literacy development. Bringing language theories and research findings in literacy development together, this paper advocates for a mother tongue-oriented approach to classroom practices related to literacy acquisition and claims that adequate pedagogical support in the pupil’s first language (L1)is crucial during the early acquisition process of literacy skills. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jehd.v3n3a8
 
This work shows the key variables to put into practice the meaningful learning in the classroom. Some aspects of the research to take into account are: open work, motivation, context, creativity, concept map and curricular adaptation. It also shows the benefits it has for teachers and the improvement of students in both aspects behavioural and those related to good academic results.
 
Overall Internet Addiction Test Proportions
The impact of the recent global pandemic is multifaceted, affecting every aspect of human existence. Many studies conducted during this period have focused on the direct implications of the pandemic on human health and the economy, with only a few focusing on other possible implications. This survey aimed to elucidate the possible impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on internet addiction (IA) among university students in Nigeria. Using a cross-sectional survey, 202 students were randomly selected to fill the standardized internet addiction test (IAT) online. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. The respondents had an average age of 20.9±2.3 years and an average IAT score of 32.6±14.4, with the highest score being 79 out of 100. The majority of the students were categorized as normal internet users (45%), 42% as mildly addicted, and 13% as moderately addicted. None of the students were severely addicted. There were statistically significant associations derived between IA and income status (p=0.000), boredom (p=0.000), and Faculty of study (p=0.011). The results indicated that boredom was a key factor that had an impact on IA. The closure of schools, restriction of movement, reduced engagements, and seizures of allowances/stipends made the students vulnerable to IA.
 
Hierarchical Regression Tree for Students Very Satisfied with Their Studies' Subject
Hierarchical Regression Tree for Students Considering Their Professor's Judgment as Fair
Dropout in higher education has got important dimensions worldwide. The problem has consequences on an individual, social and economic level and it is thus of significance to investigate students' tendency to dropout before the decision to leave their studies is irreversible. Due to the complexity of the dropout phenomenon and the diversity of the influence exerted by different factors, arises intensively the need for a thorough comprehension of the mechanism and decomposition of the exerted intercorrelations. In regards to the above, this research aimed to analyze the effect of the variables within the academic spectrum on students' tendency to dropout of their studies via hierarchical regression trees indicating both the sequence and intercorrelation. From the present work it emerged that the elements of the academic index exert a significant impact on students' tendency to dropout via the sequence of level of study followed by the subject of study, the provision of knowledge to solve complex real-world problems, the feedback by professors on students' work completed, the students' perception of justice and reward in the evaluation procedures concerning them, the clarity of the educational goals and courses' requirements as well as students' satisfaction with the work of the teaching staff.
 
This study examined the functional relationship between workplace-terrorism dimensions and employees' intention to quit. It explored three related human resource management theories, specifically, reciprocity theory, labour process theory, and need theory to conceptualise a model of workplace-terrorism and employees' intention to quit (WTE & EIQ model) having organisational justice as moderating factor. Reciprocity and labour process theories being the underpinning theories in the study were interpolated into explaining the concept of workplace-terrorism and quitting intentions. It was concluded in a supportive mode that reciprocity and labour process theory view workplace-terrorism as a form of management control technique adopted or adapted by organisations to enable maximum extraction of surplus from labour. The model was designed to serve as a working tool for solving organisational challenges in the administration of justice and fairness as it pertains to employees' relational problems at the various level of management in the workplace.
 
Frequency and percentages of health education standards contained in the book of the water unit according to the days and detailed activities
Frequency and percentages of health education standards in the food unit book according to the detailed days and activities
Frequency of the standards of health education contained in the book of educational summarized units according to the activities of each unit
Frequency and percentages of health education standards within the daily activities of the self- learning curriculum for kindergartens in the sample units of the study
The study aimed at determining the availability of health education standards in the self-learning curriculum for kindergartens. It was based on the analytical descriptive approach. The study population consisted of all the books of self-learning curriculum for kindergartens approved by the Ministry of Education in the year 2005-2006 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia which amounted to seven books. The sample of the study was 42.86% of the curriculum books which are three books, the book of the unit of water, the book of the food unit, and the book of educational units summary. In order to achieve the objective of the study, the researcher used a tool for content analysis to collect data and information and analyze the content of the self-study textbooks for kindergartens. The researcher prepared a list of the standards of health education required for the preschool child, which was finalized in seven main criteria and 67 secondary standards. The results of the study showed that the number of procedural objectives related to the standards of health education and indicators reached (127) goals out of (1184) targets for the units by 10.73%. The results also indicated that the standard of dietary education in the daily activities of education ranked first by 50%, followed by the standard of physical activity by 90%, and behavioral habits by 24.62%. In the last place came the criterion of environmental health and consumer health by 0.41%. The study recommended rethinking the content of the self-learning curriculum of kindergartens to include the standards of health education that were lacking, thus contributing to raising the health level of the child and society as a whole.
 
The leadership quality of teachers is highlighted by researchers both in China and internationally. Banzhuren, a very particular category of teacher in Chinese schools, is the leader of teachers and the key person responsible for developing the whole community of students by classrooming. In Chinese schools, the leadership quality of banzhuren is also highly demanded. This study aims to explore and describe the characteristics of leadership of banzhurens in Chinese schools by investigating and comparing teachers' and students' experiences and perceptions regarding the banzhuren's work. Empirical data were collected using teacher and student surveys in the form of a questionnaire in 10 schools in Changzhou city. The results indicate that the majority of banzhurens have a direct and positive influence on students' everyday lives and good relationships with other adults. However, communication between the banzhuren and students and training of student leaders need to be improved. Banzhurens' leadership and their work are integrated and comprehensive. The leadership of the banzhuren is a long-term construction that calls for strategies to develop and cultivate banzhuren leadership.
 
This research seeks to explore the obstacles to ICT integration in Kindergarten education practices from the perspective of headmistresses in Salfeet governorate in Palestine. A total of (52) Palestinian kindergarten headmistresses participated in this research. A self-designed questionnaire was adopted as the research tool. The results indicated that a range of first-order obstacles, which included lack of supporting infrastructure to integrate ICT; lack of training courses on how to integrate ICT in education; lack of teacher's support; and lack of time to use ICT in educational practices. However, several second-order obstacles, such as Lack of teacher's interest; lack of experience among kindergartens' teachers in using computers and modern technology in education; and no obvious benefits to use ICT. Furthermore, The results indicated that the pre and in-service training on ICT , and daily use of ICT play a significant role in determining the headmistresses point view to both first-order and second-order obstacles, and at obstacles as whole. Also, several recommendations for future practices and research were included.
 
Along with the development of consumer civilization, the traditional centuries-old functions of work have been attributed to the sphere of consumption. Even more individuals work mostly in order to utilize the earned money as fast as possible, and consume it-by spending it on selected goods and services, of both material and "spiritual" character. It is consumption that, instead of work, has become the sphere of life where an individual achieves their goals, fulfils their needs, experiences the feeling of self-realisation and even builds their own identity. This phenomenon, called the "counter-ideology of work", has been the main subject of the following paper, presented from the pedagogue"s point of view.
 
It is more than obvious, that Creativity is not the gathering of knowledge as such, that is important, but " what we can do with our knowledge " (Quintin, 2009, p. 3). If we are to prepare our students to be able to adapt to change, to work in jobs that may not even exist at present and face unpredictable encounters, we need to rethink education. We have to move away from delivering knowledge/information and concentrate on how our students can use such knowledge. Thus, in the face of such stormy times, creativity, originality, and innovation are at the top of the list in importance, now, more than at any time before. In a summary of scientific research into creativity Michael Mumford suggested that " creativity involves the production of novel, useful products " (Mumford, 2003, p.110). From the same perspective, Prof. Teresa M. Amabile from Harvard Business School noted that " creativity is the production of novel and useful ideas in any domain " (Amabile, 1996, p.1). Yorke (2001,p.7) defined it as " the ability to be original or inventive and to apply lateral thinking ". The importance of educating for creativity in higher education can be derived from arguments in favor of a focus on student empowerment and employability. In some domains, the performing arts for instance, creativity is supposedly already generally accepted as a critical personal quality needed for performing adequately as a professional. The question is how we can achieve the development of creativity in University students.
 
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Despina varnava marouchou
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Eleonora Papaleontiou Louca
  • European University Cyprus
Simona Mihai Yiannaki
  • European University Cyprus
Elmos Konis
  • European University Cyprus
Sugata Mitra
  • Newcastle University