Melasma is an acquired, chronic skin pigmentation disorder that affects mainly women and can significantly affect the quality of life and self-esteem of patients. Many therapeutic procedures have been described in the literature, nevertheless the disease is difficult to treat. A case report. The paper presents a case of successful laser treatment in a 44-year-old woman with a long history of facial skin discoloration of the type of melasma. The patient was treated with combined laser therapy in the area of facial discoloration with a picosecond laser and a thulium laser. Aim The aim of this study is to draw attention to the possibility of using laser therapy in the treatment of melasma-type skin hyperpigmentation. In this article, we describe a case of brightening of a melasma-type discoloration during a single laser treatment combining the use of a 1064nm picosecond laser and a 1927nm thulium laser, in order to meet interests of patients and physicians in the use of laserotherapy in the treatment of discoloration, especially in patients who do not tolerate well the side effects of pharmacological therapies. Conclusions. The use of laser therapy, with particular emphasis on the picosecond and thulium laser, can be an important and effective element in the treatment of melasma-type hyperpigmentation of the skin.
Objectives: The problem of the research is to investigate the situation of free activities of primary school students in urban and rural areas in Kosovo. The subject of the research is male and female third level elementary school students (grades 6, 7, 8, 9) in urban and rural areas. In accordance with the object and the problem defined in this research, the main purpose of the research is also defined. The main purpose of this research is to determine what children do during their free time, as well as to look at the differences between children in urban and rural areas. Methods: The research was conducted in a sample consisting of 413 boys and girls (11 – 14) attending elementary school. The total sample includes 413 respondents, 202 boys and 211 girls. The sample is divided into the following sub-samples: 115 eleven year old male and female students, 144 twelve year old male and female students, 97 thirteen year old male and female students, 57 fourteen year old male and female students. The research material was collected in 2017. To assess what the students do more in their spare time a questionnaire called "My Lifestyle" was used. Results: Research results show that the most frequent forms of leisure time spending are: listening to music, meeting friends, playing with friends, reading books and watching videos/TV. The obvious reason for this may be the lack of access to sports equipment and facilities. Conclusion: This research shows that the level of wealthier (not very high both in households and in the whole country) can have an impact on the choice of activities undertaken by young people. Undoubtedly, social and cultural as well as traditional factors also have a great influence in the way of spending free time as can be seen in the case of this study.
Introduction. Cross-country skiing is a sport discipline with different applications in the modern world. It is used in recreation, rehabilitation, tourism and sport as a phycical movement. Objective of the work. The aim of the study was to estimate physical fitness of children aged 10 - 11 years attending sports classes (cross-country skiing profile) with the results of the efficiency grade among students attending unsportsmanlike classes in Sports Primary School in Suprasl. Material and methods. The study involved 50 children attending the Sports School in Suprasl - class 4 students. Each student was supposed to take part in the International Physical Fitness Test. There were the following attempts: 50 metres run, long jump, sitting position from lying down during 30 seconds, the trunkbend in front and 600 metres run. The results of completed studies are presented in tables and figures below. Results. The analysis show that girls practising cross-country skiing are characterized by higher efficiency motor skill compared to their peers, as well as it is easier for them to acquire new motor skills than for boys of their class. For boys the differences that occurred between sports and unsportsmanlike classes was insignificant. Perhaps, it may change in future. Conclusions. Children attending sports classes (cross country-skiing profile) have better motor abilities and acquire new motor skills faster than pupils in unsportsmanlike classes.
Idiopathic avascular necrosis of the femoral head, known as Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD), is one of the most common necrosis among paediatric patients. Although it was described over 110 years ago its aetiology is still not established. Neither have effective treatment methods, which main aim is to maintain the joint with a full range of motion and to reduce the risk of developing degenerative changes. According to the literature, the exact aetiology of LCPD has still not been established. Increasingly, immunological and genetic disorders are highlighted in the literature, which may be an important cause of disease development. However, the number of reliable studies on this subject is very limited. Once again, the influence of various risk factors present in fetal life has been analysed, but in a study with a significantly larger group of subjects. It has been repeatedly stressed that age, stage and radiological classification have a very important influence on the choice of treatment method and its effectiveness. Another important aspect is the need for reliable clinical trials to determine the effectiveness of bisphosphonate drugs and BMPs (bone morphogenetic proteins). In all studies, the need to perform more studies, on quantitatively larger groups of subjects, is significantly emphasized.
The misuse by law enforcement of regular smooth-bore rifles, loaded with bullets with elastic bullets, to end a group disruption of public order or riots, usually leads to untold injuries of a large number of people and can lead to unpredictable social and political consequences. During the period November 2013 - February2014 inKievand other cities ofUkraineduring the mass protest actions numerous cases of application by individual officials of law enforcement bodies of pump guns of the 12th caliber of the Fort-500 model series, equipped with cartridges of non-lethal action "Teren-12P" and "Teren-12K". As an example of the use of shock-traumatic firearms, we cite a case from our own practice (a gunshot wound to the eye of a participant in mass protests, February, 2014 у.Kiev).
Introduction. Research on the relationships and co-occurrence of the feet and torso features in a group of 4-6-year-old children showed that the values of the left foot features show a significantly more frequent relationship with the features of the torso than the right foot features.
Material and method. The research was carried out in the group of adolescents aged 7 to 13 and registered 12,898 observations of the value of 90 features describing torso and feet. The working stand for measuring the features of body posture and feet using the photogrammetric method consists of a computer and a card, a programme, a monitor, a printer, and a projection-receiving device with a camera for measuring selected features.
• A similar number of features of the right and left foot is often associated with the torso features. The following features like width of the feet, the angle of the 5thhallux valgus and the left foot big toe, the heel angle and height of the right foot second arch, the height of the second longitudinal arch and the length of the left foot, and the length of the first arch of the right foot show especially frequent relationships.
• The feet features show the most frequent significant relationship with the torso features of the frontal plane, whereas less of sagittal plane and occasionally of transversal plane. Torso features, which the most common features of the feet are significantly related to are the height and length of lumbar lordosis, the height of thoracic kyphosis, the angle of the torso flexion in the sagittal plane, the length of the thoracic kyphosis, the bent angle of the thoracic-lumbar spine, the depth of thoracic kyphosis, the depth of lumbar lordosis, and the inclination angle of the upper thoracic segment of the spine. The features of the feet are whereby most frequently related to the features of lumbar lordosis.
The aim of the study is to demonstrate the sexual and environmental dimorphism of the frequency of significant correlations between body weight and height with selected feet features among 7–13-year-old children. Material and method. The research among 7-13-year-old children was being carried out over a period of 3 years in 6 semi-annual editions and allowed to register 16,462 observations of the value of 48 features describing feet, weight, and height of the body. The photogrammetric method was used to measure selected features. Conclusions Among 7-13-year-old children, the body height is more often associated with the features of the feet than the body weight. Among girls, the proportions of the frequency of body height correlations are similar to the percentage of boys, where body weights are more frequent. The mass and body height shows more frequent associations with feet features among children living in the city than among children from the countryside. The most frequent significant correlations between body weight and height and the features of the feet occur among boys living in the city. Whereby the percentage of body weight correlations in the rural environment is very low. The frequency of body weight and height correlations exceeds that percentage of correlations among girls, who live in the city than in those from rural environment.
Introduction. Studies on the correlation of selected torso and feet features among 7-13-year-old children and adolescents have shown that the most frequent and strongest correlations with feet features occur among girls at the age of 11 and 12 years and among boys at 11, 12 and 13 years old.
Material and method. The research was carried out in the group of adolescents aged 7 to 13 and registered 16,462 observations, including 5,552 from the urban area and 10,910 from rural environment, together with 87 features describing torso and feet. The work stand for measuring selected features using the photogrammetric method consists of a computer and a card, programme, monitor, printer and a projection-receiving device with a camera.
• The frequency of significant correlations of torso features with feet features that differentiate the rural environment from urban is greater, however, the urban area presents more frequent relationship with feet features at a different level.
Features of the frontal and transversal plane tell the rural environment apart, whereas the urban environment is only differentiated by the frontal plane.
• The frequency of significant relationships of the feet features, which torso features correlate with and differentiate between the rural and urban environment is greater. Therefore, these are the morphological features that characterize the longitudinal arch of the feet. The features that differentiate the urban environment are those describing only the longitudinal arche.
Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is defined as a significant impairment of the mechanical function of the heart muscle, characterized by the patient's lack of response to stimuli, no perceptible pulse and apnea or agonal breathing, most often caused by acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ACS during pregnancy is a rare phenomenon and its incidence increases with the age of giving birth.The most common cause of ACS in pregnancy are typical changes in the etiology of atherosclerosis or coronary artery thrombosis. Other factors increasing the risk of a heart attack are arterial hypertension, diabetes, obesity and lipid disorders. To describe a rare clinical case and demonstrate the importance of maintaining cardiac vigilance in pregnant patients. A 32-year-old patient, at 16 weeks of gestation, hospitalized due to an anterior and lateral ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI), complicated by SCA due to the mechanism of ventricular fibrillation. The patient was qualified for invasive reperfusion treatment which included left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery surgery with drug eluting stent (DES) implantation and ballooning of the diagonal first coronary artery. Echocardiography done after treatment revealed apical hypokinesia and left ventricular ejection fraction of 70%. Subsequently the patient was kept under obstetrical and cardiological care. At 37 weeks of gestation, the pregnancy was finished by a successful caesarean section. Pregnancy is a state of hypercoagulability and decreased activity of the fibrinolytic system.The clinical management in this case does not differ from the clinical procedure adopted for non-pregnant women. It is important to make a diagnosis quickly and implement a life-saving procedure as soon as possible.
Background. Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is characterized by the development of extrahepatic symptom manifestations, which leads to an increased risk of mortality in these patients. Today, the factors contributing to the development of extrahepatic manifestations of CHC are being studied. Particular attention is paid to determining the clinical significance of cytokine gene polymorphism. Therefore, the aim of our work was study the role of interleukin-17 gene polymorphism (rs612242 C11139G) in the mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) formation and manifestation of cryoglobulinemic syndrome in patients with chronic hepatitis C.Materials and methods. The study included 149 patients with CHC and 45 healthy people. Determination of single-nucleotide IL-17 gene polymorphism (rs 612242 C11139G) was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Statistical processing was performed in program "STATISTICA for Windows 13" (StatSoft Inc., No. JPZ804I382130ARCN10-J).Results. We found that most often in patients with CHC (140 - 94.0%) and in healthy people (39 - 86.7%) was detected СС-genotype. It was found that the GG genotype was found to be significantly more likely in healthy subjects (χ2=20.5, p<0.0001). It was determined that patients with MC were significantly more likely to have a CC-genotype compared with healthy people (χ2=5.08, p<0.05), but the frequency of detection of this genotype was not statistically different compared with patients without MC (p>0.05). In patients with CHC carriers of the CC genotype of the IL-17 gene polymorphism significantly more likely (p<0.05), clinical signs associated with MC, namely weakness (65.6% vs. 40.0%), arthralgia (58.9% vs. 30.0%), vasculitis (14.4% vs. 2.0%) with the formation of the Meltzer’s triad (14.4% vs. no formation). It was showed that type 2 diabetes was significantly more likely to be detected in patients without MC (χ2=5.52, p<0.05).Conclusion. Allele C of the IL-17 gene polymorphism has an effect on the chronicity of hepatitis C according to a multiplicative model of inheritance. The CC-genotype plays a role in the formation of HCV-associated MC. Weakness, arthralgia and vasculitis with the formation of the Meltzer’s triad are the most common manifestations of cryoglobulinemic syndrome.
An analysis of the distribution of first-generation offspring born to residents of radiation-contaminated areas of Ukraine by health groups, assessment of the organization of medical examinations, identification of risk factors that are factors of loss of health, to improve medical care.The observation period from 1987 to 2016. The total cohort was 35893 individuals, among whom male offspring constituted 18138 individuals, while female offspring constituted 17755 individuals. There were created four groups to study offspring up to 3 years old, depending on the time of birth of offspring after an accident – years of birth:(first – 01.03.1987– 28.02.1990, second – 01.03.1990– 28.02.1993, third – 01.03.1993– 28.02.1996, fourth – 01.03.1996– 28.02.1999), with a three-year observation period.The groups under clinical examination have been entered as follows: the first group – healthy; the second group – practically healthy; the third group – diseased, whilst the disease has a compensated or subcompensated course. A separate fourth group includes individuals with persistent pathological disorders that lead to permanent disability (disability)During the observation period, there were detected, that the offspring of the general cohort in the first years of life were mostly healthy and only 5% had the third health group. At the age of 16-18, the health condition gradually deteriorated, as evidenced by a 27% decrease in the proportion of healthy and practically healthy offspring (first and second health groups) and a simultaneous increase by 30% of the number of people in the third health group. Significant deterioration in the health of offspring occurred at 5-7 and 16-18 years. The health condition of the male offspring is worse than of the female offspring. During the entire study period, in all of the groups under study, the proportion of offspring with disabilities was about 1-2%.
The article presents conformity to toxic masculinity in the perspective of mental condition of young men in Poland aged 18-30. The first part introduced the concept of toxic masculinity and its implications on men’s mental condition and general social functioning. The conformity to toxic masculinity has been investigated by using self-constructed questionnaire and mental condition has been tested by using DASS-21 questionnaire. The study has been conducted on group of 127 men living in Poland and the data was collected by using online methods. Research results shows very little, statistically insignificant relationship between conformity to toxic masculinity and mental condition of young men, however some differences have been observed in terms of place of living and sexual orientation when it comes to level of conformity to toic masculinity and level of mental condition.
The purpose of the article is to present the importance of the chosen digital postal service’s attributes in shaping its quality in the opinion of young customers at the age of 18-30. The first part contains the theoretical framework of service quality, digital services, postal market and digital competences. Afterwards, the results of anonymous survey have been presented. The study has been conducted among fifty respondents at the indicated age and it consisted of assessing the meaning of nine chosen quality factors on a Likert scale of 1-5. The results contributed to the formulations of conclusions on the validity of chosen determinants of the digital postal service quality for customers at the age of 18-30.
In the report of the World Health Organization from 1990 to 2016 to this day, Ukraine continues to occupy first place in the European region in morbidity and mortality from diseases of the cardiovascular system. One of the predictors and key links in the development of CVD is endothelial dysfunction. In this work, it was shown that chronic loading with sodium nitrite provokes the development of oxidative stress (an increase in 2,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid), inflammation (an increase in the level of interleukin-1-beta, which, in turn, causes a sharp increase in iNOS activity), the development of endothelial dysfunction (increase in von Willebrand factor). L-arginine alone, and in conjunction with the drug “Vin-Vita” cause a decrease in the negative effect of sodium nitrite.
Introduction. In the prenatal period, there are many exogenous and endogenous factors, which adversely affect the normal development of the fetus and may affect the further development of the child. The impaired reference level of thyroid hormones pregnant woman may entail a number of complications, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy, wherein the process takes place organogenesis and the formation of the nervous system.Goal. The overall objective of the work is to verify the correlation between hypothyroidism and child developmental problems in the first eighteen months of life and the Apgar scale.Materials and methods. The study included 200 pregnant women aged 17 to 40 years of age. The research tool was an online, proprietary questionnaire, which has been placed in social groups, which included pregnant women struggling with hypothyroidism.Conclusions. Developmental disorders up to 18 months of children age occurred in 45% of women with thyroid dysfunction, of which 43% related to symptoms of neurological problems including 56% of impaired muscle tone. The present study demonstrates that the final outcome Apgar does not forecast problems in the course of further development of the child up to 18 months of age. Significant further research, which will help establish the presence of mechanisms adverse impact on offspring and pregnancy outcomes.
An epidemiological assessment of changes in the health status of RCA residents under 18 years old at the time of theChernobylaccident for the period 1988-2016 was conducted.The main source of information was the database of medical data of the State Register of Ukraine (SRU) of victims of theChernobylaccident. The cohort consisted of 33,684 residents of RCA aged 18 to 47 years old (as of the date of theChernobylaccident under the age of 18), of whom men - 16,757, women - 16,927.The state of health of the offspring was assessed based on the information from the Ukraine State Register (USR).45417 cases (100%) of non-tumoral diseases were identified in eight classes of ICD-10, which is 103.46 ± 0.46 cases per 1000 person-years of follow-up. 21,148 diseases were diagnosed in men (96.32 ± 0.63 per 1000 person-years), and24,269 inwomen (110.60 ± 0.67). Epidemiological analysis of non-tumoral morbidity and disability was conducted over five-year observation periods: 1988-1992, 1993-1997, 1998-2002, 2003-2007, 2008-2012, and 2013-2016.The dynamics of non-tumoral morbidity of the subjects show a gradual decrease in morbidity from the highest in the first period (the first six years after the accident) to the lowest in the last period (2013-2016).Thyroid diseases (97.60%) are the main component among the nosological forms of the endocrine system, eating disorders and metabolic disorders (18.97 ± 0.20 cases per 1000 man-years) of the total number for 1988-2016 epidemiological observation.In the structure of the causes of disability, the largest components are diseases of the nervous system and mental and behavioral disorders, which together account for 51.75%.According to the indicators of the structure, the residents born before the Chernobyl accident (April 26, 1986) aged 0 to 18 years, showed the highest incidence of non-tumoral diseases of the respiratory, digestive, endocrine system (almost 80%).Men (1.1-1.4 times) were more likely to suffer from diseases of the respiratory system, digestive system, circulatory system, musculoskeletal system, mental and behavioral disorders. In women, the incidence of non-tumoral diseases was higher (1.1-3.4 times) in the endocrine, nervous and genitourinary systems.Against the background of a gradual decrease in the incidence from the first to the last five-year observation period, there is an increase in the disability of the subjects in the three disability groups; thus, there was synchronization in different directions.
There was conducted an epidemiological study of the morbidity of non-tumour diseases of the respiratory organs of the first-generation offspring born by residents of radioactively contaminated territories, until they reached 18 years. The observation period from 1987 to 2016. The total cohort was 35893 individuals, among whom male offspring constituted 18138 individuals, while female offspring constituted 17755 individuals. There were created 4 groups to study offspring up to 3 years old, depending on the time of birth of offspring after an accident – years of birth:(first – 01.03.1987– 28.02.1990, second – 01.03.1990– 28.02.1993, third – 01.03.1993– 28.02.1996, fourth – 01.03.1996– 28.02.1999), with a three-year observation period.During the observation period, there were detected 7845 cases of non-tumour respiratory diseases, which is 36.6% of the total pathology and 59,59±0,65 cases by 103 man-years observations. Of whom male offspring 4146 cases (С –38,8%, ID–62,42±0,94 by 103 man-years), and female offspring – 3699 (С –34,6%, ID– 56,72±0,91).The formation of non-tumour respiratory diseases occurred mainly due to the groups of diseases: "acute respiratory infections of the upper respiratory tract" (J00-J06.9) and "influenza and pneumonia" (J10-J18.9), "other upper respiratory tract diseases (J30.0-J39.9)" and "other acute respiratory infections of the lower respiratory tract (J20- J22), which amounted to 98.84%.For all the years of observation among the studied groups, the highest rates of respiratory disease in each period on the first or second, and the lowest - on the fourth.An analysis of the incidence showed that up to 6 years, offspring were mainly affected by acute respiratory infections of the upper respiratory tract and chronic tonsillitis and adenoids, and in the younger school-age, the incidence increased due to acute upper and lower respiratory tract diseases. In adolescence, the morbidity of the respiratory system is complicated by more severe nosological forms: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma.
An anonymous survey of interns of the specialty "Pediatrics" on the quality of training interns for the licensed integrated exam "KROK 3. General medical training" at the Department of Pediatrics and Children's Infectious Diseases of Bukovinian State Medical University was conducted using the google form.The main purpose of the survey was to assess the effectiveness of training interns for the licensed test exam "KROK 3. General medical training" in the context of distance learning. It is shown that interns positively assess the quality of training in a distance form for passing this exam. Most interns point to the effectiveness of consultations of teachers and experts of creating tests in preparation for the exam. According to 60.0% of interns, the most effective component of preparation for the LIE "KROK 3. General medical training" was training on the program of the module "Emergencies", 25.0% noted thematic consultations conducted by teachers of the department immediately before the exam, and according to 15.0% of respondents, the best component was preparation for rector's tests. The most useful and informative for interns were consultations on emergencies in pediatrics (50.0% of responses), neurology and psychiatry (20.0%), cardiology (15.0%) and radiation medicine (15.0%).
The puerperium is a period in a woman's life after childbirth, during which systemic changes occur. The woman's body returns to its pre-pregnancy condition. It lasts about 6 weeks. Having a baby and placenta causes changes in the concentration of pregnancy hormones, fluctuations that can negatively affect the behavior of women. In addition, the Covid-19 pandemic may interfere with the clinical condition of the pregnant woman, causing her mental health to deteriorate.
Aim of the study:
The aim of the study was the assessment of the level of knowledge about health behaviors and puerperium of various social groups in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship during the Covid-19 pandemic.
Material and methods
The survey covered 603 respondents from the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship from February to April 2021. 18 subjects were excluded from the study due to incomplete completion of the questionnaire. Ultimately, the analysis was conducted on the data of 584 respondents. The analyzes included women and men aged 19-45, who were divided into four groups. The first group included 130 obstetricians, the second 86 midwives, the third 50 teachers, and the fourth 318 students of the JKU.
The Bioethics Committee of the JKU approved the study.
Statistical analysis was performer.
The respondents' knowledge about puerperium was 78.6%.
Midwives had the most information, while obstetricians had the least.
Participants in all 4 groups have a satisfactory level of knowledge about the duration of the puerperium, the principles of prophylaxis and hygiene in puerperium and feeding the newborn.
The respondents obtain their knowledge from books and magazines.
Introduction and Objective. The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected the functioning of the entire globe. By the end of December 2020, the disease had been diagnosed in more than 82 million people worldwide, and nearly 2 million people had died. The main preventive measure was to develop an effective vaccine as soon as possible, which Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna, AstraZeneca and Gamaleya Center managed to do in late 2020. The first vaccines arrived in Poland after the end of December 2020, but their appearance was not without controversy. The aim of this study was to compare respondents' opinions on COVID-19 vaccination with the results of the assessment of fear of infection. Material and methods. The opinions of 300 employees of large companies on COVID-19 vaccination and fear of SARS-CoV-2 (FCV-19S) infection according to Ahorsu were checked. Results. It was shown that 54% of the respondents express a willingness to vaccinate whenever possible, while 42% are not interested in vaccinating. In favor of the willingness to vaccinate is the option to return to the standard of living before the COVID-19 pandemic - 72%, and the desire to protect those around them from possible infection - 46%. Among opponents of vaccination, the predominant opinion is that the vaccine has not undergone enough testing and is not safe for health - 68%. Discussion. COVID-19 vaccination is one of the major medical successes of recent years and a safe way to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is worrying that those who opt out of vaccination indicate that they do not have enough information about vaccination (44%), and this is an issue that needs to be changed quickly. Conclusions. Those who express a willingness to vaccinate are more likely to have a higher level of fear of SARS-CoV-2 infection than those who have not expressed a willingness to vaccinate. Nearly half of non-vaccinators indicate that there is too little information about vaccination.
Due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, social life and the clinical state of change of state. This disease is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and is characterized by high infectivity and mortality. Due to the diversity of the tested tests, it will be difficult to obtain uniform characteristics, resulting in a uniform recovery plan for each patient. Rehabilitation, repair, execution, restoration to health, independence and reduction in value due to COVID-19.
Introduction and purpose: COVID-19 is a highly contagious disease that is caused by a new strain of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (type 2 acute respiratory syndrome virus). Globally, as of 14 July 2021, there have been more than 4 million deaths and almost 190 million confirmed cases of infection. Mental health disorders are sets of behaviours, ways of thinking or perceiving and other mental activities and relations with other people which are a source of suffering or impediments to the individual functioning of the affected person. The most common mental health disorders are anxiety disorders, insomnia, depression and somatic disorders.
State of knowledge: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted people's lives around the world through the rapid spread of the disease, high mortality and negative health effects. Over time, there is growing public concern that health systems may become overburdened and that adequate medical care will not be available to everyone affected by the disease. There are also concerns that isolation and reduced mobility will be long-term with serious consequences for mental health and well-being.
Summary: There is already evidence of the negative psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on children and adolescents, as well as the elderly who have been isolated, making these individuals more susceptible to developing long-term psychiatric disorders.
Pandemia Covid-19 stanowi ogromne zagrożenie dla zdrowia i życia ludzkiego oraz funkcjonowania społeczno-gospodarczego. Celem pracy jest przedstawienie wybranych aspektów medycznych i społecznych związanych z pandemią Covid-19. Jako metodę badań zastosowano przegląd i analizę piśmiennictwa pochodzącego z bazy PubMed uzupełnione o raporty epidemiologiczne. Do wyszukania publikacji użyto następujących słów kluczowych: „Covid-19”, „medical aspects of Covid-19”, „social aspects of Covid-19”. Pandemia Covid-19 spowodowała destabilizację zdrowia publicznego na skalę światową i pozostawiła wiele negatywnych skutków społecznych. Była przyczyną globalnego kryzysu gospodarczego i ekonomicznego. Covid-19 określone zostało mianem nagłego niekorzystnego i wielowymiarowego doświadczenia medycznego i społecznego, którego następstwa występują obecnie i będą odczuwane jeszcze przez wiele lat. Należy monitorować sytuację epidemiologiczną, zdrowotną i ekonomiczną społeczeństwa i podejmować działania zmierzające do zmniejszenia nasilenia negatywnych skutków pandemii Covid-19.
Introduction: Since the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) was classified as a pandemic infection on March 11, 2020, it has spread rapidly around the world. The total number of confirmed infections was 217,119,281 and the total deaths were 4,510,202 worldwide, as of August 31, 2021. The changes in life caused by these new threats also impacted patient care. Medics around the world have had to adapt to this new reality. There is a lot of research into the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the diagnosis and treatment of other diseases, including cancer.
The aim of the study: Paying attention to the causes of delays in the diagnosis of cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic, with particular emphasis on oral cancer.
Material and method: The research was done using the PubMed and Google Scholar articles about the topics of: covid-19 pandemic; oral cancer; healthcare; cancer diagnosis
Description of the state of knowledge: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a huge impact on the entire health system around the world. According to various studies, there were fewer cancer diagnoses between 2020 and 2021. Studies have identified the causes of these delays, such as: overwork and fatigue of health care workers, limited access to doctors due to quarantine, patients' fear of being infected in a health care facility, and the lack of follow-up visits, including dental visits.
Summary:Undoubtedly, the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has put the people with chronic illnesses and those who are immunocompromised at the most risk. Solutions such as telemedicine during lockdown may be helpful in caring for cancer patients, but cannot replace a comprehensive examination by a doctor, especially in the case of oral cancer. As a result of the diagnostic delays caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, a significant increase in the number of cancer deaths worldwide is expected.
Atypical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection are of particular importance in the pediatric population. Due to the lower number of reports in this group, the scale and spectrum of symptoms are still unknown. Skin lesions may precede the onset of the general symptoms of COVID-19 by up to several days. This article describes the case of an 8-year-old girl with skin lesions in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Introduction. Obesity is recognized as one of the increasingly common diseases of civilization. It poses a great threat to the health and life of every person. Overweight and obesity have also been called a worldwide epidemic. Obesity is most often caused by prolonged positive energy balance: bad eating habits, low physical activity and other problems such as emotional. The current pandemic situation also promotes the incidence of overweight and obesity. Aim of the study. The main aim of the study was to investigate the impact of lockdown on the occurrence of overweight and obesity in adult population, while the specific aim was to investigate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the level of physical activity among adults. Material and Methods. A total of 244 adults participated in the study on the impact of lockdown on overweight and obesity. The criterion for inclusion in the study was a correctly completed questionnaire. The questionnaire was properly completed by 237 respondents, who were then qualified for further analysis. The study was conducted during the fall and winter seasons using a proprietary survey questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel 2010, and the results and conclusions of the scientific study were obtained from it. Results and Conclusions. The results of the study indicate that the respondents do not have enough knowledge about proper nutrition. In addition, it was found that their physical activity is decreasing and they are working more and more often remotely, which limits their movement during the day.
Relevance: Over the past two years, the COVID-19 infection has gained unprecedented relevance at the global level. All countries are spending significant resources in the fight against COVID-19 [1 2].
The purpose of the work is to clarify the issue of the state of the kidneys in the distant post-covid period (after 2-3 months), we conducted a study of the kidneys simultaneously with the desquamation of the endothelium, as one of the probable mechanisms of the nephrotic effect of the COVID-19 virus.
Materials and methods: 29 people participated in the study. Patients with post-covid syndrome (n=10) were treated on an outpatient basis at the "KNP "Center of primary medical and sanitary (medical and sanitary) care No. 3, Odesa" of the Odesa City Council" in the period from 2020 to 2021. The control group consisted of patients without cardiovascular and endocrine disorders, comparable in terms of gender and age, who were examined in 2018 at the Odesa Regional Clinical Medical Center of the Odesa Regional Council.
Endothelial dysfunction "ED" was determined by the intensity of desquamation of the endothelium according to the method of J. Hladovec as modified by M.M. Petryschev. and other. (2001).
Statistical analysis was performed using Status software [https://status-please.herokuapp.com/]. Mean values (M) and its standard deviation (SD) were used to describe quantitative data, and percentages were used for qualitative data. For comparison, data were presented as M and standard error of the mean (SEM). Analysis of normality was performed using the Shapiro-Wilk test. Levene's test was used to assess homogeneity of variances. Differences between groups were determined using Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The relationship and presence of correlation between the studied parameters was determined using the Pearson correlation coefficient (r). The correlation coefficient in the range of 0.5≤|r
Background. The COVID-19 pandemic has forced entering numerous changes and restrictions on daily psychosocial functioning. The purpose of our research was to explore the views of adolescents aged 14-20 years attending secondary schools on the role of vaccination and the restrictions put in place during the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and methods. The study was conducted with 504 secondary school students in a small town in Poland. Students were aged between 14 and 20 years (M = 16.6, SD = 1.3). The groups were homogeneous in terms of age and gender. 250 males (M = 16.5; SD = 1.3) and 254 females (M = 16.7; SD = 1.4) completed the sheets. The survey took place between January 7 and 11, 2022. The study used the author's “Pandemic and My Life” survey method. It contained 7 closed-ended questions covering adolescents' attitudes towards COVID-19. Results. More than half of the students have been vaccinated against COVID-19, and they are convinced of the effectiveness of the vaccines. Females were more likely to reveal anxiety before infection. Despite the presence of the COVID-19 virus in many families’ homes, concerns about infection were rather small. A great number of the respondents assessed restrictions as “more burdensome than beneficial”. Males were more prone to accepting distant education. There was a relationship between students' fear of the COVID-19 infection and the anxiety observed by pupils in their families. Conclusions. The majority of the adolescents surveyed have been vaccinated against COVID-19 and have positive opinions about the effectiveness of the vaccines. There is a strong polarisation of views on some issues. The results obtained can be helpful in building preventive programmes and shaping pupils' health-promoting attitudes.
11 March 2020 WHO assessmented that COVID-19 can be characterized as a pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 RNA virus is highly contagious and is transmitted by droplets.It appears that pregnant women may be at a higher risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2, which increases the risk to pregnancy and fetal defects. The course of the disease in this group of patients is more severe due to the changes in the immune and respiratory systems. Despite the constantly growing number of publications on the course of COVID-19 infection, the available data is insufficient.
Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused numerous changes to the healthcare system, including care for the newborns.
Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to create a clear set of recommendations used in the care of a newborn during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
State of knowledge: Despite the low risk of infection of the newborn in utero or during vaginal delivery, in rare cases there is a possibility of vertical transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Every newborn baby whose mother has been diagnosed with COVID-19 disease should be screened for infection. Suspected neonates should be isolated from healthy children and kept in quarantine until the test result is obtained. It is essential to constantly monitor your baby's health and be alert to any possible signs of infection. Medical personnel should ensure adequate protection when handling an infected newborn. A healthy infant whose mother is SARS-Cov-2 positive may be discharged home provided it is looked after by a healthy caregiver.
Summary: New patterns of management in maternity and neonatal departments are associated with changes that may have a significant impact on the mother-child relationship. When making decisions aimed at reducing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is necessary to seek solutions taking into account the needs of this particular group of patients.
The impact of COVID-19 on the healthcare system has been devastating, as the system has had to undergo major changes, including the postponement of scheduled surgeries, the admission of patients in a state of emergency, and the use of teleportation. At the same time, the COVID-19 pandemic caused restrictions on visits to hospitalized patients by relatives, despite recommendations for family visits to patients in hospitals, as an important component of quality care provided. Material and methods: The study included 198 relatives of hospitalized patients in the period from March 2020 to March 2022 in the Silesian province. To achieve the research objective, a questionnaire developed entirely by the Authors, consisting of 9 questions, was used. The questionnaire concerned the assessment of restrictions on visits to hospitalized patients by relatives during the pandemic. The survey was conducted between November 2021 and March 2022. Results: The majority of relatives (91%) indicated that they were able to contact (including by phone) the patient every day during their hospital stay. At the same time, the largest number of respondents marked the answer that visiting patients during their stay in the hospital ward was prohibited (97%). In addition, 39% of respondents answered that it was "rather bad" to restrict visits to a loved one staying in the hospital during the pandemic. Conclusions: Undoubtedly, when considering the implementation of rules restricting patient visitation during the COVID-19 pandemic, relevant authorities should carefully look at and compare the potential harm of the issued decision to restrict visitation by relatives along with the risk of virus transmission. Currently, there are insufficient studies formally assessing the effects of restrictions on patient visits by relatives. However, it is clear from the authors' survey that the majority of relatives are rather negative about the implemented restrictions on patient visits.
Introduction: COVID-19 appeared in 2019. The first outbreak of the disease was in China, but it quickly spread to other countries, thus becoming a pandemic. This caused a tremendous stress and anxiety among the public, which also had a negative impact on their mental health. People with obsessive-compulsive disorder are especially sensitive in this respect.
The aim of the study: Paying attention to the correlation between exacerbation of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and COVID-19 pandemic.
Material and method: The research was done using PubMed and Google Scholar articles about the topic of: obsessive-compulsive disorder, COVID-19 pandemic, stress, mental health.
Description of the state of knowledge: According to many studies, the COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted mental health of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The stress related to the pandemic resulting from concerns about being infected exacerbated the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Doctors should pay close attention to OCD patients during pandemic and provide them with the treatment they need.
Summary: Research results confirmed that COVID-19 contributed to the deterioration of symptoms in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder.
BACKGROUND: The outbreak of a coronavirus pandemic in 2019 posed a serious threat to the global population. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has not only been a public health emergency, but has also affected mental health worldwide. Patients were exposed to a number of significant stressors during COVID-19 infection by which it appears that it may have had a major impact on mental health. Little is known about changes in levels of psychological affect, stress, anxiety and depression during this pandemic.AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study was to analyze the most recent available literature on the association of pandemic COVID-19 with psychiatric disorders occurring both as a result of past infection and in response to stress associated with the new situation of a global epidemic of Sars-CoV-2 virus.RESULTS: The psychological effects of the epidemic are clearly noticeable. The study identified groups particularly vulnerable to developing symptoms of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Risk factors were also identified in people working in health care as having direct contact with the effects of infection with the new virus.SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: Key elements of preventing psychological impact are the creation of a mental health organization. Another important task for governments is to create the conditions for economic security, as financial problems or job losses can also be the cause of mental crises.
SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to severe multiple organ failure. The immune system is stimulated by activating the inflammatory mechanism and by releasing inflammatory cytokines. COVID-19 is able to penetrate the central nervous system, inducing neuritis and neurodegeneration. In our study, we analyzed the latest available articles. We focused on the subject of COVID-19 infection and consequences of neuroinflammation. For this study, we searched the literature available in Pubmed and Google Scholar databases using keywords. There is evidence of a common background of COVID-19 complications and neurological diseases such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. This type of complication is more frequently observed in serious cases of COVID-19, with a more intense immune response, with higher levels of CRP, ferritin and D-dimers. Organic changes in conjunction with environmental stress caused by the experience of severe illness, fear of becoming ill and social limitations, lead to neuropsychiatric pathologies, including major depressive disorders and post-traumatic stress. The neuropsychiatric implications of COVID-19 represent a severe clinical problem that deserves special attention in the treatment of COVID-19 infection. There is a need to monitor the neuropsychiatric consequences of COVID-19, in order to completely understand the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This knowledge is necessary to be able to confront the public health crisis created by the COVID-19 pandemic.
The article addresses an important issue regarding the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the operation of hospitals and the use of management strategies at the present time and in reality after the pandemic. Based on the analysis performed, the article indicates four key areas that require immediate action to improve the functioning of the health care system and maintain the public health of the population. Based on the analysis of 9 crisis levers of the business model of A. Osterwalder, Y. Pigneur, four main areas requiring immediate intervention were identified, namely: development of medical personnel, development of computerization and digital competences, optimization of revenues and costs, identification of decision-making centers - appropriate division of tasks and responsibility.
In these areas, the Polish health care system has failed, they require urgent strengthening and strategic long-term solutions, which will translate into optimization of activities aimed at securing the health of the society.
It turns out that during the pandemic, it was not costs that turned out to be the biggest problem, but above all staff shortages, lack of access to health services, or equipment and organizational shortages. The time of the pandemic has shown that the researchers' theories that quality and not cost are the most important have proved successful. According to M.E. Porter and E. Teisberg, despite the limitations, the health care system can achieve excellent results in terms of both quality and effectiveness, which, however, often requires transformation and implementation of new competition rules aimed at increasing the value created.
There has been a need to organize the information on COVID-19 that has accumulated in the few months since the emergence of this new disease entity. There are already thousands of scientific publications on COVID-19. On top of that, there are also tens of thousands of press releases, and millions of pieces of information on social media. Being attacked with such an overabundance of information, often contradictory, has confused the public and thus made them susceptible to irrational, false theories about the COVID-19 epidemic. This is a major setback in the fight against the COVID-19 epidemic, which, to be successful, must be conducted in a rational manner. In view of this, the purpose of this article is to gather theoretical knowledge about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the development of negative emotions and frustration in society. The article considers three spheres of consideration: information noise, conspiracy theories, and social risk.
COVID-19 not only affects physical health, but also leads to mental health problems such as sleep problems, depression, feelings of anxiety, chronic stress. This also applies to doctors, because they too, or above all, are at particular risk. They are owed a lot of responsibilities, a new situation, a lack of adequate staff. They are surrounded by illness and death. They often do not cope with the current situation. This results in a decrease in their productivity, lack of motivation to work, fatigue, and this, as a consequence, can lead to burnout.
COVID-19 is one of the biggest challenges to medicine ever. Because of its dissemination in population effective drug to cure it was needed. There were some trials on antiviral drugs like lopiravir/ritonavir, remdesivir, darunavir/cobicistat, favipiravir, molnupiravir, discovered originally in order to treat other diseases. Only remdesivir and molnupiravir seem to be beneficial for patients with COVID-19, both of them are approved in therapy in a large number of countries allover the world. 
Another very important group of drugs used in trials against COVID-19 was immunomodulatory drugs. Some of them, like chloroquine/hydrochloroquine was very promising, but finally there were no evidences of its benefits found.  Corticosteroids used in moderate and severe COVID-19 caused general improvement of clinical status and decreased mortality. Interesting and quite promising may be use of interferons but for now lack of evidences does not allow to make clear statement about its benefits.
There are some argumentations for natural methods of COVID-19 treatment. Dietary recommendations, vitamin and microelements supplementation may be helpful in the therapy and in addition may not have any adverse effects. Also, herbal mixtures, developed centuries ago in China found usage during COVID-19 pandemic. After analysis of thousands of cases Traditional Chinese Medicine can be considered as one of the most successful attempt in combating COVID-19. 
Introduction: Every day, people are more or less anxious, but during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, this anxiety can be greatly exacerbated.
The aim of this study was to analyze the subjective feelings of anxiety associated with being in quarantine due to infection or suspected infection with SARS-CoV-2.
Material and methods: The study included 138 people from different backgrounds. It was conducted using a survey (Google Form) consisting of fifteen questions. Results were compiled using chi2, Kendall's tau-b, one-way ANOVA analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc tests.
Results: The level of experienced anxiety during the quarantine by the subjects was found to be statistically significantly higher compared to its level before and after the quarantine period (p=0.002). An increase in somatic symptoms was also observed during isolation (29.0%). Statistical analysis, however, confirmed the relationship between the sex of the subjects and the level of anxiety during and after quarantine (p
This study aims to understand the temporal and spatial characteristics of public concern for "children's mental health" in China in the context of the COVID-19 epidemic. Baidu Index is a research tool to collect and analyze massive data on Chinese netizens' behaviors. Using Baidu Index as the research tool, this paper analyzes the trend and distribution of Chinese netizens' attention to "children's mental health" from December 1st, 2019 to March 20th, 2022 from three aspects of trend research, demand map, and crowd portrait. The study found that since the outbreak of COVID- 19, the search trend of "children's mental health" has shown a cyclical change, peaking in May and valley around the Spring Festival and National Day, and stable in other periods. "Mental health", "handwritten newspaper on mental health" and "youth mental health" are the most popular buzzwords among the public. The groups concerned with "children's mental health" is mainly distributed in Guangdong, Jiangsu, Beijing, and the majority are women between 30 and 39 years old. Meanwhile, search trends for "mental health" are like that for "children's mental health." The factors influencing the search volume change of "children's mental health" include Chinese traditional holidays, Spring Festival, National Day, Chinese Mental Health Day, and policies and instructions on children's mental health issued by the PRC Ministry of Education. The public would like to know about "mental health", "handwritten newspaper on mental health" and "adolescent mental health".
Cel pracy: Celem pracy jest określenie poziomu poszczególnych cech osobowości oraz postaw Polaków wobec szczepień ochronnych, w tym przeciw COVID-19 oraz analiza potencjalnych predyktorów tych postaw.
Materiały i metody: Badaniem online, prowadzonym we wrześniu i październiku 2021 roku objęto 1466 osób (50,6% kobiet) w wieku od 18 do 80 lat (M = 42.81; SD = 12.46). Anonimowa i dobrowolna ankieta online zawierała autorskie pytania dotyczące postaw wobec szczepień ochronnych, w tym także szczepień przeciwko COVID-19, oceniane na skali 1-7, wystąpienie NOP w przeszłości i polską adaptację testu Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI)- TIPI-PL.
Wyniki: Wykazano, że istotnymi predyktorami poziomu akceptacji szczepień ochronnych były: płeć żeńska, wielkość miejsca zamieszkania, wykształcenie i wystąpienie NOP w przeszłości. W przypadku cech osobowościowych była to ugodowość, stabilność emocjonalna oraz otwartość na doświadczenie. Istotny związek miały również źródła wiedzy na temat szczepień: opinie znajomych, Internet i opinie ekspertów. Wyższy poziom ugodowość i otwartości na doświadczenie współwystępował z wyższym poziomem akcpetacji szczepień ochronnych, natomiast wyższy poziom stabilności emocjonalnej korelował z niższym poziomem akceptacji szczepień. Płeć żeńska, wyższe wykształcenie oraz wielkość miejscowości zamieszkania predysponowały do akceptacji szczepień ochronnych, natomiast wystąpienie NOP predysponowało do niskiego jej poziomu.
Introduction and purpose: The purpose od this study is to describe changes in epidemiological trends of fractures, especially osteoporotic fractures, during COVID-19 pandemic. Before the pandemic, fractures in the young population were more frequent than in elderly population, because of more active lifestyle.
A brief description of the state of knowledge: COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown has effectively reduced people’s mobility and ability to travel. This has resulted in lowered rate of traumatogenic incidents that cause fractures, including traffic accidents and accidents during performing sport. When people spend more time at their homes, incidence of household fractures is growing, especially in elderly population. Osteoporosis makes bones of elderly people more suspectible to fracture. Majority of drugs used in treatmen for osteoporosis are said not to interact with risk or severity of COVID-19 infection.
Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, geriatric fractures have become one of the severe problems for healthcare systems. Isolation at people’s homes has resulted in increased rate of fractures occuring at home, especially in elderly population. Difficulties caused by pandemic made rates of properly performed osteoporotic treatment lower, increasing risk of fractures even more. Mortality after fractures has risen even in patients with negative result of testing for COVID-19.
Introduction and purpose: 20% of COVID-19 cases require hospitalization, with men most often being affected. Current studies indicate a relationship between the incidence and severity of the disease and androgens, including a worse prognosis in patients with androgenetic alopecia. The aim of the study is to analyze the available literature in the Pubmed and Google scholar database in order to find an answer to the question of whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between androgenetic alopecia and COVID-19. State of knowledge: Male sex hormones, androgen receptors, the presence of substances inducing the development of the inflammatory process and genetic factors are important in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia. It has been noted that androgens are involved in the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells and the reduction of the inflammatory response of the body that contribute to the development of the disease. On the one hand, patients hospitalized due to SARS-CoV-2 infection have low levels of male sex hormones, and on the other hand, diseases associated with increased levels of androgens, such as androgenetic alopecia or prostate cancer, are associated with more frequent incidence.Summary: The relationship of androgens to the development of COVID-19 is not clear. Therefore, the relationship of this disease with androgenetic alopecia cannot be directly explained and there is a need for further research.
Introduction and purpose: The purpose of this study is to review literature about alterations to treatment regimens to lung cancer during COVID-19 pandemic accessible on PubMed platform. In pulmonary neoplasms, early diagnosis and treatment is a key to ensure patient safety. Burdening of healthcare systems during pandemic has resulted in many obstacles in oncologic treatment.
A brief description of the state of knowledge: The lung cancer is the most frequent and the most deadly cancer in men and women. COVID-19 is a pulmonary infectious disease whose spread around the world has resulted in a pandemic. At the onset of the worldwide pandemic, many institutions, including healthcare facilities were closed, making it more difficult to provide oncological patients the treatment compliant with the standards. The anxiety of patients caused by the pandemic has caused delays in treatment that can cause progression of the disease. In patients with lung cancer mortality of COVID-19 was around 50%, which made their visits at hospital hazardous. Before the accessibility of anti-COVID-19 vaccines telemedical healthcare was one of the ways to provide healthcare to oncological patients.
Conclusions: Patients with lung cancer are one of the risk groups of COVID-19. Delays in their treatment caused by the pandemic are potentially dangerous and negatively affect the therapy. Telemedicine is a useful too provide medical care, but has its own limitations.