Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics

Published by Society of Pharmaceutical Tecnocrats
Online ISSN: 2250-1177
Publications
Quality by Design is the most recent quality-related trend in pharmaceutical manufacturing (QbD). This paper discusses Pharmaceutical Quality by Design (QbD) as a way to guarantee high-quality pharmaceuticals. Details about Quality by Design are given in addition to a list of its components. The quality parameters and attributes of each unit operation are unique. Pharmaceutical products can benefit from Quality by Design and the steps that can be taken to implement it. High-quality pharmaceuticals and their manufacturing processes form the core of pharmaceutical R&D. It is impossible to verify the quality of a product because this document includes a breakdown of the product's quality profile and the most important aspects of Quality by Design. Comparing the quality of various products can be done in two ways: through Quality by Design and end-product testing (QbD). Quality by Design is based on the ICH Guidelines. ICH guidelines govern the development of pharmaceuticals and the implementation of quality assurance systems. Pharmaceutical development and production can benefit from Quality by Design (QbD). Keywords: Concept & background of QbD, Traditional vs QbD Approach, Key elements, PAT, Challenges, Current & Future perspective.
 
Trend Data Analysis (When Volumetric Solution stored at Normal Condition)
Trend Data Analysis (When Volumetric Solution stored at Dark Place)
Trend Data Analysis (When Volumetric Solution stored at 35 °C)
The Expiry date of 0.1 M Sodium hydroxide volumetric solution is determined for analytical purpose in Laboratory and the Strength of Volumetric solutions determined by titration against potassium hydrogen Phthalate (KHP). The volumetric solution prepared in distilled water observed that no chemically significant degradation for at least 30 days when stored separately in Normal and dark condition over a period of 30 days . The % RSD of Molarity at Normal condition observed from 0.0993 to 0.0994 % and at Dark condition from 0.0994 to 0.2988 %. The Significant degradation observed when solution stored separately in oven at 35 oC temperature and strength of volumetric solution deviate from 18 th Day . The Degradation of solution strength found to 0. 98 % after storage for 30 days at 35 oC Temperature. Keywords: Shelf life, Stability, Titrimetric, Primary standard, Hold time study, Degradation.
 
In Indonesia, based on Indonesia’s Health Profile 2008, the top 10 major malignant neoplasm disease or cancer inpatients at the hospital since 2004-2008 has not changed much. The first rating is breast malignant neoplasm or breast cancer. Society rarely knows that it is important to perform BSE (breast self-examination) early, which can help reduce the incidence of morbidity or mortality of breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between knowledge in women aged 25-50 years at RW 05 Cibubur, East Jakarta, on BSE as early detection of breast cancer. This research employed an analytic survey with the cross-sectional approach. The employed technique in sampling was simple random sampling. It was done with the lottery technique to population members. The results of the 207 respondents showed that respondents with bad BSE knowledge were 100 people (48.3%) and respondents with good knowledge were 107 (51.7%). The respondents who practiced the BSE were 95 (45.9%), and the respondents who did not were 112 people (54.1%). The statistical test results had a very strong correlation with the value of 0.832 and correlated with the statistical value of 0.000. Keywords: Breast Cancer, Knowledge, BSE (Breast Self-Examination), Women Aged 25-50 Years at RW 05 Cibubur East Jakarta.
 
Results from the 2010 population census by the department of health show that Indonesia is one of the top 5 countries of older people living in the world, with 18.1 million people or about 9.6% of the population in Indonesia. Based on the data from the WHO, in 2010, the number of women who has menopause in Asia by the year 2025 will reach 373 million people. The average menopause age in Indonesia is around 49 years old, but women above the age of 40 already have irregular menstruation cycles. This research hopes to know the knowledge, attitude, and behaviour of women aged 35-45 years old in the Cawang region RW 06 in 2016. This research is descriptive survey research and was done in September through October with 70 respondents. In this research, 17.1% of the respondents know about menopause well, 60% knows about menopause quite well, and 22.9% do not know about menopause very well.51.4% of the respondents respond well towards menopause, and 48.6% does not respond well to menopause. Facing menopause, 64.3% of the respondents are ready for menopause, and 35.7% are not ready for menopause. Keywords: knowledge, attitude, behaviour, menopause
 
Pregnane-based trioxanes
Cholestane based trioxanes
Alkyl series Compound no. R
Heteroaryl series
Malaria in recent years becomes a major health hitch globally due to the surfacing of multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum parasite. In recent times, artemisinin (ART)-based drugs and combination therapies become the drugs of preference for the treatment and prophylaxis of resistant P. falciparum malaria. Endoperoxide compounds natural, semi-synthetic or synthetic signifying a massive number of antimalarial agents which possess a wide structural miscellany with needed antimalarial effectiveness against resistant P. falciparum malaria. The 1,2,4-trioxane ring system deficient the lactone ring which constitutes the most significant endoperoxide structural scaffold which is believed to be the key pharmacophoric moiety and is principally responsible for the pharmacodynamic potential of endoperoxide-based antimalarials. This becomes the main reason for the research related to endoperoxide particularly 1,2,4-trioxane-, 1,2,4-trioxolane- and 1,2,4,5-tetraoxane-based scaffolds gaining the noteworthy interest in recent years for developing antimalarial drugs against resistant malaria. In this paper, a comprehensive endeavour has been made to review the development of different endoperoxide antimalarial agents and structural diversity of endoperoxide molecules derived from 1,2,4-trioxane- based structural scaffolds. Keywords: Endoperoxide; 1,2,4-trioxane; pharmacophores; artemisinin; antimalarial.
 
Acute rat toxicity prediction of 2,2'-{(5-amino-1,3 phenylene)bis[nitrilo (E) methylylidene]}dibenzene-1,4-diol.
The ability to breathe and generate adenosine triphosphate is necessary to the persistence, physiology and pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that causes TuB. By doing a theoretical study of a chemical compound, Schiff Base 2,2'-{(5-amino-1,3-phenylene) bis[nitrilo(E)methylylidene]}dibenzene-1,4-diol, where almost all biological activities have been studied theoretically exploiting a computer software PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substance) for enhancing Computer Aided Drug Designing, as well as studying the class of toxicity in the human body by GUSAR software, which showed biological activity against the tuberculosis epidemic that killed many people, and a protocol was proposed for prepared and study of the properties of this compound. Keywords: GUSAR software, Synthesis, Schiff base, Tuberculosis, Toxicity, PASS prediction.
 
The present investigation are based on the synthesis and characterization of metal complexes with Schiff’s bases (anils) Indeno–ethylidene aniline (C17H13O2N), (IEA), (L1H) derived from 2-substituted acetyl 1, 3 - dione by condensing it with primary aryl amine (aniline) in absolute alcohol. The Co (II), Ni(II), Cu (II), Zn (II), Cd (II), Fe (III), V (III) and Cr (III) complexes of the Schiff’s bases have been prepared in the reactions and investigated their structures by physicodemical methods. The formulation and structure of the ligands have been screened by their chemical analysis, IR, PMR and mass-spectral studies. The structure of the anils has been characterized by their IR spectra which showed strong absorption at 1705, 1650 and 1570 cm⁻¹ along with other bands. The structure of ligand has been confirmed by their mass–spectral studies. Keywords: Metal Complexes, Schiff’s bases, 2-Acetlylindan-1,3-Dione
 
Graphical abstract of synthesized title compounds.
physiochemical properties of synthesized compounds.
effect of test and standard compound on carrageenan-induced oedema
A series of some novel N-Mannich bases of heterocyclic 1,3,4-thiadiazole were synthesized through the condensation reaction of 1,3,4-thiadiazole containing a aromatic secondary amine, aromatic aldehydes and cyclic compounds employing Mannich reaction and using conventional synthesis. All the synthesized compounds were obtained in the range of 57.41-83.3 % yield. The structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed by UV, IR, 1H NMR spectroscopy. the essential structural features responsible for interaction with receptor site are established within a suggested pharmacophore. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds was determined, against two Gram-positive bacteria, viz. S. aureus & B. subtilis and Gram-negative, viz. E. coli and K. pneumoniae, by cup-plate method using the standard drug ciprofloxacin. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) changed in the range of 1.56_ _ 200 mg mL_1. Compound 3b exhibited excellent activity against both bacteria. The in vitro antifungal activity of the synthesized compound was also evaluated by cup-plate method against the fungi A. niger and C. albicans compared with the standard drug Fluconazole. Compound 4a, 8a exhibited excellent activity against both fungi. The result has shown that the compounds are quite active against pathogens under study and were nontoxic. The anti-inflammatory activity of the compound was evaluated, on albino rats, by carageenan induced rat paw oedema method using the standard drug diclofenac sodium. Compound 7b and 8c exhibited excellent anti-inflammatory and analgesic pharmacological activities. Structurally the compound 7b has a greater number of unsaturated hydrocarbons in schiff base, which shows good lipophilic properties within electron rich morpholine ring in Mannich base. Statistical significance of differences between group was determined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Among the synthesized compounds 3a, 4b, 5c, 7b, 8a and 8c were found be the most active. All the synthesized compounds were found to be low lethal as ascertained by LD50 test. Keywords: N- Mannich bases of heterocyclic 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives; Mannich reaction; antimicrobial agents; anti-inflammatory activity;
 
Chemical composition of the leaf essential oils from E. alba.
Members of the genus Eucalyptus are potential sources of number of commercial essential oils and aromachemicals. In present study, the essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the leaves of Eucalyptus alba were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Essential oil yields ranged from 2.41 to 4.35%. In total 18 constituents were identified, accounting for 99.0 to 99.7% of the total compositions. 1,8-cineole was present in all samples as the major component (76.5-88.1%). In addition to this compound, others that were found including limonene (3.8–8.6%), α-terpineol (1.4–2.8%), globulol (1.3–6.3%) and α-pinene (1.5–1.8%). The essential oil showed a strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus ATCC 29213 which is translated by an MIC of 1.25 mg/mL and good activity against E. coli ATCC 25922 (6.25 mg/mL) and E. faecalis ATCC 29212 (6.25 mg/mL). To our knowledge, our study is the first report of E. alba essential oils characterized by a high 1,8-cineole content (>76.5%). They may have potential applications in food and pharmaceutical products. Keywords: Eucalyptus alba, essential oils, antibacterial activity, 1,8-cineole and GC-SM
 
1 H and 13 CNMR data of 3-deoxy-3, 11-epoxy cephalotaxine (1) isolated from Clitoria ternatea
The present study describes the isolation and structural elucidation of new alkaloid 3-deoxy-3, 11-epoxy cephalotaxine (1) from the flowers of C. ternatea. It was isolated by careful column chromatographic separation of the crude extract on silica gel 60. The structure was established based on UV, IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and GC-MS spectroscopy methods. The antibacterial activity of various bacterial and fungal strains and anti-inflammatory activities of the isolated compound and its crude methanol extract was studied. The highest zone of inhibition (13.0 and 12.0 mm) was shown by 1 at a dose of 200 µg/kg against E. coli and S. aureus strains and (16.0, 12.0 mm) against anti-fungal strains of C. albicans and A. flavus. The results indicated that at both dose levels (100 mg and 200 mg / kg) of isolated compound 1 had significant anti-inflammatory activity from 2nd hour onwards. The bioactive compound isolated from this plant can be employed for antimicrobial activity, also for the treatment of various bacterial and fungal infections and to show pronounced anti-inflammatory effects after three hours of injection. Keywords: Clitoria ternatea, Alkaloid, 3-deoxy-3, 11-epoxy cephalotaxine, Anti-microbial activity, Anti-inflammatory activity
 
Diabetes mellitus emerges from multiple biochemical and cellular impairments, including decreased insulin secretion from the pancreatic β-cells and impaired insulin action in peripheral tissues. The present study was systematically carried out to evaluate antidiabetic and antidyslipidemic properties of GOA-111,a herbal extract containing a mixture of Gymnema sylvestrae, Ocimum sanctum leaves and seed kernel of Azadirachta indica in the ratio of 1:1:1 in ameliorating both the primary and secondary complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus in high fat diet fed low dose streptozotocin induced diabetic rats Experimental type 2 diabetes was induced with a low dose streptozotocin in rats fed on a high fat diet. Diabetic rats were treated with three different doses GOA 111 (150,300 and 450 mg/Kg b.wt/rat/day) for 30 days. The toxicological parameters such as AST, ALT and ALP were assayed. Biochemical parameters such as fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, insulin resistance and lipid profile were measured. Oral treatment with GOA 111 significantly decreased the elevated levels of fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, AST, ALT and ALP. The insulin level was improved in insulin resistant diabetic rats. GOA 111 also normalized the lipid profile. Though the results showed a dose dependent impact on the parameters, a dose of 300mg/Kg B/W/rat/day GOA 111 exerts maximum potential anti-hyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic effects in HFD/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Key words: GOA 111; High fat diet; Streptozotocin; antidiabetic; antidyslipidemic
 
I am delighted to know that School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (SPS), ApeejayStya University, Gurugram is going to organize 3rd National Seminar on ‘Nanomedicine & Medical Devices in Healthcare’ on 11th February, 2022 via hybrid mode funded by DST-SERB in collaboration with Martin & Harris Global, ASG BioChem, and Walter Bushnell.
 
Methyl Sulphonyl methane (MSM) is an organ sulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO2. Glucosamine is naturally hygroscopic is nature when exposed to air and moisture and degradable whether in the form of tablet or raw material. To overcome this problem Glucosamine needs to bond with suitable stabilizer. Glucosamine Sulphate in the form of Salt i.e. Sodium chloride and potassium chloride are stable. The normal dose of Glucosamine is 500-1500 mg TID. It is very difficult to compress the tablet at the label claim 1500 mg because some additives are also required in the formulation and the average weight is 1800 mg. As per the pre formulation studies it is concluded that tablet average weight less than 70 mg are very difficult to compress and more than 1500 mg are difficult to swallow in adult patient. Glucosamine stimulates the formation or manufacture of collagen, the protein portion of the fibrous substance that holds joints together and provides a shock-absorbing cushion, as a person ages, the cartilage that cushions the joints often loses its ability to support healthy cellular growth. This condition, called osteoarthritis, often leads to rough bones that rub together and cause distress with every twist or bend. In this condition patient regularly required the Glucosamine tablet in 1500 mg three times a day. But it’s very difficult to compress the tablet at huge weight because D tooling compression machine have maximum limit is 1500 mg. For such critical formulation weight cam is adjusted in lower direction to increase the weight and feeding of granules in feed frame through force feeder resolve the dissolution problem. This tablet is prepared by wet granulation method by using Non Aqueous binding showed good results physical evaluation parameters and chemical parameters such as Assay, and Dissolution values. The granules are lubricated using suitable lubricants / Glidant / Antiadhrants were good in their flow properties. Assay and dissolution studies were conducted by the HPLC method.
 
Sample collection Area Isolation of pure cultures
Environmental pollution has been identified as a major problem in the modern world. Dyeing effluents have become a vital source of water pollution. Release of coloured textile effluents is undesirable in the aquatic environment as they reduce light penetration, thereby affecting aquatic life and limits utilization of the water media. In Tirupur, the textile factories discharge millions of litres of untreated effluents into the drains that eventually empty into river, Noyyal. The release of coloured compound into water bodies is undesirable not only because of their impact on photosynthesis of aquatic plants but also due to the carcinogenic nature of these dyes and their breakdown products. The ability of bacterial strains isolated from the dye effluent of textile mill sites. Morphological and biochemical characterization was done to identify isolates and was found to be Pseudomonas spp, Bacillus spp and Serattia spp. The isolated strains were finally identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Bacteria are generally identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. The rRNA is the most conserved (least variable) gene in all cells. They were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Serattia liquefaciens. The sequences were deposited in GENBANK. The accession numbers were KU041528, KU041530 and KU041531 respectively. The identification was conformed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Keywords: Textile Dye Effluents, Bacteria, 16S rRNA, NCBI.
 
Molecular Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene using Maximum Likelihood method. The evolutionary history was inferred using the Maximum Parsimony method 30 and evolutionary analyses were conducted in MEGA7 27 .
Detail of primers sequences used to amplify Staphylococcus aureus 16S rRNA gene using PCR.
BLAST table of 16s RNA of Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) associated food-borne diseases have global impact on human health. Genome wide analyses have shown that S. aureus contains specific endotoxin expressing gene and produce toxic proteins which is responsible for food contamination. Appropriate detection of pathogens is one of the major tool to avoid infection rate and reduce the health and socio-economic burden to human being. In addition, inappropriate handing the specimens, misdiagnosis and limited standard medical support could directly influence the infection rate. The objective of this study was to identify S. aureus from different food specimens from Hyderabad, India. A total of 70 random bacterial nutrient agar medium pure plates were made based on different morphological appearance of bacterial colonies. Preliminary identification of S. aureus based on standardized morphological method showed specific golden yellow colonies. Biochemical assay also verified bacterial specimens. Furthermore, molecular characterization was performed on the basis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of S. aureus. Newly sequenced 16S rRNA gene sequences showed 100% homology to S. aureus, analyzed using NCBI-BLAST tool. The phylogenetic analysis and nucleotide base composition studies performed using 39 sequences of 16S rRNA gene from different isolates of Staphylococcus, including Staphylococcus aureus. For the purpose, 16S rRNA gene sequences were retrieved from the NCBI in FASTA format. The phylogenetic analysis was performed using Maximum Likelihood method and revealed the relationships and percent similarity of Staphylococcus aureus 16S rRNA gene. Keywords: Food-borne diseases; 16S rRNA gene; Maximum Likelihood; Phylogenetic analysis; Staphylococcus aureus.
 
Generally, old buildings and monuments are often affected by biodecay. An inventory of the existing microbial consortia which associated with the damage part of the buildings wall is not yet integral part of the restoration process. This stems from the lack of effective means for such stocktaking. Although, Actinomycetes, fungi and bacteria cause severe damage through mechanical process from the growth into wall and its grounding and through their metabolism. Physiological and molecular approach based techniques were used in the detection and identification of DNA sequences encoding rRNA to actinomycetes present on building wall. DNA from isolate was extracted and 194 basepair fragments of the 16S rDNA were amplified with cultured primers. The 16S rDNA fragments of uniform length obtained from the different species were separated according to their sequences difference by PCR. By the sequencing excised and reamplified individual DNA bands, characterized the phylogenetic tree of corresponding actinomycetes. Using this approach, we identified members of the genera of Streptomyces, Nocardia and Micromonospora. Key words: Actinomycetes, Nocardia, Micromonospora, Streptomyces
 
GC-MS is one of the best techniques to identify the constituents of volatile matter, long chain, branched chain hydrocarbons, alcohols acids, esters etc. The freshwater mussels Parreysia corrugata was analyzed using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry, while the mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract was matched with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) library. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of 26 compounds. The compounds were identified by comparing their retention time and peak area with that of literature and by interpretation of mass spectra. The first compound identified with less retention time (30.236 min) was 2,6-Difluorobenzoic acid, tridec-2-ynyl ester, whereas gamma.-Tocopherol was the last compound which took longest retention time (29.84min) to identify. Many of them are used in industry for various applications like flavor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, pesticide and cancer preventive. Keywords: Freshwater mussels, Parreysia corrugata, GC-MS, Bioactive components
 
Defoliation Rating Classes and Major Categories of Trees Affected
Classes of leaf discoloration
Statistical results
In the last years, an insect is detected on the foliage of Quercus ilex trees in Algeria (North-East region). Dryomyia lichtensteini F.Löw, 1878 (Diptera: Cecidomyidae), The Chronology of Gall’s emergence of Dryomyia lichtensteini and its field infestation rate were followed since 2014, in evergreen oak plantation in the Algerian North-East Region (Setif). Some statistical methods of Gall’s emergence of this pest and its effect at Quercus ilex’s Sanitary state are reviewed and discussed. For each study area (North-South-East-West), 10 trees were marked. 30 leaves of each tree were removed, so it is 300 leaves for each site, which were analyzed. This study is based on the number of galls observed. In order to highlight the degree of attack of pests. The outputs were made from November 2014 to November 2016, due to one output per month. Keywords: Quercus ilex, Cecidomyidae, gall inducers, Algeria
 
Objective: to report cases of Telogen effluvium (T.E) as a sequele of COVID 19 Material and methods: Ten patients were reported between May and august 2021with median age group of 21years. There were five males and five females in the study. All the cases were diagnosed with positive RTPCR when they had COVID and recovered fully without need for hospitalization. T.E occurred in our group after median of two months (range 1-2months) following COVID 19 infection. Detailed medical history of all the patients was taken. Results: all the ten cases showed early onset of T.E within three months of infection. Keywords: Telogen Effluvium, Covid 19, RTPCR
 
Background: Health cadres are volunteers, recruited from, by, for the community. There are two kinds of cadres can play a role in the health sector, namely in the Posyandu (Integrated Healthcare Center). Objective: to determine the relationship between cadres' participation in counseling and referral of dental and oral patients with a visit to the dental polyclinic during the Covid-19 period at the Banjar Health Center 1. Method: analytical descriptive with a cross sectional design. Sample determination of 40 cadres with purposive sampling technique. Results: showed that the level of ability of cadres in dental and oral health counseling efforts with the number of visits to the dental polyclinic at Banjar 1 Health Center for a period of 2 months showed p=0.011, as well as for the measurement of dental patient referrals with visits, p= 0.011. Conclusion: there is a relationship between the participation of cadres in counseling and referral of dental and oral patients with visits to the dental polyclinic during the Covid-19 period at the Banjar 1 Health Center with statistical results p=0.011 Keywords: Role of cadres, counseling, patient referrals.
 
Mechanism of action for several medicines that are being put through clinical trial
Percentage of patients with PCR-positive nasopharyngeal samples from inclusion to day 6 post-inclusion in COVID-19 patients reported by Gautret et al. Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 47
The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection, more commonly referred to as COVID-19, has rapidly developed into a worldwide pandemic with a significant health burden. At the time of this research there are no approved pharmacological treatments or preventative therapeutic strategies in place to combat the infection. However, globally, hundreds of clinical studies that aim to discover effective COVID-19 treatments are ongoing. This article summarises the rationale behind several of these interventional trials, including evidence from in vitro studies, and early results to provide an insight into the global response. As patients are being enrolled in clinical trials across the UK, some of the safety and practical considerations for the investigational medicines that pharmacists are most likely to encounter in practice are discussed as part of this review. Keywords: coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; 2019-nCoV; clinical trial; remdesivir; favipiravir; hydroxychloroquine; lopinavir; ritonavir; corticosteroids; interferons.
 
media use in obstetrics and gynecology medical education
COVID-19 is a pandemic that has spread in various countries. The health care system in hospitals is burdened with widespread infections and health problems. In addition, educational aspects, especially obstetrics and gynecology education, have problems in clinical practice. This study reviews the role of the learning media in supporting the competence of resident doctors in specialist education for obstetrics and gynecology. Narrative review is done by reviewing some literature that explores the use of media in supporting medical education competencies. The search was performed using MeSH keywords in the PubMed, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect databases. The literature used is research conducted in the last 5 years. The collected data is then arranged in a narrative manner. The challenges experienced in medical resident education, especially the focus on obstetrics and gynecology during the COVID-19 pandemic, have become a consideration for the need for innovative media so that learning can run as usual. All aspects need to ensure quality education for resident doctors because they will continue to provide health services in the future. Keywords: Maternal health, COVID-19, Media, Obstetrics and gynecology
 
The world is currently facing a pandemic spreading rapidly in more than 200 countries caused by the SARS-CoV-2. The virus was first thought to have originated from Wuhan, China, and the infection has spread throughout the world, including Indonesia. The mortality rate for COVID-19 in Indonesia is 8.9%. This figure is the highest in Southeast Asia. Therefore, the government made various efforts and policies to tackle the COVID-19 outbreak in Indonesia. One of them is implementing the health protocol, namely 3M (using masks, washing hands, and social distancing). However, due to the increasing number of Covid-19 transmission in Indonesia, the current health protocol became 5M (washing hands, wearing masks, social distancing, limiting mobility and interaction and staying away from crowds) is expected to reduce the transmission rate of the COVID-19 virus. This study aims to discover the description of knowledge of Pre-Clinical Students in Faculty of Medicine, Christian University of Indonesia, Class of 2020 regarding COVID-19. The design of the study is a descriptive survey with a quantitative descriptive. Data were obtained by using questionnaires distributed online with a non-random sampling technique, in which we used purposive sampling. The participants were next screened with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. It resulted in 140 participants who qualified the criteria and whose data could be considered for further analysis. The results showed that from 140 students, 136 students (97,1%) had good knowledge, three students (2,1%) had sufficient knowledge, and one student (0,8%) had less knowledge about COVID-19. The study finds that 136 students (97,1%) in a class of 2020 in the Faculty of Medicine at Christian University of Indonesia have a good knowledge of COVID-19. Keywords: Knowledge, Pre-Clinical Students, FK UKI 2020, COVID-19.
 
Possible mechanism of action and chemistry of remdesivir as an anti-viral (i) Initially, ester group get hydrolyzed by esterase enzyme leads to produce carboxylic acid derivative and corresponding carboxylate ion [32-35].
In-vivo use of remdesivir in treatment of COVID-19
Remdesivir as a drug attracted a very serious consideration of whole Globe in treatment of the pandemic disease COVID-19. More recently published in-vitro inhibition activity and in-vivo case studies were showing promising clinical results and outcome of effective inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 virus by the use of remdesivir. However at the same time, use of the remdesivir showed substantial detrimental adverse events in patients which needs a special attention during treatment course of COVID-19. Thus, the use of remdesivir in treatment of COVID-19 is having current international interest although some more clinical evidences are still necessary in order to understand the actual efficiency and mechanism of remdesivir against COVID-19. In view of this, the present literature study spotlight the current ongoing research related to use of remdesivir which includes (i) pharmacology of remdesivir, (ii) mechanism of action of remdesivir (iii) in-vitro inhibition of remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2 virus, (iv) in-vivo analysis and clinical use of remdesivir against COVID-19. Finally possible adverse events (of use of remdesivir) are also discussed considering the pharmacovigilance concern. Keywords: Remdesivir; COVID-19; Remdesivir side effects, Remdesivir pharmacology; SARS-CoV-2 virus
 
Methylene blue entered the medical field when Robert Koch and Paul Ehrlich introduced the staining of tuberculosis microorganisms using methylene blue. It is used as an anesthetic agent for its sensory nerve ending blocking property, and its antimicrobial activity was useful as an antimalarial therapy in the 1890s. In the modern medical field, methylene blue was majorly used for investigational purposes as contrast in many radiological diagnostic techniques. Further applications of methylene blue in various clinical indications like Alzheimer's disease, depression, and psychosis are under investigation. Human Coronavirus invasion through the ACE 2 receptor causes the immune system's activation and induces apoptosis in human cells like monocytes, macrophages, T lymphocytes, and dendritic cells, which results in the activation of the innate and acquired immune system. This process results in the massive elimination of the infected cells. Methylene blue can play a significant role in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection by inhibiting viral replication and preventing sepsis due to covid illness. Theoretically, anti-inflammatory activity, oxidative stress, and tissue damage caused by covid infection can be minimized, and thereby it can also be beneficial for the patients suffering from cytokine storm. From this review article, we conclude that methylene blue should be evaluated for its role in covid treatment at a clinical level. Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, Antiviral activity, Cytokine storm, Nitric oxide, Antidote activity.
 
The COVID-19 outbreak, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has been detected in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and is accompanied by significant degrees of morbidity and mortality. Antibiotic resistance (AMR) threatens to wreak havoc on healthcare system and the impact of globalization, and COVID-19 is intended to keep it at bay for the time being. During the COVID-19 crisis, a wide range of antimicrobial medicines were promoted as viable treatments. While both industrialized and industrializing nations have seen a rise in antimicrobial medication usage, use and abuse have been significantly more prevalent in developing countries. Antibiotic resistance is still a concern since microorganisms that cause resistant infections develop in hospitals and medical institutions, placing all patients at risk, complicating the care of COVID-19. Improper prescriptions, a lack of care management policies and needless self-administration by the general population are examples of these. Antibiotics seem to be more motivated to abuse and misusing antibiotics than to keep them safe and take them only when prescribed. Almost all of the substantial antibiotic usage in COVID-19 patients is inevitable. Patients having lung viral infections are more likely to develop subsequent bacterial infections, which lead to higher disease severity and death. Immediately crucial components of any AMR mitigation approach are increased spending in education and increased public knowledge of AMR. More studies are needed to better understand the health risks and rate of co-infection in COVID-19 patients in order to promote a decrease in any unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing. Keywords: COVID-19; Antibiotic use and misuse; Antimicrobial Resistance.
 
Background: The deadly arrival of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in late December 2019, caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged worldwide causing a pandemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) has proved ineffectiveness against existing medications this influenced the prompt identification of Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which plays a vital role as the prophylactic application that helps in developing new interventions. Objectives: To study the effect of mAbs in high-risk individuals in treating COVID-19. Methodology: The recent studies related to the aim of the review were undertaken through a literature search to analyze the importance of mAbs in combating SARS-CoV-2. Results: In several countries even though vaccines have reached the Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) people still rely on traditional medications. Besides repurposed drugs, recently many mAbs targeting S-protein of SARS-CoV-2 have been signed up for clinical trials. Currently, no specific neutralizing mAbs have been reported for SARS-CoV-2 and it may take several years for such antibodies to be readily available. The development of mAbs for preventing the SARS-CoV 2 infection is challenged by the threat of antibody-dependent enhancement, antibody-resistant against SARS-CoV-2 variants, acute respiratory infections, clinical trials and risk assessment, and inexplicable. The clinical trial data proved that there is no life-threatening Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) occurred during mAbs therapy for COVID-19 patients. Conclusion: Establishing monoclonal antibodies will continue to be the best prophylactic application as it minimizes the risk of hospitalization in the high-risk individuals affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Keywords: COVID-19, Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), Emergency Use Authorization (EUA), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)
 
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated disease that affects peripheral nerves and can lead to life-threatening consequences. It affects around 10000 people per year worldwide. Since the outbreak of acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (sar-cov-2) the incidence of GBS has been increased with a fatality rate of 4-7%. The exact association between the Sar-cov-2 and GBS is still unknown. GBS commonly presents after viral infections such as influenza virus, campylobacter jejuni, and zika virus. Clinical recognition of SC2-GBS is required in order to administer appropriate treatment on time and enhance the overall output of the infection. In most of the conditions patient was treated with intravenous immunoglobulins and outcome was seen within eight weeks of treatment. less outcome was seen in older age in line with previous findings for both GBS and COVID-19. Studies should be conducted to compare patients associated with GBS to those with concurrent non-COVID-19 GBS to see if the incidence of GBS is higher in those with COVID-19. Keywords: Guillian-Barre syndrome, COVID-19, SAR-COV2
 
Distribution of COVID-19 patients with comorbidities by age group
Distribution of comorbid COVID-19 patients by type of comorbidity
Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2). At this point, COVID-19 remains the main health issue worldwide, including in Indonesia, with existing risk factors. Comorbidities, smoking, male sex, and the elderly are some of its biggest risk factors. Current data about COVID-19 patients with comorbidities in Indonesia were limited, so this study was made to present more data about the clinical profile of COVID-19 with comorbidities. The descriptive retrospective method was used in this study with secondary data obtained from Christian University of Indonesia General Hospital medical records from January 2020 to December 2020 and aimed to describe the clinical profile of COVID-19 patients with comorbidities. Among 156 samples of COVID-19 patients that were found in this study according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, 91 patients (58,3%) had at least one comorbidity. They were distributed based on sex, age group, clinical symptoms, type of comorbidity, and the number of comorbidities in each patient. Based on sex distribution, there were 46 male patients (50,5%) and 45 female patients (49,5%). The most prevalent age group was 50 – 54 years old, with 14 patients (15,4%). Fever with 88 patients (95,9%), cough with 86 patients (93,8%), and dyspnea with 55 patients (60,8%) were the most common clinical symptoms. The most common types of comorbidity were hypertension with 66 patients (72,5%), diabetes mellitus (DM) with 20 patients (22,0%), and obesity with 14 patients (15,4%). There were 58 patients (63,8%) with only one comorbidity and 33 patients (36,3%) with ≥ 2 comorbidities. Prompt identification of comorbidities, public enlightenment about comorbidities with other risk factors of COVID-19, and complying with health protocols are recommended to decrease the proportion of COVID-19 patients with comorbidities. Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Comorbidity.
 
In vitro inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 virus by hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine
Comparative account of literature review for the use of hydroxychloroquine in treatment of COVID-19
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as a drug grabbed serious attention of whole world in dealing with COVID-19 pandemic. Recently some in-vitro and in-vivo study showing possible inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 by use of HCQ. However at the same time, some case studies showing NO clinical benefit/ poor clinical outcome with substantial detrimental adverse effects by use of HCQ in treatment of coronavirus disease-2019. Thus, the HCQ use (in COVID-19 treatment) is of current international interest, although a consensus has not yet been reached. More evidences are still required to prove efficacy of HCQ against COVID-19. In view of this, the present review highlights the current ongoing research related to use of HCQ in treatment coronavirus disease-2019. The present review will discuss the possible anti-viral mechanism of HCQ, prophylaxis strategy and effect of HCQ against SARS-CoV-2 virus in-vitro study. Further this review also summarizes and debates all available clinical trials/ case studies of HCQ use against COVID-19 (with clinical outcome). Finally possible detrimental adverse effects are also discussed considering the public health and pharmacovigilance concern. Keywords: Potency of hydroxychloroquine; COVID-19; Coronavirus disease-2019; Clinical trials; SARS-CoV-2; Adverse effects of hydroxychloroquine; Pharmacovigilance concern
 
Background: Contemplating the severity of pandemic sequel for public health many researchers are working recklessly for new targeted drugs and vaccines. Despite the challenging opportunities, the setup for the development of new effective remedy against COVID-19 is unforeseeable. Objective: The aim of the present review was to explore the work done by some authors to battle against COVID-19. Material & Method: We analysed 24 articles from Elsevier and one from J Med virology journals stating different strategies to cope with this recently arrived monster COVID-19. Further are some targeting therapies viz., Niclosamide, immune response generated by cytotoxic T-cells and Natural Killer cells, Chloroquine and Hydroxy Chloroquine, blockade of Interleukin17, N- Acetylcysteine, mucolytic agents, oxytocin, bioflavonoids, triterpenoid saponins, ACE inhibitors or AII receptor antagonists, Hyperbaric oxygen therapy, serum albumin, Ritonavir, Tocilizumab, Furin, Amantadine, pioglitazone, Dapsone and doxycycline, steroids, plasama therapy, routine childhood immunization, a data-driven hypothesis on the epigenetic dysregulation of host metabolism by SARS corona viral infection, lipid metabolism has been proposed as a treatment target for COVID-19, COVIDiagnosis-Net proposed network for quick and accurate diagnosis. Result: We got to know how the people are struggling to find a cure for this pandemic affair. Conclusion: Till date, there is no specific treatment that has been confirmed to the effect against COVID-19. Let’s hope for the best. Key words: COVID-19, Novel Corona Virus Infection-2019, SARS-CoV2, Plasma therapy, Immunomodulators
 
In attempt to improve the biological activity of the well-known drug hydroxychloroquine (HQC), eight derivatives (HQ1-4Py – HQ8-4Py) based on the core of HQC were design and their electronic properties including frontier molecular orbitals, total energy and structural parameters were estimated at semi-empirical PM3 levels. Pharmacological parameters such as physicochemical, pharmacokinetics, drug-likeness and medicinal chemistry friendliness have been evaluated to estimate the drugs similarity. Introducing these moieties affect both electronic and drug likeness properties, HQ5-Py shows promised properties such large Eg and good clogP, The obtained results show that the suggested derivates may represent a potential drug candidate for COVID-19. Keywords: Molecular similarity, COVID-19, Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).
 
Geographic heat map of the state-wise mucormycosis cases (as of 31 May 2021)
Author's co-authorship network visualization of post-covid-19 and mucormycosis publications.
keywords occurrence network of post-covid -19 and mucormycosis related publications
Summary of the Information
Top 15 highly cited papers in covid-19 and mucormycosis
Purpose: The second wave of the covid-19 pandemic has impacted global healthcare tremendously and mucormycosis associated with coronavirus disease is one of the deadly fungi that hit India in April 2021. An increasing number of research papers are upcoming with mucormycosis associated with coronavirus research and this paper aims at performing a bibliometric visualisation of all the available research on post covid-19 and mucormycosis. Method: The Scopus database was selected and the search query (ALL (novel coronavirus 2019 OR coronavirus 2019 OR COVID 2019 OR COVID 19 OR nCOV OR SARSCoV2 OR COVID19) and (black fungus or white fungus or yellow fungus or mucormycosis) was developed on 25 May 2021 to retrieve all the bibliographic records on the domine of interest. VOSviewer software tool was used to constructing and visualising bibliometric networks to measure co-authors, countries, and institutions document citation, keyword metrics. Results: A total of 154 documents were retrieved in the search, these were authored by 3,806 authors and published in 133 sources (journals, books, etc.). USA, India, and UK ware contributed the highest papers. Journal of Fungi (4), Heliyon (3), International Journal of Molecular Sciences (3), and Phytotherapy Research (3) are the journals that published the highest papers. Author per document was 24.7; Documents per author were 0.0405 and collaboration index was marked 26.5 during the period. Conclusion: this bibliometric visualisation presents the qualitative and quantitative metrics for post-covid-19 and mucormycosis research and provides evidence that research in this domine is more in-depth than before. It is hoped that this well-directed research in different countries will provide new avenues for understanding diseases caused by mucormycosis associated with coronavirus. Keywords: Bibliometric Visualisation; Post-Covid-19; Mucormycosis; Annual Growth Rate; Research Performance; India
 
Usage Pattern
Frequency Distribution of Respondents' Knowledge
Frequency Distribution of Attitudes to Herbal Medicine
During the Covid 19 pandemic, one of the prevention measures suggested by Indonesian Food and Drug Authority (BPOM) is to consume herbal medicine to boost one's health immunity. The major factors that encourage the individual to consume herbal medicines are their knowledge and attitude towards the herbal medicines themselves. In these pandemic condition, consumption of herbal medicines will still increase as one of the prevention measures. This research aims to understand the knowledge and attitude of indigenous people in Wasur village RT 002 RW 001 regency towards herbal medicines during the pandemic. This research is descriptive research using a cross-sectional approach. The instrument that is being used in this research is a questionnaire. There are 100 people as the sample used in this research was taken under a nonrandom sampling technique with purposive sampling criteria that have been inclusively determined. The results have shown that plants that are frequently consumed as herbal medicines are Sambiloto (36%), Ginger (26%), Meniran leaves (13%), Galangal leaves (13%), Papaya leaves (11%), and Guava leaves (8%). The dosage form that is being used by the sample is decoction. The village's knowledge of the people's herbal medicines is mainly passed down by the family (60%). The majority of these herbal medicines concoctions are local's concoctions. To be noted in this research, 44 persons of the samples passed the "GOOD" knowledge criteria, and 98% passed the "GOOD" criteria for attitude toward herbal medicines. This research concludes that knowledge and attitude are majorly in the "GOOD" criteria. Keywords: Consume, Knowledge, Attitude, Herbal.
 
COVID-19 or Coronavirus Disease is an acute respiratory disease caused by a new RNA virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This virus is rapidly spreading around the world. There are several risk factors for COVID-19 infection. This study aims to determine the factors that influence the incidence of COVID-19 in UKI Medical Faculty clinical students in 2022. The research design was a cross-sectional analytic using primary data by google form questionnaire involving 164 samples of clinical students FK UKI analyzed by univariate and bivariate. The results of this research were five people (3.1%) infected with COVID-29 2 times, 95 people (57.9%) clinical students FK UKI who had been exposed to COVID-19. There was a relationship between the use of masks (p=0.008), washing hands (p=0.000), keeping a distance (p=0.014), avoiding crowds (p=0.005), mobility limitations (p=0.002), and contact with COVID-19 patients (p=0.010). However, there was no relationship between gender (p=0.393), smoking (p=0.581), complete vaccination (p=0.136), and comorbid disease (p=0.641) on the incidence of COVID-19 in clinical students FK UKI in 2022. The conclusion is that the implementation of the 5M protocol (Using masks, washing hands, Keeping a distance, Avoiding crowds, and Mobility limitations) and contact with COVID-19 patients proved to affect the incidence of COVID-19 in FK UKI clinic students in 2022. Keywords: Gender, wearing a mask, washing hands, keeping a distance, avoiding restrictions, limiting mobility, contact with patients, vaccination, smoking, comorbidities, COVID-19.
 
Host-virus gene interaction in COVID-19 case and SARS-CoV-2 infected cell line. The SARS-CoV-2 utilizes different strategies (inhibition of host IFN signaling, PKR-mediated apoptosis, NKRF repression, and hijacking of ubiquitination) to evade the host immune response while host counteract the SARS-CoV-2 infection through immune response by IFN and chemokine signaling. The repurposable approved and experimental drugs (AZT: azithromycin; BLR: baloxavir; CMS: camostat; CQ: chloroquine; CSN: cyclosporine A; DXC: doxycycline; FLV: fluvoxamine; FVR: favipiravir; HCQ: hydroxychloroquine; IFNB1A: interferon beta 1a; IVR: ivermectin; LPR: lopinavir; MAC: macrolides; NMS: nafamostat; NZX: nitazoxanide; PRD: prednisone; RPN: rapamycin; RTR: ritonavir; RVR: remdesivir; SLB: sarilumab; TZB: tocilizumab) act at several host-virus interaction sites exerting anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity.
Gene Ontology of enriched DEGs (differentially expressed genes). (a) Group A: known COVID-19 genes. The top two enriched biological processes were regulation of signaling receptor activity (FDR 3.64 × 10 -22 ) and leukocyte cell-cell adhesion (FDR 1.44 × 10 -13 ) among known COVID-19 genes. (b) Group B: COVID-19 case compared to uninfected healthy control. Regulation of protein modification process (FDR 2.03 × 10 -5 ) and response to growth factor (FDR 5.01 × 10 -5 ) among DEGs downregulated in COVID-19 case. (c) Group C: SARS-CoV-2 infected versus uninfected cell line downregulated genes. Regulation of secretion by cell (FDR 1.67 × 10 -6 ) and cellular oxidant detoxification (FDR 1.57 × 10 -5 ) among downregulated DEGs of SARS-CoV-2 infected cell line in group C. (d) Group C: SARS-CoV-2 infected versus uninfected cell line upregulated genes. Type I interferon signaling pathway (FDR 1.69 × 10 -13 ) and response to other organism (FDR 6.96 × 10 -13 ) among upregulated DEGs of SARS-CoV2 infected cell line in group C.
Introduction: Repurposing existing drugs approved for other conditions is crucial to identifying specific therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) causing COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic. Towards this attempt, it is important to understand how this virus hijacks the host system during the course of infection and determine potential virus- and host-targeted inhibitors. Methods: This study elucidates the underlying virus-host interaction based on differentially expressed gene profiling, functional enrichment and pathway analysis, protein-protein and protein-drug interactions utilizing the information on transcriptional response to SARS-CoV-2 infection from GSE147507 dataset containing COVID-19 case relative to healthy control and infected cell culture compared to uninfected one. Results: Low IFN signaling, chemokines level elevation, and proinflammatory cytokines release were observed markedly. We identified MYC-rapamycin and ABCG2-rapamycin interactions, and unique gene signatures in case (regulation of protein modification and MAPK signaling) as well as in cell (metabolic dysregulation and interferon signaling) different from known COVID-19 genes. Conclusion: Among a plethora of repurposable drugs those appearing here with unique gene signatures might be helpful in COVID-19 Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, GSE 147507 dataset, protein-protein interaction, gene-drug interaction, repurposable drugs.
 
Background: Unani System of Medicine (USM) is one of the traditional systems of medicine practiced in India and the Indian subcontinent. It is a holistic system of health care based on inceptive principles applied by Hippocrates, Galen, and Ibn-e-Sina, the founders of present-day medicine. USM encompasses a distinct way of looking at the human body and it considers health to be the result of natural dynamic harmonious balance within the body. USM also recognizes the presence of inherent wisdom which is responsible for controlling all physiological functions, maintenance of health, restoration of health, and self-healing. This intrinsic ability of the body to restore health and the mechanism that activates the body’s healing process is called Tabi’at/ physis. The ultimate goal of prevention of disease can be obtained by optimization of tabi’at/physis, increasing the host defense. It can be achieved through the implication of asbab-e-sitta zarooriyah which includes some Unani Regimenal Therapies also, fostering change in lifestyle habits resulting in good health. Aims: In this raging pandemic all the therapeutic strategies are based on destroying the agent, breaking the means of transmission and immunization. Although we are leaving behind a huge gap in maintaining the host defense even though it has a crucial role in disease dynamics. In this paper, we have attempted to highlight the concept of tabi’at/Physis and its optimization to prevent this disease and its transmission. Methods: The authors had gone through classical Unani medical textbooks books related to the concept of tabi’at, asbab-e-sitta zarooriyah, and various modalities that help in health promotion and host defense. Important Unani medicine textbooks like Al Qanoon, Kamilus Sana’at, Kitab-al- Hawi, Al-asbab wa Alamat, Moalijat Buqratiya, Firdausul Hikmat and Kitabul Mansuri in addition to other published literature on the concerned subject was also reviewed for further clarification on the topic. Keywords: Unani System of Medicine, Tabi’at (physis), Host defense & Asbab-e- Sitta zarooriyah
 
The educational system across the world had drastically been affected due to the pandemic outbreak of COVID-19. In this circumstance, Teaching and learning shifted from traditional way which involves face-to-face interaction among teachers and students physically in a classroom, to online learning either synchronously or asynchronously. Therefore, the aim of this study is to monitor the level of students’ perception towards online learning during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic situation. The study adopted the way of quantitative approach by conducting a survey which was collected via a standardized online questionnaire. Data collected from 699 respondents were analyzed using SPSS 23 software. In spite of having been failed to get theoretical and practical experience as well as expected results, majority of the respondents had positive perceptions towards online learning and accepted this as the new method of learning with online application tools. The outcomes of the study will facilitate educational institutions and policy makers to take this online learning process to the next level in a prospective way. Keywords: Online Learning, COVID-19, Pandemic, Bangladesh.
 
In this communication, efforts have been made to point out two different aspects: the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 and several therapeutic effects of ‘Triphala’. The ‘Triphala’ have been acting as ‘one formula therapy’ since the time of the Ayurveda, and the COVID-19 is not an exception. The relationship between the pre- and post-symptom of COVID-19 and the therapeutic activity of ‘Triphala’ gives us a ray of hope to use Triphala as an anti-corona therapeutic supplement during the pandemic as well as in near future. Keywords: COVID-19, Triphala, Ayurveda, Therapeutic activity
 
Docking pose of azithromycin with Mpro enzyme active site. Amino acid residues Phe 3, Arg4 and Lys5 are formed hydrogen bond (appear in blue dotted line).
Docking pose of Dexamethsone with Mpro enzyme active site. Amino acid residues Phe 3, Arg4 and Lys5 are formed hydrogen bond (appear in blue dotted line).
Docking pose of remdesivir with Mpro enzyme active site. Amino acid residues Phe 3, Arg4, Lys5, Gln127 and Glu290 are formed hydrogen bond (appear in blue dotted line).
Structure of the top ten repurposing drugs docked against covid-19 Mpro enzyme
Docking scores and hydrogen bond interactions of repurposing drugs with Mpro enzyme
SARS-Cov-2 has emerged highly contagious viral infections so far and posed a global threat with significant human casualties and severe economic losses. There is urgent demand to develop rational therapies to control the drastic spread of the virus. Although there is no specific regimens are available to combat this pandemic situation so far. An attempt was made to perform Insilco studies of drugs applicable to respiratory tract infections with crucial SARS-COV-2 main protease (M-pro) enzyme. Insilco docking study was performed with Molegro Virtual Docker 5.5 on number of available medications of different categories specified for respiratory tract infections.Result indicates that Azithromycin, Dexamethasone and Remdesivir are highly effective and mainly interacted with key amino acid residues with hydrogen bonds and displayed excellent docking score -133, -141 and -153 kcal/mole respectively. This study advocates the possible use Azithromycin, Dexamethasone and Remdesivir drugs in combination to battle this pandemic condition. Further, this study will provide rationalized drugs and target for further in vitro and in vivo studies of SARS-CoV-2, new insights for those drugs currently ongoing clinical studies, and also possible new strategies for drug repositioning to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections. Keywords: Viruses, SARS-COV-2, Covid-19, Drugs, Computational docking Studies, Drug Design
 
Asbab-e-Sitta Zarooriya (Six essential factors for life).
Epidemiological difference between SARS CoV-2, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV.
SARS COV-2 belongs to the beta coronavirus genera, it is believed that bats as warm-blooded flying vertebrates are ideal hosts for coronavirus gene source. COVID-19 caused by novel coronavirus was originated from Wuhan city of Hubei Province in China in December 2019. The common symptoms comprise fever, cough, malaise, and shortness of breath. The incubation period is between 2 - 14 days. In this paper we have deliberated the structure of viruses; varying symptoms among COVID-19, SARS, MERS, and approach to tackling this problem with utmost effective Unani alternatives. Unani medicine endeavors to find the best conceivable ways by which a person can lead a hale and hearty life with minimum or zero sicknesses. Unani scholars believe by practicing important things like the use of fresh and clean water, breathing clean air and eating fresh food, upholding a balance between the mind and the body so that the metabolic processes can function effortlessly and the body wastes are evacuated, by enhancing immunity, and keeping an equilibrium between (Asbab-e-Sitta Zarooriya) six essential factors for life one can stay away from diseases. Keywords: COVID-19, Unani Medicine, SARS COV-2, Asbab-e-Sitta Zarooriya.
 
Every clinician who prescribes antiviral drug during COVID-19 should be very careful and needs to assess following factors such as hepatic and renal function status, specialized population such as Geriatric, Pediatric etc, co morbidities of patient, allergic history of drug, COVID-19 severity status, clinical evidence in management of COVID-19 and duration of drug therapy in COVID-19.
 
Knowledge of public toward the universal safety precautions related to COVID-19 (n=228)
Beliefs of public towards universal safety precautions against COVID-19 (n=228)
Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been declared as a global pandemic. In the absence of vaccines or specific drugs for COVID-19, a better understanding and implementation of universal safety precautions is essential for the prevention of COVID-19 virus infection globally. People’s adherence to the universal precautions safety measures against COVID-19 is essential which is largely affected by their knowledge and belief. Objectives: To assess the public’s knowledge and belief toward the universal safety precautions during COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional web-based online survey was conducted in general public in Nepal during April, 2020. A self-designed questionnaire was prepared using Google forms via docs.google.com/forms for the collection of the data. The study participants were grouped into two categories according to their level of knowledge: excellent (score 80% and above) and average (score less than 80%). Descriptive statistics mean, frequency and percentage were used to analyze the data. Results: Out of 228, majority were male (90.4%) and aged 36-45 years (36%). Mean knowledge score was 4.68±1.41. Most of them (57.9%) had average knowledge. Average of the correct responses in the knowledge and belief domain were found to be 66.9% and 71.2% respectively. Majority of the public (55.3%) believed that home-made alcohol-based hand sanitizer is equally effective to factory-made standard sanitizer against COVID-19 virus. Conclusion: Knowledge toward universal safety precautions against COVID-19 were average among the majority of the public. There was gap between knowledge and belief domain. There is an unmet need for long term educational interventions among the public regarding the preventive methods against COVID-19. Keywords: Knowledge; Belief; COVID-19; Nepal; Public; Universal safety precautions.
 
Molecular interaction between Lopinavir and Main Protease Protein of SARS-CoV-2
Hydrogen bond interactions of Lopinavir and flavonoids of Coriandrum sativum seeds with the SARS CoV-2 Mpro.
Molecular docking analysis is routinely used in modern drug research to understand and predict the relationship between a drug molecule and a target protein from a microbe. The entry and replication of pathogens in host cells can be prevented by drugs identified in this way. The coronavirus disease associated with SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, has become today's most infectious and lethal pandemic disease in the world. Burgeoning in the absence of any particular vaccine or therapeutic agent against SARS-CoV-2.The situation urges the need for appropriate medications to treat patients infected with the virus. Consequently, the study focus on evaluate the therapeutic potential of flavonoids present in Corriandrum sativum seeds that could serve as suitable remedies for COVID19.We analyzed the binding affinity of four flavonoids were screened against Mpro protein of SARS-CoV-2 by PyRx Virtual Screening tool and also results are validated with Lig-Plot Plus. Lopinavir shows binding affinity of -8.3 Kcal/mol and exhibit stable, strong interaction with active site of COVID19 main protease. Besides flavonoids, Rutin found to have the highest binding affinity compared to Lopinavir with the Mpro protease, followed by Chlorogenic acid, Quercetin and Caffeic acid. The present study concludes that Rutin present in the integrant of seeds shows the highest potentiality for acting as in inhibitor of main protease enzyme. Further, characterization of the amino acid residues comprising the viral binding site and the nature of the hydrogen bonding involved in the ligand receptor interaction shows significant findings with Rutin binding to the MPro protein at amino acid. The amino acid acid present in active sites of Mpro protease responsible for virus pathogenicity. The findings of the present study need in vivo experiments to prove the utility of Rutin compounds and further use in making Corriandrum sativum seeds as anti-SARS-CoV-2 product in near future. Keywords: Corriandrum sativum seeds,Novel Coronavirus, SARS-CoV2, COVID-19, Protease, Molecular Docking.
 
Top-cited authors
Harikumar Sl
  • Central University of Jharkhand
T.K. Barman
  • NSHM Knowledge Campus
Tapas Pal
  • West Bengal University of Technology
Pallab Kalita
  • Kaziranga University
Ramen Kalita