Journal of Divorce & Remarriage

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Online ISSN: 1540-4811
Print ISSN: 1050-2556
The hypothesis that having a common religion is associated with more stable marriages is tested using California data on divorce for the period 1966-1971. The results confirm the hypothesis, and the authors note that "religious homogamy among Jewish couples is associated with longer [marriage] duration than any other group. Couples who report no religious affiliation appear to be at greatest risk of early filing for divorce. The religious groupings include the Jewish, the Conservative Protestant, the Liberal Protestant, the Roman Catholic and those with no religious affiliation."
This paper provides an examination of the effects of the divorce and separation process on children's academic achievement over time. By using child fixed effects and establishing a baseline period that is 4-or-more years prior to a family disruption, I can examine how children are affected in different periods relative to the disruption and whether any negative effects subside, persist, or escalate as time passes from the disruption. With a sample of 7-14 year olds, I find: children are affected at least 2-4 years before the disruption; reading test scores are most affected; and for Reading Comprehension, the negative effects persist and even escalate as time passes from the disruption.
This study investigated three parental marital statuses and relationship quality among unmarried, but dating adults ages 18 to 35 (N = 1153). Those whose parents never married one another tended to report the lowest relationship quality (in terms of relationship adjustment, negative communication, commitment, and physical aggression) compared to those with divorced or married biological parents. In addition, those with divorced parents reported lower relationship adjustment and more negative communication than those with married parents. Parental conflict and the degree to which participants rated their parents' relationship as a healthy model for their own relationships partially explained the associations between parental marital status and relationship outcomes. We suggest that this particular family type (i.e., having parents who never marry one another) needs greater attention in this field in terms of research and intervention.
"A study of 27 [developed] nations indicated that divorce rates rose in 25 of the nations from 1950 to 1985 while marriage rates declined in 22 of the nations. Nations with higher divorce rates in 1950 had steeper increases in the divorce rate subsequently, supporting a critical-mass hypothesis."
"The purpose of this paper is to examine the characteristics of all [U.S.] couple households in which one or both partners were previously married. In this examination, we will consider not only households maintained by married couples...; we will also consider households formed by cohabiting couples. In addition, we will examine the living arrangements of children in these households, with particular attention to whether children are from the current union or a previous union."
This study assesses the impact of socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and attitudinal characteristics of husbands and wives on the timing of marital dissolution. The primary concerns were with divorce and the intervals of marital duration before divorce occured. The analysis was based on data collected from an initial sample of 610 couples in the early years of marriage, all of whom resided within a large North Central Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area in 1978. The couples were reinterviewed seven years later in 1985 (N = 544). The data collected from the first wave of subjects were used to identify antecedent characteristics of husbands and wives, whereas, data from the second wave were used to measure the timing (tempo) of marital dissolution among the 105 couples who subsequently divorced. Partial correlation coefficients indicated that the tempo of divorce significantly varied according to the wife's employment status, occupational status, future work plans, father's education, age at marriage, gender role orientation and number of children. Moreover, a multiple classification analysis of these variables showed that under controlled conditions wives' employment status and number of children were more powerful predictors of the tempo of divorce.
The impact of war on marriage, divorce, and birth rates in the United States from 1933 to 1986 is explored. The author concludes that "the involvement of the nation in military activities was accompanied by a decrease in marriage and birth rates but not by any change in divorce rates. Mobilization of the armed forces and demobilization had no discernible impact on divorce, marriage or birth rates." PIP The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of military participation on marriage, divorce, and births in the US between 1933 and 1986. It is hypothesized that war decreases both the divorce and birth rate and that military returns increase the divorce and birth rates. Data were obtained from published sources: Historical Statistics of the United States and annual issues of the Statistical Abstract of the US. Time-series multiple regression with the Cochrane-Orcutt correction for autocorrelation revealed that when military participation was higher, birth and marriage rates declined. Divorce rates were unaffected. Demobilization did not show any effects on birth, marriage, or divorce rates. These findings support the work of Urlanis on the decline in birth rates during wartime, but contradicts the findings of Stein on the increases of divorce during wartime.
Paying particular attention to the economic impact of post-divorce on black survey respondents of both sexes, "this study analyzes Weitzman's suggestion that men and women lose economic well-being in the first year after divorce. Family incomes of divorced women and men are compared with [those of] their married counterparts for five SES [socioeconomic status] categories. Using t-tests, it was found that, for most categories, for both genders, incomes of divorced persons were lower than incomes of married persons. Family incomes were regressed against a set of four control variables and a marital status variable. The marital status variable was statistically significant for four of the five SES categories for females. This was not true for males. Policy implications are considered." The geographical focus is on the United States.
One gap in the remarriage literature to date concerns the timing of remarriage among different groups. This paper begins to fill this gap by examining the tempo of remarriage among individuals whose first marriages ended in divorce and individuals whose first marriages ended in spousal death. Drawing on event-history models, the results suggest that divorced individuals remarry quicker than individuals whose first marriage ended in spousal death. Interestingly, results also indicate that this relationship is moderated by both gender and parity, suggesting demographic and life course factors can impede or encourage post-marital union formation.
"The present study was designed to explore whether unemployment has a deleterious impact on family life, resulting in lower rates of marriage and births and higher rates of divorce. Time series data were available for twelve nations for the 35 year period of 1950 to 1985, and the present paper reports analyses of these data sets." The results indicate that unemployment is associated with lower marriage and birth rates and higher divorce rates.
The divorce-stress adjustment perspective defines divorce not as a single event, but as a process with effects that linger even after remarriage. Previous studies based on the divorce-stress adjustment perspective looked at divorce as a stressful process and analyzed how divorce can negatively affect health outcomes after the actual divorce has taken place. This perspective is a combination of various elements of stress frameworks that has been dominating the literatures on divorce. However, the popularity of the stress framework resulted in less attention to studying divorce as an active or passive choice that some individuals make in their life course and the life event influences their social behaviors in later life, which could provide another possible explanation why divorce can negatively influence health even after remarriage.
Data from over 3,000 married couples responding to the National Survey of Families and Households are used to examine the extent of agreement between wives and husbands in their perceived likelihood of divorce, and the degree to which such perceptions are related to the actual likelihood of divorce and to changes in labor supply and fertility. While there is considerable agreement between spouses in the perceived likelihood that their marriage will end in divorce, for about 7-8% of couples these assessments vary widely. Although both wives' and husbands' perceived likelihood of divorce is significantly associated with subsequent marital disruption, wives' perceptions are significantly better predictors than husbands'. Married women who expect their marriages to dissolve are more likely than others to increase their hours worked per week and their weeks worked per year, but expecting their marriages to end in divorce has a much weaker effect on married men's economic behavior. Wives', but not husbands', anticipation of divorce is significantly associated with a lower likelihood of childbearing, even among couples who remain married. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the relationship between guilt and adjustment after divorce for 29 men (mean age 46 yrs) and 44 women (mean age 43 yrs). It was hypothesized that divorced Ss who experienced high levels of guilt will experience lower levels of post-divorce adjustment, as measured by depression, role strain, and continuing attachment after divorce. Guilt correlated with both depression and continuing attachment after divorce. Guilt was regressed against a linear combination of depression, role strain, and attachment, but only depression and attachment were significantly related to guilt. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Evaluated the effects of pre- and postseparation factors on the emotional and behavioral adjustment of 351 children (aged 18 yrs or younger) during parental divorce. Measures included parent and child history questionnaires and the Child Behavior Checklist. Children had poorer emotional adjustment and more behavior problems if they were older, had prior psychological problems, had parents with more marital conflict, and had more difficult relationships with their mothers. The father–child relationship appeared as a weak predictor in the behavior problems model. Emotional adjustment was predicted most strongly by postseparation family relationships, while behavior problems were more strongly related to preseparation factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
50 persons participated in a study to test the effectiveness of 3 divorce workshops: a beginning experience workshop (BEW), a support workshop (SW), and an information workshop (IW). The BEW was a group marathon conducted over a weekend by paraprofessional peer volunteers, using expression of feelings as the primary intervention. Measures included a divorce adjustment scale and the Interpersonal Distance Measure (IDM) of D. E. Engebretson (unpublished manuscript). The 16 Ss in the BEW improved significantly more than the 21 SW Ss or the 9 IW Ss at completion of the workshops. BEW and SW improvement continued to increase over the 10-wk posttest period (limiting the BEW's comparative success to decreased symptoms of grief), whereas the IW improvement decreased. Assessment of the concurrent validity of the IDM indicated that the IDM can be used as a concurrent measure of divorce adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the predictive value of the McMaster Family Assessment Device (based on the unpublished research of N. B. Epstein et al) and the Divorce Adjustment Inventory (P. R. Portes et al, unpublished) in accounting for children's current functioning as measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Ss were 76 custodial parents and 111 children (aged 6–16 yrs). Three factors from the 2 family functioning instruments accounted for 46% of the CBCL variance. These factors were roles, child's reaction to the divorce, and postdivorce conditions related to conflict in the home. Children of divorce were healthy when family roles were maintained and parents resolved their differences in ways that modeled coping skills and reduced postdivorce conflict. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Recent studies have reported that children of highly-conflicted parents who remained together, and children of low-conflict parents who separated, were as adults more poorly adjusted and less successful in forming and maintaining relationships. This was explored in a longitudinal study of 67 adolescents aged 13-16 yrs at which time half the families involved were at the point of divorce. Mothers, fathers and adolescents rated the level of conflict in the family, and parents also rated their marital adjustment and their satisfaction with marital conflict resolution. Adolescents also reported whether they got involved in their parent's disagreements, and completed standardized measures of self-image, anxiety and depression. 10 yrs later the now-adult children repeated these items and measures of readiness for intimacy, wariness about relationships, and some further family conflict items. Family conflict at Time 1 predicted self-image and anxiety at Yr 1, but not at Yr 10. Adult children's current rating of happiness in the family predicted current self-image. As adults, daughters were more anxious than sons. Findings indicate a different pattern of long-term outcomes from those reported in previous research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Investigated the possibility that divorce has long-term effects on children, and that these effects manifest themselves in increased heterosexual relationship difficulties and depression in young adulthood. Also, sex differences in heterosexual relationship difficulties and depression of divorced Ss were examined. 33 male and 38 female young adults from divorced and intact families were administered the Beck Depression Inventory and the Relationship Questionnaire (designed to measure heterosexual relationship difficulties). Females from divorced families reported higher levels of depression and relationship difficulties than females from intact families. No differences were found between males from divorced families and males from intact families on either measure. Females from divorced families reported higher levels of depression than males from divorced families, but similar levels of relationship difficulties. Finally, the data was analyzed to detect differences between Ss whose parents had divorced earlier (child between 6 and 10 at the time of divorce) and Ss whose parents had divorced later (child between 11 and 14). Males from late divorcing families had higher levels of relationship difficulties than males from early divorcing families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the developmental effects of parental divorce on children in 4 age groups (i.e., infancy/toddlerhood, childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood). Research has demonstrated both positive and negative outcomes for these children. A recent model of adjustment (P. R. Portes et al, see record 1991-32066-001) suggests 4 factors that correlate highly with adjustment to divorce, including child coping skills, pre- and post-divorce family functioning and stability, external social support systems, and post-divorce conditions. Further review of the literature yielded family dynamics (i.e., family conflict) vs family structure (i.e., divorced vs intact) as a more powerful predictor of children's adjustment. In addition, internal social support (i.e., a supportive family environment) has been found to reinforce positive coping strategies. Based on these findings, a pre- and post-divorce adjustment model for children was constructed. This model illustrates that the conduit through which social support (internal and external), family functioning, and family conflict influence adjustment (positive or negative) is children's coping strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews the literature on potential sources of support for divorced individuals, including family, friends, dating relationships, or remarriage, as they establish a new lifestyle. In continuing relationships with family and friends, a lack of norms for dealing with divorce may result in ambiguous reaction and support, making adjustment more difficult. The need for divorced persons to socialize with people who have undergone similar experiences is a major factor in changing friendship patterns. Factors such as low self-esteem, fear of rejection, and lack of opportunity to meet appropriate dating partners may hamper the development of intimate relationships. Still, divorced men and women are able to establish new and satisfying relationships; the vast majority remarry and most of these marriages are successful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews and expands the research regarding the effects of perceived parental conflict, gender, and family structure on the attitudes toward marriage of young adults. 340 college students, 273 from intact and 67 from divorced families, completed R. J. Hill's (unpublished) Favorableness of Attitudes Toward Marriage Scale (FAMS) and measures of the presence and degree of parental conflict. A 3-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that young adults from homes with parental conflict had lower FAMS scores than those from homes without conflict, males had lower scores than females, and Ss from divorced families had lower scores than those from intact families. Greater parental conflict correlated with lower FAMS score. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This article moves from describing children's reactions to divorce to explaining them by using their quotes and art to demonstrate parental bickering, screaming, and fighting as causative factors for many of their reactions to divorce. Data from children of divorce (aged 3–18 yrs) show that, from the view of the children, parental discord in any intensity or communication form provoked the most negative effects on them. Reactions to parental discord included increased crying; sadness; fear, aggression, hate, and hostility toward the parents; shame due to their parents' behaviors; and a fall in academic achievements. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Used a brief educational intervention to reduce the number of times divorced parents put their children in the middle of parental conflict. 98 9th–12th graders were divided into 2 groups: a 49-member intact family group and a 49-member divorced group (Ss from divorced or separated homes). An intervention group consisted of 45 of the 49 Ss, who could be located for postintervention assessment. Ss completed a questionnaire, which rated the frequency and stressfulness of 32 situations into which a parent may have put them "in the middle," within the past month. Parents of the intervention group were mailed the Ss' averaged responses and an explanatory letter. The same 32-item questionnaire was given about 1 mo after the mailing as the intervention evaluation. Ss in the intervention group improved more than the 2 control groups combined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Surveyed 56 maritally separated individuals (mean age 37.4 yrs) regarding the causes and consequences of their marital separation, and the manner in which they coped with the adjustment. It was found that a disproportionate number of females in the sample were initiators, and that communication difficulties, emotional abuse, and the lack of love were cited most often as precipitants of the separation. Differences were found in both structural and functional aspects of the social support network; differences were also found in arguments over the children, romantic involvement, time spent with other people, involvement with the legal system, and changes in income. Mean scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale both at the time of separation and at the time of interview indicated clinical depression. Increased psychiatric symptomatology correlated significantly with several events that precipitated the separation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examines the influence of number, sex distribution, age distribution, and age spacing of children on the severity of parent–child relationship problems in 912 single-father households, based on fathers' reports. Fathers with custody of preadolescent girls, compared to those rearing both preadolescent and adolescent girls, children of both sexes, or boys exclusively, reported significantly fewer problems with their children. No effects were found for family size or age spacing. The method of obtaining custody, social support, marital conflict, and father involvement in child care during the marriage were also significant predictors of the dependent variable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews literature regarding the adjustment of children following parental divorce and examines the criteria used by the courts to determine custody, the different types of custody arrangements available, and the legal guidelines for custody cases. The goal is to identify specific variables predicting positive development. Evidence suggests that the courts are using more specific variables in their custody decision making, rather than continuing to rely on a general rule of choosing 1 parent as primary caretaker. The types of variables used in these determinations are consistent with literature on postdivorce child adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Analyzed data from 943 respondents to the 1987–88 National Survey of Families and Households to distinguish between 2 measures of contact between children and their nonresidential fathers: whether a father saw the child during the past year, and the number of weeks during the past year that a child stayed with the nonresidential father. Negative influences on father–child contact included geographic distance and the duration of time since parental separation. A legal agreement regarding child support and a father's payment of child support increased the likelihood that the child would see the father. The existence of a joint custody agreement and mothers with higher levels of education led to increases in the number of weeks a child stayed with his/her father. Paying child support led to decreases in the number of weeks a child spent with his/her father. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Assessed perceptions of parent behavior (PB) and locus of control (LOC) for 68 children (aged 9–12 yrs) from divorced (DF) and intact families (IF). Results showed no differences between Ss from DF and IF in their perceptions of PB and LOC and on the 3 factors of the Children's Reports of Parental Behavior Inventory (CRPBI) (acceptance–rejection, psychological control–psychological autonomy, and firm control–lax control) and on the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale for Children. However, the possessiveness scale of the CRPBI indicated that children of DF perceived both their parents as significantly more possessive than did children from IF. These results suggest minimal adverse effects from divorce. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examines divorce statistics on individuals who have been divorced more than once in order to discuss the paucity of literature on this topic, the extent to which such divorces will influence the overall rate, and psychological inferences about frequently divorced persons. Existing statistical evidence indicates that there will be an increasing flood of individuals who go through a 2nd and 3rd divorce. This flood may have actually started in 1986 and seems likely to go on at least through the 1st decade of the 21st century. In the past, a 2nd or 3rd divorce indicated that the individual had personality difficulties. In the future, when this behavior gains greater acceptance, it seems likely that a 2nd or 3rd divorce will not have such import. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Experimented with a small-group educational and skills training approach to divorce education and conflict resolution. Three groups of couples, referred because of child-centered conflict, undertook a 4-wk (2 hrs per wk) group education experience. Five of the couples met the criteria for answering pre- and posttest questionnaires (attitude and behavior focus) to assess the effect of the group experience on the members. The results indicated that the group's attitudes toward parental cooperation improved significantly, while their self-reported behavior also improved, but not at a significant level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined individual differences in stress and coping for a sample of 56 divorced White women (aged 29–46 yrs). Using telephone interviews, diaries, and home visits, data were collected on major and minor stressors, potential mediators, and adjustment outcomes. High levels of stress and dispositional and social support resources were strongly associated with good adjustment outcome. In the face of relatively low levels of stress, sociodemographic and structural mediators were associated with good adjustment outcome. By learning more about these mediating factors, especially those which are modifiable, researchers can eventually identify the kinds of assistance that could benefit this at-risk population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Explored how the divorce experience affected spirituality for 12 women divorced 3 yrs or less recruited from support groups. Individual interviews revealed how the divorce experience was affected by spirituality through common patterns and recurring themes. For the majority, spirituality facilitated healing. This finding, along with the fact that over 80% sought counseling, implies that tapping spiritual strength for post-divorce recovery may have profound influence for social work intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Compared postdivorce adjustment factors among older, long-married persons with similar familial factors among younger divorced persons. Ss were 111 people (aged 50+ yrs) who had been married for an average of 30 yrs and 206 younger people from a study by M. A. Pett (1979) who had been married for an average of 11 yrs. Personal interviews indicated that older divorced persons were not devastated by their divorce. Significant differences between the 2 samples were found for importance of family closeness, conflict in relationships, and forewarning of the divorce from family members. There were also differences in familial factors that predicted well-being for the 2 age groups. Implications for counseling practice with older divorced persons are addressed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews the literature in psychology and related disciplines regarding the impact of marital separation or divorce on the individual, focusing on divorce/separation as process, divorce-related stressors, individual differences in coping and adjustment, coping and use of social support systems, cognitive appraisal, attributional style, and treatment. The initial separation process for women is typically more stressful than for men, regardless of who initiated. Some gaps still exist within the literature, suggesting the need for additional research in such areas as treatment and the impact of initiator status. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This study examined the relationship between forgiveness of an ex-spouse and post-divorce adjustment. Participants (N= 199) were recruited from community singles organizations and church-based divorce recovery groups in several Midwestern cities. Forgiveness was related to several measures of mental health after controlling for the effects of demographic/background variables. Specifically, both Forgiveness (Absence of Negative) and Forgiveness (Presence of Positive) were positively correlated with Existential Well-Being. Forgiveness (Absence of Negative) predicted Existential Well-Being beyond Forgiveness (Presence of Positive) but not vice versa. Forgiveness (Absence of Negative) was also positively correlated with Religious Well-Being and negatively correlated with Depression, State Anger, and Trait Anger. The majority of participants believed that forgiveness of one's ex-spouse is important for emotional healing following a divorce. No differences were found between Protestants and Catholics regarding perceived importance of forgiveness or self-reported forgiveness of their ex-spouse. Religious affiliation moderated the relationship between Forgiveness (Presence of Positive) and Existential Well-Being. Study implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examines literature on the responses of married persons to divorce to determine the conditions under which divorce may be experienced as a "stren," a personality enhancing or growth experience. 17 factors contributing to this outcome are discussed. These factors include the definition of divorce as a normal event, the personalities of the participants, age and sex, marital lifestyle, income and education options, traditional or nontraditional gender roles, and the role of a significant other. Suggestions are made for processes to facilitate the adjustment of divorced persons. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Assessed the impact of divorce on residential change using a national sample of 155 divorced persons (under 55 yrs of age) interviewed in 1980 and again in 1983 and 1988. Divorce affects probability of moving, the number of moves, dwelling type (in the likelihood of shifts in owner status), and housing quality. However, these factors do not contribute substantially to the symptoms of stress that accompany divorce with the possible exceptions of moving to lower quality housing and shifting from single family to multiple unit dwellings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the relationship between 3 dimensions of perspective-taking and a propensity to divorce. 159 couples married an average of 23 yrs completed a marriage survey. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the general ability to understand the point of view of others was a positive predictor of thoughts about divorce. Dyadic perspective-taking and perceptions of dyadic perspective-taking both predicted a propensity to divorce in the direction hypothesized. Some gender differences in predictability were found. The discussion focused on the importance of dyadic perspective-taking in maintaining a stable marriage relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined how employed single mothers experience time following divorce. Nine single mothers (aged 28–47 yrs) employed full-time completed interviews regarding their experience of time. Results show the themes of unrelenting responsibility, fragile control, precious moments, and a contrast between on-duty and off-duty time. The many roles Ss fulfilled required that they continually made decisions about how time was allocated. Unexpected events interfered with carefully made plans, such that the degree of control over time issues was experienced as tentative. As a consequence of the unrelenting responsibility and the fragile nature of their control over time, Ss valued precious moments when family time could be given priority. A sharp contrast existed between on-duty time and off-duty time, when children stayed with the other parent for a short period. Off-duty time was mixed in nature: while Ss were not engaged in direct parenting of the children, they still experienced off-duty time as having a variety of demands associated with parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
A 27-item checklist of reasons for divorce was administered to 207 men (aged 23–78 yrs) and 230 women (aged 21–68 yrs) divorcing in the mid-1980s. Factor analysis revealed 9 dimensions underlying the checklist responses. The most frequently cited factors were unmet emotional needs/growing apart, lifestyle differences or boredom with the marriage, and high-conflict demeaning relationships. Statistically significant sex, age, and socioeconomic differences were found. Correlates between the factors and individual psychological functioning, parental functioning, and the emotional ambiance of the divorce reflected diversity among the divorcing population and implications for legal and mental health practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Explores the social correlates of regional divorce rates in the US and Japan, using a similar set of social variables, including unemployment rates, per capita income, population and population density, birth rates, percentage of population under age 15 and over age 65, and suicide and homicide rates. Results show that the strongest correlate for Japanese divorce rates is unemployment, while social problems, evidenced by suicide and homicide rates, were most strongly associated with divorce rates in the US. In 1970, the divorce rate in Japan was .93 per 1,000 people, while it was 3.5 per 1,000 in the US, indicating that divorce is considered more deviant in Japan than in the US. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Using data from the National Survey of Families and Households (1988), this study compared the level of involvement of nonresidential 410 fathers (mean age 37.9 yrs) as a function of marital status: divorced/single parent, separated, remarried, and never married. multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) analysis, with SES as the covariate, indicated that separated and divorced fathers communicated with and visited their children more often than did remarried or never married fathers. Separated and never married fathers evidenced higher levels of well-being than did never married fathers. There also was a tendency for remarried and never married fathers to perceive that they had less influence than divorced or separated fathers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Research on noncustodial fathers is progressing from the negative effects of father absence to the development of successful models of co-parenting where absentee fathers share responsibilities for childrearing. Theoretically-based analyses of the obstacles and factors that promote father involvement need to be placed within the context of diverse families and interactions between biological parents living apart. Assessment of the impact of father presence on child well-being is especially important in light of the high proportion of children living in one-parent families without father support and the high rate of poverty among children raised by mothers. It is suggested that theoretical frameworks such as family systems and symbolic interactions can help guide analyses of father role perceptions and societal changing expectations of father responsibilities as provider and caregiver of his children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Hypothesized that divorced parents who continued to consider former affines as "relatives" would maintain higher levels of contact and utilize these persons as a source of support. In addition, 2 other independent variables were considered: the amount of contact with the in-law before divorce and approval after the divorce. 73 divorced parents (29 men and 46 women) completed interviews and questionnaires. The data suggest that while frequency of contact with in-laws decreased after divorce, the relationship for some was still a source of support, especially for and from female in-laws. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Marital breakdown rates were examined among 15,714 adults from the British Social Attitudes dataset for 1985-2005. Separation and divorce peaked at around 50 years of age, and increased significantly over the period of study. Ratios of separation or divorce were compared between respondents who had no religious affiliation and (a) Christian affiliates who attended church at least once a month, (b) Christian affiliates who attended church, but less than once a month, and (c) Christian affiliates who never attended church. The results showed that active Christians were 1.5 times less likely to suffer marital breakdown than non-affiliates, but there was no difference between affiliates who never attended church and those of no religion. Christians who attended infrequently were 1.3 times less likely to suffer marital breakdown compared to non-affiliates, suggesting that even infrequent attendance at church may have some significance for predicting the persistence of martial solidarity.
This article examines the adjustment of 136 young adult stepchildren and exposure to parent and stepparent warmth, control, and parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, supportive, or disengaged). Parental warmth was found to be consistently associated with adult children's adjustment, while parental control, and the individual parenting styles of parents and stepparents were largely unrelated to adjustment. Young adults whose parent and stepparent both employed a disengaged parenting style had significantly increased risks for engaging in criminal activities, using drugs, and being stressed, and were more likely to report multiple negative outcomes than those exposed to other parenting combinations. Young adults with clinically significant adjustment problems were least likely to have parents and stepparents who both employed authoritative styles of parenting. These data highlight the value of warm supportive relationships within stepfamilies and the importance of parents and stepparents adopting complementary parenting roles.
Examined the efficacy of behavioral family intervention (BFI) for the treatment of child oppositional and conduct behaviour problems in stepfamilies. Forty- two stepfamilies were randomly assigned to wait lst control, therapist- directed BFI, or self- directed BFI. No significant differences were obtained for self- directed vs. therapist- directed BFI. Families receiving BFI reported significantly greater reductions from pre- to post- intervention in child behaviour problems and couple conflict over parenting, and were more likely to show clinically significant and statistically reliable improvements on a range of family and child measures than control families. Future research should focus on developing and evaluating preventive interventions for stepfamilies.
This article examines the effects of parental divorce on externalizing, internalizing, and relational problem behavior of boys and young men between 12 and 30 years of age in the Netherlands. We compare sons coming from divorced families both with sons from intact families and also with daughters. Compared to male youngsters coming from intact families, male youngsters from divorced families tend to have more externalizing problems, including risky habits. Young men, after a divorce, hardly differ either from young men coming from intact families or from young women with respect to internalizing problem behavior. Male children of divorced families enter into relationships at an early age and usually have greater sexual experience compared to male children coming from intact families. However, young men in general and also young men after parental divorce postpone marriage and fatherhood compared to young women.
Top-cited authors
Guy Bodenmann
  • University of Zurich
Amy Baker
  • The Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development
Kathryn Bonach
  • Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Annette Cina
  • Université de Fribourg
Qingbin Wang
  • University of Vermont