Journal of Dental Education

Published by American Dental Education Association
Online ISSN: 1930-7837
Publications
Article
This paper describes the evolution and operation of a system of clinical evaluation which has been in use in the Faculty of Dentistry at McGill University since 19749 Students are evaluated for their overall performance throughout an entire clinical period rather than for individual treatment steps or units.
 
Article
The American Dental Education Association's 2001-02 Survey of Dental Student Financial Assistance obtained data by which to report, in aggregate and by type of school, the amount of financial assistance being received by dental students, in the form of loans, grants and scholarships, and work-study programs. Over 90 percent of the dental students received financial assistance through one or more federal, state, and/or school source. The average amount of assistance per student was dollar 35,100, ranging from an average of dollar 27,700 at public dental schools to dollar 51,100 at private dental schools. Loan programs accounted for almost 88 percent of all financial assistance; grants and scholarships, for 12 percent; work-study programs, for 0.2 percent. Overall, financial assistance exceeded average tuition and fees by 102 percent. With such levels of reliance on financial assistance, it remains imperative that students, even at the undergraduate level, receive the counseling, monitoring, and advice that will help them judiciously seek and manage appropriate types and amounts of financial assistance as they obtain their dental education.
 
Article
The number of vacant budgeted full-time faculty positions has changed little over the last three years, standing in 2002-03 at 280. The number of part-time vacancies, though, has continued to decline to twenty-seven. The average number of vacancies per school was 5.7, down from 6.4 of the past several years. The average number of vacancies reported to be usual and normal at any one time was 3.6. Forty-three percent of the schools reported four or fewer vacant budgeted faculty positions in 2002-03. Overall, the order of primary disciplines by their number of vacancies varies from year to year; however, with no particular trend by discipline. Also there does not appear to be any significant correlation between discipline and the length of time a position has been vacant. Fifty-five percent of the vacant positions had been vacant less than seven months. Salary/budget limitations and lack of response to position announcements were the most frequently reported factors influencing the ability to fill a position. There were 921 reported faculty separations in 2002-03. Forty-six percent were a result of faculty leaving for private practice. The number of new faculty reported in 2002-03 was 1,231. Fifty-one percent of the new faculty came from private practice. The total number of faculty reported in 2002-03 was 357 more than reported in 2001-02. Rather than a perceived pending shortage of faculty, it may be more of an endemic number of vacancies due to the amount of time needed to fill a position. While there is no indication expressed in the survey that current vacancies are adversely affecting the quality of dental education, foresight, planning, and necessary steps need to continue to ensure the preparation and continuity of a dental workforce sufficient in size and expertise to meet the teaching, research, patient care, and administrative needs of the dental education community.
 
Faculty vacancies at responding schools At the present time, do you have at least three faculty vacancies? (N=56 dental schools) 
Percentage of respondents who endorsed various ADEA initiatives to support curriculum change at dental schools (respondents were requested to select all items that applied) (N=51 dental schools) 
Report card: progress on dental school curriculum reform agenda 
Article
This study examined the current format of curricula at North American dental schools, determined curriculum evaluation strategies, and identified recently implemented changes as well as planned future innovations. The academic affairs deans of sixty-four North American dental schools received an email survey in August 2002; a second, follow-up survey was sent to nonresponders in February 2003. Online responses were collected and analyzed using SurveyTracker software. The final response rate was 87 percent, with forty-eight U.S. schools and eight Canadian schools responding. Respondents were asked to select descriptive statements about the general organization of their curricula and the degree to which problem-based learning (PBL), case-reinforced learning (CRL), curricular integration, and community-based clinical treatment experiences were incorporated. They were also requested to identify strategies employed to evaluate the curriculum and to report recently completed and desired future curriculum modifications. In regard to desired future curriculum innovations, respondents identified why they were considering curriculum changes and identified resources needed to implement the planned changes. Sixty-six percent of those who responded defined their current curriculum organization as primarily discipline-based with a few interdisciplinary courses. Nearly 60 percent of schools reported that they used PBL and CRL in specific courses or for components of certain courses, but only 5 percent of the respondents indicated that all of their courses used PBL. Regarding integration of major sections of the curriculum, only 7 percent reported that their entire curriculum was organized around themes of interrelated topics. Sixty-four percent reported that their curriculum had required community-based clinical treatment experiences for students. The most frequent innovations in the past three years were increased use of computer and web-based learning (86 percent), creation of patient care experiences early in the curriculum (84 percent), enhancement of competency evaluation methods (84 percent), and curriculum decompression (79 percent). These items plus increased community-based care were the most frequently identified future curricular innovations. There were virtually no differences between the responses of Canadian and U.S. dental schools. The results of this study help to broadly characterize dental curricula at North American dental institutions and identify curriculum modifications anticipated by the academic dean respondents.
 
Article
The American Dental Education Association's 2003-04 Survey of Clinic Fees and Revenue obtained data by which to report, by school, clinic revenue information per student. Fifty-one of the fifty-four dental schools that had third- and fourth-year students responded to the survey. The median revenue per third-year student was dollar 9,937. It was dollar 13,602 for fourth-year students. Clinic revenue was also obtained for programs of advanced dental education. General Practice Residency programs generated the highest revenue per student at dollar 66,474, followed by programs of Advanced Education in General Dentistry at dollar 63,860. Other areas of the survey provided information regarding clinic fees by type of program, levels of uncompensated care by type of program, clinic revenue by source of payment, and dental school fees as a percent of usual and customary private practice fees.
 
Article
The Survey of Dental Student Financial Assistance reports data collected by the American Dental Education Association on financial assistance to dental students in the academic year 2003-04. Over 90 percent of students at the fifty-one responding dental schools received financial assistance in the form of loans, grants, scholarships and/or work-study programs, with students receiving an average of 43,191 dollars per year. As tuition and fees rose 21.4 percent over the past two years, financial assistance rose 23.1 percent. Both continue to increase at a rate greater than inflation. The primary source of financial assistance was in the form of loans, accounting for nearly 90 percent of the reported financial assistance. Most of the remaining assistance was in the form of obligated or unobligated grants and scholarships, with an increasing share attributable to grants/scholarships with obligations following graduation. As the price of higher education increases, reliance on financial assistance continues to increase, and students graduate with an increasing amount of debt in real and constant dollars.
 
Article
The total number of vacant budgeted positions (296) fell by eleven positions between 2002-03 and 2003-04. However, the reported number of lost positions increased from thirty-nine to 147. The average number of vacancies per school was 5.3. The average number of vacancies reported to be usual and normal at any one time was 3.6 per school, the same as last year. Forty-three percent of the vacancies had been vacant less than seven months, a decline from 55 percent in 2002-03, indicating an increase in the number of positions vacant longer than six months. Meeting position requirements was the most frequently reported factor cited as influencing the ability to fill a position. This is a change from recent previous years when the most influencing factors were salary/budget limitations and lack of response to position announcements. While there was no indication expressed in the survey that vacancies were adversely affecting the quality of dental education, almost 50 percent of the deans reported faculty recruitment and retention was a problem at their school, and over 55 percent indicated that they anticipated it would become more difficult over the next five years to fill vacated positions. Faculty recruitment, development, and retention remain priority issues in meeting the teaching, research, patient care, and administrative needs of the dental education community.
 
Article
The number of vacant budgeted faculty positions in dental schools has continued to decline, dropping from 296 in 2003-04 to 275 in 2004-05. The number of lost positions declined to twenty-five, from 147 lost positions reported in 2003-04. While the average number of vacancies per dental school was just under five, three-quarters of these vacancies were considered usual and normal to the operation of the dental school. Based on ADEA's annual survey of dental educators, there was approximately a 9 percent faculty turnover between 2003-04 and 2004-05, and according to the 2003-04 and 2004-05 surveys of vacant faculty positions, it is taking longer to fill vacant positions. The greatest challenges influencing the ability of a school to fill a vacancy were salary/budget limitations and lack of response to a position announcement. Still, between 2003-04 and 2004-05, the number of dental school faculty increased from 11,348 to 11,715, including 4,736 full-time, 5,097 part-time, and 1,791 volunteer faculty members. Employment status was not reported for ninety-one individuals. Private practice remains the primary reason for faculty separations and the source of new faculty. In addition, nearly one in four new faculty members entered dental education directly following graduation from a dental or postdoctoral education program. While it may take longer to fill positions and it has become more difficult to fill some vacancies, overall, dental school deans indicated that the number of vacancies was not affecting the quality of dental education. However, between anticipated faculty retirements and current levels of faculty turnover, continued support for and development of faculty recruitment and retention programs remains essential to maintaining a quality dental education workforce.
 
Article
The annual turnover of dental school faculty creates a varying number of vacant budgeted positions at any given time. The American Dental Education Association (ADEA) conducts an annual survey to determine the status and characteristics of these vacant faculty positions. In addition, ADEA conducts an annual survey of dental educators to maintain a database on the size and characteristics of dental school faculty, including data on the distribution of full-time, part-time, and volunteer faculty, reasons for faculty separations, and sources of new faculty. The number of vacant budgeted faculty positions within U.S. dental schools increased throughout the 1990s, with a peak of 358 positions in 2000. Following this peak, the number of vacancies declined, falling to 275 in 2004-05. Since that time, there has been a rapid increase in the number of estimated vacancies, reaching 417 in 2005-06, then falling slightly to 406 in 2006-07. The 2005-06 and 2006-07 faculty vacancies surveys explore these increases, along with information relevant to trends in the faculty workforce, factors influencing faculty vacancies, and the impact of vacant positions on dental schools.
 
Article
This report describes participants' assessment of their experiences in the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Leadership Institute program. The ADEA Leadership Institute is designed for mid-career faculty members who desire to attain administrative roles within their own or other institutions or enhance their effectiveness in these roles. This year-long program, conducted in four phases, is ADEA's flagship career enhancement program and provides dental educators with perspectives about oral health policy and legislation, organization and financing of higher education, the dental school's role within the parent institution, financial management, legal issues, recruiting faculty, and opportunities to acquire and practice skills associated with effective leadership. ADEA Leadership Institute Fellows also explore team-building, personality preferences, leadership styles, emotional intelligence, stress management, work-life balance, strategies for leading change, and giving and receiving feedback, as well as engaging in self- and peer assessment throughout the year. Each year up to twenty-one fellows are selected to participate in the institute in a competitive application process. In 2009, 149 fellows who participated in the institute from 2000 to 2008 were invited to take part in a survey to establish their profiles and academic leadership roles, determine their perceptions of the benefits from the institute curriculum, and elicit their suggestions for improvement. The survey response rate was 73 percent (n=109). Ninety-nine percent of respondents gave an overall positive assessment of their experiences. The most beneficial experiences, according to respondents, included networking with the program participants, advisors, and instructors (78 percent); self-discovery through self-assessments and evaluations (44 percent); and a 360 degree feedback process to provide additional reflection about areas for improvement (17 percent). Least beneficial experiences identified by survey respondents included sessions devoted to oral health legislation (33 percent), group projects (28 percent), and mentorship received during the institute year (12 percent). In the final part of the survey, participants provided suggestions for improvements and new areas for program planners to consider. Additions to the current curriculum (30 percent)-such as how to recruit and retain faculty-and advanced leadership training (15 percent)-including behavioral change theory-topped the improvement list. The results of this study indicate that the ADEA Leadership Institute is fulfilling its mission. Fellows are advancing in their careers and assuming administrative leadership roles within their home institutions while making scholarly contributions to the literature and undertaking leadership positions in ADEA.
 
Article
This 2009 study of dental school curricula follows a similar one conducted in 2002-03. Through a web-based survey, the authors gathered information from dental schools about 1) past trends in curricular change over seven years; 2) current changes under way in dental school curricula; 3) significant challenges to curricular innovation; and 4) projected future trends in curricular change and innovation. Fifty-five schools (fifty U.S. and five Canadian) responded to the survey for a response rate of 86 percent. In addition to background information, the survey requested information in four broad areas: curriculum format, curriculum assessment, curriculum innovation, and resources needed for curriculum enhancement. Forty-nine percent of the respondents defined their curriculum format as primarily organized by disciplines. Half of the respondents reported the use of problem-based and case-reinforced learning for a section or specific component of some courses. In a significant change from the 2002-03 study, a high proportion (91 percent) of the responding schools require community-based patient care by all students, with just over half requiring five or more weeks of such experience. Competency-based education to prepare an entry-level general dentist seems well established as the norm in responding dental schools. Forty-three percent or less of the responding schools indicated that their students participate with other health professions education programs for various portions of their educational experience. Since the 2002-03 survey, dental schools have been active in conducting comprehensive curriculum reviews; 65 percent indicated that their most recent comprehensive curriculum review is currently under way or was conducted within the past two years. Respondents indicated that the primary reasons for the configuration of the current curriculum were "perceived success" (it works), "compatibility with faculty preferences," "faculty comfort," and "capacity/feasibility." Key catalysts for curricular change were "findings of a curriculum review we conducted ourselves," students' feedback about curriculum, and administration and faculty dissatisfaction. There was an increase in the percentage of schools with interdisciplinary courses, especially in the basic sciences since 2002-03, but no change in the use of problem-based and case-reinforced learning in dental curricula. Respondents reported that priorities for future curriculum modification included creating interdisciplinary curricula that are organized around themes, blending the basic and clinical sciences, provision of some elements of core curricula in an online format, developing new techniques for assessing competency, and increasing collaborations with other health professions schools. Respondents identified training for new faculty members in teaching skills, curriculum design, and assessment methods as the most critical need to support future innovation.
 
Article
This report summarizes the history and curriculum of the American Dental Education Association/Academy for Academic Leadership Institute for Teaching and Learning (ADEA/AAL ITL) Program for Dental School Faculty, describes participant feedback, and reviews how the program serves the faculty development initiatives of the American Dental Education Association. The fifty-hour program (6.5 days), conducted in two phases at collaborating dental schools, enhances core academic competencies of new and transitional faculty, including faculty members whose responsibilities include predoctoral, allied, and postdoctoral dental education. The program's mission is to prepare participants to become more effective teachers and develop other skills that will facilitate confidence, job satisfaction, and professional growth in the academic environment. From 2005 to 2009, 174 individuals graduated from the program, representing forty-three schools of dentistry in the United States and Canada and twenty-nine private practices. A total of forty scholarships have been awarded to participants by the American Academy of Periodontology Foundation, the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, and the American Association of Orthodontists. In an online survey completed by 75 percent of ADEA/AAL ITL participants, 99 percent indicated they were positive or highly positive about their learning experience in this faculty development program. Ninety-six percent stated that the program had been important or very important in their effectiveness as a teacher. In 2010, the program will be held at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Dentistry, with phase I occurring on August 19-22, 2010, and phase II on October 22-24, 2010. In summary, the ADEA/AAL ITL is addressing an unmet need through a formal professional development program designed to help new and potential faculty members thrive as educators and become future leaders in academic health care.
 
Article
The Bachelor of Oral Health (B.O.H.) commenced at the University of Adelaide in 2002. The degree was formed by combining the Diploma in Dental Therapy and the Diploma and Advanced Diploma in Dental Hygiene. This preliminary study measured the predictive value of the selection criteria against students' academic performance at the end of each enrollment year of the B.O.H. program. Predictive indicators were prior academic achievement (i.e., tertiary entrance ranking [TER], university grade point average, or Special Tertiary Admissions Test scores) and the admission cognitive test score (i.e., Undergraduate Medical Admissions Test [UMAT] and Oral Assessment [OA] ranking). Predictive indicators were compared with the students' level of academic achievement across the three-year program. The aim of this study was to determine if prior academic achievement, cognitive test scores, and oral assessment predicted high level of academic achievement for B.O.H. students. The TER was found to be a strong predictor for academic performance after controlling for age, gender, type of applicant, and student preference in the first year along with older students (>25 years) and a higher UMAT score. Raising the TER cut-off for entry to the program should be considered, along with less emphasis on the OA and UMAT, because such a change would have little impact on achievement and would increase the pool of applicants.
 
Scales, dimensions, and descriptions in one section of the finalized rubric 
Oral diagnosis rubric used at the University of Pittsburgh 
Article
Identifying and implementing effective methods for assessing dental student performance are ongoing challenges for dental educators. Questions related to grading and assessment are common among faculty and students alike. Faculty members who are well-trained clinicians or scientists often have little formal training in education. In addition, assessment of performance brings with it an element of subjectivity. Questions about assessment and grading are most likely to arise when expectations are unclear or the rationale for the grade awarded is not articulated. The authors propose that one solution to assessment dilemmas can be found in the use of rubrics: scaled tools with levels of achievement and clearly defined criteria placed in a grid. Rubrics establish clear rules for evaluation and define the criteria for performance. Rubrics speak to both teaching and learning expectations and outcomes and can provide faculty members with a tool that can be useful in evaluating dental student performance. Rubrics can also provide students with clear expectations of performance, an opportunity to self-assess, and timely, detailed feedback. The purpose of this article is to define a rubric, apply the steps of rubric development as described in the educational literature to dental student assessment, present two examples of rubric implementation for assessing student progress toward competence, and recommend electronic resources for rubric development.
 
Article
From its first issue in 1936 until today, no subject has been more central to the work published in the Journal of Dental Education (JDE) and to dental education itself than the dental school faculty. William Gies's vision in 1926 of the professionalization of dental educators was key to the professionalization of dental education. His focus on the need to develop these teachers as both instructors and researchers established the model by which a "dental educator" became a distinct professional, different from a dentist who happens to teach. This article for the seventy-fifth anniversary issue of the JDE thus starts from the obvious but not always acknowledged point that faculty members are central to the entire enterprise of dental education and relate to change over time as both cause and effect. Whether the profession today is evolving to incorporate new science and curricular models or becoming more interprofessional or meeting the needs of diverse patient populations or adopting new educational methodologies and technologies, developments in these areas will have a direct impact on the way individual faculty members do their jobs. To give a taste of the rich variety published over the past seventy-five years, the first section touches briefly on three significant types of research regarding faculty as exemplified by articles published in the JDE. These three are faculty development, educational methodologies, and faculty recruitment and retention. The second section addresses an increasingly important area of research: faculty members' perceptions of the academic work environment. After considering some trends that will affect this environment over the next decade, the article concludes with additional reasons the JDE is a valuable resource for faculty members in dental schools and allied and advanced dental education programs.
 
Article
This article describes selected changes in dental education from 1936 to 2011 and describes how the Journal of Dental Education (JDE) has assisted in both reporting and, at times, championing change. The review provides a series of selective contextual milestones as a backdrop and running commentary for the changing profession of dental education. An assessment of the current state of knowledge in this field is articulated, as are some of the drivers of change. The article poses a series of questions in seven categories that define the extraordinary opportunities ahead. A vision of the future of the JDE and dental education is described including the use of the journal as a futurist forum to educate, cajole, and advocate for continuous movement toward realizing an enlightened destiny.
 
Article
This paper addresses the issue of economic growth in the U.S. dental industry. The rates of growth in real output in the dental industry and in the U.S. economy are compared for the period 1950-1977. The annual dental rate of 4.5 percent is significantly greater (P .001) than the 3.7 percent rate for the economy. In addition, inflation has been less in dentistry than in the economy. The consequences of growth of the dental industry are also discussed.
 
Article
Previous research has shown that over the period 1950 through 1977 the dental sector experienced a faster rate of economic growth than did the economy at large. This study extends the period of analysis through 1986. The findings show that dentistry maintained its economic strength relative to the economy. The annual growth rate for dentistry of 4.8 percent was significantly greater (p less than 0.001) than the 3.3 percent rate for the economy. In addition, inflation has been less in dentistry, and growth in the dental sector was not adversely affected by the economic recession of 1978-1984.
 
Article
Previous research has established dentistry as a growth sector of the U.S. economy. This study examines the economic relationship between dentistry's growth and factors operating on the demand and supply sides of the dental market. Output, defined as real per capita dental expenditures, was hypothesized to be a function of consumer income, dental insurance and the supply of dentists. Data for the period 1950-89, were analyzed using a generalized least squares approach. The analysis supported the hypothesis, indicating a significant relationship between growth in the dental sector and economic market factors. The study concludes that dentistry's real growth since 1950 was: (1) induced by increases in demand, mainly attributable to insurance and to a lesser extent consumer incomes; and (2) supported by increases in supply. The findings provide support for the insurance hypothesis, which suggests that growth in dental insurance has had a significant impact on the dental economy in recent years.
 
Article
An extensive, critical review of the dental education literature of the last two decades, related to self-instruction, reveals that this method is capable of significantly increasing cognitive knowledge in a shorter period of time and with increased student satisfaction, compared to conventional instructional methods. Suggestions for more detailed investigation of self-instructional techniques, and the need to develop a more integrated curriculum using self-instructional materials, small group interaction, and formal lectures are presented.
 
Military service for the Class of 1961 (n=27) 
Class of 1961's parental careers, income, and educational support 
Social factors related to dental practice Spouse Worked in Dental Practice 
On the dental profession 
Article
We conducted a retrospective analysis of the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) College of Dentistry (COD) Class of 1961 to glean information that might be useful in the design of dental education programs in Nebraska and elsewhere. We scanned annual class newsletters, demographic statistics for students entering the UNMC dental program for each decade from 1961 to 2001, and UNMC COD alumni data for patterns and themes among thirty-two dental professionals. Eighty-four percent of those contacted provided responses to a survey. We found that, like current dental cohorts nationwide, the UNMC COD Class of 1961 is mostly of European ancestry (non-Hispanic) and male. But in contrast to current dental college graduates, the UNMC Class of '61 were able to rely upon self-employment and spousal and/or military support (GI Bill) to cover the costs of their dental education. They also were more likely to enter dental school before completion of an undergraduate degree and have a substantial work history before entering the UNMC dental program. Although the most common reason for attending dental school related to independence and financial security, "time with family" and "family vacations" were the next most important reasons cited for becoming dental professionals. Among '61 graduates, the average number of years spent in the dental profession is thirty-seven years. Despite the notable changes in dental technology and the continual need for updating knowledge and skill, eight members of the UNMC COD Class of 1961 continue to practice dentistry. Most maintain contact with other class members, providing support to former classmates and maintaining an identity with their alma mater, the University of Nebraska.
 
Article
There has been a significant reduction over the past three years in the number of applicants to dental school. This paper, which is based on an analysis of over 30 variables contained in the American Association of Dental Schools Application Service data bases for the 1975, 1976, 1977, and 1978 entering class years, indicates that only four of these variables are related to the decline in applicants: (1) region of parents' residence, (2) grade point average, (3) college major, and (4) parents' socio-economic status. The decline in applicants from the socio-economic lower middle class documented here once again raises the possibility that access to dental education is being denied to the economically disadvantaged.
 
Top-cited authors
Marita Rohr Inglehart
  • University of Michigan
Elsbeth Kalenderian
Bedos Christophe
  • McGill University
William D Hendricson
  • UT Health San Antonio (Univ of Texas Health Science Ctr at San Antonio)