Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology

Published by SAGE Publications
Online ISSN: 0022-0221
Publications
Article
Utilizing part of the survey data collected for a National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded project from 29 public elementary schools in Phoenix, Arizona (N = 1,600), this study explored the underlying structure of Mexican-heritage youths' ethnic identity and cultural/linguistic orientation. Latent profile and transition analyses identified four distinct orientation profiles endorsed by the early adolescents and their developmental trends across four time points. Most Mexican and Mexican American adolescents endorsed bicultural profiles with developmental trends characterized by widespread stasis and transitions toward greater ethnic identity exploration. Multinominal logistic regression analyses revealed associations between profile endorsement and adolescents' gender, socioeconomic status, parents' birthplace, and visits outside the United States. These findings are discussed in regard to previous findings on acculturation and ethnic identity development. Individuals' adaptation to the immediate local environment is noted as a possible cause of prevalent biculturalism. Limitations and future directions for the research on ethnic identity development and acculturation are also discussed.
 
Acculturation Variables as Covariates of Acquiescent Response Style (ARS) -Logistic Regression Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals (n=272) 
Article
A number of studies have investigated use of extreme (ERS) and acquiescent (ARS) response styles across cultural groups. However, due to within-group heterogeneity, it is important to also examine use of response styles, acculturation, and endorsement of cultural variables at the individual level. This study explores relationships between acculturation, six Mexican cultural factors, ERS, and ARS among a sample of 288 Mexican American telephone survey respondents. Three aspects of acculturation were assessed: Spanish use, the importance of preserving Mexican culture, and interaction with Mexican Americans versus Anglos. These variables were hypothesized to positively associate with ERS and ARS. Participants with higher Spanish use did utilize more ERS and ARS; however, value for preserving Mexican culture and interaction with Mexican Americans were not associated with response style use. In analyses of cultural factors, endorsement of familismo and simpatia were related to more frequent ERS and ARS, machismo was associated with lower ERS among men, and la mujer was related to higher ERS among women. Caballerismo was marginally associated with utilization of ERS among men. No association was found between la mujer abnegada and ERS among women. Relationships between male gender roles and ARS were nonsignificant. Relationships between female gender roles and ARS were mixed but trended in the positive direction. Overall, these findings suggest that Mexican American respondents vary in their use of response styles by acculturation and cultural factors. This usage may be specifically influenced by participants' valuing of and engagement with constructs directly associated with social behavior.
 
Article
Most research on immigrant acculturation has been conducted with cross-sectional samples, using statistical designs that may not capture different trajectories for the components that contribute to this complex concept. The purpose of this study was to examine change over time in acculturation for 226 women from the former Soviet Union who had lived in the US fewer than eight years when recruited. Using self-report data from four annual waves, growth trajectories were examined in four components of acculturation (American behavior, Russian behavior, English language proficiency, and cultural generativity). Results indicate that these components changed at varying rates. Acculturation is a process with multiple distinct components which should be measured separately to obtain a full profile of change over time.
 
Article
The current study was conducted to ascertain the validity of two commonly used markers of acculturation (nativity and years in the receiving culture) in an enclave context. Relationships between these markers and a bidimensional measure of acculturation were examined in a convenience sample of Hispanic immigrant adolescents and their caregivers in Miami. Nativity was examined using adolescent-reported data; approximately half of the youth were U.S.-born and half foreign-born, but all of the caregivers were foreign-born. Years in the receiving culture was examined using both adolescent and caregiver data. Results indicated that nativity was significantly associated with adoption of receiving-culture practices, with a small to moderate effect size. Years in the receiving culture was significantly associated with adoption of receiving-culture practices only for adolescent girls and for female caregivers who immigrated as youth. Neither nativity nor years in the receiving culture explained even moderate amounts of variance in retention or loss of culture-of-origin practices.
 
Cronbach's Alphas for the Personality Dimensions Across Japanese, Japanese American, and European American Samples 
Group Differences in the Levels of Personality Concordance With the Mean Personality Scores of Japanese and European Americans (Pearson Correlations) Concordance With European American Norms 
Summary of Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analyses in Predicting Japanese Americans' Personality Concordance With Japanese and European American Cultural Groups 
Article
The present study tests the hypothesis that involvement with a new culture instigates changes in personality of immigrants that result in (a) better fit with the norms of the culture of destination and (b) reduced fit with the norms of the culture of origin. Participants were 40 Japanese first-generation immigrants to the United States, 57 Japanese monoculturals, and 60 U.S. monoculturals. All participants completed the Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI) as a measure of the Big Five; immigrants completed the Japanese American Acculturation Scale. Immigrants' fits with the cultures of destination and origin were calculated by correlating Japanese American mothers' patterns of ratings on the Big Five with the average patterns of ratings of European Americans and Japanese on the same personality dimensions. Japanese Americans became more "American" and less "Japanese" in their personality as they reported higher participation in the U.S. culture. The results support the view that personality can be subject to cultural influence.
 
Article
A well-established phenomenon in the judgment and decision-making tradition is the overconfidence one places in the amount of knowledge that one possesses. Overconfidence or probability judgment accuracy varies not only individually but also across cultures. However, research efforts to explain cross-cultural variations in the overconfidence phenomenon have seldom been made. In Study 1, the authors compared the probability judgment accuracy of U.S. Americans (N = 108) and Mexican participants (N = 100). In Study 2, they experimentally primed culture by randomly assigning English/Spanish bilingual Mexican Americans (N = 195) to response language. Results of both studies replicated the cross-cultural variation of probability judgment accuracy previously observed in other cultural groups. U.S. Americans displayed less overconfidence when compared to Mexicans. These results were then replicated in bilingual participants, when culture was experimentally manipulated with language priming. Holistic reasoning did not account for the cross-cultural variation of overconfidence. Suggestions for future studies are discussed.
 
Article
On account of a series of unique historical events, the present-day denizens of South Tyrol inhabit a cultural, political, and linguistic autonomous region that intercalates Italians and Austrian/German Italians. We compared contemporary Italian and Austrian/German Italian girls' and boys' adaptive behaviors in everyday activities in this region. Using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, we first interviewed mothers about their children's communication, daily living, socialization, and motor skills. Main effects of local culture (and no interactions with gender) emerged: Austrian/German Italian children were rated higher than Italian children in both adaptive daily living and socialization skills. Next, we explored ethnic differences in childrearing. Austrian/German Italians reported fostering greater autonomy in their children than Italians, and children's autonomy was associated with their adaptive behavior. Children living in neighboring Italian and Austrian/German Italian cultural niches appear to experience subtle but consequentially different conditions of development that express themselves in terms of differing levels of adaptive behaviors.
 
Article
Southeast Asians living in the United States are a unique Asian immigrant population. They are considered one of the "newer" Asian immigrant groups, tend to be less affluent compared with their East and South Asian counterparts, and are steadily growing in number (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2000). Unfortunately, few studies exist specifically about Southeast Asian immigrants. The lack of studies, coupled with the community's growing mental health issues, suggests the need for increased research on this population. This study contributes to the literature by examining the extent to which identification with Vietnamese or Cambodian culture, peer relationships, and coping behaviors affect substance use among Cambodian and Vietnamese immigrant youth. A sample of 102 participants, age 12-18 years, completed self-report measures regarding these variables. Overall, results indicate that identification with one's culture of origin and coping behaviors moderate the relationship between deviant peer association and substance use. Results are discussed within a contextual model of problem behavior among Southeast Asian youth.
 
Outline of Experimental Conditions Note: Different shadings on different squares represent the different colors used in the experiments.  
Experiment 1: Sensitivity for the Three Experimental (Same, Expand, Random) Conditions Note: Error bars represent standard errors of the mean.  
Experiment 2: Sensitivity for the Three Experimental (Same, Shrink, Random) Conditions Note: Error bars represent standard errors of the mean.  
Article
Previous research has shown that when processing visual scenes, Westerners attend to salient objects and East Asians attend to the relationships between focal objects and background elements. It is possible that cross-cultural differences in attentional allocation contribute to these earlier findings. In this article, the authors investigate cultural differences in attentional allocation in two experiments, using a visual change detection paradigm. They demonstrate that East Asians are better than Americans at detecting color changes when a layout of a set of colored blocks is expanded to cover a wider region and worse when it is shrunk. East Asians are also slower than Americans are at detecting changes in the center of the screen. The data suggest that East Asians allocate their attention more broadly than Americans. The authors consider potential factors that may contribute to the development of such attention allocation differences.
 
Article
Personality differences between Asian American (N = 320) and European American men (N = 242) and also among Asian American ethnic groups (Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and mixed Asian) are examined on the Big Five personality dimension. Personality structures for Asian Americans and European Americans closely replicate established norms. However, congruence is greater for European American and highly acculturated Asian American men than for low acculturated Asian American men. Similar patterns are found for the construct loss of face (LOF). Asian American men with a high concern for LOF are less similar in their personality structure to European American men than Asian American men with low LOF concern. Mean differences are also found among Asian American and European American men, who differ significantly on Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Openness, and Neuroticism. Results indicate that acculturation and LOF are significantly associated with these four personality dimensions for both Asian American and European American men.
 
Article
This study examines perceptions of the "typical American" from 49 cultures around the world. Contrary to the ethnocentric bias hypothesis, we found strong agreement between in-group and out-group ratings on the American profile (assertive, open-minded, but antagonistic); Americans in fact had a somewhat less desirable view of Americans than did others. Within cultures, in-group ratings were not systematically more favorable than out-group ratings. The Iraq invasion had a slight negative effect on perceptions of the typical American, but people around the world seem to draw a clear distinction between U.S. foreign policy and the character of the American people. National character stereotypes appear to have a variety of sources and to be perpetuated by both cognitive mechanisms and socio-cultural forces.
 
Article
This study uses country and regional contrasts to examine culture-common and community-specific variation in mother-infant emotional relationships. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. American mothers and their daughters and sons, living in rural and metropolitan settings, were observed at home at infant age 5 months. Both variable- and person-centered perspectives of dyadic emotional relationships were analyzed. Supporting the notion that adequate emotional relationships are a critical and culture-common characteristic of human infant development, across all samples most dyads scored in the adaptive range in terms of emotional relationships. Giving evidence of community-specific characteristics, Italian mothers were more sensitive, and Italian infants more responsive, than Argentine and U.S. mothers and infants; in addition, rural mothers were more intrusive than metropolitan mothers, and rural dyads more likely than expected to be classified as mid-range in emotional relationships and less likely to be classified as high in emotional relationships. Adaptive emotional relationships appear to be a culture-common characteristic of mother-infant dyads near the beginning of life, but this relational construct is moderated by community-specific (country and regional) context.
 
Article
The aim of the present study was to assess whether children's attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women differ in relation to their ethnic backgrounds, and whether ethnic differences are a result of perceived differential gender socialization practices. Data were collected from children in eight Dutch elementary schools by means of a paper-and-pencil questionnaire administered in the classroom. All children (mean age 11.47; N = 229) lived in the Netherlands; 50.2% had non-Western and 49.8% Western ethnic backgrounds. Children with non-Western ethnic backgrounds reported more negative attitudes towards gays and lesbians. These children perceived more parental pressure to behave in accordance with their gender and showed more negative attitudes towards gender-nonconforming behaviour by peers. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that cultural differences in attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women are partly mediated by differentially perceived parental pressure to behave in accordance with their gender.
 
Article
The dual-focus approach to creating bilingual research protocols requires a bilingual/bicultural research team, including indigenous researchers from the cultures being studied. The presence of indigenous researchers as full and equal members of the research team can guard against an unexamined exportation of ideas and methods developed in one culture to other cultural/linguistic communities. The team develops the research plan and a research protocol that express a given concept with equal clarity, affect, and level of usage simultaneously in two languages. The dual-focus method employs a concept-driven rather than a translation-driven approach to attain conceptual and linguistic equivalence. Examples of the application of this approach to creating new measures in Spanish and English, adapting existing measures, revising instructions to research participants, and correcting official translations are provided.
 
Article
Conventional psychiatric treatment models are based on a biopsychiatric model of depression. A plausible explanation for low rates of depression treatment utilization among ethnic minorities and the poor is that members of these communities do not share the cultural assumptions underlying the biopsychiatric model. The study examined conceptual models of depression among depressed patients from various ethnic groups, focusing on the degree to which patients' conceptual models 'matched' a biopsychiatric model of depression. The sample included 74 primary care patients from three ethnic groups screening positive for depression. We administered qualitative interviews assessing patients' conceptual representations of depression. The analysis proceeded in two phases. The first phase involved a strategy called 'quantitizing' the qualitative data. A rating scheme was developed and applied to the data by a rater blind to study hypotheses. The data was subjected to statistical analyses. The second phase of the analysis involved the analysis of thematic data using standard qualitative techniques. Study hypotheses were largely supported. The qualitative analysis provided a detailed picture of primary care patients' conceptual models of depression and suggested interesting directions for future research.
 
Article
Survey data collected from 9,400 male commercial airline pilots in 19 countries were used in a replication study of Hofstede's indexes of national culture. The analysis that removed the constraint of item equivalence proved superior, both conceptually and empirically, to the analysis using Hofstede's items and formulae as prescribed, and rendered significant replication correlations for all indexes (Individualism-Collectivism .96, Power Distance .87, Masculinity-Femininity .75, and Uncertainty Avoidance .68). The successful replication confirms that national culture exerts an influence on cockpit behavior over and above the professional culture of pilots, and that "one size fits all" training is inappropriate.
 
Article
The authors measured the eye gaze displays of Canadian, Trinidadian, and Japanese participants as they answered questions for which they either knew, or had to derive, the answers. When they knew the answers, Trinidadians maintained the most eye contact, whereas Japanese maintained the least. When thinking about the answers to questions, Canadians and Trinidadians looked up, whereas Japanese looked down. Thus, for humans, gaze displays while thinking are at least in part culturally determined.
 
Article
Culture shapes how individuals perceive and respond to others with mental illness. Prior studies have suggested that Asians and Asian Americans typically endorse greater stigma of mental illness compared to Westerners (White Europeans and Americans). However, whether these differences in stigma arise from cultural variations in automatic affective reactions or deliberative concerns of the appropriateness of one's reactions to mental illness remains unknown. Here we compared implicit and explicit attitudes toward mental illness among Asian and Caucasian Americans. Asian Americans showed stronger negative implicit attitudes toward mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans, suggesting that cultural variation in stigma of mental illness can be observed even when concerns regarding the validity and appropriateness of one's attitudes toward mental illness are minimized. Asian Americans also explicitly endorsed greater desire for social distance from mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans. These findings suggest that cultural variations in mental illness stigma may arise from cultural differences in automatic reactions to mental illness, though cultural variations in deliberative processing may further shape differences in these immediate reactions to mental illness.
 
Amount of Specific Emotions Reported Online by Cultural Group 
Dendogram From Cluster Analysis of Japanese Indigenous Emotions With Translated English Emotions NOTE: Clustering method was complete linkage. Shitashimi, fureai, rettokan, and oime are indigenous Japanese terms. 
Multivariate Tests and Effect Sizes 
Dendogram From Cluster Analysis of Indian Indigenous Emotions With Translated English Emotions NOTE: Clustering method was complete linkage. Aviman and sukhi are indigenous Indian emotion terms. 
Chapter
Participants included 46 European American, 33 Asian American, 91 Japanese, 160 Indian, and 80 Hispanic students (N = 416). Discrete emotions, as well as pleasant and unpleasant emotions, were assessed: (a) with global self-report measures, (b) using an experience-sampling method for 1 week, and (c) by asking participants to recall their emotions from the experience sampling week. Cultural differences emerged for nearly all measures. The inclusion of indigenous emotions in India and Japan did not alter the conclusions substantially, although pride showed a pattern across cultures that differed from the other positive emotions. In all five cultural groups and for both pleasant and unpleasant emotions, global reports of emotion predicted retrospective recall even after controlling for reports made during the experience sampling period, suggesting that individuals’ general conceptions of their emotional lives influenced their memories of emotions. Cultural differences emerged in the degree to which recall of frequency of emotion was related to experience sampling reports of intensity of emotions. Despite the memory bias, the three methods led to similar conclusions about the relative position of the groups.
 
Article
This study explored the psychological mechanisms that underlie the retirement planning and saving tendencies of Dutch and American workers. Participants were 988 Dutch and 429 Americans, 25-64 years of age. Analyses were designed to: (a) examine the extent to which structural variables were related to planning tendencies, and (b) develop culture-specific path analysis models to identify the mechanisms that underlie perceived financial preparedness for retirement. Findings revealed striking differences across the Netherlands and the United States not only among structural variables predictive of key psychological and retirement planning constructs, but also in the robustness of the path models. These findings suggest that policy analysts should take into account both individual and cultural differences in the psychological predispositions of workers when considering pension reforms that stress individual responsibility for planning and saving.
 
Article
This article provides an overview of Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology (JCCP) history and of the role it has played in the modern movement in cross-cultural psychology. I have asserted that a failure to understand where we have been and what we have done will lead to ineffective adaptation to the needs of the future. Everything humans do or think can be explained by complex and contextual interactions between relatively fixed biological givens and undulating cultural realities. As such, it seems that a healthy rapprochement or coalition between biology and culture is needed. We can also reaffirm that the most fundamental goal of JCCP is to publish the best that cross-cultural psychology has to offer. The interface between culture as a challenging phenomenon and psychology as an important scientific way to understand the basic functions of human beings in specific cultural contexts will continue to intrigue many psychologists. Succeeding generations of scholars in this still youthful area of psychology have much challenging and exploratory work to do and some important questions to answer as it continues to sail, confidently and with pride, into an uncertain future. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Means and Reliabilities for Guidance Sources, With Correlations Between Adjusted Means
Correlations Between Values and Guidance Sources
Article
Data are presented showing how middle managers in 47 countries report handling 8 specific work events, including events focused on the manager's subordinate work team and other referring to relations with the wider organization. The data are used to test the ability of cultural value dimensions derived from the work of G. Hofstede (1994), F. Trompenaars and C. Hampden-Turner (1998), and S. H. Schwartz (1994, 1999) to predict the specific sources of guidance on which managers rely. Focusing on sources of guidance is expected to provide a more precise basis than do generalized measures of values for understanding the behaviors that prevail within different cultures. Values were strongly predictive of reliance on those sources of guidance that are relevant to vertical relationships within organizations. However, values were less successful in predicting reliance on peers and on more tacit sources of guidance. Explaining national differences in these neglected aspects of organizational processes will require greater sensitivity to the culture-specific contexts within which they occur. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Conducted 2 experiments to test the hypothesis that the higher the level of abstraction of a disagreement between 2 individuals, the greater would be the damage of the disagreement to interpersonal perceptions. In Exp I, paper and pencil stimulus persons differing in race (black-white) and agreement vs disagreement on values (highly abstract), norms, roles, and facilities beliefs (least abstract) were presented to 34 white male undergraduates who indicated their evaluation of and behavioral intentions toward the stimulus persons. The hypothesis was partially supported. In Exp II, slides coordinated with tape recordings of a white foreman agreeing or disagreeing with a black or white worker were presented to 80 white and 80 black undergraduates who guessed how the foreman or worker would evaluate each other and how they would behave toward each other. Agreements-disagreements differed in the level of abstraction. Data support the hypothesis. In addition, the order of presentation or agreements was a determinant of attraction, with an agreement following a series of disagreements leading to more attraction than an agreement following a series of agreements. (35 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Determined whether logical concepts acquired in 1 language could be transferred to another language. Ss were 35 4-7 yr olds who were bilingual in Polish and English, 31 who were bilingual in German and English, and a control group of 34 Australian children, none of whom were able to conserve weight. After pretesting in 1 language, they were trained in the acquisition of the concept of weight using the other language, then posttested in the 1st language. Delayed posttests were also given 1 mo later in both languages. Results show that the concept was acquired in either language, and that there was some generalization to other concepts. Data support the Piagetian view that a concept may be considered independently from the language by which it is acquired. Interference between languages was indicated in the German group in that the earlier they had learned English, the poorer was their final performance in both languages. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined whether 39 Asian Americans and 42 White Americans would show differential patterns of reporting their levels of depressive and social anxiety symptoms depending on the method of reporting. Standard self-report measures of depressive, social anxiety, and somatic symptomatology as well as measures of cultural self-construal and social desirability were administered twice to Asian American and White American participants. The results showed that there were no interaction effects between ethnicity and reporting method in any of the self-report measures, both ethnic groups reported lower levels of depressive symptoms in interview condition than in written condition, and Asian Americans reported higher levels of social anxiety than White Americans on both interview and written conditions. The findings suggest that although the method of reporting does not differentially affect Asian Americans, there are persistent ethnic differences between Asian Americans and White Americans in the types and levels of distress they report. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined the gender and cultural differences of boredom in 232 male and 342 female college students in Australia, Hong Kong, Lebanon, and the US with the Boredom Proneness (BP) Scale. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant main effect of culture. A gender effect was also significant. Australian and US Ss were similar in their BP levels. Lebanese Ss followed by the Hong Kong Ss reported the highest amount of BP. Within all cultural groups males scored higher than females and significantly so in the US and Australia. Reasons for cultural and gender differences are explored. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Mean Student Evaluations on Negative Traits by Culture, University, and Target Larger numbers indicate more negative evaluation.
Article
Students at football games in the United States (the Rose Bowl) and Japan (the Flash Bowl) evaluated in-group and out-group universities and students before and after the games. In both cultures, the university group with the better academic reputation lost the game, whereas the university with the better football program won. European American students from both universities evaluated their in-groups more positively than out-groups on all measures before and after the game. In contrast, Japanese students' ratings offered no evidence of intergroup bias, although Japanese students were as identified with their teams and the game's outcome as were European American students. Instead, Japanese students' ratings reflected the universities' statuses in the larger society and the students' statuses in the immediate situation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Compared possible causal attributions for college success and failure in American and Asian students via a sample of 358 undergraduate and graduate students (aged 19–46 yrs) who were administered the Multidimensional-Multi-Attribution Causality Scale. American, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Southeast Asian Ss reported a pattern of effort-ability-task-luck for both success and failure. The self-serving bias in attribution was supported only for the factor of ability. Compared with Asian Ss, American Ss attributed academic achievement significantly more often to ability than did Asian Ss. American Ss also appeared to believe effort was more important for success than lack of effort for failure. By contrast, Asian Ss attributed effort as equally important for both success and failure. Students in the 4 Asian subgroups also appeared more similar than different in causal attributions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presented color photographs of young male adults to 72 preschool and 68 3rd-grade Anglo, black, and Chicano children. The photographs depicted persons of the same ethnic groups as the children. All Ss were able to discriminate between the photographs of the Anglo and black males, but the preschool Ss were unable to make the finer discrimination between the Anglo and Chicano photographs. All Ss indicated the appropriate photograph when asked which looked most like them. Among the preschool Ss neither the blacks nor the Chicanos expressed significant preferences for their own ethnic group, while a significant number of Anglos selected the Anglo photograph as the one they liked the most. At the 3rd-grade level, only the Chicano Ss displayed a strong preference for their own ethnic group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The positivity bias (the tendency to make internal attributions for others' successes and external attributions for others' failures) was examined in newspaper sports articles from the US and Hong Kong. The positivity bias was observed in both cultures; however, the cultures manifested this bias differently. There was a greater emphasis on enhancing winners (making internal attributions for successes) in the US and on protecting losers (making external attributions for failures) in Hong Kong. The concept of preserving others' face as a universal social motivation may provide an explanation for the cross-cultural consistency of the positivity bias. East–West differences in attributional tendencies and in the values of independence vs interdependence may explain cross-cultural differences in the expression of this bias. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Replicated H. M. Lefcourt's (see record 1966-02757-001) and H. M. Lefcourt and G. W. Ladwig's (see record 1965-09917-001) risk-taking studies using 60 Indian and Canadian male undergraduates, 22 male Indian students from an industrial training institute, and 22 Canadian community college students. Ss participated in both a gambling situation and a situation dependent on skill (Rotter's Level of Aspiration Board). Indians were more conservative than Canadians in both situations. They chose high-probability bets when gambling and underestimated their performance on the skill task. The overall approach of the Indians was similar to that of individuals with low achievement drive, high fear of failure, and a belief in external control. The antecedents of these characteristics and implications for change and development are noted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Describes the use of children's drawings to study the social and cultural values of national groups. Support for the hypothesis that children tend to draw the kind of person they admire or one who is favorably viewed by society was provided by 500 drawings done by 250 8-13 yr olds in Thailand. Findings indicate a general preference for modern dress, oriental face features, and smiling faces. Orientation features and traditional dress occur most often in drawings of women by boys, while girls stress Caucasian features in their drawings of men. Both sexes ascribe religious content more often to drawings of women and represent more men in diversified social roles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents a developmental model of expected age trends and sex differences in the acquisition of 3-dimensional picture perception (3DPP). 212 Chinese males and 240 females from nursery, elementary, and secondary schools completed a battery of psychological tests, including the Chinese 3DPP Test, measures of photographic depth perception, the Chinese Socialization Scale, and the Rod and Frame Test. Data support the expected increase in 3DPP in Ss aged 3-17 and the expected superiority of males in 3DPP after age 8; these differences are thought to stem from increased testosterone output after that age, which stimulates the development of cholinergic inhibitory perceptual processes, and interacts with the appropriate cultural-educational stimuli to result in better 3DPP skills in male Ss. Lower socioeconomic levels, field dependence, "harsher" socialization, and more traditional attitudes were associated with lower 3DPP scores, while data from J. W. Berry's (see record 1967-02758-001) study of Eskimo Ss suggest that Eskimos had higher 3DPP scores than the Hong Kong Chinese. (29 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Compared the level of conceptualization of death among 118 Jewish, 70 Moslem, 107 Christian, and 42 Druze Israeli 10-yr-old children. Ss were administered a development of death concept questionnaire. The groups' responses to this questionnaire revealed differences in the degree to which they had internalized the Western scientific concept of death, with the Jewish and Christian Ss' responses showing more internalization of this concept than the Moslem and Druze Ss' responses. Interpretations of the findings based on the situational, cultural, and socialization patterns that possibly differentiate these groups are suggested and discussed. (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated the correlation between an individual's historical eminence and his or her location within a cultural growth pattern or "configuration." The posthumous reputation of 611 Japanese creators and leaders was examined with respect to the shape of the configuration defined by 1,631 lesser figures active in the same domains of activity. The local configuration was classified as a peak, trough, an ascent, or a descent using both domain-specific and system-wide definitions. Findings indicate that the most eminent Ss were more likely to emerge during system-wide ascents and were less likely to appear during domain-specific descents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
207 Chinese and American male undergraduates were asked to read a scenario describing a group member who made high, medium, or low task and maintenance contributions toward a group project for a university course. Ss then rated their perceptions of, and behavioral intentions toward, this target person. Task and maintenance contributions were linearly related to both types of dependent variable in each cultural group. However, the slope of this regression was more moderate for the Chinese than for the Americans where intentions to reward were concerned. This more egalitarian distribution of resources probably functions to promote the group cohesiveness valued by more collective cultures. (28 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
100 Southern Ugandans chose the wisest looking, most humble, etc., from a series of pictures of people with various physical characteristics. No clear tendency to connect either intelligence or wisdom with other characteristics occurred. The tendency toward an ability-quickness association was found to be associated with higher education levels. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Replies to J. Irvine's 1978 article, which dealt with the subject of the present author's 1966 research. The present author argues that Irvine relied too exclusively on anthropological methodology in her study, instead of tempering her research with psychological methodology. Irvine's different results are attributed to a failure to replicate the present author's earlier research, and Irvine's conclusion—that cultural conventions governing talk organization are more likely to explain the Wolofs' responses than "magical thinking"—is disputed. (2 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
A selection of current and presumably future issues in cross-cultural psychology is addressed in 4 sections. The 1st section deals with the pervasive controversy between relativistic and universalistic orientations. In the 2nd section, the authors discuss how the notion of culture is used in empirical studies, drawing attention to, among other things, the low emphasis on cross-cultural similarities that emerge from many data sets. The 3rd section addresses 3 themes that may well become more important in the future, namely questions concerning the degree of coherence in cross-cultural data spanning larger ranges of behavior, the integration of findings from non-Western societies, and an increase in research on human development in cultural context. The 4th section emphasizes the responsibility of cross-cultural psychologists to apply their expertise, especially to problems of economic and social inequality, to contribute to human well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the major propositions of psychological differentiation theory, cross-cultural studies of the theory's validity and generality, and problems in the existing research evidence and lines of further study that are suggested by the theory. Operative variables in the cross-cultural situation, including socialization, social tightness, ecological adaptation, and biological effects, are identified and discussed as antecedents to the development of psychological differentiation. It is suggested that characteristic levels of differentiation are adaptive to the ecological and cultural settings which societies occupy, and that levels of psychological differentiation do make a difference in the process of acculturation. The need for extending research findings on acculturation and differentiation back to the social and cultural settings that nurtured differentiation theory itself and the tools for its measurement is noted. (91/2 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Analyzed the dreams of 94 adolescent and young adult Interlacustrine Bantus. It was found that (a) males dreamed more about males, and (b) females dreamed of both sexes more equally. Results tend to support the notion that there is a universal tendency for dreams to reflect conflict and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The field of cross-cultural psychology began to be taught in earnest in colleges and universities as early as the 1960s and 1970s, but those of us doing the teaching had to be diligent in finding sufficient and relevant books and journal articles to do a respectable job. The first culture-oriented course I taught had been given a cumbersome title: "The Cultural Conditioning of Psychological Phenomena."The "psychocultural model" that the Whitings introduced was important to me in those earlier courses. Here was a model, or template, that made a good deal of sense in terms of causative factors in child development, parenting, and such things as ecology, economic circumstances, and so on that had a bearing on how people were raised. Their work has been a mainstay in child development research throughout the world for more than half a century. The special issue grew out of a symposium on the legacies of the Whitings, organized at the international conference of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology. I have fond memories of the "Whitings’ psychocultural model" that I was pleased to discuss in classes and to follow in research reports. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
To test the hypothesis that acculturation influences MMPI performance of Native Americans, a 32-item instrument was developed to measure five components of acculturation. The MMPI-168 and the acculturation instrument were administered to 69 Rosebud Sioux. Significant elevations occurred on F and Scales 4, 6, 8, and 9. Intercorrelations among the acculturation subscales suggested a common dimension underlying social, language, and blood quantum, with values and education/occupation being relatively independent. The social, values, and language subscales were significantly related to validity scales L and F. A preponderance of significant correlations were obtained between values, language, and education/ occupation, and MMPI-168 clinical Scales 2, 4, 7, 8, and 0. These results suggest that caution be used in interpreting the MMPI profiles of Native Americans.
 
Changes in First Person Singular, First Person Plural, and Second Person Pronoun Use in American Books, 1960-2008 
Article
Change over time in culture can appear among individuals and in cultural products such as song lyrics, television, and books. This analysis examines changes in pronoun use in the Google Books ngram database of 766,513 American books published 1960-2008. We hypothesize that pronoun use will reflect increasing individualism and decreasing collectivism in American culture. Consistent with this hypothesis, the use of first person plural pronouns (e.g., we, us) decreased 10% first person singular pronouns (I, me) increased 42%, and second person pronouns (you, your) quadrupled. These results complement previous research finding increases in individualistic traits among Americans.
 
Article
The 347 articles published in JCCP during its first full decade are assessed on a number of dimensions. The primary dimensions are (1) citizenship of authors, (2) culture or ethnic groups studied, and (3) psychological topics which were the foci in the research. This analysis forms the basis for an extensive editorial report. It is assumed that this summary of the decade will be of interest to the readers of JCCP, and that the data and various trends which are pointed out will be helpful to researchers as they plan and conduct future research in this area of psychological inquiry. The information may also be useful in altering future editorial policy.
 
Article
In the current study, the relationship between life satisfaction (LS) and the affective components of subjective well-being (SWB) was examined in a sample of 40,487 people across 21 European countries using data from the European Social Survey. After running multilevel confirmatory factor analyses in order to establish the measurement invariance of the constructs across the countries, the individual-level dataset was linked to available country-level aggregate personality traits, cultural values, and human development index (HDI). Results from hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analysis showed that LS is best predicted by positive and negative affect (PA and NA, respectively), but may also be predicted by the degree of mixed emotions (ME). At the country level, national mean scores of Extraversion and Neuroticism moderated the relationship between LS and ME in different directions, whereas neither of the two personality traits had a significant impact on the relationship of LS to PA and NA. Survival/self-expression and the HDI ranking influenced the LS-PA and LS-ME relationships, whereas individualism/collectivism did not. Our research indicates that in addition to analyzing separate effects of NA and PA, it is also important to consider emotional complexity in SWB research, whereas these analyses need to take into account the moderating effect of cultural aspects, such as survival/self-expression values and countries’ level of development. Our findings also emphasize the importance of employing representative samples, as the age variance of participants can have a profound impact on results.
 
Article
This article argues that individuals’ attitudes toward members of other groups are at least partly shaped by the cultural environment in which the individuals live. Based on the theory of cultural values by Schwartz, it was tested whether cross-country differences in cultural value preferences can explain individual differences in negative group-related attitudes. Furthermore, the present article postulates that individuals with a migration background are less strongly guided by the cultural values of the society in which they live, because they are additionally exposed to cultural values originating from their heritage culture. Samples from 24 countries that were part of the fourth wave of the European Social Survey were examined. Cultural values were assessed using the Portrait Value Questionnaire. Group-related attitudes were operationalized through an index of attitudes toward four different groups. Analyses of hierarchical linear models supported the hypotheses: Participants’ degree of negative group-related attitudes varied as a function of the cultural values inherent in the individuals’ countries. Moreover, weaker effects were found for individuals with migration background compared to individuals without migration background, especially for first-generation immigrants and immigrants from culturally more distant countries. Moreover, country-level cultural values were found to moderate the relationship of individual education and income level with group-related attitudes. Results are discussed with regard to their contribution to the literature on acculturation and with regard to the validity of Schwartz’s cultural value theory.
 
Article
Scalar equivalence of Big Five scale scores, derived from OPQ32i data, for over one million people are reviewed in terms of differences between 31 countries involving over 20 different languages. Strong relationships are found between country average scale scores and country standard deviations (SDs), on the one hand, and two of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, on the other. Country SDs are also seen to vary with cultural “tightness” ratings. Country-level performance indicators are also examined (the World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Index and UN Human Development indices). Strong correlations are found between these indicators and both country-level mean personality scores and SDs of personality scores. While Hofstede’s dimensions also predict variation in global competitiveness (R = 0.66), adding OPQ32 Big Five personality scale data increases the level of prediction to R = 0.84. It is argued that the strength of these relationships with independent country-level metrics supports the view that between-country differences represent true score variance rather than systematic instrument-related biases.
 
Values of Pace of Life Index and Other Community Variables
Article
This study compared the pace of life in large cities from 31 countries around the world. Three indicators of pace of life were observed: average walking speed in downtown locations, the speed with which postal clerks completed a simple request (work speed), and the accuracy of public clocks. Overall, pace of life was fastest in Japan and the countries of Western Europe and was slowest in economically undeveloped countries. The pace was significantly faster in colder climates, economically productive countries, and in individualistic cultures. Faster places also tended to have higher rates of death from coronary heart disease, higher smoking rates, and greater subjective well-being. Discussion focuses on how the pace of life is intertwined with the social-psychological and community characteristics of a culture, and the central role of pace of life in defining the personality of a place and its people. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/67419/2/10.1177_0022022199030002003.pdf
 
Top-cited authors
Shalom H Schwartz
  • Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Michael Harris Bond
  • The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Harry Triandis
  • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Veronica Benet
  • University Pompeu Fabra
C. Harry Hui
  • The University of Hong Kong