Journal of Criminal Justice

Published by Elsevier
Online ISSN: 0047-2352
Publications
Article
PURPOSE: Whether lifetime abstainer's antisocial behavior are maladjusted or well-adjusted is unresolved. The aim of this study was to compare abstainers (defined as persons with no lifetime use of alcohol and other drugs and non-engagement in antisocial or delinquent behavior) with non-abstainers across a range of sociodemographic and mental health characteristics in the United States. METHODS: Data were derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Structured psychiatric interviews (N = 43,093) using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule - DSM-IV version (AUDADIS-IV) were completed by trained lay interviewers between 2001 and 2002. RESULTS: The prevalence of abstaining was 11%. Abstainers were significantly more likely to be female, Asian and African-American, born outside the U.S., and less likely to be unemployed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that abstainers were significantly less likely to evidence lifetime mood, anxiety, or personality disorder compared to non-abstainers. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that abstainers are not maladapted and are comparatively more functional than non-abstainers.
 
Article
PURPOSE: The factors that distinguish adolescent male and female substance abusers with and without legal problems were investigated. METHOD: Youths (N = 4,071) admitted for substance abuse treatment were administered the revised Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI-R) to measure severity of health, behavior, and social adjustment problems. RESULTS: Legal problems were more frequent among boys; however, severity of disturbance was greater in girls on 9 of 10 scales. Substance abusing girls and boys with legal problems reported more severe behavior, substance abuse, family adjustment, and peer relationship problems than substance abusing peers without legal problems. Quality of peer relationship mediated the association of family dysfunction, substance abuse and behavior problems with legal problems in boys only. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and legal status both need to be taken into account to potentiate treatment prognosis of substance abusing youths.
 
displays box plots for the distributions of states' education staff ratios across years. The first result is the dramatic difference in scale compared to Fig. 1-whereas the upper adjacent staff ratios for inmate services staff reached values above 100 professionals per 1,000 inmates, the upper adjacent staff ratios for educational staff ratio barely exceed 30. This reflects the fact that educational staff comprise a minority of inmate services staff-across states, only a fifth of inmate services staff are teachers. This percentage declined over time, from a mean of 25 percent in 1990 to 19 percent by 2005. The decline in staff ratios for all inmate services staff, combined with the declining representation of teachers, resulted in a particularly sharp decline in teaching staff. Between 1990 and 2005, the median staff to inmate ratio for teachers was cut nearly in half, from a median of 15 instructors per 1,000 inmates in 1990 to just 8 by 2005. Again, though, state-to-state variation was substantial, with a significant overlap in the distributions for each year. Using the 25th to 75th percentile spread as a measure of state variation, the decline across time in the educational staff ratio is smaller than variation within each year (with a decline of 7 teachers per 1,000 inmates between 1990 and 2005, compared to a gap between the 25th and 75th percentiles of 8 in each year). It is also evident from that in every year the lower adjacent reached the nadir of the graph-0 educational staff per 1,000 inmates. In some states, then, prison facilities did not report a single paid staff member (or unpaid intern)-hired by the Department of Corrections, another government agency, or a private contract-tasked with providing inmate education. It is difficult to know if these low figures represent an empirical reality or whether some facilities simply did not correctly report the total number of educational staff (perhaps because such staff are coordinated by outside agencies). While administrators are instructed to include all staff members in the survey, it is difficult to ascertain whether surveys were completed correctly since there is no source of comparable data available for all states. 6 Despite these concerns, the coherence of the trends across place suggests a real decline in education staffing over this period. This is corroborated by a substantial decline in the percent of inmates participating in educational classes-between 1991 and 2004, the percent of inmates in national surveys reporting current or past participation in academic programs declined from 43 to 27 percent (Phelps, 2011). These trends came in a period in which penal facilities increasingly privileged security staff over inmate service professionals (particularly educators). Between 1979 and 2005, the median staff ratio for correction officers remained nearly stable, declining by just 5 percent (from 225 to 214 officers per 1,000 inmates). Thus, the already large disparity between treatment and custody staff widened during this period across states, from a median ratio of 3.5 security officers for 
Article
Despite the growing literature on the punitive turn, knowledge of how the experience of American imprisonment varied across time and place remain limited. This article begins to fill that gap, providing a more nuanced portrayal of rehabilitation during the punitive turn. To examine how one aspect of the rehabilitative ideal in practice-the provision of staff dedicated to inmate services-varied across time and place over the past 30 years. The article presents statistics on the inmate-to-staff ratios for inmate services staff (including teachers, counselors, doctors, etc.) between the years 1979 and 2005 for all 50 U.S. states. The analyses reveal that, while there was a substantial decline in the services staff ratio during the 1990s and 2000s, this shift across time paled in comparison to variation across place. Northeastern prison systems, for example, maintained higher inmate services staff ratios in 2005 than Southern states in any year. In addition, results suggest state variation is related to differences in prison crowding, inmates' racial composition, and political cultures. The findings suggest the punitive turn was more variegated and partial than is often assumed and highlight the importance of exploring state variation in penal practices.
 
Article
Attendant to the exponential increase in rates of incarceration of mothers with young children in the United States, programming has been established to help mothers attend to parenting skills and other family concerns while incarcerated. Unfortunately, most programs overlook the important, ongoing relationship between incarcerated mothers and family members caring for their children-most often, the inmates' own mothers. Research reveals that children's behavior problems escalate when different co-caregivers fail to coordinate parenting efforts and interventions, work in opposition, or disparage or undermine one another. This article presents relevant research on co-caregiving and child adjustment, highlights major knowledge gaps in need of study to better understand incarcerated mothers and their families, and proposes that existing interventions with such mothers can be strengthened through targeting and cultivating functional coparenting alliances in families.
 
Article
AIM: This study determined the extent to which alcohol and marijuana use during adolescence mediates the relation between transmissible risk for substance use disorder (SUD) and lifetime number of different types of violent offenses. METHODS: The transmissible liability index was administered to 359 10-12 year old youths who were tracked to 22 years of age. Past year frequency of alcohol and marijuana consumption was longitudinally tracked to age 22 at which time lifetime violent offenses was recorded. RESULTS: Rate of increase in marijuana use mediated the association between transmissible risk and lifetime number of different types of violent offenses. No association was found between past year frequency of alcohol use and violent offenses. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention directed at lowering the psychological characteristics associated with transmissible risk for SUD may also reduce violent offending.
 
Article
This study investigated genetic and environmental commonalities and differences between aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior (ASB) in male and female child and adolescent twins, based on a newly developed self-report questionnaire with good reliability and external validity - the Self-Report Delinquency Interview (SR-DI). Subjects were 780 pairs of twins assessed through laboratory interviews at three time points in a longitudinal study, during which the twins were: (1) ages 9-10 years; (2) age 11-13 years, and (3) age 16-18 years. Sex differences were repeatedly observed for mean levels of ASB. In addition, diverse change patterns of genetic and environmental emerged, as a function of sex and form of ASB, during the development from childhood to adolescence. Although there was some overlap in etiologies of aggressive and non-aggressive ASB, predominantly in shared environmental factors, their genetic overlap was moderate and the non-shared environmental overlap was low. Taken together, these results reinforced the importance of differentiating forms of ASB and further investigating sex differences in future research. These results should be considered in future comparisons between youth self-report and parental or teacher report of child and adolescent behavior, and may help elucidate commonalities and differences among informants.
 
Article
PURPOSE: Despite the surge in scholarly activity investigating the criminal career, relatively less attention has been devoted to the issue of criminal desistance versus persistence (until recently). The present study contributed to our understanding of this process by exploring the suitability of General Strain Theory (GST) for predicting changes in criminal activity across time. METHODS: Data from a longitudinal study of males in South Florida are examined using robust regression analyses. RESULTS: The core GST relationship, that changes in strain should predict changes in criminal activity, was supported, even after controlling for important adult social roles such as marriage, labor force participation, and education. While no support for the proposition that changes in self-esteem and social support moderate the strain-criminal desistance association was evinced, evidence was found that angry disposition, a measure of negative emotionality, moderated the association between change in chronic stressors and change in criminal activity. CONCLUSIONS: While exploratory in nature, these findings demonstrate the utility of employing GST principles in studies of criminal desistance.
 
Article
Previous studies that have explored the relationship between parenting style and children's antisocial behavior have generally found significant bidirectional effects, whereby parenting behaviors influence their child's antisocial outcomes, but a child's behaviors also lead to changes in parenting style. The present study investigated the genetic and environmental underpinnings of the longitudinal relationship between negative parent-to-child affect and psychopathic personality in a sample of 1,562 twins. Using a biometrical cross-lag analysis, bidirectional effects were investigated across two waves of assessment when the twins were ages 9-10 and 14-15, utilizing both caregiver and youth self-reports. Results demonstrated that negative parental affects observed at ages 9-10 influenced the child's later psychopathic personality at ages 14-15, based on both caregiver and youth self-reports. For these 'parent-driven effects', both genetic and non-shared environmental factors were important in the development of later psychopathic personality during adolescence. There were additional 'child-driven effects' such that children's psychopathic personality at ages 9-10 influenced negative parent-to-child affect at ages 14-15, but only within caregiver reports. Thus, children's genetically influenced psychopathic personality seemed to evoke parental negativity at ages 14-15, highlighting the importance of investigating bidirectional effects in parent-child relationships to understand the development of these traits.
 
Article
Administrators of correctional facilities have created specific policies directed toward detecting and controlling health risks created by inmates who are infected with the HIV virus or who have AIDS. This article examines the legal issues that influence the development and implementation of those policies. It discusses the constitutionality of testing and segregation and the reasons currently advanced for each of these measures. The article explores whether prisoners infected with HIV or who have developed AIDS are handicapped for purposes of federal law that will hold the correctional facility liable for discrimination if these prisoners are housed separately or excluded from programs.
 
Article
The present study assessed how the trajectory of delinquency affects the growth curve of alcohol-impaired driving using three-waves of data collected from the Buffalo Longitudinal Survey of Young Men (BLSYM). Using the structural equation modeling method, latent growth modeling was utilized to assess four age cohorts of sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, and nineteen years of age at the first wave. The data indicated that the growth rate of delinquency significantly and positively affects the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving for the respondents who were sixteen at the first wave. The growth rate of drinking was also significantly and positively associated with the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving for this age cohort. Although the growth rate of delinquency had no significant effect on the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving for the age cohort which was seventeen at Wave 1, the growth rates of both drinking and drug use did affect for this age cohort. The data, however, showed that alcohol-impaired driving had a significant increase across the waves for the eighteen year old cohort, but there was no significant variation in the rate across respondents. Finally, for the nineteen year old cohort there was no significant increase in alcohol-impaired driving across the waves, and also no significant variation of the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving across the respondents. These findings indicated that interventions focused on reducing delinquency, alcohol and drug use by sixteen and seventeen year old male adolescents will also reduce their alcohol-impaired driving.
 
Article
Classic criminological theories emphasize the role of impaired self-control in behavioral deviancy. Reduced amplitude of the P300 brain response is reliably observed in individuals with antisocial and substance-related problems, suggesting it may serve as a neurophysiological indicator of deficiencies in self-control that confer liability to deviancy. The current study evaluated the role of self-control capacity - operationalized by scores on a scale measure of trait disinhibition - in mediating the relationship between P300 brain response and behavioral deviancy in a sample of adult twins (N=419) assessed for symptoms of antisocial/addictive disorders and P300 brain response. As predicted, greater disorder symptoms and higher trait disinhibition scores each predicted smaller P300 amplitude, and trait disinhibition mediated observed relations between antisocial/addictive disorders and P300 response. Further, twin modeling analyses revealed that trait disinhibition scores and disorder symptoms reflected a common genetic liability, and this genetic liability largely accounted for the observed phenotypic relationship between antisocial-addictive problems and P300 brain response. These results provide further evidence that heritable weaknesses in self-control capacity confer liability to antisocial/addictive outcomes and that P300 brain response indexes this dispositional liability.
 
Article
OBJECTIVE: Criminological research consistently demonstrates that approximately 5% of study populations are comprised of pathological offenders who account for a preponderance of antisocial behavior and violent crime. Unfortunately, there have been no nationally representative epidemiological studies characterizing the severe 5% group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a nationally representative sample of 43,093 non-institutionalized U.S. residents aged 18 years and older were analyzed using latent class analysis to assess sociodemographic, psychiatric, and behavioral characteristics. RESULTS: Four-classes of respondents were identified vis-à-vis lifetime externalizing behaviors. A normative class (66.1% of respondents) demonstrated little involvement in antisocial conduct. A low substance use/high antisocial behavior class (20.7% of respondents) and high substance use/moderate antisocial behavior (8.0% of respondents) class evinced diverse externalizing and psychiatric symptoms. Finally, a severe class (5.3% of respondents) was characterized by pathological involvement in more varied and intensive forms of antisocial and externalizing behaviors and extensive psychiatric disturbance. CONCLUSIONS: The current study is the first nationally representative epidemiological study of criminal careers/externalizing behavior spectrum in the United States and validates the existence of the 5% pathological group demonstrated by prior research.
 
Article
Increased concern with rights of prisoners and a growing interest in evaluative research that uses experimental design have led to renewed efforts to overcome ethical, legal,and practical concerns involved in the use of randomized experiments in correctional context. The article surveys the difficulties that issues of equal treatment, “just deserts,” and presumed and relative deprivations may present in the use of randomization in a criminal justice setting and discusses ways to overcome the problems or mitigate the resultant harm. Practical concerns are also presented and discussed.
 
Article
Parenthood may play a pivotal role in the criminal desistance process, but few studies have examined the conditions under which becoming a mother or father is most likely to lead to reductions in criminal behavior. The current longitudinal study draws on four waves of adolescent and young adult interview data (N = 1,066) and HLM regression models to examine the impact of parenthood on criminal trajectories, as well as the degree to which the prosocial potential of parenthood is modified by socioeconomic factors, the nature of the relationship between the biological parents, and pregnancy wantedness. The analysis also draws on narrative life history accounts elicited from a subset of these respondents (N = 22). SES and the wantedness of the pregnancy condition the relationship between parenthood and criminal involvement, however some gender differences emerged. Status of the relationship (married or cohabiting and single) was in general not a strong predictor. Highly disadvantaged young men and women are not as likely as more advantaged young adults to evidence lower levels of criminal behavior after becoming parents, however wanted pregnancies may reduce female involvement in crime regardless of socioeconomic status. In-depth qualitative data further elucidate the conditional nature of the parenthood-crime relationship.
 
Article
Perpetrators of male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) may be likely to have multiple service needs, the extent of which may vary with respect to criminal justice involvement. The salience of the criminal justice system and the potential impact on service needs due to arrest and incarceration is underscored given the association between substance use and IPV. This study utilized a sample of men in methadone treatment who perpetrated male-to-female IPV in order to examine associations between criminal justice involvement and perceived additional service need(s). Results indicate that the likelihood of having a service need(s) significantly increased as time since most recent arrest or incarceration decreased. These findings highlight the need and potential benefit that can be derived from greater coordination amongst the criminal justice, IPV prevention, and drug treatment systems and service providers.
 
Article
Previous research has shown that many forms of strain are positively related to delinquency. Evidence also suggests that religiosity buffers the effects of strain on offending, but this issue requires further research. Using data from a national sample of adolescents, this study examined whether or not religiosity conditioned the relationship between strain and delinquency. This study also looked at the ability of social support, self-esteem, and depression to moderate the influence of strain on delinquent behavior. The findings here lend support to general strain theory in that strain had a direct positive effect on delinquency, yet there was little evidence that the relationship was moderated by religiosity or other conditioning variables. The roles of moderating variables on strain across genders were also considered.
 
Article
OBJECTIVE: Research demonstrates that punitive approaches to DWI employed by the judiciary have failed to significantly reduce recidivism. However, little is known about the deterrent effects of administrative and diversion sanctions. We examine whether such sanctions deter first-time DWI offenders. METHODS: We grouped combinations of administrative, judicial, and diversion sanctions routinely employed in the state of Maryland for processing drivers arrested for DWI into one of eight mutually exclusive disposition sequences. We applied this classification to Maryland drivers who had been licensed in the state and had precisely one DWI on their record prior to January 1, 1999. We then used a proportional hazards model to estimate the probability of remaining free of a new DWI during a 6-year period (January 1, 1999 - December 31, 2004) as a function of the disposition of the index violation, and of selected factors that could affect that probability. RESULTS: Drivers with a prior DWI were at relatively high risk of recidivating regardless of how they were sanctioned. Those who received administrative and alternative sanctions had a risk of recidivating similar to that of drivers who were convicted. CONCLUSION: All dispositions sequences, not just convictions, indicate that first-time DWI offenders are at high risk of recidivating.
 
Article
Relatively little is known of the distributions of homicide event characteristics in non-Western nations in which women relative to men are involved. This article utilizes unique homicide narratives drawn from Russian court and police records to compare homicide victim, offender, and event characteristics by sex of victim and separately by sex of offender. Results from logistic regression show that homicides in which a female was the victim or offender were more likely to occur between intimates and to occur in the home, whereas homicides involving males were more likely to occur in a public place, to be alcohol-related, to involve a firearm, and to involve a victim and offender who did not know each other well. These results not only present an important first glimpse at women as homicide victims and offenders in Russia specifically, but also provide a point of comparison with findings from similar analyses undertaken in the West, and present further initial observations upon which to construct a cohesive theory about female involvement in serious violent events.
 
Article
Like the United States, Russia is a large industrialized nation with high violence rates. Although its overall homicide rate is among the highest in the world, however, local rates of crime vary widely. Similarly, the level of social support provided by the state varies throughout Russia due to former Soviet policies, the differential pace of political and economic change, and the level of development. Relying upon recent criminological literature on social support theory, this study tested the hypotheses that areas with higher levels of social support will have lower homicide rates and that the effects of negative socioeconomic change on homicide rates will be moderated by levels of social support. Utilizing data from Russian regions (n = 78) and controlling for other structural covariates, negative binomial regression was employed to estimate the effects of social support on regional homicide rates. As expected, negative socioeconomic change was associated with higher homicide rates, but the results provided no support for direct or conditioning effects of social support on homicide. The findings are discussed in the context of Russia-specific conditions and of the meaning of these findings for recent research on social support and crime.
 
Article
While reentry funding is flowing into states, its target efficiency and effectiveness depends on whether it goes to the right people in the right ways. The purpose of this study was to examine whether and how the amount of time incarcerated affects reentry readiness. A population-based survey was conducted. Approximately 4000 soon-to-be-released male inmates were drawn from a state correctional system. Readiness is described in terms of feeling ready and material, social, and treatment resources available for reentry by time served on current conviction (episode effect) and since age 18 (cumulative effect). Generalized hierarchical linear models were used to estimate the effects of demographic, criminological, and time served variables on reentry readiness outcomes. Reentry vulnerability increased with time served since turning 18 (cumulative effect) but not with time served on the current conviction (episode effect). Inmates serving more than 10 years since turning 18 were at greatest reentry risk. The findings indicate that inmates who have served more prison time over their lifetime have more pronounced needs and risks suggesting that reentry funding be targeted towards those who have served more time over the course of their lifetime.
 
Article
Kansas' Senate Bill 123 (SB 123) created mandatory community-based drug treatment for individuals convicted of first- or second-offense drug possession. This study examined the impact of SB 123 on sentencing practices, supervision, and treatment services across Kansas. The study indicated that SB 123 diverted drug possessors not from prison, as intended, but from one form of community supervision to another, subjecting more offenders to greater surveillance and longer sentences. Such “front-end” net-widening was due to the structure of the law itself and a lack of understanding of pre-implementation sentencing practices. In some counties, judges engaged in some circumvention of the law, suggesting possible local-level differences in buy-in among courtroom actors; such circumvention was also focused on offenders with more serious criminal histories, indicating judicial-level evaluations of offender amenability to treatment. While SB 123 offenders received the treatment they were assessed to need, the provision of treatment remained heavily concentrated in a few providers, increasing disparities in access to treatment and making the success of the program highly dependant on a small number of institutional actors.
 
Article
Articles published in seven leading criminology and criminal justice journals were coded with regard to the research methods used, focusing on the general research designs, data-gathering methods, and statistical analysis techniques employed. The results indicated that survey research was by far the dominant mode of acquiring criminological information, that cross-sectional nonexperimental designs still predominated, and that multivariate statistical methods were the norm. The findings could aid criminology and criminal justice faculty in devising graduate methods curricula that reflected the state-of-the-art as currently practiced by criminological researchers.
 
Article
Jacques-Pierre Brissot, a controversial and often ignored journalist and politician of the French Revolution, began his career as a serious publicist by concentrating on criminal code reform. Among his early efforts is a lengthy pamphlet investigating the problem of the innocent falsely accused, Le Sang innocent vengé, ou Discours sur les réparations dues aux accusés innocens (1781), awarded a prize by the Academy of Châlons-sur-Marne. The Criminal Ordinance of 1670, still in effect at that time, was the object of Brissot's attack. Although a number of scholars of the Ancien Régime have indicated that the police force of the period was totally inadequate and that a severe penal code may have been one of the only ways to deter crime, these were not Brissot's main concerns. He, like his mentors the philosophes, and particularly Voltaire, chose legal institutions as an indication and illustration of problems and abuses in the existing system. Brissot's insight, however, was his perception of harsh and unnecessarily cruel punishments as a threat to the life and liberty of the individual. His concern was the damage done by legal proceedings to the individual rather than swift retribution for the damage done by the individual to society. He contended that reforms were needed to create a criminal justice system more responsive to individual rights. This article examines Brissot's pamphlet and demonstrates that he should be granted a prominent place among the advocates of reform.
 
Article
Data from a sample of records in the 1892–1923 Daybooks of the Allegheny County (Pittsburg) Jail were used to trace the patterns of incarceration of women for summary misdemeanors. When combined with census data for the period, these data show that Irish and African-American women were incarcerated at substantially higher rates than were other ethnic groups. The proportions of immigrants incarcerated declined over the period. The characteristics of women incarcerated during the depression year of 1907 differed substantially from the patterns observed in other years. The incarceration rates did not fluctuate substantially from day to day; they appeared to represent routine handling of disreputable individuals rather than sporadic, politically motivated sweeps.
 
Article
Serial murder was a well-known phenomenon in the early twentieth century. Between about 1900 and 1940 there were dozens of recorded incidents in the United States, and extreme cases occurred almost as frequently as they have done in the last two decades. This article describes and attempts to classify incidents of serial homicide in this area. It also discusses the changing theoretical and medical explanations used to account for this type of crime and the impact of new theories on the practice of the courts and law-enforcement agencies. Finally, the frequency of serial homicide is tentatively linked to the broader social and economic history of the period.
 
Article
This study examined the patterns of confinement within the Milwaukee County House of Correction for a sixty year period. The data represent summary statistics from annual reports for the years 1907 to 1965. The variables explored were: age, race, term of commitment, ethnicity, previous commitment, offense, and admissions to the House of Correction. The results indicated changes in the inmate population over time, with increases in the number of inmates, a trend toward older inmates, trends in both shorter and longer sentences, increases in the percentage of inmates committed for drunkenness, and increases in the percentage of nonwhites. Finally, the data revealed a sharp decrease in the number of foreign born commitments with a corresponding increase in the number of black inmates.
 
Article
The study analyzes the effect of executions and the death penalty on homicides in Illinois. A forty-eight year time series (1933–1980 inclusive) is used as the basis for this analysis. The first series of results are presented in a graph of executions and homicides by year. A second portion of the analysis compares the mean homicide rates for three time periods—years with executions, years when the death penalty was allowed but no executions were performed, and years in which the death penalty was abolished by the U.S. Supreme Court. No notable differences in homicide rates were observed for these three eras. Finally, a regression analysis was performed which included a lag structure and several relevant controls. The deterrence measure (executions) made no contribution to the variation in homicide rates. Thus, the authors conclude that there is no deterrent effect for the death penalty on homicides in Illinois.
 
Article
Recent American work on serial murder has begun to move away from exclusive reliance on case-studies to broader and more quantitative accounts of the total phenomenon as it involves both offenders and victims. This article discusses the phenomenon of serial murder over a long period by focusing on England, where homicide of this sort is sufficiently rare to have been studied in detail. A comprehensive list of offenders also was easily constructed. Offender characteristics are discussed, to show a sharp division between serial killers whose violence was apparent in early childhood and others who seemed relatively normal until well into adulthood. The article also considers the relative success of English police and courts in handling the special problems posed by serial homicide.
 
Article
A review of recent criminal justice textbooks and standard reference sources indicated a lack of historical studies. Scholars in the United States have not investigated the historical roots of criminal justice and as a result the literature and curricula of criminal justice educational programs portray a narrow contemporary perspective. The author critically analyzes selected historical publications of the past decade and provides suggestions for further research.
 
Article
Analysis of the literature revealed that constitutional and legal differences between countries had no significant impact on conventional newspaper crime coverage. Research findings in the United States and other countries disclosed four areas in which newspaper crime coverage was essentially the same: there is an overrepresentation of violent crimes and an underrepresentation of property crimes; the percentages of violent crimes reported in newspapers do not match official crime statistics; crime coverage presents a false image of the effectiveness of police and courts in controlling crime and punishing criminals; and newspaper coverage fails to educate readers as to causes of crime or how to avoid personal victimization.
 
Article
In 1958, Wolfgang published his seminal work examining criminal homicide cases that occured in Philadelphia between 1948 and 1952. This work was the beginning of an extensive body of literature focusing on the victim-offender relationship in homicides. Wolfgang and subsequent researchers consistently found that homicides tended to be intra-racial, intra-gender, and occuring overwhelmingly between relatives and friends. However, this body of literature was based largely on data from large cities with very heterogeneous populations and therefore may not be generalizable to smaller American communities. The current research examined all homicides in Delaware County (Muncie, Indiana) that resulted in a conviction for the years 1960 through 1984. Although the demographic characteristics of victims and offenders and their relationships appear consistent with those found in larger cities, noticeable changes were found to have occured over the twenty-five year period.
 
THE COVERAGE OF BIOLOGICAL ARGUMENTS IN CRIMINOLOGY TEXTBOOKS, 1961--1970 AND 1987--1996
PAGE COVERAGE OF BIOLOGICAL ARGUMENTS IN CRIMINOLOGY TEXTBOOKS, 1987--1996, BY POSITION ON EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE AND THEORETICAL ORIENTATION a
COVERAGE OF BIOLOGICAL ARGUMENTS IN CRIMINOLOGY TEXTBOOKS, 1987--1996, SELECTED AREAS
Article
In American criminology throughout most of the twentieth century, biological arguments that link biochemistry, genetics, and/or neurophysiology to crime have been viewed as taboo: unthinkable and unmentionable. Despite this reputation, biological perspectives have resurged in the last two decades, reshaping theory and research in criminology. This article examines the changes in the taboo image of biological arguments in fifty-five introductory criminology textbooks: twenty published from 1961 to 1970 and thirty-five appearing from 1987 to 1996. The data show that the taboo surrounding biocriminology appears to be diminishing in textbooks: Newer texts devote more coverage to biological perspectives and are more likely to claim that there is at least some empirical evidence supporting these arguments. Furthermore, criminology textbooks that embrace interdisciplinary orientations are less likely to depict biological arguments as taboo than books that endorse sociological, and especially critical sociological, orientations.
 
Article
In 1968 the United States Congress created the National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (NILECJ) to encourage research and development in criminal justice. The mission of the agency was broadened in 1979, when it was reauthorized as the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). Using a model of the innovation process (Rogers, 1983), this study examined the history of the agency and evaluated the process by which it has attempted to influence innovation. Three periods were identified—the early technology years (1968–1974), the basic research years (1975–1982), and the policy-relevant years (1983–1989).
 
Article
In October 1973, the United States Board of Parole adopted an actuarial device, termed a “salient factor score”, as a risk assesment aid. This device was constructed and initially validated on a sample of 1970 releases utilizing a two year follow-up period for each case. However, as the utility of a predictive device depends upon its a ability to predict to prospective samples, periodic validation is required. This paper describes the application of the salient factor score to a subsequent validation sample of prisoners released during 1972 and discusses the effects of using various outcome measures.
 
Article
The recruitment of civilians in police departments, a process called civilianization, has been a widely heralded though controversial strategy for ameliorating a variety of urban police problems. However, civilianization in other police environments has received scant attention. The present research investigated civilianization in police departments serving Illinois communities of less than 50,000 population. Four long-term conditions that affect the process of civilianization—variation in police budgets, changing levels of crime, changes in agency size, and geographic status—were examined. Changes in both police agency expenditures and agency size were shown to produce the greatest impact on the hiring of civilians, though interestingly, agencies that were declining in size were more likely to civilianize. It was also found that since 1973 departments in rural areas had civilianized at twice the rate as agencies in urban environments and that they were approaching the levels reported by urban departments.
 
Article
Data collected by the author while a Fulbright scholar to Uruguay, South America for six weeks in June and July, 1986 allowed examination of the macro-setting of a political dictatorship and the transformation of corrections into an instrument of dictatorial rule from 1973 to 1984. The article also addresses a few principles for guiding entry into the field and data collection for a foreign criminologist in the short term.
 
Article
Previous comparisons of trends in UCR and NCS crime rates over time have found little convergence between these two series (Menard and Covey, 1988). When these series are detrended, however, either by using year as a control variable or by employing the method of first differences, the convergence between them is, in general, impressive. Thus, fluctuations in the UCR crime rates over time are paralleled by fluctuations in the NCS crime rates. If researchers detrend their data, as many time-series analysts do, then results based on UCR and NCS data are likely to be similar. This is encouraging news for those who use either set of data in time series-analyses.
 
Article
This article reports a population-based study of jail and lockup suicides in Ohio. Jails are facilities that hold inmates for periods that are usually longer than 48 hours, and they are administered by local, city, and country authorities. Lockups house persons for less than 48 hours; they include drunk tanks. Demographic information and criminal arrest records for 228 cases of suicide occuring between 1975 and 1985 were obtained from death certificates and local jail records. Two-hundred and fifteen cases were male (94 percent), 177 were white (78 percent), and the mean age was 28 years. The estimated suicide rate for males in Ohio jails for 1983 was 3.1 per 100, 000, although rates varied by country. The rate for lockups could not be determined. The most frequent method of suicide in these jails was hanging (98 percent) by articles of clothing, belts, or bedding. Over 40 percent of the cases had been arrested for alcohol-related crimes. These cases were significantly more likely to commit suicide within the first 24 hours of incarceration than other cases (relative risk = 6.9, 95 percent CI = 3.1–15.4). Among those cases committing suicide within the first 24 hours after admission, intoxicated cases committed suicide significantly more quickly than other cases (9.0 ± 1.6 hours, versus 16.8 ± 1.3 hours).
 
Article
This article analyzes the content of 1,359 police civil liability cases handed down by the United States Federal District Courts from 1978 through 1990. A data classification system was developed to enable the content analysis to determine the longitudinal trends in these cases, the types of law enforcement agencies being sued, the prevailing parties, allegations against the police, and amounts of damages and attorney fees awarded to successful plaintiffs. Issues brought before the courts were classified, and high-risk areas of police behavior were identified in a longitudinal fashion. The research focused exclusively on published federal litigation brought against the police under Title 42 United States Code, Section 1983, as opposed to civil liability under state of federal tort law.
 
Article
Research on the police–crime relationship generally shows police levels have little impact on crime rates. Two recent studies [Criminology 34 (1996) 609; American Economics Review 87 (1997) 270.] presented evidence that prior police–crime studies were methodologically flawed and found that increased police levels reduced crime. Using county-level data collected from Florida for the period 1980–1998 and a multiple time series (MTS) design, this study revisited the police–crime relationship. For a sample of large cities, the study found that increased police levels reduced most types of crime at the county level. Similar results have now been reported in three recent studies using similar research designs but different units of analysis and time periods. Due to this, prior research showing no relationship between police levels and crime should be reconsidered Police levels and crime rates revisited: A county-level analysis from Florida (1980-1998). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/4970589_Police_levels_and_crime_rates_revisited_A_county-level_analysis_from_Florida_1980-1998 [accessed Jun 30, 2017].
 
Article
Research had consistently shown that intimate partner homicide rates had been on a steady downward decline over the past two decades; however, a relatively recent movement in intimate partner homicide research had emphasized the need for further dissecting the aggregate trends by factors such as gender, race, victim-offender relationship, and same-sex partners. Taking this a step forward, this study utilized trajectory analysis for comparing and contrasting non-intimate partner homicide and intimate partner homicide rates over time in order to explore the importance of rurality when investigating intimate partner violence. Results of the analysis indicated that although intimate partner homicide rates had been declining over the 1980-1999 period for the majority of the 1,341 U.S. counties examined, there was evidence that rurality was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of assignment to a non-declining intimate partner homicide trajectory. In light of the findings, the authors also consider how these results can direct future research on intimate partner violence in rural areas.
 
Article
This study examined police discretionary behavior in stopping and arresting drivers suspected of drunken driving in the state of Maine (U.S.A.). A sample of 186 officers was questioned at the beginning and end of a one-year period with respect to their attitudes toward OUI (Operating Under the Influence of Alcohol) law enforcement and their discretionary behavior in regard to OUI.Significant minorities of police officers reported that they made decisions either not to apprehend (thirty-three percent) or not to arrest (forty-one percent) OUI suspects in the study year. Officers who reported discretionary decisions not to apprehend or arrest generally did so infrequently—i.e. five percent of possible apprehensions and ten percent of possible arrests.Type of police department was significantly associated with decisions not to stop OUI suspects: officers in large departments ( ≥ 20 officers) reported more discretion. Officers with longer service careers, administration responsibilities, high personal priorities on OUI enforcement, and favorable opinions of the climate of OUI enforcement were less likely not to arrest OUI suspects.
 
Article
Emergence of police sexual violence (PSV) as an inquiry of police deviance has recently received increased attention. This article expands this trend, documenting court decisions within the U.S. that impose civil liability on police and correctional officers who perpetrate sexual violence. Forming the basis of the analysis are cases litigated under Title 42 U.S. Code (USC) Section 1983. The article organizes these cases into the following categories: (1) establishing the color of law requirement in PSV cases; (2) sexual violence that violates the Fourteenth Amendment's due process clause; and (3) sexual violence that violates the Eighth Amendment's prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment. Additionally, the article notes that most officers charged with PSV attribute their behavior to common rape myths that persist in police subcultures. Calling for additional police training on rape myths, the article concludes that further research is needed on PSV within the legal, subcultural, and social context.
 
FACTORS COURTS CONSIDER WHEN DECIDING THE COLOR OF LAW ISSUE
Article
When law enforcement personnel are sued in civil court pursuant to Title 42 of the United States Code, Section 1983, before a court can assess whether a police officer violated a plaintiff's federally guaranteed rights, the court must first determine that the officer acted under color of law. Although previous researchers have focused extensively on police civil liability, there is a dearth of research on the color of law issue, an essential element of Section 1983. Using ninety-six law enforcement cases, this article attempts to fill that void by identifying the circumstances under which law enforcement officers act under color of law. After briefly describing the history of the color of law issue, the article divides the analysis into six parts: (1) officers who intimidate citizens from exercising their rights, (2) officers who settle personal disputes with police powers, (3) officers who act pursuant to state statutes or municipal ordinances, (4) officers who perform police functions, (5) officers who identify themselves as law enforcement officials, and (6) officers who act pursuant to departmental customs and policies. The article concludes by dichotomizing the factors courts consider when holding that officers act and do not act under color of law.
 
Article
This analysis examined whether Black and Hispanic defendants were sentenced to incarceration more often than white defendants following arrest for misdemeanor or felony crimes. Disparity is defined as a significant difference in how often minorities and whites were incarcerated that is not attributable to differences in arrest charges, prior criminal records, and county of processing. The research shows that: minorities were incarcerated more often than comparably situated whites; disparity varied by county; disparity could not be estimated from statewide totals; disparity could not be estimated by discriminant function analysis; removing disparity in postarrest case processing would do little to reduce the concentration of minorities in jails and prisons.
 
Article
This analysis considers outputs produced by Title III electronic wiretaps. Based on 1987-2005 data, wiretap productivity is assessed by examining the number of wiretaps, places wiretaps are installed, numbers of people whose communications are intercepted, the number of intercepted communications, the number of communications labeled incriminating, the arrests and convictions linked to wiretaps, and the relationships among arrests and convictions. Wiretapping is focused mostly on narcotics violations. The numbers of people, interceptions, and incriminating interceptions increased. One-fifth of intercepted communications were classified as incriminating. Incriminating information is linked to arrests and convictions that unfold over time. The more people intercepted, the more arrests result, but convictions decline over time. Arrests are driven by the number of intercepted persons. Convictions are driven by the number of incriminating interceptions. Two simultaneous but opposing operations were in place by 2005: big increases in the number of intercepted communications in 2003 through 2005; and by 2005, overall declines in the measured productivity of wiretaps.
 
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Alex R Piquero
  • University of Texas at Dallas
Matt Delisi
  • Iowa State University
Scott H. Decker
  • Arizona State University
Liqun Cao
  • Ontario Tech University
Eric Lambert
  • Wayne State University