This paper aims to underline the effects of shopping value on customer satisfaction and to determine its antecedent variables.
A qualitative survey through interviews with hypermarket customers was first carried out. It was followed by a quantitative study, carried out in two stages: 199 patrons were first interrogated in order to clarify the outlet characteristics scale. A second set of data was then collected (436 respondents). Factorial analysis, confirmatory factorial analysis and analysis of regression were conducted.
The last study results show that both utilitarian and hedonic values have an influence on satisfaction; they tend to indicate that the utilitarian value is related to product availability, while the hedonic value is influenced by such elements as atmosphere, relations with store employees, as well as crowding and other peripheral services.
The influence of the five outlet characteristics studied (atmosphere, peripheral services, store employees, product availability, crowding) on value have never been demonstrated empirically until now. The link between value and satisfaction was not so clear in the literature.
The results show what variables are to be promoted if a retailer wishes to give the outlet its utilitarian and/or hedonic value, and then influence patron satisfaction.
This paper provides important and new insights both into value that may be attributed to a point of sale and into the effect on customer satisfaction of outlet characteristics.
Purpose - This article seeks to examine attitudes about direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs to final users (referred to as consumers in this paper). Design/methodology/approach - A national telephone survey was carried out of 300 consumers that had seen a doctor in the last six months. Findings - Consumer awareness of DTCA continues at a very high level (96 percent) among the adult consumer population. However, the majority of consumers (53 percent) disagreed somewhat or strongly with the statement "I like seeing advertisements directed to consumers for prescription drugs." The majority of consumers (69 percent) agree strongly or somewhat that DTCA does not provide adequate information on the risks and benefits of advertised products. It appears that the use of DTCA by pharmaceutical companies is not stimulating nearly the information-gathering response reported in past studies. Research limitations/implications - Small sample size makes this survey exploratory. Practical implications - This negativism may impair the usefulness of this type of advertising in the future. As television, magazine, radio, and other traditional media become less important, the internet may become an important channel for the growth of DTCA. Given the growing negativism of consumers, it is clear that significant changes in DTCA practices are necessary. Without significant changes, DTCA may become impractical or even prohibited. Originality/value - The article adds to longitudinal data on consumer attitudes towards DTCA. It is hoped that this study will suggest areas for subsequent research and will elaborate on the practical consequences of DTCA and its implications for public health and welfare.
Purpose ? Aims to explore the impact of efforts by some municipalities to place various restrictions on on-premise signs and to examine the impact of strict regulations on local communities. Design/methodology/approach ? Provides examples of restrictive sign codes and reviews articles providing empirical evidence on public perceptions of signs as well as the impact of signs on businesses and communities. Findings ? Excessive regulation of signs is counterproductive; contrary to the beliefs of proponents of harsh restrictions, signs are helpful to consumers and business, and they contribute to a community's economic vitality. Practical implications ? In developing and implementing sign codes, municipalities should consider what research tells us about the value of on-premise signs. Members of the general public who have an interest in municipal affairs should consider research findings when forming opinions about the regulation of signs as opposed to relying on a limited number of individuals who may ignore the marketing functions of signs in developing and implementing sign codes. Originality/value ? Demonstrates the importance of signage to consumers, businesses, and local communities.
– The purpose of this paper is to explore the links between customer loyalty attitude, customer loyalty behaviours (measured by customer purchase behaviours) and profitability. The aim is to define a conceptual framework within which to analyse the relationships between attitudes, behaviour, and profitability of the customers.
– Reference was made to earlier studies which argued that loyal customers constitute competitive asset of business organizations. Several authors noted that customers generally vary in terms of loyalty behaviours and attitudes and highlighted that differences about customers' loyalty levels affect a firm's profitability results. Customer loyalty, its antecedents and outcomes, and the links between customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and profitability have been analyzed at a customer level.
– The results showed support for all but one of the five hypotheses, the exception being H2.
– The results of the study provide evidence that a Loyalty Index can give managers an adequate support for market segmentation. This means that actual market segment strategies, based on geographical, demographical and/or psychographic variables, should take into account also loyalty measurement models.
Businesses are becoming more sophisticated about brand, its value and its role as a crucial driver of business success. But what do they need to put in place to realize the benefits of brand as an asset? In the previous issue, the author looked at the philosophy behind brand asset management. This article continues the discussion with an 11-step approach to putting a brand asset management strategy in place, from developing a brand vision for the organization to the need to establish a brand-based business culture.
The main focus of marketing strategists is increasingly aimed toward coping with competition, despite continuing challenges in markets themselves. Competition is a key factor that marketing strategists face. Competitors' market moves demand timely and creative reaction. To get usable advance estimates of such probable moves, it is essential to have a system for careful monitoring of competitors. All proactive strategic actions should anticipate the market reactions that competitors are likely to make to them. Unfortunately, ways to cope with actual and potential competition, however, still receive only brief treatment in the pertinent literature. This article examines the competitive features of modern market environments and considers how marketing strategists attempt to cope with them.
Claims that the time has come to consider how to apply marketing
principles and practices in an increasingly competitive and rapidly
changing environment. Argues that as it becomes increasingly difficult
to sustain a comparative advantage over competitors it will become
increasingly important to position organizations as “brands”
in the minds of actual and potential customers. Examines the nature of
brand building and methods for building company brand and concludes that
brand building provides the organization with limitless possibilities
Discusses three demographic currents in the shift from a youth-oriented, to a middle-aged mature society in the USA. This shift - the Age Wave - is based on the fact that the young population is shrinking, there is a growth in the number of those aged over 55, and “baby-boomers” are now approaching middle age.
President Richard M. Nixon's historic trip to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1972 established a relationship between the United States and the PRC which was formalized when President Nixon signed the Shanghai Communique. This treaty proclaimed China's willingness to accept foreign investment and its movement toward becoming a more “open door” nation. With the normalization of full diplomatic relations between the United States and the PRC in 1978, U.S. investments in the PRC and the interest of world marketers has gained momentum. Today there is intense interest in the potential of the PRC market among U.S. consumer goods manufacturers, of both consumer durables and nondurables. U.S. consumer goods companies are starting to produce their products for and in China.
Reports that interviews with consumer affairs professionals have
indicated that firms are now sampling from 800 number callers, sometimes
using this information as a substitute for traditional survey research.
Examines the validity of these practices on the basis of the empirical
evidence currently available. Presents a number of conceptual problems
associate with gathering satisfaction-level data by these procedures.
Finally discusses the managerial implications along with recommendations
for improved procedures.
Introduction Growing internationalization during the past three decades has become one of the most pervasive influences in business today. This is true for both the export manager responsible for positioning a firm's products in various foreign markets and for the marketing executive responsible for managing the competitive interaction of a firm's products with foreign products in a particular domestic market. As a consequence, the impact of national boundaries on the marketplace has continued to diminish. To compete successfully in this broad arena, marketing managers must have a thorough understanding of, and empathy for, the different needs and preferences of consumers in the various markets within which a firm interacts. Consumer attitudes toward both products and the related marketing practices naturally have a major influence on purchase behavior. In addition, consumer attitudes toward products from different countries can be a major factor in determining successful marketing strategies. We will present here a longitudinal analysis of the general attitudes of consumers in a foreign country, Finland, toward the products imported from the United States, japan, and selected European countries. We will also compare these consumer attitudes toward various dimensions of the related marketing mix strategies. It should be noted that the methodology for analyzing export opportunities is applicable by any company for any foreign country.
Discusses the various strategies for mass merchandizing
technologically complex products and services. Considers fear of
technology, high-tech aficionados, and lifestyle differences as factors
in marketing high-tech goods. Concludes that separate strategies for
aficionados and non-aficionados should be developed, and also that more
customer-oriented strategies should take into account that the
aficionados themselves can be segmented by interests.
– This paper aims to examine whether self-efficacy plays an important role in shaping the effect of cognition and affects in high technology adoption. It also examines whether cognition and affect mediate the effect of self-efficacy on attitude toward adoption.
– Using an experimental survey to collect data, subjects performed two different tasks (utilitarian and hedonic) to make sure that they had cognitive and affective experiences to draw upon as they developed attitudes toward the focal innovation. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the model.
– The result shows that self-efficacy influenced cognitive perceptions and emotional reactions. Specifically, self-efficacy was found to play a substantive role in shaping individuals’ attitudes via a cognitive route (perceived usefulness and ease-of-use) and an affective one (pleasure, arousal and dominance).
– The study of self-efficacy as an external variable provides further insights into the process and is expected to increase the explained variance of the theoretical model.
– This study confirms that a belief about something besides the product also plays a key role; it is the confidence consumers have in their own abilities to understand and effectively use a new piece of technology.
– The research makes important contributions to our understanding of technology acceptance and has implications for marketing managers.
Examines the consumer's role in the proliferation of product
counterfeiting. Describes a demand-side orientation to the
counterfeiting problem and discusses results from a field experiment
examining consumers' willingness to select a counterfeit apparel item
knowingly. Indicates that a surprisingly large proportion of adult
consumers will select a counterfeit garment over the genuine good when
there is a price advantage. Investigates product perceptions and
decision criteria and implications for marketer action.
Examines the position of medium‐market‐share companies in relation to their smaller and larger counterparts and compares the inherent competitive advantages and disadvantages. Highlights the options available to such companies attempting to change their position, e.g. increasing market share or concentrating on specific profitable core accounts. Considers the relationship between market share and profitability. Concludes that such companies require product differentiation and a high‐level of customer orientation in order to compete successfully.
– The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether brands impact consumer evaluations in ways other than a consistent halo and the degree to which consumers use both overall brand information along with detailed attribute-specific information to construct their evaluations.
– The authors decompose consumer evaluations of brand benefits into overall brand and detailed attribute-specific sources through a standard CFA approach. Data cover 55 brands in four product categories sold in nine global markets.
– Halo effects are rare in global CPG markets. The authors identify the presence of differential brand effects in eight of nine global markets tested. Application of an extended model to a market where several competing family brands are present demonstrates the ability of the model to identify relationships among brand offerings within a family brand and to differentiate between family brand sets.
– The finding of differential effects calls into question the assumption of a consistent brand effect assumed in past research; future models should accommodate differential effects.
– The ability to decompose consumer brand-benefit beliefs into overall brand and detailed attribute-specific sources provides managers with insights into which latent mental sources consumers use to construct their brand beliefs. As such, the methodology provides useful descriptive and diagnostic measures concerning the sources of suspicious, interesting, or worrisome consumer brand beliefs as well as a means to determine if their branding, positioning and/or messaging is having the desired impact on consumer evaluations so that they can make and evaluate required changes.
– A significant contribution of this research is the finding that many times the brand source differentially impacts consumers' evaluations of brand-benefits, a finding that is contrary to a consistent halo effect that is assumed in prior models.
Examining individual tolerance for unethical consumer behavior provides a key insight to how people behave as consumers worldwide. In this study, consumer reactions to 11 unethical consumer behavior scenarios are investigated using sample data from Austria, Brunei, France, Hong Kong, the UK, and the USA. Nationality is found to be a significant predictor of how consumers view various questionable behaviors. Gender is not a significant predictor, while age and religious affiliation are found to be significant predictors of consumer ethical perceptions. The study identifies distinct consumer clusters based on their perceptions of consumer unethical behavior. Implications of the findings are discussed and future research directions are provided.
Theodore Levitt's 1983 article on the globalization of markets has left in its wake a pitched battle between advertising agency converts and opponents, and a reassessment of many corporate strategies. Objections that there are only about three global brands-Coke, McDonald's, and Kodak-do not deter Proctor & Gamble from setting up global new product planning or N. V. Philips from realigning its advertising accounts worldwide. To illustrate its commitment to the issue, a major agency even recently changed its name to Needham Harper Worldwide.
This article describes an empirical investigation of a relatively new marketing concept, the Time Guarantee, as implemented by an automobile dealership. Results suggested: • Consumers regarded the Time Guarantee as a feature that could prompt them to differentiate sellers. • Consumers in a variety of demographic categories placed a high value on time. • Consumers viewed the Time Guarantee as a benefit which should be included in the price paid for the product.
Purpose - This study aims to explore perceptions of healthy/unhealthy eating, and perceptions of various socializing agents encouraging healthy eating, amongst Chinese adolescents. Design/methodology/approach - A survey was conducted of 152 seventh, eighth and ninth grade Hong Kong students. A structured questionnaire with closed-ended questions was distributed in three public secondary schools. Findings - Results showed that respondents frequently ate out with friends and frequently consumed a range of relatively unhealthy food (candies, chips, and soft drinks). They perceived that a balanced diet and eating at a regular time were the most important attributes of healthy eating. In terms of situational influences on their consumption, respondents most likely ate unhealthy food at parties, when eating out or with friends. They most likely ate healthy food at home and when they were sick. Looking at socializing agents, respondents claimed that parents and government publicity asked them to eat healthy food more often than teachers or friends. Parents were also perceived as being the most effective source in encouraging them to eat healthy food. In terms of alternative advertising appeals discouraging unhealthy eating, respondents considered news and fear appeals to be the most effective, while popularity and achievement appeals were considered to be relatively less effective. Research limitations/implications - The respondents were chosen from three secondary schools (two co-ed schools and one school for boys). These three schools may not be representative of all schools in Hong Kong or elsewhere, thus limiting the generalizability of the findings. Practical implications - The study can serve as a guideline for social services marketing professionals targeting adolescents. Looking at the findings in relation to socializing agents, social services marketers can consider influencing the adolescents' eating habits through the parents. As government publicity was perceived as a relatively weak socializing agent, there is a need to review health education materials targeting adolescents. Looking at the findings in relation to different advertising appeals discouraging unhealthy eating, news and fear appeals should be considered, as these were considered relatively more likeable and effective than other types of appeals. Originality/value - The paper offers insights into designing communication strategies for adolescents. It is original in that it focuses on adolescents, and explores the perceptions of various socializing agents influencing healthy eating.
– Online communities designed to appeal to children are on the rise. The success of this marketplace phenomenon indicates that adolescents are likely candidates for brand community membership; however, the literature has yet to examine this trend. This research aims to address this gap and establish the likely existence of brand community involvement among adolescents. It further seeks to explore the characteristics which may differentiate children who are more likely to become involved in brand communities and examine what impact their involvement may have on adolescents' psychological well-being.
– A national online panel was employed to collect survey data from respondents aged 7-18 and their parents.
– The results support the existence of a high brand community involvement segment among adolescents. Adolescents high in brand community involvement are found to display noteworthy differences in attitudes, values, and marketplace behaviors. Several interesting avenues of future research are proposed.
– To the authors' knowledge this is the first study attempting to measure differences between adolescents who measure high and low in brand community involvement. Of particular interest are the results indicating that adolescents involved in brand communities may have important distinguishing attitudes and values and exhibit noteworthy differences in their marketplace behavior.
Consumer goods marketers are increasingly turning to the show as a medium to launch new products. However, little is known as to how shows influence adoption behavior. By analyzing adoption theory and key characteristics of the show setting, this article explains how shows facilitate the acceptance of innovative consumer products. Examples of shows, such as the Atlanta Home Show and the New York Boat Show, illustrate the way these exciting marketing events lower new product resistance. The article concludes with several tactical and strategic recommendations for improving the use of shows during new product introductions.
Discusses five barriers to new product adoption by older people.
Offers marketing solutions to these barriers: sell value, communicate
through children, segment the elderly market, design intergenerational
products, utilize relationship marketing and promote product trial.
Concludes that marketing innovations to the elderly is different than
for other age groups, with a requirement to focus specifically on need,
Presents a current overview of the issues and available knowledge
regarding marketers understanding of how to reach older consumers.
Presents contradictory beliefs about older consumers and various methods
for marketing to them. Offers reasons for these contradictions, and
presents a blueprint to help decision makers evaluate information in the
field and formulate effective strategies.
Purpose – This paper aims to investigate older consumers’ perceptions of the effects of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA), their views on the amount and type of information that should be provided, and their understanding of information typically contained.Design/methodology/approach – Participants were 97 adult members of a social/education group, aged 55 to 87, who completed a questionnaire during the group’s usual weekly meeting. There were four versions of the questionnaire; two types of medication (arthritis versus diabetes) and two ad formats (short versus long).Findings – There was little difference between the versions in the accuracy of participants’ recall of key pieces of information, suggesting that providing additional information may convey little additional benefit. Participants reported limited perceived benefits of DTCA, and expressed concern that DTCA may cause people to ask their doctor for inappropriate medicines, rely more on medicines to solve their health, and become more confused.Practical implications – This study suggests that there is a need to consider consumers’ perceptions of benefits and costs of DTCA when deciding whether to introduce it (e.g. in Australia) or remove it (e.g. New Zealand). Further, at least for older consumers, providing large quantities of information may increase cognitive demands without producing additional benefits.Originality/value – The majority of previous studies of DTCA have used either student samples (with manipulated salience of information) or general population surveys. This study utilised a sample of older adults, including 55 per cent with arthritis and 13 per cent with diabetes. Further, as this study used US ads with an Australian population, one can be confident that participants’ knowledge of the medications was purely from the ads read and not from previous exposure.
Within the customer value literature there is a lacuna of theoretical frameworks and models that underlie consumers' overall product valuation. This paper addresses this limitation and presents a model integrating consumer values, product benefits, and various costs of consumption. In the proposed model, benefits and costs are defined in terms of consumers' perceptions in the activities of acquisition, consumption, and maintenance, as well as consumers' expectation of value satisfaction before buying.
Reports on a study designed to analyse the effectiveness of real
and created spokespersons in advertisements. Compares male and female
spokespersons' effectiveness by audience gender. Concludes that
celebrities can be used to gain attention and maintain sales, while
created spokespersons' effectiveness is in establishing a lifelong link
with the product.
Recently it is becoming more common for advertisers to employ numbers and statistics in their print advertisements. However, there has been no published research that investigates how this number-based copy influences the reader. This study presents the results of a controlled experiment in which a number-oriented versus a non-number-oriented ad was manipulated for a consumer durable and a consumer nondurable product. The results indicate that readers perceived the number-based ad to be more informative than a similar ad without numbers, regardless of the type of product being advertised. The findings from this study can help advertisers create more effective advertisements which could ultimately enhance sales.
The Two Revolutions in Advertising Dr. Shoop's Restorative was a patent medicine sold around the turn of the century. It allegedly cured shingles, rickets, the grippe, the vapors, neuritis, and neuralgia. It also changed the course of advertising. One day in 1904 a couple of young ad men, Ambrose Thomas and Albert Lasker, were sitting in their Chicago offices when a messenger arrived with a note. “I am downstairs at the saloon,” it said, “and I can tell you what advertising is.” When Thomas and Lasker went down to investigate, they found an imposing fellow named John E. Kennedy, a former member of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police who had more recently been employed as a copywriter for Dr. Shoop's Restorative. Several hours and many drinks later, they hired Kennedy at a salary of $28,000 a year — fantastic money in those days. But Kennedy eventually made them very rich, and his concept made advertising the $170 billion global industry it is today.
Despite their increasing use by advertisers, little research has examined the effectiveness of infomercials. This study explores the influence of infomercial advertisement design elements, such as the use of customer testimonials or expert comments, and consumer characteristics, such as level of prior interest in the advertised product, upon perceptions of advertising effectiveness. With the assistance of the New Zealand division of an international infomercial marketer, we conducted a survey of consumers who had bought products in response to viewing an infomercial. Based on 878 respondents, our findings indicate that infomercial advertising is more effective when employing expert comments, testimonials, product demonstrations, the use of target market models, celebrity endorsers, product comparisons, and bonus offers. Age also impacted how consumers view infomercials, as did the type of product purchased.
The paper presents a simplified explanation of a rather complex mathematical approach to communication called information theory. This theory maintains that all information can be quantified. The implications of this theory for advertising are discussed along with strategic and tactical suggestions. The conclusion is that knowledge of the information content of an advertisement helps to determine the optimum exposure level for an audience while maximizing promotional influence and minimizing advertising wearout.
Examines the effectiveness of advertising in the light of the shift
of marketing budgets in favour of promotions. Discusses the reasons for
this shift and summarizes studies which show that advertising does work,
especially during recessions. Concludes that advertising should not be
neglected since, unlike promotions, it both raises sales in the short
term and builds brands in the long term.
Advertisers have been criticized for underrepresenting the elderly in print ads and television commercials. What critics often overlook, however, are audience and product considerations along with the effectiveness of older spokespersons in influencing intent to purchase among elderly and younger consumers. This article examines what is currently known about the use of older persons in advertising and extends these findings by reporting the views of advertising agency executives on this topic. From the results of these studies, an audience-product matrix with examples is provided to help put the advertiser's position into perspective. According to the literature reviewed and the perceptions of advertising agency executives, the use of elderly spokespersons tends to work best when the product or service can be targeted to elderly consumers and the products or services themselves are elderly-oriented. There is some evidence to suggest that elderly persons are used in advertisements not because advertisers want to represent the elderly, but rather when these spokespersons can sell the product.
Asian-Americans are an increasingly important, but fragmented, market. Marketers may reach this market through the use of Asian models in mass media advertising. However, advertisers must beware of mainstream consumer response to minority models in advertising. With respect to Asian models, it is hypothesized that consumer response may be positive, negative, or neutral, depending on the type of product advertised. Results of an empirical study provide some support for the notion that for high-technology engineering products and those associated with Asian manufacture, advertisements with Asian models achieve more favorable responses than those with white models. For products associated with status, advertisements with Asian models achieve less favorable responses. For convenience products, there are no differences in responses.
A group of 321 successful international ads (1984-1989) for beer, cigarettes, corporate identity, and liquor were analyzed semiotically in order to determine the core meanings conveyed for each product. These meanings constitute the “cultural definitions” of the products—the nexus of consumption objects and culturally esteemed behaviors. An understanding of core meanings is a significant piece of marketing intelligence inasmuch as effective advertising appeals (including those for global campaigns) are based on them.
Consumers' emotions have a significant influence on purchase and consumption decisions for a wide variety of products. A good example of this phenomenon can be found in the candy and snack market, where consumer responses are a product of a sizable number of emotion-laden situations that may be exploited in advertising strategy. Candy is often used as a reward for appropriate behavior in childhood, as well as a gift or positive “message” among adults for events such as Valentine's Day, anniversaries, and birthdays. On the other hand, many consumers believe that candy and snacks have negative consequences if they are used excessively. By capitalizing on these and similar past experiences through the firm's advertising efforts, the marketer of confections can either attempt to alleviate negative, or accentuate positive emotional feelings directed toward the brand or product class. Emotions appear to play a similar role in other consumer products such as tobacco, liquor, automobiles as well as many food products. Emotional, experiential, and aesthetic behaviors that normally lie beyond the scope of traditional marketing are currently receiving extraordinary attention. Although some have argued that these aspects of consumption activity are deserving of study in their own right, practitioners have realized that understanding the dynamics of activities such as emotional experience can assist in developing marketing strategy. Although our present knowledge of buyer and consumer emotional experience is relatively limited, this article will provide some structure to what we do know, in an effort to apply it to the advertising area.
This article argues in favor of using motion picture screens as a medium for the presentation of advertising messages. The concept and history of cinema screen advertising is examined, previous and contemporary audience research on cinema ads is presented, and an argument favoring the adoption of cinema screen advertising is offered. Virtually all of the American mass media are characterized as commercial in the sense of being largely advertising supported. The most commonplace and pervasive media-newspapers, television, radio, and magazines—all share this characteristic. Cinema, however, is and has been supported almost entirely by patrons. Moreover, today there is much discussion as well as research on how new communications technologies might be employed to meet advertising and marketing needs. This article examines a mass communications technology which has been present for a century but has been virtually untapped as an advertising and marketing medium for reaching American consumers. Few individuals think of theatrically exhibited motion pictures as a likely medium to be supported by advertising. Introductory mass communications, advertising, and marketing texts regularly omit mention of this notion. This article argues that in an age of new communications technologies, use of this older technology for advertising and marketing carries many of the same advantages as does use of the emerging ones. This article explores the concept of cinema advertising, presents previous and contemporary audience research on cinema ads, and argues that today, especially, this long-neglected medium should be adopted for the dissemination of information by the consumer marketing and advertising industries.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore reasons why there are so few women in creative departments of advertising agencies and to discuss what impact that might have on the work environment of those creative departments and advertising messages they create. Design/methodology/approach – Provides a review of published research and plus opinions of professionals who cover the advertising industry or work in agency creative departments. Personal observations from the authors’ time working in the advertising industry are also included. Findings – Themes gleaned from the literature look at the gender gap, the creative department of advertising agencies as an “old-boys network,” reasons why women leave creative jobs, and why advertising targeting women as consumers is so bad. Practical implications – Women opt out of advertising agencies for any number of reasons – more than just having babies. Keeping women’s voices in creative departments would give a better balance to the messages agencies create. Originality/value – Changing creative departments to be more accommodating and flexible to women’s needs might not only make them better for women, but also better for men and for families. In addition, the messages from those creative departments may be more compelling to consumers.
Identifies eight sources of brand imagery. Describes new
qualitative methods for measuring brand images and general consumer
“life images”. Surmises that effective advertising today
reflects a deep sensitivity towards consumer feelings about the product
usage ritual, the reason for using the product, the usage occasion, the
results of using the product, idiosyncratic experiences with the
product, the manufacturer, and daily lives in general.
Editor's Comment: Under ordinary circumstances this article (originally a speech at the Advertising Age Creative Seminar) would have been recommended to an advertising publication. However, we feel strongly that Mr. Becker's comments have significant importance for all advertisers, especially those who spend most of their money in television. While he is specifically addressing those who would create print advertising, it is enlightening for the buyers of advertising to “overhear” the coach in the locker room. Print advertising, as he points out, is often sadly neglected by the client and the agency thus reinforcing the view that it is unimportant. Not so!
Uses an upscale female sample to extend previous research on
women's perceptions of their role portrayal in advertising media.
Indicates that serious disenchantment with perceived portrayal of women
still exists for this important group of consumers. Measures various
attitudinal, company image, and purchase intention responses in addition
to salient demographic and role orientation variables. Discusses the
implications for advertisers using female models in their
Asia, as a market, offers a great deal of opportunity for those who are willing to understand its cultural characteristics and marketing systems. This article investigates the use of media and the practice of marketing in Asia. Some marketing guidelines are offered and their managerial implications are discussed.
This book has two target markets. When aimed at the college textbook market, it is entitled The Consumer Insight Workbook. However, based on the central theme of the book—obtain consumer insights so as to make informed marketing decisions—the trade version is named Hitting The Sweet Spot. The content in both is the same, so why dual titles? The thinking is that marketing professionals understand and relate to the latter title, but it would be inappropriate for the college market.