Journal of Consumer Behaviour

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1479-1838
Publications
Article
Previous research regarding the effectiveness of signalling via brand name has focused on when and how brand-building costs will be recovered in future profit. In contrast to such a seller-incentive perspective, this study examines how the buyer interprets the signal via brand name, the effectiveness of signalling via brand name in terms of buyer-value perspective, and how the buyer's reaction to the signal affects the seller's decision to adopt the signalling strategy. Signalling theory and concepts from consumer-based branding research are used to suggest how to evaluate the effectiveness of signalling via brand name in the context of the consumer market--a market in which information is asymmetric. Findings from online trading experiments, using the methodology of experimental economics, demonstrate that the function of brand fluctuates according to which market conditions prevail for brand and price, the extent of brand differentiation, and the magnitude of brand-building cost.
 
Article
This paper reports the results of a study of brand selection and loyalty within the 18–24 age group. The study explores brand loyalty behaviour across different product categories, and investigates the dimensions that drive loyalty behaviour within this age group. First, the construct of brand loyalty is defined, followed by an overview of key research in the area. Finally, the study itself is detailed. The study concludes that there is a significant difference in the degree of brand loyalty exhibited by the 18–24-year-old respondents across product categories. The dimensions of brand selection also vary by product type. Brand heritage in terms of parental influence was evident in coffee and toothpaste purchase, with brand as a reflection of self-image being something that is important to clothing brands. Value and variety are important attributes of cereal brand selection. Copyright © 2004 Henry Stewart Publications Ltd.
 
Article
Consumer concern for ethical issues has been well documented across much of the developed world. Research on values is also prominent in the literature. Neglected in consumer behaviour is an understanding of the pertinence of particular values in ethical decision making contexts. This paper outlines the results of qualitative research, which explores those values pertinent to ethical consumers in decision making and the nature of their influence in grocery consumption contexts. A questionnaire was used to ascertain the dominance and nature of values influencing consumer decision making in this context.
 
Article
This paper looks at how society has changed over the past ten years in terms of individual values, aspirations and consumer behaviour patterns, and relates these to underlying demographic, economic, technological and social trends. It summarises findings of research undertaken by the Future Foundation. The research identifies six ‘I’ factors, which, together, help to explain the different ways in which individuals are choosing to take control over an increasing number of areas of their lives. The most prominent of these are the desire for and reality of independence; individuality—the growing politics of difference; the changing nature and sources of identity; and interconnectedness—access to and use of information. The others are interactivity and imagination. It concludes that High ‘I’ values, although realised by a minority today, are aspired to by the majority and that all the economic, technological and attitudinal conditions are ripe for the ‘iSociety’, as it is called, to flourish and develop substantially over the next decade. Copyright
 
Article
The primary argument in favour of mass customization is the delivery of superior customer value. Using willingness-to-pay (WTP) measurements, Franke and Piller (2004), Journal of Product Innovation Management, 21, 401–415 have recently shown that customers designing their own watches with design toolkits are willing to pay premiums of more than 100% (ΔWTP). In the course of three studies, we found that this type of value increment is not a singular occurrence but might rather be a general phenomenon, as we again found average ΔWTPs of more than 100% among customers designing their own cell phone covers, T-shirts and scarves. Building on this, we discuss the sources of benefits that are likely to explain this tremendous value increment. We argue that compared to conventional standard products, a mass-customized product might render the following utilitarian and hedonic benefits: (1) First, the output might be beneficial as self-designed products offer a much closer fit between individual needs and product characteristics. In addition to this mere functional benefit, extra value might also stem from (2) the perceived uniqueness of the self-designed product. As the customer takes on the role of an active co-designer, there may also be two general ‘do-it-yourself effects’: (3) First, the process of designing per se is likely to allow the customer to meet hedonic or experiential needs (process benefit). (4) Customers may also be likely to value the output of self-design more highly if they take pride in having created something on their own (instead of traditionally buying something created by somebody else). This is referred to as the ‘pride of authorship’ effect. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
While researchers have examined the impact of retail promotions on purchase acceleration in the past, the distinction between time-limited and time-independent promotions has not been made in this context. In this paper, the authors report findings from two studies. In Study 1, it was found that promotions of short duration (time-limited), such as store coupons, accelerate purchases, whereas promotions of longer duration (time-independent), such as manufacturer's coupons, have no such impact. In Study 2, the impact of semantic cues was examined highlighting the time-limited nature of promotions (such as ‘10 Hours Only Sale’), impact on purchase willingness, intent to search further for deals and attitudes towards the deal. Copyright © 2003 Henry Stewart Publications.
 
Article
Consumer acceptance of technological innovations is crucial to marketing new products. According to the most influential model in this area, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), perceived usefulness (PU) and perceived ease of use (PEOU) determine users' behavioural intentions to use or purchase a system or product. In the specific context of network externalities, a sense of utility that arises from the number of users (NOU) is considered as important as technology-specific valuation. This study conducted an empirical survey to examine the effects of TAM and network externalities on the acceptance of Multimedia Messaging Services (MMS), an innovation in the field of mobile telecommunications. The results confirm the effectiveness of the TAM and find that network externalities effect affects users' acceptance to this mobile innovations. Accordingly, the TAM can be applied to predict consumer's acceptance to the mobile telecommunication innovations in the presence of network externalities. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
The environment as an issue has been central to a number of conferences and debates held worldwide. This indicates the growing concern regarding environmental issues on the part of various nations. It is apparent that both public support and political efforts are required to halt environmental deterioration. Members of the public need to display a change in attitude and governments need policies and strategies to channel this change in appropriate directions. The present study concentrates on the aspect of public awareness and how this translates to their purchase of environmentally friendly products. The theoretical framework incorporates respondents from three countries. The main aim is to investigate differences in public awareness and behaviour based on individual variables, such as Cognitive style and Involvement, and broad factors, such as the economic and developmental stages of the countries included in the sample. Data has been collected from a sample of 132 respondents. The results indicate that the attitudes and behaviour of UK respondents are generally non-committal, whereas the sample from India displays a more involved attitude, which is reflected in their purchasing behaviour. The ‘availability’ and the ‘price’ of environmentally friendly products have been identified as the most significant issues common to India, Greece and the UK. Cognitive style analysis indicates that innovators are responsible for generating a range of qualitative differences, whereas the differences highlighted by Involvement are quantitative in nature. Copyright © 2002 Henry Stewart Publications.
 
Article
The literature on the willingness to bid and the actual bidding behaviour of consumers in online auctions is currently dominated by approaches based on the economic decision-making and information processing paradigm and are primarily focused on what influences auction outcomes. To the best of our knowledge, no serious attempts have been undertaken to stringently test and compare existing models derived from an action-theoretical perspective to predict and explain consumers´ propensity to use online auctions as well as their actual usage. Two theoretical models seem most promising in this context: The Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen I, 1985, 1991) and a derivative of the Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein M and Ajzen I, 1975) tailored towards using computer technologies, the Technology Acceptance Model (Davis FD, 1989). In both theories, intentions play a central role in predicting behaviour. The models differ in their descriptions of the factors that determine behavioural intentions. In the Theory of Planned Behaviour, attitudes towards the behaviour, perceived behavioural control and subjective norms are assumed to influence intentions. In contrast, the Technology Acceptance Model suggests that intentions and attitudes are influenced by the perceived usefulness of a certain technological tool to improve shopping productivity (e.g. by enabling the consumer to obtain a better price or save time) and the tools´ perceived ease of use. In principle, both theories can be used to predict and explain technology-dependent consumer behaviour, but which one is more suited to online auctions? We compared both theories in terms of their predictive power and their practical utility. Although both models explain the propensity to bid in online auctions very well, the Technology Acceptance Model provides more specific recommendations for facilitating the use of online auctions. Copyright
 
Article
With a ‘split ad’, information is presented as two distinct parts, such as when two short commercials for a given brand are separated by other television content. Two studies are presented in this paper which demonstrate the advantages of an emerging form of the split ad strategy, which is termed the ‘hybrid split ad’ technique. Using this approach, a message typically begins in a traditional medium and then concludes at a website. In Experiment 1, the hybrid split ad technique is shown to enhance attitudes towards an advertised product by increasing the perceived importance of favourable attributes provided at the website. Experiment 2 replicates this finding and also addresses an issue of managerial importance, namely, how to motivate consumers to pursue the second (web-based) portion of the ad. Offering consumers an incentive at the website is useful in this regard, provided that the incentive is small enough not to undermine the positive effects of the hybrid split ad.
 
Article
The aim of this study is to provide empirical evidence, using the theory of planned behavior, as to whether local consumers prefer culturally adapted web sites or standardized web sites The study contributes to the existing literature by showing that consumers from Germany, China, and India prefer web sites adapted to their local culture, and that culture influences consumer beliefs, attitudes, and purchase intention on the web. Copyright
 
Article
Adolescents, with respect to consumption and the symbolic self, are in a crucial period of identity formation. Music is significant in this respect as it has been described as a catalyst for individuals seeking to construct the ‘self’ and can play a central role in forming an identity. This paper seeks to explore the ways in which adolescent music use and consumption facilitates a greater understanding of identity formation and psychological or peer group practices. Twenty four in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 adolescents over a 6–12 month period. All adolescents were interviewed twice with a view to observing changes in music consumption practices. The author adopts the terms of insiders, regulars and tourists to illustrate the different characteristics of adolescent music consumers in the context of their varying levels of investment and commitment. Initial findings demonstrate that music is used to build social capital, to create boundaries and to enhance social inclusion and exclusion. Copyright
 
Article
A field study exposed 235 high school students to anti-smoking advertisements over a five-month period to test the effectiveness of short-term cosmetic versus long-term health fear appeals in preventing or reducing smoking. The study was a longitudinal experiment with two experimental groups and a control group. Smoking behaviour was measured prior to message exposure on television, in magazines and on the internet, and at the end of the study period. The primary results were that average smoking declined for subjects exposed to either type of anti-smoking fear appeal but not for the control group and short-term cosmetic fear appeals were more effective for males but long-term health fear appeals were more effective for females. Copyright © 2003 Henry Stewart Publications.
 
Article
This research explores the adoption of the Web throughout the buying process within high-value, high-involvement product categories (the car sector). Diffusion of innovations (Rogers, 1983) and innovation resistance Ram and Sheth (1989) theories are utilised and found to be useful. The research is exploratory, based on eight qualitative, semi-structured individual interviews with potential car buyers. Findings indicate that there is resistance to adopting online car purchase overall, but relative advantage is recognised at the early, information seeking stages. Consumers use the Web to improve the balance of power between themselves and car salespeople. Innovation resistance during later stages, result from the need for personal experience of the product prior to purchase, ie test driving, as well as the uncertainty regarding after-sales support. Further resistance comes from a reluctance to give up the social aspects of car buying and a perceived inability to negotiate with websites. It is suggested that organisations operating in these markets should focus Web activities on information provision, or opt for a hybrid strategy using both online and offline channels. Copyright © 2002 Henry Stewart Publications.
 
Article
Environmental problems are increasingly becoming everyday issues of international organizations, national governments, and individual consumers. In consumer behavior research considerable effort has been focused on understanding environmentally significant behaviors. One such research stream uses the value-belief-norm theory (VBN) to explain and predict a number of relatively low involvement proenvironmental consumer behaviors such as household energy use. However, many consumer behaviors with significant impact on the environment are categorized as high involvement behaviors where VBN theory has not yet been employed. The aim of this paper is to arrive at a better understanding of consumer adoption of a high involvement eco-innovation using VBN theory. As an example of a high involvement eco-innovation the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) which runs on fossil oil-alternative fuels such as electricity and biofuels is used. A representative sample of adopters and non-adopters of these vehicles in Sweden were surveyed. Differences between adopters and non-adopters on sociodemographic and VBN factors were analyzed and the explanatory ability of the different factors on adoption was analyzed using logistic regression. The results showed that early adopters had a higher level of education and were much more likely to live in multi-person households compared to non-adopters. In terms of attitudinal factors, adopters exhibited higher levels of proenvironmental values, beliefs, and personal norms (PNs). Furthermore the results established that VBN factors were successful in explaining the early adoption of a high involvement eco-innovation such as the AFV. The implications for consumer research, public policymakers, and for marketers of eco-innovations are discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
The conceptual model and hypotheses.
Log of purchase probability on perceived group size, need for assimilation, and high need for distinctiveness. 
Article
The study suggests an alternative conceptualization for understanding adoption behavior over time, based on Optimal Distinctiveness Theory. This theory states that social identity derives from a fundamental tension between human needs for validation and similarity to others—the need for assimilation—and a countervailing need for uniqueness and individuation—the need for differentiation. The present study proposes that the effect of the size of the group of consumers who have already adopted a new product on an individual consumer's decision to adopt this product is contingent upon the consumer's two predispositions: the need for assimilation and the need for distinctiveness. Results of empirical research suggested that differently perceived subgroup sizes fulfill consumers' dual needs for distinctiveness and assimilation differently. The influence of the adopters' group size on a consumer's decision to adopt a new product varied among individuals with different levels of needs for distinctiveness and assimilation: when need for distinctiveness was low, the higher was the need for assimilation and the larger was the perceived group size, the higher was the probability of adopting the product. When the need for distinctiveness was high, the lower was the need for assimilation and the larger was the perceived group size, the lower was the probability of adopting the product. In addition, when the need for both distinctiveness and assimilation were high, the probability of adopting the product rose as the perceived group size increased. Implications for product variation, marketing communication, and target groups are discussed. Copyright
 
Article
Although differences in consumption patterns across countries are often inferred to be the result of different cultural values and religious orientations, they raise issues of validity because of the many country-specific factors that may affect behavior. Furthermore, the effects of religiosity are confounded with those of variables that are associated with religiosity such as age. This paper examines the effects of religiosity on well-being and changes in consumer preferences of 645 adults age 50 and older living in different regions of Malaysia who were surveyed via personal interviews. The results confirm the positive effects of religiosity on well-being but show differences across the three main ethnic subcultures of Malaysia (Malays, Indians, and Chinese), and they provide little support for the hypotheses that the consistency of consumer brand and store preferences is influenced by religious values. It is suggested that the relationship between religiosity and consumer behaviors warrants additional research, focusing also on variables that relate to religiosity, method of analysis, and on mechanisms that link religiosity to consumer behaviors. Copyright
 
Article
Parents inevitably shape their young children's consumption during early years; does this influence endure as the offspring mature? We explore this phenomenon—known as Intergenerational Influence (IGI)—with survey data from 265 young adults and their parents for four product categories. Our specific focus is on two research questions: (1) By what modality is IGI transferred, and (2) does family relationship quality (FRQ) moderate IGI outcomes? Results show IGI to be present in differing degrees across products—more for utilitarian and, likewise, shared products, less for individually consumed and stylistic products. As to modality, we explore active indoctrination by parents versus passive learning by mere observation by the offspring, and find the latter to be the dominant mode. We also find a strong moderating role of so that all IGI outcomes are stronger among high FRQ than among low FRQ families. Of import to theory as well as practice, these findings confirm and extend current literature on IGI and suggest directions for future research. Copyright
 
Article
The importance and implications of organisational-level charitable giving, or strategic philanthropy, are often overlooked in international consumer literature. Drawing on the utilitarian human capital perspective from economics, the social norm theory from sociology, motivation theory from psychology and the strategy–environment coalignment paradigm in organisational science, this research develops a contingent framework for strategic philanthropy. The empirical results indicate that if drug stores put more emphasis on strategic philanthropy as perceived by customers in the community, customers will have stronger social ties with the store and be more loyal to the store. In addition, it was found that the impact of strategic philanthropy on patronage loyalty is moderated by customer characteristics (gender and ethnicity) and context factors (service quality and cause severity). Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
Three studies explored the effects of humour in advertising on brand name memory. Study 1 showed that humour impaired memory for products but enhanced memory for advertisements. Study 2 showed that brands that had been promoted in humorous advertisements were less accessible in memory than brands promoted in non-humorous advertisements. Study 3 separated conscious and unconscious memory components with the process-dissociation procedure 1 week after the ad exposure. The memory-reducing effect of humour was found to be due to conscious memory processes alone. Unconscious familiarity was not affected by humour. The results suggest that humour distracts consumers from consciously, but not unconsciously, remembering the brand names. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
Currently little is known about how implicit processes (i.e., cognitive processes that consumers are unaware of) are utilized as consumers read metaphoric advertisements. The field of cognitive neuroscience can help marketers better understand consumers' implicit processing by examining how each cerebral hemisphere uniquely contributes during metaphoric advertisement comprehension. A right hemisphere advantage has been demonstrated during metaphoric language processing; however, it is unclear how each hemisphere of the brain processes metaphors used in advertisements. This study combines the fields of marketing and cognitive neuroscience to investigate the hemispheric processing of metaphoric advertisements. Through the use of the divided visual field paradigm, participants read metaphor, literal, or neutral slogans and responded to related target words presented to either the left visual field-right hemisphere or the right visual field-left hemisphere. As predicted, there was a right hemisphere advantage, compared to the left hemisphere, for metaphoric slogans. Additionally, greater facilitation was evident in the right hemisphere for literal slogans compared to metaphoric slogans. Metaphoric messages were also remembered better than literal ones. These findings provide an in-depth account of how consumers implicitly process messages, suggesting an important role of the right hemisphere during the comprehension of both metaphoric and literal messages. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
This paper differentiates between the modern and the postmodern approach to advertising. It provides indicators of the nature of postmodern advertisements and proposes a methodology based on critical discourse analysis for interpreting the meaning and understanding the structure of such advertisements. The paper discusses the purpose of the postmodern approach to advertising and argues that its very imagery may further confuse an already confused postmodern consumer. The credibility of the imagery may also be questioned where it is perceived to be an illusion that is incapable of being substantiated. Copyright © 2002 Henry Stewart Publications.
 
Article
In an experiment conducted in South Africa, we show that perceptual differences between the self and other that underlie third person effects have not only magnitude (e.g., third person effects increase as perceived self-other differences increase), but also valence. Specifically, individuals contrast themselves against lower status others, resulting in greater third person effects, but compare themselves favorably with higher status others, resulting in smaller third person effects. High status others serve as a norm against which people gauge their own and others' responsiveness to persuasion attempts like advertising. Implications for third person effects, status and the construal of the ‘other,’ and the socio-cultural context of advertising are discussed. Additionally, we describe managerial considerations regarding branding and target marketing that diverge from Western assumptions about persuasion knowledge and receptivity toward advertising. Copyright
 
Article
While there is evidence that an endorser's likeability plays a determining role in the advertising effectiveness of explicit persuasive appeals, this paper examines the impact of the need for cognition (NFC) as a moderator of this relationship. We find that this effect holds, as predicted, for individuals with lower NFC, but not for those with higher NFC. Furthermore, the effects of explicit persuasion and the endorser's likeability on evaluations of products or services by lower-NFC consumers were found to be mediated by the attribution of self-interest. In contrast, advertising effectiveness for higher-NFC consumers was predictable only by the valence of their cognitive responses to the product. Copyright
 
The Rossiter–Percy Grid with typical product categories in each quadrant. Note. Adapted from ''A Better Advertising Planning Grid,'' by Rossiter JR, Percy L, Donovan RJ, 1991, Journal of Advertising Research, 31(5), 13. *Product categories added by current authors.  
Interaction of evidence type and message framing in Experiment 1.  
Means and standard deviations on scaled dependent measures: Experiment 1 (higher-involvement product)
Means and standard deviations on scaled dependent measures: Experiment 2 (lower-involvement product)
Article
Extrapolating from prior research that describes the persuasive effects of gain- versus loss-framed messages via the heuristic-systematic model (HSM), the current study incorporated two advertising-related factors – evidence type (informational vs. exemplar) and product involvement – and examined their influence on message-framing effects in advertisements for commonplace consumer products. A significant interaction in Experiment 1 indicated that loss-framed messages were persuasive in a higher-involvement context only when coupled with informational evidence, which enhanced systematic processing among participants and thereby elicited the framing effect. No interaction effects occurred in the lower-involvement context of Experiment 2, in which the hypothesized thought-processing patterns did not evince. Consistent with recent theoretical advancements, these results indicate that message-framing effects can be attenuated when both systematic and heuristic processing occur simultaneously. Practical implications are discussed. Copyright
 
Factor analysis of controversial products
Generational attitudes towards controversial products
Article
China is a country that has undergone a wide range of significant changes over the last 30 years, economically, politically, and socially. Major events not only have an important effect on the developmental history of a country such as China, but also create a new generational cohort, which can adopt different views and attitudes than those characterizing previous generations. This study analyses the results of a survey of three different generational groups in China, focusing on their attitudes towards the promotion of controversial products and advertising execution techniques. Research results show significant differences between the younger and older generations, especially in regard to gender-related products and certain advertising execution techniques. Copyright
 
Article
Since the early 1990s, the UK advertising industry has been criticised for the relative absence of non-whites, and for the ways ethnic minorities are depicted when they are used. Using interviews with advertising professionals and focus groups with black consumers, information on the perceptions of black people in advertising was gathered. The overwhelming message to advertisers was a simple one: ‘it isn't about quotas; it's about the way we are portrayed’. A content analysis of all advertisements shown during prime time on the three terrestrial channels over 2 weeks was then conducted. Results revealed that black people are actually over-represented in UK television advertisements, although this is not the case for all sectors. However, the role type given to black spokespersons was found to be limited. Implications for marketing and advertising are discussed. Copyright
 
Article
Consumers with a tendency toward market mavenism (MM) and opinion leadership (OL) represent powerful forces in the marketplace because of their influence on other consumers' consumption decisions. They are thus important consumer groups for both other individuals and companies. Little is known, however, about the motives that drive these individuals. Additionally, research has not explored the consequences of the market mavenism tendency (MMT) and OL. Research is thus needed to tap into and compare factors that influence MMT and OL as well as variables that are influenced by MMT and OL. A key goal of the current study is to determine whether individuals with a tendency toward MM and opinion leaders are consumers who are more or less satisfied and loyal than other consumers. This study investigates product involvement and need for variety (NFV) as antecedents of MMT and OL and looks into their relationship with satisfaction and loyalty. Using data from 1145 German consumers in four product categories (i.e., wine, clothing, cars, and cameras) and applying structural equation modeling, it was found that opinion leaders have higher levels of product category involvement than individuals with a tendency toward mavenism, while the latter have a higher NFV than opinion leaders. Finally, opinion leaders and individuals with a tendency toward mavenism have higher levels of satisfaction, and the first are more loyal consumers, but this varies across product categories. Important implications for marketing theory and marketing practice can be derived. Individuals with a tendency toward MM and/or opinion leaders could, for instance, be integrated as powerful sources in the context of co-producing products and services. Copyright
 
Article
Grounded in the cognitive framework of processing fluency, this study proposes further support for the experiential perspective in aesthetics by positing that aesthetic response to the same object may be malleable, depending on how the symbolic properties of the object interact with different cultural contexts which either facilitate or debilitate the processing experience of the perceiver. The study employed an Internet experiment to test the hypotheses among 105 female Hispanic college-aged students enrolled at a large midwestern university. The findings revealed that symbolic attributes of products interact with cultural contexts to affect aesthetic judgments of (Hispanic) consumers. Aesthetic judgments were more positive when evaluating culturally symbolic product attributes after exposure to congruent contextual cues that facilitate fluent processing. The study furnishes support for the impact of environment/context on consumer behavior and aesthetic judgment, thus establishing further support for the cognitive framework of conceptual fluency in explaining aesthetic response. The study also contributes to recent literature on “frame-switching” among bicultural consumers by suggesting that these consumers navigate between competing cultural frames in response to visual primes, with resultant shifts in aesthetic judgments. Important marketing insights emerge from these findings. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
The paper goal is to answer the following questions: What are the factors of centrality of visual aesthetic design (CVSA) in store environment? What factor explains better the construct? Is there a relationship between CVSA and consumers' intentions, such as loyalty, satisfaction, minutes, item, and $ spent inside store? What is the moderating role of store visual aesthetic design on consumer intentions? The research design was a 2 × 2 design, between subjects, which we manipulated store arousal (high vs. low) and CVSA (high vs. low) in two studies. The findings supported the theory that there are three CVSA dimensions; that there is a positive relationship between CVSA and consumer satisfaction, loyalty, items bought, minutes visiting the store, and $ spent; and that high (vs. low) CVSA consumers were more discriminating in their intentions, when the environment had a high arousal. The original value is to support the notion that consumers also evaluate, beyond products, visual aesthetic components in retail and that it plays a moderating role on consumer intention. Copyright
 
Article
It is widely accepted that justice perceptions play an important role in shaping customers' evaluations of service recovery experiences. However, this stream of justice research has evolved with little cross-reference to emotion research. The current paper seeks to address this issue by explicitly considering the role of perceived justice in the elicitation of recovery-specific consumer emotions. Specifically, we develop and test a model suggesting that perceived justice represents a cognitive appraisal dimension, which helps to explain the elicitation of positive and negative emotions during and/or after service recovery encounters. Furthermore, we argue that customer satisfaction with service recovery (i.e. recovery satisfaction) is based partly on cognitive (i.e. perceived justice based) and partly on affective responses. Support for the proposed model is provided through findings from an empirical study showing that both cognitive and affective influences work to create the recovery satisfaction judgement. This finding has significant implications for the theory and practice of service recovery management. Copyright
 
Article
The Marketing Research Association (MRA) Annual Conference in Boston, MA (5–7 June, 2004), held a panel discussion as part of the workshop portion of the conference regarding quantitative research. The panel was made up of: Janet Baldi, Vice President of Data Collection & Data Quality for Rothstein-Tauber/Directions for Decisions (RTI-DFD); Jackie Weise, Executive Vice President and Principal for Market Trends, Inc.; Kim Fitzgerald, Manager–Market Research for Hasbro Inc.; and Tammie Frost-Norton. The moderator of the panel was Wendy Dodek, Moderator for Insight Research & Training. The purpose of the panel discussion was to look at current practices of conducting consumer research in malls, the changes occurring due to decisions by buyers of mall research, the health of mall research and the possibilities for the future of mall research. Current trends show less consumer research being conducted via mall intercept, and more being conducted online and with database pre-recruited interviewing. The future health of mall research may depend on mall facility owners' reactions to existing problems, and their ability to capitalise on the weaknesses of internet data collection. Stability of mall data collection facilities may come from selecting the best possible mall for strong consumer research, and that may be more important in the future than it has ever been. Discussions from the panellists indicate that mall data collection also would need to return to the basics to ensure timeliness and quality. Mall facility owners need to market the unique strengths of each mall's respondent base. Although the discussion here centres on developments in US mall research, the majority of the findings will be relevant to practitioners of shopping-centre or high-street-based interviewing in the UK and other countries. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
The important relationship between consumer complaint behaviour and brand and store loyalty is well established. The range of factors that favourably influence the outcomes of complaining have received relatively less research attention. Therefore, this study tests the effects of two salesperson source characteristics: willingness to listen and product/store knowledge, on consumer complaint-related perceptions and intentions in a retail setting. Mall shoppers participated in a consumer complaint experiment to test the hypothesised effects. The results indicate that both characteristics affect customer complaint responses, as well as consumer perceptions of the salesperson and the retail store. The findings of the study demonstrate that salesperson characteristics are important influences on positive or negative consumer complaint responses. Copyright © 2001 Henry Stewart Publications.
 
Article
Rotation, one type of visual simulation used to create three-dimensional (3-D) experiences, and currently being used for product presentation on some e-tail websites, may create consumer responses. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rotation in product presentation on the cognitive, affective, and conative responses of consumers. This study employed a single-factor between-subjects design: product presentation (rotating vs. non-rotating). Causal model analysis showed the influence of rotation in product presentation on perceived information quantity, mood, attitude, and purchase intention. Theoretical and managerial implications, as well as future research directions, are discussed. Copyright
 
Article
Through a detailed review of the service quality and (dis)satisfaction literatures, this paper presents a theoretical model exploring the interrelationship between expectations, affective post-purchase states and affective behaviour. Drawing together a comprehensive hierarchy of expectations culled from the service quality literature, the authors seek to apply levels of expectation to specific post-purchase affective states and affective behaviour. The authors argue that consumers have two types of expectation that influence post-purchase affective states: the core or predictive ‘will be’ expectation; and peripheral expectations—that can range from the ideal standard to the minimum tolerable level. By applying the levels-of-expectation approach to the expectation-disconfirmation paradigm, the authors argue that there are four types of post-purchase affective states: delight, satisfaction (or positive indifference), acceptance (or negative indifference) and dissatisfaction. These four states may lead onto affective action—ie varying degrees of complaining or complimenting behaviour. The paper presents 11 propositions relating to expectations and their interrelationship with post-purchase affective states and subsequent consumer behaviour, with the aim of stimulating further scholarly enquiry. The managerial implications of the analysis are also considered. Copyright © 2003 Henry Stewart Publications.
 
Article
Aggressive and distracted driving are two related consumer misbehaviors that jeopardize those on roadways. Responding to the call of Stutts et al. to investigate the human element in driving misbehavior, we employed the 3M Model of Motivation and Personality as a hierarchical model framework to identify a set of personality traits predictive of aggressive and distracted driving propensity. The results of a survey of college students suggest that there are similarities and differences in the traits of aggressive and distracted drivers. The results are discussed in terms of strategies for developing persuasive communications aimed at reducing both forms of driving misbehavior. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Selected statistics for the materialism scale
Descriptive statistics of the sample and dependency tests with possession of an installment payment booklet
Binary logistic regression: possession of installment plan vs. age, gender, income and materialism
Article
This paper explores the influence of materialism on consumer indebtedness among low income individuals who live in poor regions of Sao Paulo. A materialism scale was adapted to this context and used to describe the level of materialism among the population surveyed. Results obtained relative to the relationship between materialism and socio-demographic variables are compared to those of previous studies. A logistic regression model was developed in order to characterize individuals who have an installment plan payment booklet—the main source of consumer credit for the population studied—and to differentiate them from those who do not, based on the materialism level, socio-demographic variables and purchasing and consumer habits. The proposed model confirms materialism as a behavioral variable that is useful for forecasting the probability of an individual getting into debt in order to consume. Income had the biggest relative influence on the regression model, followed by materialism and age, controlled by gender. Copyright
 
Article
When companies recognise the limitations of seat-of-pants decision making, it is not always immediately clear where to turn in order to procure the information and advice that can result in better business decisions. The chosen resource might be a research agency (assumed to be fast-acting); a management consultancy (likely to be reassuringly expensive); or sources in the academic world (popularly seen as ‘leading-edge’). What is delivered will depend on the type of supplier chosen: so far, each of these resources has developed in isolation, with its own assumptions, methods and codes of conduct. Nowhere is this more starkly seen than among providers of qualitative research, the discipline that gave birth to focus groups and marketing-oriented depth interviews. Depending on the supplier, the client may be provided with research that is process-based, skills-based or knowledge-based. The design, practice and analysis of the research will differ accordingly. In this paper, it is argued that the time has come to establish a new form of business consultancy which understands the strengths and weaknesses of these three traditional approaches, which can offer research brokerage that makes available the most appropriate techniques, and which can bring together the distinctive offerings of market-research agencies, universities and management consultancies as a total resource in helping clients to make optimal decisions. An acceptance of new kinds of professional alliances will be required, as ‘meta-consultants’ look for cooperation, not competition, among those who are based in each of these three domains. Copyright
 
Article
Airports are unique retail environments due to the environmental and psychological issues linked with the travel process. Travellers experience feelings of anxiety, stress and excitement which make them react in unusual ways. Airport retail environments therefore differ from more day-to-day channels of distribution. Consequently, retailers' approaches must also differ in order to maximise performance. There is evidence of a considerable impulse purchasing effect in airport retail operations which, if understood and harnessed by airport retailers, can enhance performance. The impulse effects will differ significantly between customer segments due to both the psychological effects of the travel experience and the existence of normative traits. Retailers must create an environment that minimises inherent stress and accentuates or at least maintains natural levels of excitement, while also virtuously motivating impulse purchasing by reducing or eliminating barriers to purchase. Development of an impulse strategy, which should permeate all elements of airport retail activities, is essential for maximising performance and profitability. Copyright © 2002 Henry Stewart Publications Ltd.
 
Article
This research draws on identity and coping theories to develop an understanding of the ways in which students with differing stances towards alcohol (both drinkers and light/non-drinkers) deal with alcohol-dominated social situations. We report findings from two studies, the first based on the stories of 160 students and the second based on in-depth interviews with eight students. Our research found that many undergraduates view alcohol as playing a central role in ‘student life’, with excessive drinking being the norm. However, there is a significant group who are not comfortable with this view, nor do they ascribe to it. Choosing not to engage with the stereotypical student image presents a very real set of problems, stresses and barriers and the students discussed the various coping strategies they had in place to deal with these problems. We discuss the implications of these findings and the challenges for public policy in this area. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
In recent years, much research has been concerned with the effects of sponsorships and the possible advantages a company can gain from engaging in sponsoring activities. Recently focus has been on the role, that sponsoring plays in branding strategy. Here it becomes important to understand exactly what a potential party to be sponsored contributes to the perception of a brand or a company. In this paper, the aim has been reversed to focus on the sponsored party. We propose a number of measurements to determine emotional responses and overall evaluations associated with a sponsored party who is a part of a sponsorship agreement with a company. Four different groups of parties to be sponsored are investigated: social aid organisations, culture, sport and TV-programmes. Several interesting results emerged from this study; the parties to be sponsored were evaluated very differently on the dimensions used in the study and it is shown that a company can gain very different results depending on the type of object to choose to sponsor. Furthermore, it was shown that the overall evaluation of a party to be sponsored to a large extent is determined by emotions. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
In the present paper we investigate whether choice ambiguity modulates activity in brain areas that represent brand preference and decision utility, as identified in previous studies. Our findings reveal that brain areas involved in the interaction of brand information and ambiguity information are the (predominantly left) ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and the anterior cingulate (AC). These activation patterns have earlier been found to correlate with brand preference. Thus, our findings show that the reduction of perceived ambiguity and information costs by brand information drives neural representations of brand preference as promoted by signaling theory in information economics. Copyright
 
Article
Disposition and disposal are intriguing terms for, while they share the same roots, disposition is not usually understood popularly as a synonym of disposal. However, all disposal involves disposition as a prelude to destruction, reuse, recycling or redistribution of some sort. Here, however, disposition is considered in another sense; the relocation of an object without the attendant continuation of the disposal process. In particular, the paper considers the phenomena of the domestic hoarding of goods. Hoarding will be considered in relation to both opportunities for disposition and other types of ‘ambiguous’ stuff including clutter. Following this, hoarding as behaviour in relation to the spatial ‘disordering’ of material culture will be examined. Finally, the material nature of the hoard itself will be addressed. It is concluded that hoarding is an ambiguous concept without clear agreement as to its causes, characteristics, scope or significance. Its affinities with other forms of collecting, storing and ‘arranging’ matter also demand further attention. Finally, the paper calls for more empirical research as both adjunct and potential counterweight to its theoretical orientation. Copyright
 
Article
Regardless of their home country, immigrants to the United States often arrive in search of personal freedom and a share of the riches of this country. Prior research has identified a range of knowledge and skills that immigrants must acquire in order to navigate such a consumer society. One aspect of joining a consumer society that has not been addressed, however, is the role of material goods in one's life. The purpose of this paper is to examine the changing role, if any, of material goods in the lives of immigrants arriving in the United States from a non-consumer society and to compare the level of materialism among such immigrants with that of Americans. The results of a study of 278 Soviet-era Russian immigrants and 200 native-born Americans indicate that at the time the immigrants arrived, they were just as materialistic as Americans and became no more materialistic, the longer they lived in the United States. Both Americans and Russians, however, became less materialistic with age. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
Environmental policy makers and marketers are attracted by the notion of green consumerism. Yet, green consumerism is a contested concept, allowing for a wide range of translations in everyday discursive practices. This paper examines how young consumers construct their images of green consumerism. It makes a close reading of three narratives reflecting available subject positions for young green consumers: the Antihero, the Environmental Hero and the Anarchist. It reveals problems in the prevailing fragmented, gendered and individualistic notions of green consumerism, and discusses implications for policy and marketing practitioners. Copyright
 
Article
This paper is focused on a study designed to investigate loyalty in retail banking. The research findings suggest that loyalty is the outcome of a cognitive rather than an affective process. The main antecedents of bank loyalty were found to be perceived value, service quality, service attributes, satisfaction, image and trust: constructs that are inter-related and form a network of loyalty antecedents. Copyright
 
Article
Past research has demonstrated clearly the importance of pre-purchase information search within the buying process. Scholars have identified several sources used by consumers in order to obtain information relevant to their purchase situation. Among the various information sources, interpersonal non-commercial sources seem to play an important role in consumers' choice decisions. The present study examines potential antecedents of consumer relative preference for interpersonal information search. The proposed antecedents include personality traits such as individuals' susceptibility to interpersonal influence, their need for cognition and their self-confidence, as well as individual differences in product knowledge and perceived risk associated with the purchase of a specific product. Using structural equation modelling on survey data (419 respondents), seven hypotheses — describing relationships between the diverse variables of the model — were tested. The results indicate that consumer relative preference for interpersonal information search was significantly influenced by consumers' susceptibility to interpersonal influence, their need for cognition, their self-confidence and their product knowledge. Consumers' product knowledge also influenced their perceived risk, which did not affect their preference for interpersonal search significantly. Copyright
 
Article
While the literature on anti-consumption is rich and growing, there is still a lack of understanding among consumer researchers regarding why consumers choose to avoid consumption. This study seeks to extend the literature by exploring whether a group of consumers who reduce consumption through choosing to share rather than own are motivated by anti-consumption reasons. The authors use quantitative data from 397 toy library members to explore why members choose to participate in this form of sharing. The study reveals four groups – Socialites, Market Avoiders, Quiet Anti-Consumers and Passive Members. The Socialites enjoy the social benefits of active participation in their library. The Market Avoiders also perceived social and community benefits, are interested in sharing and are the least materialistic of the groups. The Quiet Anti-Consumers feel a sense of belonging to their toy library and hold strong anti-consumption, frugality and sharing values. The Passive Members are not socially involved, nor did they hold strong anti-consumption values. Thus, the authors find evidence that sharing may be one possible alternative market structure that may be adopted by anti-consumption consumers. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Article
A common ideology of consumption is that more things translate to a higher quality of life. This paper challenges this ideology. We explore the consumption resistance (anti-consumption) of “cheap and low-quality” goods experienced by consumers living in former East Germany. We interviewed men and women who lived in East Germany about their consumption experiences before, during, and after Reunification. We present three emergent themes: “consumer resistance – emergence of anti-consumption,” “continued frugality – resistance to contemporary throwawayism?,” and “Western Brand Resistance.” Our research reveals a deep aversion among East Germans to the modern, bureaucratic and obligatory practice of throwawayism and hyperconsumption. We find feelings of resentment and betrayal and discover a much deeper issue with consumption: the fact that consumption is often a disillusioning experience and that material possessions and abundance are actually driving East Germans apart – making them feel less socially connected. As East Germans are swept up in the global economic juggernaut of capitalism, they find that their collective identity and sense of community is also swallowed up. Upon this realization, dialogism appears, and we uncover this as resistance to Western practices of hyperconsumption, frugality-as-an-ethic and an aversion to low quality throwaway-type products. Based on our findings, we make suggestions for marketing practice and for future research. Copyright
 
Top-cited authors
Clifford J. Shultz II
  • Loyola University Chicago
Julie Stanton
  • Pennsylvania State University
Pierre McDonagh
  • University of Bath
Renée Shaw Hughner
  • Arizona State University
Andrea Prothero
  • University College Dublin