Self-ratings of individuals were compared with ratings of individuals by a group in close contact with these individuals. The traits rated were "Personal Charm', "Security,' "Intelligence', "Jewish Appearance.' "Acceptance of Jewish Faith'." There was "a considerable disparity between the individual's concept of himself and the group's concept of the individual on the variables measured. Personal over- and under-evaluation was, as a group, related to the acceptability of a particular trait––a consistent tendency for overevaluation was obtained.
Attention is called to the cost of testing and the importance of the values placed on various kinds of test "hits" and "misses" in deciding whether or not to use a test for a particular purpose. Formulas that take these factors into account without requiring scaling of the values of the outcomes of various actions are presented for several situations in which the clinician may wish to decide whether or not to use a test.
Clarification of feeling responses forcing insight responses by the therapist led to marked increase in understanding responses and insight responses. Interpretation increased understanding and insight and decreased statements about problems; the reverse was true of direct questions. " there is a consistent relationship in the sequence of client-therapist statements."
A characteristic profile pattern is found for homosexuals differing from that of normals but similar to neurotics and anxiety neurotics. Theoretical discussion of homosexuality as a choice of symptom by a primarily neurotic individual.
Scores on the 1937 S-B, the 1960 S-B, and the WISC, were found to be comparable in an above-average group of school children. Age factor did not account for test discrepancies but there were highly significant discrepancies at superior level. Raven and DAM estimates relate moderately well to the other tests.
The Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS) and the Progressive Matrices (1938) (PM) were related to the WISC. 70 fourth-grade children were tested. Both the PM and the CMMS were significantly related to the WISC total, verbal, and performance scores. The PM had more variance in common with the WISC total score than the CMMS. The relationship of the PM and CMMS to the WISC subtests was also discussed.
The reliability, item difficulty, and correlation with the WAIS of a modified (30 item) form of Progressive Matrices (1938) was investigated. The following findings are reported. (1) The Kuder-Richardson reliability coefficient for the modified version of Matrices is .864 (N = 82). (2) Correlation of modified Matrics with the WAIS Performance Scale score is .705; with the Verbal Scale score, .584; and with the Full Scale score, .721 (3) A severe shortcoming of modified Matrices was its low ceiling
The Progressive Matrices devised by Raven were administered by means of slides to 1,214 school children between the ages of 6-0 and 12-5 years. Scores on the Progressive Matrices correlated to about the same degree with intelligence tests which stress verbal elements as those which stress non-verbal aspects. "Therefore, it would appear that the Progressive Matrices cannot be thought of as a test of nonverbal reasoning ability but instead should be considered as a test of fairly complex intellectual reasoning processes."
A reliability coefficient of .91 indicates both stability and consistency of the scale as a measuring instrument for Ss at the lower end of the intelligence distribution. The high coefficient does not imply reliability for all types of Ss.
This study sought to determine the effect of age and level of retardation on the comparability of IQs from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the 1960 revision of the Stanford-Binet. In addition, a measure of social competency was related to the IQs from the two scales. The sample consisted of 180 mentally retarded subjects in three California state hospitals who were 18 years or older and who had a diagnosis of familial or undifferentiated mental retardation. It was determined that age, but not level of retardation, was significant in determining the magnitude of the difference between WAIS and S-B IQs. WAIS IQs averaged 15 and 23 points higher than S-B IQs for subjects 18-54 years and 55-73 years, respectively. Regression equations were calculated to translate the IQ from one test to the other test. The WAIS and S-B IQs correlated equally well with Social Ages from the Vineland Scale of Social Maturity.
Consideration was given to the degree of precision which would have been lost had the abbreviated scale only been administered in a normative study of the 1960 Stanford-Binet Form L-M on 1800 Negro elementary school children from 5 Southeastern states (Kennedy, Van De Riet, & White, 1961). A Pearson product-moment correlation of .99 was obtained between the mental age scores on the full and abbreviated scales for the 1800 Ss stratified according to age, grade, sex, socioeconomic status, and community size and randomized within these limits. There was little variation from grades 1 to 6, with a mean IQ of 80.7, a SD of 12.4. This low IQ in a homogeneous population is one explanation for the high correlation. With these Ss little precision is gained from the use of the full scale over the abbreviated scale of the 1960 Stanford-Binet Form L-M.
The D 48 test, the Cattell Culture Fair, and the Revised Beta Examination were administered to lower-division college males (N = 94 to 33). Additional verbal and nonverbal measures, as well as the grade point average (GPA) were also available. None of the 3 tests correlated very highly with the GPA, but of the 3 only the D 48 correlated significantly (.22 significant at the .05 level). Analysis of the results indicates that the D 48 has slightly more predictive validity than the Culture Fair or Army Beta and that it is essentially similar to these tests in its pattern of relationships to other measures of ability.
The D 48 (or "Dominoes") test of intellectual ability is widely used in Europe, but is almost unknown in the United States. Because of its high loading on g, its ease of administration, and its potentiality as an instrument for use in cross-cultural comparisons, the test would appear to be an important candidate for study by American psychologists. In an initial study of 86 California school children it was found that D 48 item difficulties and mean scores were highly similar to data previously available in Europe. The test also showed satisfactory predictive validity (coefficients of +.58 and +.45) for scholastic achievement in the 5th and 6th grades. The results uphold the validity of the D 48, and warrant the hope that other researchers will undertake evaluations of the test.
Two groups of female college students were selected: those having higher "L" scores on the American Council on Education Psychological Examination and those having higher "Q" scores. The Rorschach performance (group administration) of these two groups was compared. Higher "L" girls have a more "subjective" orientation; higher "Q" students are more apt to give a rather literal construction of objective reality.
PRIOR STUDIES HAVE SHOWN THAT THERAPISTS WHO EARN HIGH SCORES ON THE AB SCALE ("A'S") ARE MORE SUCCESSFUL WITH SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS, WHILE LOW-SCORING THERAPISTS ("B'S") ARE MORE SUCCESSFUL WITH NEUROTICS. IN THE PRESENT STUDY, IT WAS FOUND THAT A'S WHO WERE PAIRED WITH A SCHIZOID PATIENT IN A QUASI-THERAPEUTIC SITUATION AND B'S WHO WERE PAIRED WITH AN INTROPUNITIVE-NEUROTIC PATIENT FELT LESS COMFORTABLE AND REPORTED GREATER DIFFICULTY IN SELECTING THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTIONS. THIS RESULT WOULD SUGGEST THAT THERAPISTS ARE MORE UNCOMFORTABLE WITH PATIENTS WITH WHOM THEY WOULD BE MORE EFFECTIVE, A HYPOTHESIS WHICH IS INCONGRUENT WITH THEORETICAL FORMULATIONS. THE STUDY ALSO POINTS TO SPECIFIC PATIENT ATTRIBUTES WHICH INTERACT WITH THE AB PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS.
The uses of the CVS intelligence scale developed by the authors are discussed in some detail. (CVS consists of the Comprehension and Similarities scales of the Wechsler-Bellevue, and a 15 word vocabulary test adapted by Thorndike from the Stanford-Binet.) Results are given based on the use of the CVS as a clinical measure of intelligence, as a screening device for indicating possible psychopaths, as well as findings concerned with the problem of age norms at older levels, reliability, and the detection of malingering.
Many clinicians faced with the demands of research and limited clinic time have employed a short form of the standard intelligence tests. These abbreviated versions typically recommend administering 3-5 subtests in full and completely omitting the rest. The present study explored the possibilities of developing an abbreviated form of the WISC for use with emotionally disturbed children which would permit the usual scatter analysis performed with the full scale and also afford a genuine saving in time. The WISC records of 40 females and 107 males ranging in age from 6.0-15.11 and in Full Scale IQ from 70-148 were rescored according to an abbreviated schedule. Correlations between this abbreviated form and the full administration ranged from .76 on Picture Completion to .94 for Block Design. The correlations for the Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQs were .96, .93, and .97, respectively.
The validities of all possible abbreviated WAIS scales of two, three, four, and five subtests were determined in this investigation." Among the conclusions based on this study were the following: "The accuracy of an abbreviated scale in estimating Full-Scale Score increases as the number of subtests in the scale increases. An optimum point is reached, however, at which an increase in scale length brings about but a slight increase in r. Combinations composed exclusively of verbal tests or of performance tests have lower correlations than do abbreviated scales with both types of subtests. Short verbal scales are superior to the performance scales in estimating mental level as measured by the whole scale." The decreased accuracy in reporting on the mental level of a subject, as well as the loss of qualitative observations during the complete testing, are factors which must be considered before an abbreviated scale is used. 19 references.
This study was done in an attempt to determine a valid short form of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children for a clinical population of reading disability cases. The subject group included all those children between the ages of 9 and 12, inclusive, referred to the Child Study Center at George Peabody College for Teachers in 1960 and 1961 as possible reading disability cases. A four-subtest combination consisting of Similarities, Object Assembly, Arithmetic, and Picture Arrangement correlated .947 with Full Scale score. The addition of either Vocabulary or Picture Completion yielded a correlation of .959. Since there were more than twice as many boys as girls in the sample, the data were analyzed for sex differneces. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
A statistical analysis was made of Wechsler's data. The ten best teams of two, of three, of four, and of five tests are indicated. They are best from the standpoint of correlating highest with the total score.
The full scale Wechsler-Bellevue was given to 204 high grade or borderline mental defectives. Statistical analyses were made of several combinations of sub-tests to yield a shortened form which is presented as a "valid and clinically diagnostic test of the intellectual capacities of mental defectives." The Southbury scale is based upon the Comprehension, Similarities, Picture Arrangement, and Block Design sub-tests.
The study investigated the effect of an increase in age on the factor structures of the subtests of the WISC, and the relationship between subtest scores and socioeconomic status (SES). The scores of 70 Ss, tested at ages 10 and 12, were factor analyzed and structures at the 2 age levels compared. The sample was also divided into high and low SES groups, and subtest means calculated for each group. At both age levels, between-group mean differences were significant at or beyond the .05 level of confidence in the case of verbal subtests, while factor structures, which were similar, indicated a trend towards integration of abilities. The structures defined 2 main factors, identified as verbal and performance IQ, respectively. (31 ref.)
Using 100 fourth-grade children as subjects, results from Goodenough's test were correlated with those from Thurstone's PMA Test. Subjects were also given 3 subtests of the MacQuarrie Test for Mechanical Ability. Results were as follows: (1) Goodenough's Test was most highly correlated with the factors of reasoning, space, and perception. (2) It had little in common with verbal meaning and number. (3) It had least in common with the MacQuarrie Tapping and Dotting subtests. (4) It correlated .34 with the MacQuarrie subtest, Tracing. The author concludes on the basis of this evidence that "Goodenough performance is related to personality."
The Porteus Maze predicts (a) ability of the child to identify landmarks and paths on a map; (b) language ability; and (c) social maturity, as measured by activities based on the Vineland Social Maturity Scale. Clinical use of discrepancies is discussed.
An analysis of the distribution of the profile peaks of 871 cases taken from An Atlas for the Clinical Use of the MMPI with regard to the sex and age distributions of the sample suggests that men tend to obtain peaks on Hs and Pt and women on Hy and Pa. Peaks on Pd and Sc seem characteristic of a younger age group and peaks on Hs and D of an older. Some possible implications of this are noted. The scales on which women peak tend to imply a more social orientation than those on which men peak. Younger entrants into an abnormal population seem characterized by behavior patterns maladaptive to societal demands. Older entrants seem characterized by problems centering around their own physical and mental functioning.
Women who later experienced complications or had abnormal children show higher manifest anxiety scores in the 7th month of pregnancy. For those retested, differences were not significant 6 weeks later. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:3HK74D. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
A method is described of identifying abrupt terminators. This type of terminator is characterized by limited verbal productivity and avoidance of expression of ideas dealing with human activity. In view of this, psychotherapy may place an initial demand on patients. These patients could be assigned to pretherapy groups to supply them with resources for entering into interaction with the therapist.
PATERNAL ABSENCE DURING CHILDHOOD DIFFERENTIATED SIGNIFICANTLY BETWEEN SUCCESSFUL AND UNSUCCESSFUL PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEERS. IN 2 INDEPENDENT SAMPLES THE PROPORTION OF INDIVIDUALS FROM FATHERLESS HOMES WAS SIGNIFICANTLY GREATER AMONG UNSUCCESSFUL VOLUNTEERS.
Six subjects who were waiting for therapy appeared to have a "spontaneous" recovery with improvement in terms of their own self-description. On the basis of blind TAT analysis this group appeared to be as poorly adjusted at the end of their period of waiting for therapy as they had been when they first applied, and significantly poorer than those subjects who had completed therapy. "The "improvement' appears to be characterized by a strengthening of neurotic defenses and a denial of the need for help."
Schizophrenics were subjected either to a positive or negative interpersonal situation (a standard interview) between administrations of parallel forms of a proverb scale. The level of abstract verbal performance was shown to be affected by the nature of the intervening interpersonal interaction and changes in level of performance were in the predicted directions for positive, negative, and control groups. No relationship between severity of the schizophrenic disorder and amount of change in level of abstract verbal performance was demonstrated. The proverb scales were cross-validated in this research which further supports their validity as prognostic indicators.
Goldstein's concept of the loss of abstract attitude in psychopathology, was related to stimulus generalization along a visual-spatial dimension, with an apparatus requiring a voluntary response. Measurement was made of the gradient of stimulus generalization (GSG) of 34 "abstract" Ss, and 34 "concrete" Ss. These Ss were selected on the basis of their performance on 2 abstraction tasks (i.e., the Weigl-Goldstein-Scheerer Color Form Sorting Test, and the Wechsler-Bellevue block design subtest). The hypothesis that "concrete" Ss would have a lower GSG than "abstract" Ss, was tested and supported. The prediction that any differences observed would be independent of diagnostic category, was also substantiated.
Ss matched on WAIS vocabulary. "In one session the Ss were asked to give the meaning of a single proverb, and in the other session were asked to give the meaning of sets of proverbs, each of which had the same meaning. The results showed that the chronic schizophrenics improved their performance under the proverb set condition, and also showed greater improvement than the normal Ss. Chronic schizophrenics apparently have not lost the capacity for verbal abstraction, but may possibly fail to deal effectively in some ways with incoming stimuli."
The Benjamin Proverbs Test was administered to 3 groups of 40 Ss each: reactive schizophrenics, process schizophrenics, and normal control Ss. Patients were rated for prognosis using the Premorbid subscale of the Phillips Prognostic Rating Scale. Ss were matched for education, vocabulary, age, and socioeconomic status of father. Proverbs were scored by 3 judges working independently. Highly significant differences were found among the 3 groups in ability to interpret proverbs. Process schizophrenics showed the greatest degree of impairment; reactive schizophrenics showed significant impairment, as compared to normal controls, but significantly less impairment than did process schizophrenics.
In an attempt to explore color-form preferences as an indirect measure of emotional control, 101 Ss were administered a novel sorting task, the Holtzman Inkblot Test, and a personality inventory. Preference for color over form was related to sorting speed, sorting-speed decrement in response to an unexpected test situation, and self-descriptions of impulsiveness. (22 ref.)
Testing the clinical impression that academic achievement is frequently the result of neurotic striving, it was hypothesized that students achieving academic honors and having lower academic ability would give more evidence of anxiety and other neurotic traits than such students having higher academic ability. The additional hypothesis was made that students achieving academic honors would give more evidence of anxiety and other neurotic traits than the general student population. Definite support was found for the 1st and major hypothesis, and some degree of support was found for the 2nd hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)