The Stochastic Simulation Algorithm (SSA) is widely used in the discrete stochastic simulation of chemical kinetics. The propensity functions which play a central role in this algorithm have been derived under the point-molecule assumption, i.e., that the total volume of the molecules is negligible compared to the volume of the container. It has been shown analytically that for a one dimensional system and the A+A reaction, when the point molecule assumption is relaxed, the propensity function need only be adjusted by replacing the total volume of the system with the free volume of the system. In this paper we investigate via numerical simulations the impact of relaxing the point-molecule assumption in two dimensions. We find that the distribution of times to the first collision is close to exponential in most cases, so that the formalism of the propensity function is still applicable. In addition, we find that the area excluded by the molecules in two dimensions is usually higher than their close-packed area, requiring a larger correction to the propensity function than just the replacement of the total volume by the free volume.
The sharp-interface CURVIB approach of Ge and Sotiropoulos [L. Ge, F. Sotiropoulos, A Numerical Method for Solving the 3D Unsteady Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations in Curvilinear Domains with Complex Immersed Boundaries, Journal of Computational Physics 225 (2007) 1782-1809] is extended to simulate fluid structure interaction (FSI) problems involving complex 3D rigid bodies undergoing large structural displacements. The FSI solver adopts the partitioned FSI solution approach and both loose and strong coupling strategies are implemented. The interfaces between immersed bodies and the fluid are discretized with a Lagrangian grid and tracked with an explicit front-tracking approach. An efficient ray-tracing algorithm is developed to quickly identify the relationship between the background grid and the moving bodies. Numerical experiments are carried out for two FSI problems: vortex induced vibration of elastically mounted cylinders and flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve at physiologic conditions. For both cases the computed results are in excellent agreement with benchmark simulations and experimental measurements. The numerical experiments suggest that both the properties of the structure (mass, geometry) and the local flow conditions can play an important role in determining the stability of the FSI algorithm. Under certain conditions unconditionally unstable iteration schemes result even when strong coupling FSI is employed. For such cases, however, combining the strong-coupling iteration with under-relaxation in conjunction with the Aitken's acceleration technique is shown to effectively resolve the stability problems. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain the findings of the numerical experiments. It is shown that the ratio of the added mass to the mass of the structure as well as the sign of the local time rate of change of the force or moment imparted on the structure by the fluid determine the stability and convergence of the FSI algorithm. The stabilizing role of under-relaxation is also clarified and an upper bound of the required for stability under-relaxation coefficient is derived.
A novel numerical method is developed that integrates boundary-conforming grids with a sharp interface, immersed boundary methodology. The method is intended for simulating internal flows containing complex, moving immersed boundaries such as those encountered in several cardiovascular applications. The background domain (e.g the empty aorta) is discretized efficiently with a curvilinear boundary-fitted mesh while the complex moving immersed boundary (say a prosthetic heart valve) is treated with the sharp-interface, hybrid Cartesian/immersed-boundary approach of Gilmanov and Sotiropoulos . To facilitate the implementation of this novel modeling paradigm in complex flow simulations, an accurate and efficient numerical method is developed for solving the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates. The method employs a novel, fully-curvilinear staggered grid discretization approach, which does not require either the explicit evaluation of the Christoffel symbols or the discretization of all three momentum equations at cell interfaces as done in previous formulations. The equations are integrated in time using an efficient, second-order accurate fractional step methodology coupled with a Jacobian-free, Newton-Krylov solver for the momentum equations and a GMRES solver enhanced with multigrid as preconditioner for the Poisson equation. Several numerical experiments are carried out on fine computational meshes to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method for standard benchmark problems as well as for unsteady, pulsatile flow through a curved, pipe bend. To demonstrate the ability of the method to simulate flows with complex, moving immersed boundaries we apply it to calculate pulsatile, physiological flow through a mechanical, bileaflet heart valve mounted in a model straight aorta with an anatomical-like triple sinus.
In this paper, we present an efficient and accurate numerical algorithm for calculating the electrostatic interactions in biomolecular systems. In our scheme, a boundary integral equation (BIE) approach is applied to discretize the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation. The resulting integral formulas are well conditioned for single molecule cases as well as for systems with more than one macromolecule, and are solved efficiently using Krylov subspace based iterative methods such as generalized minimal residual (GMRES) or bi-conjugate gradients stabilized (BiCGStab) methods. In each iteration, the convolution type matrix-vector multiplications are accelerated by a new version of the fast multipole method (FMM). The implemented algorithm is asymptotically optimal O(N) both in CPU time and memory usage with optimized prefactors. Our approach enhances the present computational ability to treat electrostatics of large scale systems in protein-protein interactions and nano particle assembly processes. Applications including calculating the electrostatics of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and interactions between protein Sso7d and DNA are presented.
The fast multipole method (FMM) is applied to the solution of large-scale, three-dimensional acoustic scattering problems involving inhomogeneous objects defined on a regular grid. The grid arrangement is especially well suited to applications in which the scattering geometry is not known a priori and is reconstructed on a regular grid using iterative inverse scattering algorithms or other imaging techniques. The regular structure of unknown scattering elements facilitates a dramatic reduction in the amount of storage and computation required for the FMM, both of which scale linearly with the number of scattering elements. In particular, the use of fast Fourier transforms to compute Green's function convolutions required for neighboring interactions lowers the often-significant cost of finest-level FMM computations and helps mitigate the dependence of FMM cost on finest-level box size. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency of the composite method as the number of scattering elements in each finest-level box is increased.
An approximate boundary condition is developed in this paper to model fluid shear viscosity at boundaries of coupled fluid-structure system. The effect of shear viscosity is approximated by a correction term to the inviscid boundary condition, written in terms of second order in-plane derivatives of pressure. Both thin and thick viscous boundary layer approximations are formulated; the latter subsumes the former. These approximations are used to develop a variational formation, upon which a viscous finite element method (FEM) model is based, requiring only minor modifications to the boundary integral contributions of an existing inviscid FEM model. Since this FEM formulation has only one degree of freedom for pressure, it holds a great computational advantage over the conventional viscous FEM formulation which requires discretization of the full set of linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The results from thick viscous boundary layer approximation are found to be in good agreement with the prediction from a Navier-Stokes model. When applicable, thin viscous boundary layer approximation also gives accurate results with computational simplicity compared to the thick boundary layer formulation. Direct comparison of simulation results using the boundary layer approximations and a full, linearized Navier-Stokes model are made and used to evaluate the accuracy of the approximate technique. Guidelines are given for the parameter ranges over which the accurate application of the thick and thin boundary approximations can be used for a fluid-structure interaction problem.
A new sharp-interface immersed boundary method based approach for the computation of low-Mach number flow-induced sound around complex geometries is described. The underlying approach is based on a hydrodynamic/acoustic splitting technique where the incompressible flow is first computed using a second-order accurate immersed boundary solver. This is followed by the computation of sound using the linearized perturbed compressible equations (LPCE). The primary contribution of the current work is the development of a versatile, high-order accurate immersed boundary method for solving the LPCE in complex domains. This new method applies the boundary condition on the immersed boundary to a high-order by combining the ghost-cell approach with a weighted least-squares error method based on a high-order approximating polynomial. The method is validated for canonical acoustic wave scattering and flow-induced noise problems. Applications of this technique to relatively complex cases of practical interest are also presented.
Implicit integration factor (IIF) method, a class of efficient semi-implicit temporal scheme, was introduced recently for stiff reaction-diffusion equations. To reduce cost of IIF, compact implicit integration factor (cIIF) method was later developed for efficient storage and calculation of exponential matrices associated with the diffusion operators in two and three spatial dimensions for Cartesian coordinates with regular meshes. Unlike IIF, cIIF cannot be directly extended to other curvilinear coordinates, such as polar and spherical coordinate, due to the compact representation for the diffusion terms in cIIF. In this paper, we present a method to generalize cIIF for other curvilinear coordinates through examples of polar and spherical coordinates. The new cIIF method in polar and spherical coordinates has similar computational efficiency and stability properties as the cIIF in Cartesian coordinate. In addition, we present a method for integrating cIIF with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to take advantage of the excellent stability condition for cIIF. Because the second order cIIF is unconditionally stable, it allows large time steps for AMR, unlike a typical explicit temporal scheme whose time step is severely restricted by the smallest mesh size in the entire spatial domain. Finally, we apply those methods to simulating a cell signaling system described by a system of stiff reaction-diffusion equations in both two and three spatial dimensions using AMR, curvilinear and Cartesian coordinates. Excellent performance of the new methods is observed.
A variety of biomedical imaging techniques such as optical and fluorescence tomography, electrical impedance tomography, and ultrasound imaging can be cast as inverse problems, wherein image reconstruction involves the estimation of spatially distributed parameter(s) of the PDE system describing the physics of the imaging process. Finite element discretization of imaged domain with tetrahedral elements is a popular way of solving the forward and inverse imaging problems on complicated geometries. A dual-adaptive mesh-based approach wherein, one mesh is used for solving the forward imaging problem and the other mesh used for iteratively estimating the unknown distributed parameter, can result in high resolution image reconstruction at minimum computation effort, if both the meshes are allowed to adapt independently. Till date, no efficient method has been reported to identify and resolve intersection between tetrahedrons in independently refined or coarsened dual meshes. Herein, we report a fast and robust algorithm to identify and resolve intersection of tetrahedrons within nested dual meshes generated by 8-similar subtetrahedron subdivision scheme. The algorithm exploits finite element weight functions and gives rise to a set of weight functions on each vertex of disjoint tetrahedron pieces that completely cover up the intersection region of two tetrahedrons. The procedure enables fully adaptive tetrahedral finite elements by supporting independent refinement and coarsening of each individual mesh while preserving fast identification and resolution of intersection. The computational efficiency of the algorithm is demonstrated by diffuse photon density wave solutions obtained from a single- and a dual-mesh, and by reconstructing a fluorescent inclusion in simulated phantom from boundary frequency domain fluorescence measurements.
Mesh deformation methods are a versatile strategy for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) with a vast variety of practical applications. However, these methods break down for elliptic PDEs with discontinuous coefficients, namely, elliptic interface problems. For this class of problems, the additional interface jump conditions are required to maintain the well-posedness of the governing equation. Consequently, in order to achieve high accuracy and high order convergence, additional numerical algorithms are required to enforce the interface jump conditions in solving elliptic interface problems. The present work introduces an interface technique based adaptively deformed mesh strategy for resolving elliptic interface problems. We take the advantages of the high accuracy, flexibility and robustness of the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method to construct an adaptively deformed mesh based interface method for elliptic equations with discontinuous coefficients. The proposed method generates deformed meshes in the physical domain and solves the transformed governed equations in the computational domain, which maintains regular Cartesian meshes. The mesh deformation is realized by a mesh transformation PDE, which controls the mesh redistribution by a source term. The source term consists of a monitor function, which builds in mesh contraction rules. Both interface geometry based deformed meshes and solution gradient based deformed meshes are constructed to reduce the L(∞) and L(2) errors in solving elliptic interface problems. The proposed adaptively deformed mesh based interface method is extensively validated by many numerical experiments. Numerical results indicate that the adaptively deformed mesh based interface method outperforms the original MIB method for dealing with elliptic interface problems.
We present a fluctuating hydrodynamics approach and a hybrid approach combining fluctuating hydrodynamics with generalized Langevin dynamics to resolve the motion of a nanocarrier when subject to both hydrodynamic interactions and adhesive interactions. Specifically, using these approaches, we compute equilibrium probability distributions at constant temperature as well as velocity autocorrelation functions of the nanocarrier subject to thermal motion in a quiescent Newtonian fluid medium, when tethered by a harmonic spring force mimicking a tether due to a single receptor-ligand bond. We demonstrate that the thermal equipartition of translation, rotation, and spring degrees of freedom are preserved by our formalism while simultaneously resolving the nature of the hydrodynamic correlations. Additionally, we evaluate the potential of mean force (or free energy density) along a specified reaction coordinate to faciltate extensive conformational sampling of the nanocarrier motion. We show that our results are in excellent agreement with analytical results and Monte Carlo simulations, thereby validating our methodologies. The frameworks we have presented provide a comprehensive platform for temporal multiscale modeling of hydrodynamic and microscopic interactions mediating nanocarrier motion and adhesion in vascular targeted drug delivery.
Protein adsorption plays a significant role in biological phenomena such as cell-surface interactions and the coagulation of blood. Two-dimensional random sequential adsorption (RSA) models are widely used to model the adsorption of proteins on solid surfaces. Continuum equations have been developed so that the results of RSA simulations can be used to predict the kinetics of adsorption. Recently, Brownian dynamics simulations have become popular for modeling protein adsorption. In this work a continuum model was developed to allow the results from a Brownian dynamics simulation to be used as the boundary condition in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Brownian dynamics simulations were used to model the diffusive transport of hard-sphere particles in a liquid and the adsorption of the particles onto a solid surface. The configuration of the adsorbed particles was analyzed to quantify the chemical potential near the surface, which was found to be a function of the distance from the surface and the fractional surface coverage. The near-surface chemical potential was used to derive a continuum model of adsorption that incorporates the results from the Brownian dynamics simulations. The equations of the continuum model were discretized and coupled to a CFD simulation of diffusive transport to the surface. The kinetics of adsorption predicted by the continuum model closely matched the results from the Brownian dynamics simulation. This new model allows the results from mesoscale simulations to be incorporated into micro- or macro-scale CFD transport simulations of protein adsorption in practical devices.
We describe an immersed boundary method for problems of fluid-solute-structure interaction. The numerical scheme employs linearly implicit timestepping, allowing for the stable use of timesteps that are substantially larger than those permitted by an explicit method, and local mesh refinement, making it feasible to resolve the steep gradients associated with the space charge layers as well as the chemical potential, which is used in our formulation to control the permeability of the membrane to the (possibly charged) solute. Low Reynolds number fluid dynamics are described by the time-dependent incompressible Stokes equations, which are solved by a cell-centered approximate projection method. The dynamics of the chemical species are governed by the advection-electrodiffusion equations, and our semi-implicit treatment of these equations results in a linear system which we solve by GMRES preconditioned via a fast adaptive composite-grid (FAC) solver. Numerical examples demonstrate the capabilities of this methodology, as well as its convergence properties.
We consider the second order wave equation in an unbounded domain and propose an advanced perfectly matched layer (PML) technique for its efficient and reliable simulation. In doing so, we concentrate on the time domain case and use the finite-element (FE) method for the space discretization. Our un-split-PML formulation requires four auxiliary variables within the PML region in three space dimensions. For a reduced version (rPML), we present a long time stability proof based on an energy analysis. The numerical case studies and an application example demonstrate the good performance and long time stability of our formulation for treating open domain problems.
The focus of this work is on the modeling of an ion exchange process that occurs in drinking water treatment applications. The model formulation consists of a two-scale model in which a set of microscale diffusion equations representing ion exchange resin particles that vary in size and age are coupled through a boundary condition with a macroscopic ordinary differential equation (ODE), which represents the concentration of a species in a well-mixed reactor. We introduce a new age-averaged model (AAM) that averages all ion exchange particle ages for a given size particle to avoid the expensive Monte-Carlo simulation associated with previous modeling applications. We discuss two different numerical schemes to approximate both the original Monte Carlo algorithm and the new AAM for this two-scale problem. The first scheme is based on the finite element formulation in space coupled with an existing backward-difference-formula-based ODE solver in time. The second scheme uses an integral equation based Krylov deferred correction (KDC) method and a fast elliptic solver (FES) for the resulting elliptic equations. Numerical results are presented to validate the new AAM algorithm, which is also shown to be more computationally efficient than the original Monte Carlo algorithm. We also demonstrate that the higher order KDC scheme is more efficient than the traditional finite element solution approach and this advantage becomes increasingly important as the desired accuracy of the solution increases. We also discuss issues of smoothness, which affect the efficiency of the KDC-FES approach, and outline additional algorithmic changes that would further improve the efficiency of these developing methods for a wide range of applications.
Cardiovascular pathologies, such as a brain aneurysm, are affected by the global blood circulation as well as by the local microrheology. Hence, developing computational models for such cases requires the coupling of disparate spatial and temporal scales often governed by diverse mathematical descriptions, e.g., by partial differential equations (continuum) and ordinary differential equations for discrete particles (atomistic). However, interfacing atomistic-based with continuum-based domain discretizations is a challenging problem that requires both mathematical and computational advances. We present here a hybrid methodology that enabled us to perform the first multi-scale simulations of platelet depositions on the wall of a brain aneurysm. The large scale flow features in the intracranial network are accurately resolved by using the high-order spectral element Navier-Stokes solver
. The blood rheology inside the aneurysm is modeled using a coarse-grained stochastic molecular dynamics approach (the dissipative particle dynamics method) implemented in the parallel code LAMMPS. The continuum and atomistic domains overlap with interface conditions provided by effective forces computed adaptively to ensure continuity of states across the interface boundary. A two-way interaction is allowed with the time-evolving boundary of the (deposited) platelet clusters tracked by an immersed boundary method. The corresponding heterogeneous solvers (
and LAMMPS) are linked together by a computational multilevel message passing interface that facilitates modularity and high parallel efficiency. Results of multiscale simulations of clot formation inside the aneurysm in a patient-specific arterial tree are presented. We also discuss the computational challenges involved and present scalability results of our coupled solver on up to 300K computer processors. Validation of such coupled atomistic-continuum models is a main open issue that has to be addressed in future work.
We present a boundary-fitted, scale-invariant unstructured tetrahedral mesh generation algorithm that enables registration of element size to local feature size. Given an input triangulated surface mesh, a feature size field is determined by casting rays normal to the surface and into the geometry and then performing gradient-limiting operations to enforce continuity of the resulting field. Surface mesh density is adjusted to be proportional to the feature size field and then a layered anisotropic volume mesh is generated. This mesh is "scale-invariant" in that roughly the same number of layers of mesh exist in mesh cross-sections, between a minimum scale size L(min) and a maximum scale size L(max). We illustrate how this field can be used to produce quality grids for computational fluid dynamics based simulations of challenging, topologically complex biological surfaces derived from magnetic resonance images. The algorithm is implemented in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) version of the Los Alamos grid toolbox LaGriT. Research funded by the National Heart and Blood Institute Award 1RO1HL073598-01A1.
The human lung is protected against aspirated infectious and toxic agents by a thin liquid layer lining the interior of the airways. This airway surface liquid is a bilayer composed of a viscoelastic mucus layer supported by a fluid film known as the periciliary liquid. The viscoelastic behavior of the mucus layer is principally due to long-chain polymers known as mucins. The airway surface liquid is cleared from the lung by ciliary transport, surface tension gradients, and airflow shear forces. This work presents a multiscale model of the effect of airflow shear forces, as exerted by tidal breathing and cough, upon clearance. The composition of the mucus layer is complex and variable in time. To avoid the restrictions imposed by adopting a viscoelastic flow model of limited validity, a multiscale computational model is introduced in which the continuum-level properties of the airway surface liquid are determined by microscopic simulation of long-chain polymers. A bridge between microscopic and continuum levels is constructed through a kinetic-level probability density function describing polymer chain configurations. The overall multiscale framework is especially suited to biological problems due to the flexibility afforded in specifying microscopic constituents, and examining the effects of various constituents upon overall mucus transport at the continuum scale.
In this paper, we report a new development of image charge approximations of reaction fields for a charge inside a dielectric spherical cavity immersed in an ionic solvent with arbitrary ionic strength. This new development removes the requirement of low ionic strength of the solvent in a previous result [S. Deng, W. Cai, Extending the fast multipole method for charges inside a dielectric sphere in an ionic solvent: high-order image approximations for reaction fields, J. Comput. Phys. 227 (2007) 1246-1266], thus extending the applicability of the image charge approximations of reaction fields in the modeling of bio-molecular solvation.
We examine a variety of polynomial-chaos-motivated approximations to a stochastic form of a steady state groundwater flow model. We consider approaches for truncating the infinite dimensional problem and producing decoupled systems. We discuss conditions under which such decoupling is possible and show that to generalize the known decoupling by numerical cubature, it would be necessary to find new multivariate cubature rules. Finally, we use the acceleration of Monte Carlo to compare the quality of polynomial models obtained for all approaches and find that in general the methods considered are more efficient than Monte Carlo for the relatively small domains considered in this work. A curse of dimensionality in the series expansion of the log-normal stochastic random field used to represent hydraulic conductivity provides a significant impediment to efficient approximations for large domains for all methods considered in this work, other than the Monte Carlo method.
The fast multipole method (FMM) has been shown to have a reduced computational dependence on the size of finest-level groups of elements when the elements are positioned on a regular grid and FFT convolution is used to represent neighboring interactions. However, transformations between plane-wave expansions used for FMM interactions and pressure distributions used for neighboring interactions remain significant contributors to the cost of FMM computations when finest-level groups are large. The transformation operators, which are forward and inverse Fourier transforms with the wave space confined to the unit sphere, are smooth and well approximated using reduced-rank decompositions that further reduce the computational dependence of the FMM on finest-level group size. The adaptive cross approximation (ACA) is selected to represent the forward and adjoint far-field transformation operators required by the FMM. However, the actual error of the ACA is found to be greater than that predicted using traditional estimates, and the ACA generally performs worse than the approximation resulting from a truncated singular-value decomposition (SVD). To overcome these issues while avoiding the cost of a full-scale SVD, the ACA is employed with more stringent accuracy demands and recompressed using a reduced, truncated SVD. The results show a greatly reduced approximation error that performs comparably to the full-scale truncated SVD without degrading the asymptotic computational efficiency associated with ACA matrix assembly.
As a sequel to our previous paper on extending the Fast Multipole Method (FMM) for charges inside a dielectric sphere [J. Comput. Phys. 223 (2007) 846-864], this paper further extends the FMM to the electrostatic calculation for charges inside a dielectric sphere immersed in an ionic solvent, a scenery with more relevance in biological applications. The key findings include two fourth-order multiple discrete image approximations in terms of u=λa to the reaction field induced by the ionic solvent, provided that u=λa < 1 where λ is the inverse Debye screening length of the ionic solvent and a is the radius of the dielectric sphere. A 10(-4) relative accuracy in the reaction field of a source charge within the sphere can be achieved with only 3-4 point image charges. Together with the image charges, the FMM can be used to speed up the calculation of electrostatic interactions of charges in a dielectric sphere immersed in an ionic solvent.
This paper extends the image charge solvation model (ICSM) [J. Chem. Phys. 131, 154103 (2009)], a hybrid explicit/implicit method to treat electrostatic interactions in computer simulations of biomolecules formulated for spherical cavities, to prolate spheroidal and triaxial ellipsoidal cavities, designed to better accommodate non-spherical solutes in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In addition to the utilization of a general truncated octahedron as the MD simulation box, central to the proposed extension is an image approximation method to compute the reaction field for a point charge placed inside such a non-spherical cavity by using a single image charge located outside the cavity. The resulting generalized image charge solvation model (GICSM) is tested in simulations of liquid water, and the results are analyzed in comparison with those obtained from the ICSM simulations as a reference. We find that, for improved computational efficiency due to smaller simulation cells and consequently a less number of explicit solvent molecules, the generalized model can still faithfully reproduce known static and dynamic properties of liquid water at least for systems considered in the present paper, indicating its great potential to become an accurate but more efficient alternative to the ICSM when bio-macromolecules of irregular shapes are to be simulated.