Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine

Published by De Gruyter
Online ISSN: 1553-3840
Publications
Article
In the emerging discipline of wellness, Travis and Ryan (2004) develop a dynamic theory of wellness that while not explicitly stated takes a systems theory approach to health and wellness. As a result, their theory of wellness resonates with many of the concepts and ideals experienced through a meditation practice. It is with this congruence in mind that the current paper explores whether there is any relationship between meditation and high-level wellness and if meditation techniques play an integral role in helping to achieve enhanced levels of wellness. A wide range of research across disciplines is reviewed, and despite controversies in the methodology employed to test meditation's efficacy, it is readily apparent that numerous benefits or wellness outcomes are derived from a meditation practice. However, it is doubtful that meditation is the only path to deliver high-level wellness, other means exist-some that may be a function of the natural human condition.
 
Article
Abstract The following are abstracts of oral and poster presentations given at the 7th IN-CAM Research Symposium - Evaluating CAM Practices: Effectiveness, Integration, Economics & Safety, and the 4th HomeoNet Research Forum, a pre-Symposium event. The IN-CAM Research Symposium was held November 2 to 4, 2012 at the Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. For more information, please visit: www.incamresearch.ca.
 
Baseline characteristics. 
Article
Background: The metabolic syndrome is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The heat shock proteins (HSPs) are highly conserved families of proteins expressed by a number of cell types following exposure to stressful environmental conditions include several known risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have shown the potential of constituents of saffron in the treatment of atherosclerosis. We aimed on investigating the effect of saffron on antibody titers to HSP in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: This was a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. One-hundred and five subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomly allocated to one of the three groups: the case group received 100 mg/day saffron, the placebo control group received a capsule of placebo and a non-placebo control group received no capsule, for 12 weeks. Results: Antibodies against heat shock proteins 27, 60, 65 and 70 were determined in all patients before (week 0) and after (week 6 and 12) intervention. At 12 weeks, saffron produced a significantly decrease in AntiHSP27, 70 levels. Saffron can decrease AntiHSP27, 70 levels in patients with metabolic syndrome. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate the efficacy of saffron in the improvement of some markers of autoimmunity HSPs in patients with metabolic syndrome.
 
Article
Glucose uptake-enhancing activity of the ethyl acetate extract of Dennettia tripetala (EDT) was investigated using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. EDT yielded 4.43 percent w/w dry matter, showed the presence of alkaloids and flavonoids, contained calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, copper and manganese. Out of the five extracts of D. tripetala, EDT gave the highest activity (75 percent) in enhancing glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which was not significantly (p > 0.05) different from insulin (340 nM), the standard drug. EDT caused concentration-dependent increase in glucose uptake with maximal effect at 5 μg/ml, but further increase beyond 10 μg/ml caused a shut down in glucose uptake. Optimal effect was achieved at 16 h post incubation. There was no synergistic effect with increasing doses (2.5, 5.0, 10 μg/ml) of sub maximal concentrations of insulin, rather there was significant (p < 0.05) decrease compared with insulin (340 nM) alone. Unlike other protein inhibitors used, brefeldin significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited EDT-induced glucose uptake by more than 40 percent. In conclusion, EDT enhanced glucose uptake partly by the mobilization of glucose uptake proteins from the interior of the cell to plasma membrane via the Golgi apparatus. Therefore, this mechanism may be responsible for the antihyperglycaemic effect of EDT reported in our previous study.
 
Article
Background: Stephania abyssinica (Dillon & A. Rich) Walp (Menispermaceae) is a medicinal plant used in the west region of Cameroon to treat arterial hypertension. The present study evaluated the vasorelaxant effects of the aqueous (AESA) and methanol (MESA) extracts from the fresh leaves of S. abyssinica on aorta rings isolated from Wistar rats. Methods: Aorta rings with intact endothelium were contracted with KCl (60 mM) or phenylephrine (10-5 M) and exposed to cumulative concentrations of each extract, ranging from 10 to 1,000 µg/mL. The vasorelaxant effects of AESA were further evaluated in presence of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10-4 M), tetraethylammonium (TEA, 5 µM), glibenclamide (5 µM), propranolol (5 µM), and the association glibenclamide-propranolol (AGP). In another set of experiments, the effect of AESA was evaluated on calcium-induced contraction in a hyperpotassic milieu. Results: AESA and MESA exhibited a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation on KCl-contracted aortic rings with respective EC50 of 160.10 and 346.50 µg/mL. AESA similarly relaxed aortic rings contracted with phenylephrine (EC50, 176.80 µg/mL). The vasorelaxant activity of AESA was not significantly affected by L-NAME but was markedly reduced by TEA, glibenclamide, propranolol, and AGP. AESA strongly inhibited the Ca2+-induced contraction by 95%. Conclusions: These results support the use of S. abyssinica against arterial hypertension and suggest that the vasorelaxant effect of AESA is not mediated via the endothelium/nitric oxide pathway. AESA relaxant properties might be due to an inhibition of Ca2+ influx and/or the activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels probably via the stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors.
 
Article
Abstract Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, India, is established by an Act of Karnataka State Legislature in the year 1996. Its mandate is to provide training and development in health sciences sector. This University has done pioneering work in the field of curriculum designing for all the health sciences courses offered by the affiliated institutions. In this regard, it has taken lead among all the health sciences universities in India. With student strength of more than one lakh, it has now become a necessity to explore all the possible technological options, so as to provide a comprehensive education to the students. In this context, a proposal has been submitted to the executive head of the University to implement the Blended Learning Program.
 
Article
: : The toxicological effects of the aqueous leaf extract of A. wilkesiana were studied in 45 male and female Wistar albino rats. An acute toxicity testing was done using 21 rats divided into seven groups and LD50 determined. In the sub-chronic toxicity study, the extract was administered orally over a period of 28 days to rats in three groups with doses of 400 mg kg−1, 800 mg kg−1 and 1,600 mg kg−1, respectively, and the fourth group administered with water served as control. Blood samples were collected for hematological and serum biochemical analysis; organs of the animals were harvested for histopathological examination. : The acute toxicity testing showed that the extract was non-toxic at doses up to 3,000 mg kg : Prolonged administration of high dose of
 
Article
Capparis sepiaria L. known as Himsra is an important drug in Ayurveda. In this study extracts of the root of C. sepiaria were evaluated for their hepatoprotective potential on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in albino Wistar rats. The extent of hepatoprotection was evaluated by estimating the serum levels of hepatic transaminases (SGPT and SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), and bilirubin (total and direct). Aqueous and ethanol extracts of C. sepiaria significantly reduced the increased liver weight as well as serum levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and bilirubin, and normalized the reduced serum protein levels in the treated rats. These observations were supported by the results of histopathology studies as well. The extracts were also subjected to preliminary organic analysis and chromatographic studies including HPTLC finger print studies. The results indicate that the roots of C. sepiaria show significant hepatoprotective effect on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity, thus substantiating its use as a potential hepatoprotective drug.
 
Article
The present investigation was aimed at discovery of novel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. In vitro AchE inhibitory activity of various extracts of Sphaeranthus indicus flower heads was carried out. The petroleum ether fraction of S. indicus flowers (SIPE) exhibited significant activity. The fraction was found to be rich in sesquiterpene lactone content possibly responsible for in vitro AChE inhibition. In further study, the antiamnesic activities of SIPE in mice on the learning and memory impairments induced by scopolamine (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) were examined. SIPE (10 mg/kg, p.o.) administration significantly reversed cognitive impairments in mice by passive avoidance test (P < 0.05). It also reduced escape latencies in training trials and prolonged swimming times in the target quadrant during the probe trial in the water maze task (P < 0.05). These results indicated that S. indicus due to its sesquiterpene lactones have anti-cholinesterase activity. A major sesquiterpene lactone, 7-hydroxy frullanolide along with other constituents were isolated from SIPE and evaluated for AchE inhibitory activity. Negative results were obtained in case of isolated compounds. Synergistic effect between constituents of SIPE was confirmed to have anti-amnesic activities that may be useful for cognitive impairment treatment.
 
Experimental groups.
Effect of telmisartan and omega 3-fatty acids on the EC50 of acetylcholine in the aorta of sodium arsenite administered rats.
Effect of telmisartan and omega 3-fatty acids on serum lipid levels. (a) Serum triglycerides and (b) serum cholesterol.
Effect of telmisartan and omega 3-fatty acids on serum oxidative stress markers.
Article
Effective diet/drug combinations may show additive or synergistic effects in reducing endothelial risk factors vis-à-vis monotherapies. The study evaluated the effect of combined therapy of Telmisartan and omega 3-fatty acids in sodium arsenite-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Forty-eight male Wistar rats (180-220 g) were randomized into eight groups; control, sodium arsenite (1.5 mg/kg/day) exposed, sodium arsenite exposure followed by treatment with Telmisartan, omega 3-fatty acids, the combination and/or endothelial modulators for 2 weeks depending on the allocated group. VED was assessed by estimating vascular reactivity. Serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite/nitrate levels, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also determined. Sodium arsenite produced VED by attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelial relaxation (% Rmax = 45.36), decreasing levels of serum nitrite/nitrate (9.28 μM/mg protein), GSH (16.06 μg/mg of protein), SOD activity (30.69 units/mg protein) and increasing TBARS (0.19 µM/mg protein) compared with control group. The combined therapy with Telmisartan (10 mg/kg/day) and omega 3-fatty acids (180 mg/kg/day) (% Rmax = 80.93, 13.09 µM/mg protein, 25.93 μg/mg of protein, 57.84 units/mg protein and 0.08 µM/mg protein, respectively) significantly abolished the respective derangements induced by sodium arsenite. Further, this combination significantly prevented rise in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels that was induced by sodium arsenite. However, the ameliorative effects of this combination were abated by N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and glibenclamide. Combined therapy of Telmisartan and omega 3-fatty acids attenuated VED, by activating enzyme nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through opening of ATP-sensitive K+ channels.
 
Article
Spirulina platensis (Spi) is a microalga presenting high contents of proteins, γ-linolenic acid, vitamins and minerals, and showing many biological activities. It is a promising drug for the treatment of diseases including diabetes. The objectives of this work were to study Spi effects on alloxan-induced diabetic rats, and associate this to its anti-inflammatory activity. The treatment with Spi (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg, p.o.) started 48 h after the alloxan injection, continuing for 5 or 10 days. Biochemical parameters were measured in sera of treated and untreated animals. The anti-inflammatory activity of Spi was assessed by the formalin test and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. Immunostainings for TNF-alpha were carried out in the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, before and after the Spi treatment, and its effect on the release of myeloperoxidase from human neutrophils was also determined. Spi decreased glycemia as well as triglyceride and total cholesterol levels of diabetic rats. Levels of urea and creatinine were also reduced, while liver transaminases were unaltered. Spi also decreased dose-dependently the 1st (neurogenic) and mainly the 2nd phase (inflammatory) of the formalin test, as well as the carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of Spi was further confirmed by decreases in TNF-alpha immunostaining in the inflamed paw and in the myeloperoxidase release from human neutrophils. The results showed that the anti-diabetic effect of S. platensis is already manifested after a 5-day treatment. Additionally, considering the relationship between diabetes and inflammation, the microalga anti-inflammatory action may also be involved.
 
Characteristics of Participating Students a 
Perceived Benefits, Perceived Barriers and Cues to Action Associated with Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) 
Factors Influencing Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among 400 University Students. 
Article
The purpose of the study was to explore the influence of perceived benefits, barriers, and cues to action on Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use among university students. This was a prospective, cross sectional questionnaire-based study conducted at a large urban university in Houston, Texas. Of the 400 students surveyed, 143 (35.8%) were current CAM users (used CAM in the past 12 months). Biologically based medications such as herbs, vitamins, supplements and natural products were found to be most profoundly used among students (42%). Perceived benefits (OR 9.14, 95% CI 4.64-18), barriers to CAM use (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.27-0.89) and cues to action (OR 5.21, 95% CI 1.02-26.51) were significant determinants of CAM use among students. Perceived ability of CAM to improve body defenses was found to be the major perceived benefit for CAM use while lack of sufficient scientific testing was found to be the major barrier. Recommendation by health care provider and CAM use by parents and grandparents significantly (p < 0.0001) influenced current CAM use among students. Thus, perceived benefits and cues to action for CAM use significantly promoted CAM usage while perceived barriers were found to hinder CAM use among students.
 
(A) Effect of SBE on LPS-induced NO production in J774 murine macrophages. NO was measured by the Griess reaction. Effect of SBE on LPS-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins in J774 macrophages. (B) The protein and (D) mRNA expression levels of iNOS and COX-2 as determined Western blotting and RT-PCR respectively, one of three representative set of experimental image is shown. (C) Relative densities of iNOS and Cox-2 proteins and (E) nRNAs to the housekeeping protein GAPDH. Data represent the mean±S.D.; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 compared with LPS alone.
(A) Effects of SBE on LPS stimulated inflammatory cytokines production in J774 cells. The concentration of cytokines in the culture medium was determined by ELISA. (B) Effect of SBE on LPS-induced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in J774 murine macrophages as observed in RT-PCR amplified products. (D) Relative density (to the housekeeping gene GAPDH) of the PCR products observed in agarose gels from three independent sets of experiments, data represent the mean±S.D.; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 compared with LPS alone.
Effect of SBE on LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF- κ B p65 subunit in J774 cells. (A) Cells pre-incubated with different concentrations of SBE ( μ g/ml) followed by LPS (1 μg/ml) treatment for 30 min were analysed immunohistochemically (B) The levels of NF- κ Bp65 and phospo-I- κ B α proteins in the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions respectively, were analyzed by Western blotting. (C) Relative densities of specific proteins (to β -actin) observed in Western blots from three independent sets of experiments, data represent the mean±S.D.; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 compared with LPS alone. 
Article
Shea butter is traditionally used in Africa for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. In this study we explored the anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of shea butter (SBE) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage cell line J774. It was observed that SBE significantly reduced the levels of LPS-induced nitric oxide, Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukins, 1β (IL-1β), and -12 (IL-12) in the culture supernatants in a dose dependent manner. Expression of pro-inflammatory enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were also inhibited by SBE. These anti-inflammatory effects were due to an inhibitory action of SBE on LPS-induced iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-12 mRNA expressions. Moreover, SBE efficiently suppressed IκB phosphorylation and NF-κB nuclear translocation induced by LPS. These findings explain the molecular bases of shea butter's bioactivity against various inflammatory conditions and substantiate it as a latent source of novel therapeutic agents.
 
Effects of G.arborea hexane extract on some organ weights. 
Effects of G. arborea hexane extract on lipid profile. 
Effects of G. arborea hexane extract on liver and plasma proteins. 
Effects of G. arborea hexane extract on tissue MDA. 
Effects of cumulative concentrations of GAHE on aortic rings without vascular endothelium pre-incubated in glibenclamide. Data are shown as mean ± s.e.m (n=5 for each concentration); *p<0.05, **p<0.01 and ***p<0.001 significantly different by comparison with the control. α p<0.05 significantly different by comparison with GAHE (+E).  p<0.05 significantly different by comparison with GAHE (-E) 
Article
Abstract The present study investigated the effects of Gmelina arborea hexane leaves extract on markers of oxidative stress and its vasorelaxant effects on isolated rat aorta, in order to postulate the possible mechanisms involved in the antihypertensive properties of the plant. To evaluate the antioxidant effects of the extract, rats were randomly divided into four groups of five rats each. With the exception to the group receiving Tween (2.5%), the other groups were treated either with NaCl (900mg/kg/day) alone, NaCl (900mg/kg/day) combined with vitamin C (5mg/kg/day) or Gmelina arborea extract (150mg/kg/day). At the end of eight weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and some organs as well as blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The in vitro vasodilating effects of the extract (0.5-1.5mg/ml) were evaluated using intact and denuded rat thoracic aortic rings or aorta pre-incubated in L-NAME (2µM), indomethacin (2µM) or glibenclamide (2µM) and contracted with phenylephrine (1µM). The in vivo effects of G. arborea hexane extract prevented both left ventricular and vascular hypertrophy, it also modulated lipid metabolism. Moreover, the extract prevented lipid peroxidation, increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activity as well as NO level. On isolated rat aortic rings, the extract induced concentration-dependent vasorelaxant effects. Extract-induced vasodilation was reduced by mechanical denudation of the endothelium as well as pre-treatment with L-NAME, indomethacin or glibenclamide. These results indicate that Gmelina arborea hexane extract possesses bioactive compounds with antioxidant and vasorelaxant properties.
 
Inhibitory effect of the extract of some promising fruits and their underutilized parts (20 µg/ml) on pBR322 DNA nicking caused by hydroxyl radicals (Fanton = Fenton's reagent). Lane 1: pBR322 DNA; Lane 2: DNA + Fenton; Lane 3: DNA + Fenton + Catalase (5 units); Lane 4: DNA + Fenton + Litchi chinensis fruit pericarp; Lane 5: DNA + Fenton + Embelica officinalis fruits; Lane 6: DNA + Fenton + Cocus nucifera fruit pericarp green fibres; Lane 7: DNA + Fenton + Caesalpinia mexicana fruits; Lane 8: DNA + Fenton + Acacia auriculiformis; Lane 9: DNA + Fenton + Mangifera indica fruit peel; Lane 10: DNA + Fenton + Mangifera indica seed kernel;: Lane 11: DNA + Fenton + SOD (2 units).
Phenolic composition of some fruits and their underutilized parts identified by MS/MS. 
Article
Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources extracts of some fruits and their different parts were studied for total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA). The amount of TPC varied from 10.5 (Carissa carandus, fruit peel) to 343.2 mg/g (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) and AOA from 20.3% (Musa paradisiacal, fruits) to 96.7% (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits). Fruits of Caesalpinia Mexicana, Acacia auriculiformis, fruit pericarp green fibres of Cocus nucifera, and fruits of Emblica officinalis were found to have high TPC (73.1-343.2 mg/g) and high AOA (68.5-96.7%). Promising fruits were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP) measured by DPPH assay where the fruits of Caesalpinia mexicana, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, fruits of Emblica officinalis showed very low IC50 ranging from 0.009 to 0.016 mg/ml, EC50 from 0.39 to 0.70 mg/mg DPPH and reasonably high values (142.1-256.3) of anti radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA and reducing power (RP) as evident by their low ASE/ml values (0.42-1.08). They also showed better inhibition of lipid peroxidation measured by using ferric thiocyanate assay and by using egg yolk compared to the reference standard quercetin. The ferrous and ferric ion chelating capacity of the promising fruits and their underutilized parts in terms of IC50 varied from 0.12 (Emblica officinalis, fruits) to 2.44 mg/ml (Mangifera indica, Seed kernel) and 0.22 (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) to 2.59 mg/ml (Litchi chinensis, fruit peel) respectively. Fruit pulp, peel and seeds of Litchi chinensis with reasonable amount of phenols (48.3, 43.9, 50.1 mg/ml) showed low ARP (23.5, 38.3, 33.8) and ASE/ml (3.13, 2.18, 2.62) respectively in contrast to Aegle marmelos with comparatively lower phenols (35.1 mg/g) exhibited good ARP (57.4) and RP (1.67 ASE/ml). Extracts (20 μg/ml) of fruits of Acacia auriculiformis, Caesalpinia Mexicana, Emblica officinalis, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, were found effective in protecting plasmid DNA nicking induced by Fenton’s reagent generated hydroxyl radicals. They were further assayed for their specific phenolic composition through HPLC and MS/MS where the amount of caffeic acid varied from 48.5 to 2231 μg/g, chlorogenic acid 63.8 to 912.1 μg/g, ellagic acid 46.4 to 1429.1 μg/g, ferulic acid 36.7 to 762.9 μg/g, gallic acid 181.6 to 2831.6 μg/g, protocatechuic acid 41.7 to 322.8 μg/g, and quercetin 44.6 to 367.6 μg/g.
 
Article
Abstract The methanolic root bark extract of Afzelia africana was tested for antidiabetic activities in-vivo. The acute toxicity of the extract was tested in mice and the result showed that the extract has low toxicity. Investigation on the phytochemical constituents of the plant extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, steroids and saponins. The plant extract was tested for antidiabetic activities in alloxan - induced diabetic mice at doses of 62.5 mg/kg, 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg over a period of 6 hours. The activity was found to be both dose and time dependent. Optimum activity was noted at the dose of 250 mg/kg and 6 hours post treatment. Distilled water (10 ml/kg) and glibenclamide (2 mg/kg) were used as negative and positive controls respectively. The extract showed antidiabetic activity which did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) from glibenclamide.Column and thin layer chromatography revealed the presence of 5 fractions in the plant extract out of which fraction 3 was found to be active.
 
Article
The hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water extracts of Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn. (Asteraceae) were assessed for their antibacterial and antioxidant capacities. The antioxidant capacities were evaluated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and β-carotene bleaching assays. The antimicrobial activities were assessed using the classical pour-plate disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and death kinetic assays, against six bacterial strains. The ethanol extract displayed significant antioxidant capacities both in the FRAP and β-carotene bleaching assays. The ethanol extract abrogated the growth of all the bacteria tested. Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride spectrometry assays indicated the presence phenolic compounds, including flavonoids in the ethanol extract.
 
Article
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), products of normal cell metabolism may cause damage to biological macromolecules leading to severe health threats when they are present in high concentrations. Aromatic plants contain phytochemicals rich of antioxidants that prevent oxidant formation or scavenge oxidants produced under oxidative stress conditions. In the present study, we investigated the free radical scavenging effects, the antioxidant and ion toxicity preventive effect of Xylopia aethiopica (X. aethiopica), a plant of the family of Annonaceae used as spice in Cameroon. The scavenging properties of extracts of X. aethiopica were tested on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), hydroxyl (OH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals. The total antioxidant capacity was assayed by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), phosphomolybdenum antioxidant power (PAP), reduction assays. The protective potential was carried on superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and peroxidases. The results showed that both the ethanolic (BEE) and the hydroethanolic (BEH) extracts from the barks of X. aethiopica scavenged all the tested radicals. The sample BEH showed the highest total antioxidant capacity both in the FRAP and the PAP. This result was positively correlated to its higher phenolic content (30.74±0.44 CAE/g dried extract). The higher protective capacity of BEH on SOD, catalase and peroxidase activities was comparable to that of the vitamin C used as standard. In conclusion, X. aethiopica has a higher antioxidant and protective potential against ion-mediated oxidative damage and may be considered as a potential drug against metal-mediated toxicity.
 
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of crude extracts of Lopholaena coriifolia (Sond.) E. Phillips & C.A. Sm. and its isolated compounds. Separation and structure elucidation of Lopholaena coriifolia (Sond.) E. Phillips & C.A. Sm. were conducted using chromatographic and spectroscopic method. The antioxidant activities of the extracts in this study were determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene bleaching assays meanwhile the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using the 5-lipoxygenase assay. Seven known compounds quercetin 3-O-glucoside (1), naringenin 7-O-glucoside (2), seneciphylline-O-glucoside (3), chrysoeriol (4), retrorsine (5), adonifiline (6) and 5,4'-di-O-methyl alpinumisoflavone (7) were isolated from ethanol extract of Lopholaena coriifolia (Sond.) E. Phillips & C.A. Sm. The ethanol and water extracts of Lopholaena coriifolia (Sond.) E. Phillips & C.A. Sm. elicited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Amongst the isolated compounds quercetin 3-O-glucoside gave strong antioxidant activity and adonifiline strongly inhibited 5-lipoxygenase activity.
 
Article
The pain after nephrectomy, just as any other surgery, is one of the problems that surgeons confront. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relieving effect of acupuncture on the pain experienced after nephrectomy. This was a clinical trial that was performed on 30 patients with mean age of 40.8 ± 12.54 who were candidates for nephrectomy. After matching for gender and age, the patients were divided into either acupuncture or control group. In acupuncture group, four points were stimulated for 30 minutes, and in control group, other points were stimulated ineffectively for 30 min. Then, the pain experienced in the first six hours after the surgery was registered by a blind observer based on visual analog scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and the t-test. Our results showed that the severity of pain in the acupuncture group was significantly lower than that in the control group. Also, there were six patients who required opioids in the acupuncture group, but there were 12 such patients in the control group. The mean opiate used in the control group was significantly greater than the mean for the acupuncture group. Acupuncture can reduce the severity of pain and the demand for opioids in patients who have undergone nephrectomy.
 
Article
Unlabelled: Laser acupuncture is widely used as an alternative treatment for chronic illnesses. Objective: to evaluate the effect of biostimulation by low-level power laser on the traditional Chinese acupuncture points for Egyptian asthmatic children. Method: Thirty asthmatic boys and 20 asthmatic girls 7-18 years (10.6±2.8) were randomly selected from the outpatient chest clinic of Ain Shams University, Children hospitals, and National Research Center outpatient Clinic of Acupuncture, from April 2009 to March 2010. Patients' symptoms, medications, asthma control questionnaire (ACQ), and spirometric values were recorded before and 1 month after completion of 10 laser acupuncture sessions. Each patient received 10 laser sessions (3 sessions/week) on traditional Chinese acupoints. Results: Started with 36 patients suffering daytime and nocturnal symptoms, ended with two patients suffering nocturnal symptoms (p < 0.001). Also, 48 patients reported better exercise tolerance (p < 0.001). Forced expiratory volume in the first second, forced vital capacity, and peak expiratory flow % increased from 81.8±25.2, 85.4±21.5, and 71.8±22.9 to 98.5±28.1, 104.3±26.2, and 84.3±24.1, respectively (p < 0.001). ACQ improved from 13.9±3.8 to 23.3±3.6 (p < 0.001), 92% of patients became well controlled. Inhaled steroids dose decreased from 200-450 to 0-200 μg/day and all patients stopped short acting B2 agonist (SABA) rescue (p < 0.01, 0.001). Conclusion: low-intensity laser acupuncture can be safe and effective treatment in asthmatic children.
 
Article
Little is known about the broad application of acupuncture as adjuvant treatment for in-patient pediatric populations. We review a series of cases involving acupuncture for conditions ranging from insomnia to cyclic vomiting. The details of the protocol for each are included. This case series illustrates the benefits of an in-patient acupuncture treatment service, as well as the subtleties of an acupuncture protocol when treating children and adolescents.
 
Article
Background: Kikyo-to is used empirically for relieving sore throat pain associated with acute upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in Japan. However, few studies have demonstrated its clinical effect. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of Kikyo-to on sore throat pain associated with acute URTI. Methods: Patients with sore throat pain who were diagnosed with URTI in General Medicine Department Office, Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital from January to March 2012 were enrolled. Patients received 2.5 g of Kikyo-to diluted in a cup of hot water. The primary outcome was the change in sore throat score on the visual analog scale (VAS) 10 min after Kikyo-to administration. Secondary outcomes were change in sore throat score on VAS after 30 min and impact of sore throat pain on daily life (none, mild, moderate, and severe) after 10 and 30 min. Results: Forty patients were eligible. Mean VAS score was 48.2±18.2 before treatment and reduced significantly to 35.4±18.1 after 10 min and 30.7±19.3 after 30 min (p<0.001 in both periods). The proportion of patients with moderate or more impact of sore throat pain on daily life was 67.5% and was reduced significantly to 37.5% after 10 min and 30% after 30 min (p<0.001 in both periods). The patients reported no side effects. Conclusions: Kikyo-to relieves sore throat pain associated with acute URTI.
 
Article
The purpose of this study is to determine whether Panax Notoginseng (PNG) taken for 3 days and one 30-min cycling exercise can reduce postprandial hyperglycemia after ingesting a 75-mg oral glucose solution (OGTT) in untrained non-diabetic men, age 20-45 years. We randomly assigned 52 men to: 1) ginseng (G) + exercise (G+Ex, n=14), 2) ginseng (G, n=13), 3) placebo (C) + exercise (C+Ex, n=12), and 4) placebo control groups (C, n=13). The G and C groups took a daily 3g dose of PNG and cornstarch-placebo supplement for 3 days, respectively. The exercise groups also performed a 30-min cycling exercise on day 3 prior to OGTT. The daily 3g-dose of PNG supplementation significantly lowered postprandial plasma glucose (PG) concentration at 30 min post-OGTT in the G group, compared with C (mean Δ±SE: G vs. C = 26.3±11 mg/dl, p<0.05) and PG area under the curve (PG-AUC0-90) in the G and G+Ex groups, relative to the C (G vs. C = 96.5±42 and G+Ex vs. C = 85.2±41 mg/dl, both p<0.05). We conclude that a daily 3g-dose of PNG taken for 3 days, not one acute bout of 30-min cycling exercise at 60% VO2max, lowered postprandial glycemia at 30-min post-OGTT and PG-AUC 0-90 min in non-diabetic men, age 20-45 years.
 
Article
Abstract This study aimed to investigate the effects of a health product Squina (Diacylglyceryl Ether) (DAGE) on innate and adaptive immunity in mice. Both ex vivo/ in vivo mouse models and an in vitro system using cultured mouse splenocytes were recruited for the assessment of innate and adaptive immunity. For the innate immune response, DAGE extract treatment enhanced the LPS-induced IL1-β secretion by activated macrophages in vitro and long-term DAGE treatment (0.18 and 1.8 g/kg × 20 doses) elevated the phagocytic activity of macrophages, as well as natural killer cell activity in mice. The DAGE-induced increase in macrophage phagocytic and natural killer cell activities were accompanied by the suppression of tumor growth in Sarcoma-180 cell-inoculated mice. For the adaptive immune response, long-term DAGE treatment enhanced the splenocyte index and concanavalin A- stimulated proliferation ex vivo in mice. Consistently, the incubation with DAGE extract potentiated the concanavalin A-stimulated proliferation in mouse splenocytes in vitro. In conclusion, the results show that long-term DAGE treatment produces stimulatory effects on both innate and adaptive immunity in mice.
 
Article
Abstract The health workforce is perceived to be in short supply in most developed and developing countries. There are concerns that this could result in reduced coverage of health services and the delivery of suboptimal care. Strategies to address the health workforce shortage have focussed predominantly on recruitment and training, with relatively little regard to the equally important issue of retention. One approach that may improve job satisfaction, opportunities for specialisation and the workload of health workers, and thus, improve retention and more importantly, patient outcomes, is role substitution. Many complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners appear to be well placed in terms of educational preparation to substitute (either horizontally or vertically) a number of roles traditionally performed by conventional health disciplines. As well as the potential benefits to the health workforce and the quality of patient care, role substitution could provide an important first step toward integrating CAM practitioners into mainstream health care settings.
 
The effects of LA, SAM and vitamin E on hepatic GSH, GR and GPX alterations by MCT administration 
The effects of LA, SAM and vitamin E on hepatic catalase activities in MCT administration rats a,b Different letters indicate significant variations between groups at 
Article
Abstract Liver is the major site for several xenobiotics metabolism, and formation of toxic metabolites that may be hepatotoxic, therefore the burden of metabolism and exposure to dangerous chemicals make liver vulnerable to a variety of disorders. Our work aimed to investigate the effects of some antioxidants such as lipoic acid (LA), S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) and vitamin E in a trail to investigate the possibility of using these substances to relieve and protect liver from exposure to monocrotaline (MCT). Twenty-five mature adult rats were classified into five groups (five rats in each group), control group, MCT-induced hepatic damage, LA+MCT, SAM+MCT and vitamin E+MCT group. Homogenates of liver samples were used for measuring the oxidative biomarkers and hepatic antioxidant status. The results showed that administration of vitamin E, SAM and LA caused a significant increase in liver glutathione contents, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase activities and a significant decrease in hepatic catalase and superoxide dismutase. We could conclude that administration of natural LA, SAM and vitamin E before and after MCT injection modulate the hepatic oxidative stresses induced by MCT in various extents.
 
Article
Blood platelets are directly involved in both haemostatic and pathologic thrombotic processes, through their adhesion, secretion and aggregation. In this study, we investigated the effect of genins (aglycone flavonoids without sugar group) isolated from parsley (Petroselinum crispum) leaves in vitro on human platelet aggregation and adhesion to a collagen-coated surface under physiologic flow conditions. Materials and Methods: The aggregation and adhesion studies were monitored after pre-incubation of platelets with genins. Genins inhibited dose dependently aggregation induced by thrombin, ADP and collagen. The strongest effect was observed in collagen induced aggregation (IC50 = 0.08 ± 0.01 mg/ml). The HPLC identification of genins compounds revealed the presence of keampferol, apigenin and other not identified compounds. The aggregation tests showed that these compounds have anti-aggregating activity. In addition, adhesion of human platelets to collagen was greatly decreased (over 75 %) by genins (0.3 mg/ml). While the mechanism by which genins act is unclear, we suggest that these compounds may interfere with a multiple target step in the haemostasis process. These results show that genins isolated from parsley has a potent antiplatelet activity. It may be an important source of beneficial antiplatelet compounds that decrease thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases.
 
Article
Background: Persea americana, commonly known as avocado, is traditionally consumed fruit which possesses body fat lowering capacity. Adiponectin plays an important role in regulating obesity. In this study, the effect of hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of P. americana (HAEPA) on the level of blood lipids, glutathione, lipid peroxidation products, adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ expressions was investigated in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups: groups 1 and 2 were fed normal rat chow (5% fat) and groups 3 and 4 were fed HFD (23% fat) for a period of 14 weeks. In addition, groups 2 and 4 rats were administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of HAEPA from third week. After 14 weeks, rats were sacrificed, and serum/plasma levels of total cholesterol, phospholipids, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and adiponectin were determined. The mRNA expression of adiponectin, PPAR-γ and protein expression of PPAR-γ were also evaluated. Results: The body mass index (BMI), total fat pad mass and adiposity index were significantly decreased in HAEPA co-administered rats than in HFD-fed rats. The levels of LDL and lipid peroxides were significantly higher in HFD group than in HFD+HAEPA group. Levels of reduced glutathione, adiponectin, mRNA expression of adiponectin, PPAR-γ and protein expression of PPAR-γ were found to be increased in HFD+HAEPA group than in HFD group. The hypolipidemic effect of HAEPA is also evidenced by the histological observations in liver, heart and adipose tissue. Conclusions: The results indicate that HAEPA exhibits hypolipidemic activity probably by increasing the mRNA expression of adiponectin and PPAR-γ, which reduce the risk of hyperlipidemia and obesity.
 
Article
Although some herbal remedies in association with vitamin therapy have been investigated in eradicating HP, no research has been done to investigate the effects of lycopene it. Our aim was to understand if lycopene could be effective in eradication of HP. In this parallel group quasi-control trial, a total of 54 patients whose diagnosis of HP had been confirmed by rapid urease test (RUT) were enrolled. Group 1 received the standard 4-drug therapy to eradicate HP (Metronidazole 500 mg/BD, Amoxicillin 1g/BD, Omeprazole 20mg/BD, and Bismuth 240 mg/BD) and group 2 received the same regimen in association with Lycopene (30 mg/daily). One month after the initiation of the treatment, the patients were evaluated for HP eradication by RUT. Although eradication rate was higher in the second group, bivariate analysis showed no significant statistical difference between the two groups. In contrast with other nutrients, it seems that Lycopene does not have any significant effects on eradicating HP in comparison with the standard antibiotic therapy. The prevalence of HP is in association with socioeconomic situation, so the patients in different studies should be paid more attention about their own life style. We recommend that more studies can be designed by considering control group and placebo administration.
 
Article
In a recent study involving normal, juvenile mice, we showed that CVT-E002, a proprietary extract (Afexa Life Sciences, Inc.) of North American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, significantly enhanced the absolute levels of cells acting at the first line of defense in tumor combat, i.e., natural killer (NK) cells. The present study evaluated the effect of CVT-E002, on life span when administered intraperitoneally to leukemic, infant/juvenile mice. The extract was administered to groups of mice daily for 14 days in several dosing groups up to 50mg/day from age 7 to 21 days. The tumor was administered intraperitoneally under sterile conditions, in a laminar flow hood at 7 days of age (0.5 x 10(6) leukemic cells), immediately preceding the first CVT-E002 injection for each dose group. The data revealed that CVT-E002 significantly extends the life of leukemic, young mice in a dose-specific manner, i.e., 20 mg/day was effective in extending life, while lower doses of 5, 10 mg as well as higher doses of 30, 40, 50 mg per day were completely ineffective. We have already shown that CVT-E002 significantly elevates NK cells in normal and leukemic, adult mice, as well as in normal, infant/juvenile mice, and we have also shown that CVT-E002 significantly extends the life span of leukemic, adult mice. The results of the present study did indeed show that (i) CVT-E002 extends the life span of leukemic, infant/juvenile mice, and (ii) that the dose of CVT-E002 is critical in achieving life span augmentation in these leukemic infant/juvenile mice.
 
Article
Background: The modulating effect of methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis (MEEO) on ethanol (EtOH)- and cerulein (Cer)-induced pancreatitis in rats was investigated in this study. Methods: Male albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 and 2 rats served as control and fed normal diet. Group 3 and 4 rats were fed isocalorically adjusted diet containing EtOH (36% of total calories) for 5 weeks and also subjected to intraperitoneal injection of Cer 20 µg/kg b.wt. thrice weekly for the last 3 weeks of the experimental period. In addition, group 2 and 4 rats received 200 mg/kg b.wt. of MEEO from 15th day till the experimental period. Serum levels of lipase (L), amylase (A), cytokines IL-1β, IL-18, caspase-1 and oxidative stress index (OSI) were determined. Levels of fecal trypsin, total collagen, caspase-1, myeloperoxidase (MPO), antioxidants and mRNA expression of caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18 were determined in the pancreas. Results: HPLC analysis showed the presence of rutin in MEEO. We observed a significant elevation in serum L/A ratio, IL-1β, IL-18, caspase-1, OSI, collagen, MPO activity and the mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-18 and caspase-1 and significant reduction in fecal trypsin and antioxidant status in EtOH- and Cer-administered rats. The inflammatory markers were found to be reduced and the antioxidant status of pancreas was maintained in MEEO-coadministered rats. Conclusions: The rutin rich nature of E. officinalis can be claimed for its anti-inflammatory and pancreato protective effects.
 
Article
This study examined the impact of breathing awareness meditation (BAM) compared to health education (HE) and lifeskills training (LS) upon resting systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) within the context of potential moderating factors of family environment and expectancy of benefit. 186 African American adolescents (mean age: 15.1±0.7 yrs) were randomly assigned by school to three-month BAM, LS, or HE interventions. Laboratory resting blood pressure (BP), Family Relations Index (FRI) and expectancy of benefit evaluations were conducted at pre- and post-intervention. Higher expectancy of benefit from any of the three interventions resulted in greater reductions in SBP. A two-way interaction indicated that BAM group subjects who came from positive family environments exhibited greater decreases in SBP. A two-way interaction indicated that BAM and LS subjects who came from positive family environments exhibited greater DBP decreases. A two-way interaction indicated that BAM subjects who came from positive family environments exhibited a greater HR decrease (all p<.05). Expectancy of intervention benefits beneficially impacted success of behavioral interventions aimed at reducing SBP. Positive family environments in combination with either BAM or LS appear to have a beneficial impact upon hemodynamic function in AA adolescents.
 
Light microphotograph of a 5 μm thin section stained with red hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) obtained from the epididymis head of (A) control untreated mice, (B) mice treated with Orchis anatolica (800 mg/kg/day), (C) mice treated with red Korean Panax ginseng (800 mg/kg/day). (A) A well-developed pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium (Epth) with an irregularly placed basal cell nucleus and apical “ false ” stereo- cilia. (B) The lumen diameter is larger in size with increase in the number of spermatozoa (Sperms) present when compared with A. (C) The lumen of the tubule is of a normal size with a reduced amount of spermatozoa (Sperms) when compared with the A & B. ( Â 200 magnifications). 
motility, count. and hormonal assay changes after treatment with Orchis anatolica roots and red Korean Panax ginseng (800 mg/kg/day) for 35 days.
Article
: The effects of : Both plants were administered orally to two separate mice groups at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day for 35 days and compared with control group. After treatment, 5 mice of each group were sacrificed and total mice weights, reproductive organs’ weights, spermatogenesis, and androgenic serum markers were investigated. The remaining mice from all groups were allowed to mate with virgin female mice to explore male fertility potential. : Results indicated that body and organs’ weights were increased significantly in mice treated with : We can conclude that
 
Article
Purpose: To determine the effects of 6wk of supplementation with fish oil (FO) on blood pressure and the morning salivary cortisol concentration in normotensive adults. Methods: Testing was performed following an overnight fast. Subjects (n=40; 35+/-13y, mean+/-SD) rested supine for 40min, at which time blood pressure and heart rate were measured. Saliva was collected and analyzed for cortisol. Subjects were then randomly assigned to either: 4g/d of Safflower Oil (SO); or 4g/d of FO supplying 1,600mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid and 800mg/d docosahexaenoic acid. Testing was repeated following 6wk of treatment. Results: Compared to SO, there was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure with FO (SO=1.3+/-5.8 mmHg; FO=-6.8+/-10.2 mmHg; p=0.004), a significant reduction in pulse pressure (SO=0.2+/-7.8 mmHg; FO=-6.4+/-8.8 mmHg; p=0.02), and a tendency for a decrease in mean arterial pressure (SO=1.2+/-5.3 mmHg; FO=-2.5+/-7.3 mmHg; p=0.08). There was a tendency for salivary cortisol to decrease with FO (SO=0.005+/-0.129 µg/dL; FO=-0.068+/-0.148 µg/dL; p=0.072), however, this change was not significantly correlated with the change in systolic blood pressure (r=0.021, p=0.929). Conclusion: 6wk of supplementation with FO significantly decreases systolic blood pressure in normotensive adults and this change was not significantly correlated with a reduction in salivary cortisol.
 
Article
: Patients suffering from intractable diseases and individuals seeking relief from mild symptoms resort to treatments outside the modern medical paradigm, such as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). In order to improve doctor–patient communication about CAM, it is essential to evaluate CAM usage among social groups likely to choose it in the future. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate how university students – individuals highly subject to future CAM usage – perceive CAM and the factors affecting their choice of CAM use. : We conducted a questionnaire survey with 1,096 Japanese university students not studying medical subjects. : The term CAM was known to 11% of the subjects. Modalities they most associated with CAM were art therapy (353 subjects), hot spring therapy (349), and aromatherapy (345). They had experience taking vitamins, trace elements, other supplements (498), and nutritional drinks (483). Several subjects wanted to experience shiatsu massage (373) and hot spring therapy (303). Multiple regression analysis of the modalities that the subjects wanted to experience revealed a 42% multiple coefficient of determination for prioritizing modalities that the subject associated with CAM, showing a large contribution of this deciding factor. : Although most subjects were not familiar with the term CAM, many of them had decided to ingest substances in the CAM category on the basis of self-judgment and without adequate knowledge. Because such behavior can be detrimental to health, medical professionals should be aware of CAM usage among their patients and seek effective communication with them in order to enable safe CAM practice.
 
Linear regression curve of chlorogenic acid. The plot of % inhibition vs. concentration of chlorogenic acid was used to determine the IC 50 value, which was found to be 0.2363 μ g/ μ l. 
Article
Background: Interest in natural compounds as sources of potentially new treatment options is growing rapidly. Preliminary screening of many different plant extracts showed that Wrightia tinctoria acts as a potent human platelet aggregation inhibitor. The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize the active compound responsible for potent inhibition of human platelet aggregation in vitro. Methods: A 70% ethanolic extract derived from W. tinctoria seeds was fractionated with chloroform followed by ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate fraction was further fractionated and purified through a series of three successive column chromatographic separations using silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and C-18 columns. Liquid chromatography coupled to negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies were performed in the structure determination of the active phenolic compound present in the ethyl acetate fraction of W. tinctoria seeds. Results: A phenolic compound has been isolated and identified as chlorogenic acid by LC-MS/MS and NMR studies. Chlorogenic acid showed concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on collagen-induced platelet aggregation in vitro with an IC50 of 0.2363 μg/μl. Conclusion: The present data suggest that chlorogenic acid can be developed as potential antiplatelet agent in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in diabetes mellitus.
 
Article
The in-vitro free radical scavenging efficacy of the combined ethanolic Biherbal extract (BHE) from equal quantities of the leaves of Eclipta alba and seeds of Piper longum was investigated. This was compared with its individual preparation of ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba (EAE) and ethanolic extract of Piper longum (PLE). The 1, 1, diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), super oxide, nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power from BHE, EAE, and PLE were investigated employing various established in vitro systems. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were also determined. The results revealed that BHE has notable activity in quenching of DPPH, super oxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals when compared to its individual preparation of EAE and PLE. The BHE at 1000μg/ml showed maximum scavenging of DPPH (88.75%) super oxide (84.78%) nitric oxide (89.02%) and hydroxyl (82.82%) against the scavenging of EAE and PLE which showed DPPH (81.77%,83.54%) super oxide (79.88 ± 1.84, 80.88 ± 1.44%) nitric-oxide (76.14 ± 1.80, 77.2 ± 1.18%) and hydroxyl (79.86%, 74.64%) radicals respectively at the same concentration. A linear correlation between BHE and reducing power was also observed. The quantitative estimation of the extract revealed the considerable amount of phenols and flavonoids. The results of this study strongly indicate that the BHE has more potent antioxidant potential action than its individual preparation EAE or PLE.
 
Article
Diabetic neuropathic pain, an important microvascular complication in diabetes, is recognised as one of the most difficult types of pain to treat. The development of tolerance, inadequate relief, and potential toxicity of classical antinociceptives warrant the investigation of the newer agents to relieve this pain. Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, increased oxidative stress, cytokines, and apoptosis are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of methanolic extract of aerial parts of H. spinosa (HSME) on alloxan induced diabetic neuropathy in Wistar rats. Diabetic rats developed neuropathy after the third week of diabetes induction. Chronic treatment with HSME (250, 500, and 750 mg/kg body weight; p.o.) for 6 weeks starting from the 3rd week of alloxan injection showed significant increase in the pain threshold levels as compared to diabetic rats. HSME treated diabetic animals showed significant decrease in blood glucose level and increase in body weight as compared to diabetic control animals. The changes in lipid peroxidation status and antioxidant enzymes levels observed in sciatic nerve of diabetic rats were significantly restored by HSME treatment. Thus, the results suggest therapeutic potential of H. spinosa in treatment of diabetic neuropathy.
 
Article
Exposure of rampant higher glucose level in diabetic condition could lead earlier and late diabetic complication eventually caused malign effect in body organs. The aim of the present work was to analyze the anti-diabetic potential of chloroform fraction of ethanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (AP) and diabetes laden gene expression alteration. In streptozotocin (60 mg/kg bw, i.p.) induced Type 2 diabetes albino mice, two weeks consecutive repeated dose treatment of chloroform fraction of AP at dose of 200 mg/kg, orally was evaluated for antidiabetic screening. Fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance, serum lipid profile, tissues glycogen content, glucose 6-phosphatase and hexokinase enzymes level in liver, in vitro and in vivo insulin estimation were measured on last day of treatment. Subsequently presence of responsible phytoconstituents for respective activity was observed by HPLC. In diabetic mice, the fraction reduced the level of harmful cholesterol, while increased the favorable cholesterol significantly. Biochemical enzymes like glycogen, glucose-6-phosphatase and hexokinase were evaluated in body tissues. Apart from this in vitro, in vivo insulin estimation and diabetogenic gene expression analysis like GK, PEPCK, G-6pase, Glut-4, AR, PPAR-α,γ and TNF-α were evaluated using RT-PCR technique. Antidiabetic screening of fraction of AP at molecular level revealed significant antidiabetic activity.
 
Article
The in vitro oxidative stress induced by ethanol/Fenton's reaction in rat liver homogenates decreased significantly in the presence of Syzygium cumini seed extract, suggesting the protective effect of the seed extract against the oxidative stress in liver. To corroborate the in vitro effects by an in vivo experiment, 24 rats were divided into four groups: control, S. cumini seed-extract-administered (SE), 15% ethanol-fed (Alc) and Alc+SE rats. The oral administration of the extract (400 mg/kg BW.day) for 7 weeks significantly decreased the levels of liver LPO in the Alc+SE rats, suggesting that S. cumini seed not only obstructed the in vitro free radical production and subsequent oxidative stress, but also inhibited their in vivo formation. The oral administration of extract also reduced the enzyme activities of serum gammaglutamyl transferase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase and the levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, serum/liver triglycerides and total cholesterol of the alcoholic rats. The levels of fecal cholesterol were increased by the extract. Fatty degenerations in liver and kidney were absent with S. cumini seed extract treatment. The results suggest that S. cumini seed may be a potential therapy for alcoholics and related dysfunctions by restraining oxidative stress.
 
Article
The protective effect of a developed drink from blends of selected fruits on the sperm quality of alloxan-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetes was intraperitoneally induced with alloxan; the formulated drink blend was orally administered 2.5 or 5 mL/day. Treatment lasted for 14 days and the rats were humanely sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The antioxidant status via assessment of reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) was carried out on the testis, while sperm cells were analyzed for sperm motility, counts and abnormality. Induction of diabetes led to a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in GSH level, elevated SOD and CAT activities, significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the sperm quality parameters studied. However, treatment with the formulated drink led to a significant (p < 0.05) reduction of LPO, SOD and CAT activities as well as increase in GSH level. This study shows an improvement in testicular antioxidant activities and sperm qualities by single and double doses of the formulation, suggesting its protective potential against testicular toxicity in diabetic rats.
 
Article
Abstract The methanolic leaf extract of Bridelia micrantha was tested for subacute antidiabetic and in vivo antioxidant effects in alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats. The subacute treatment of the extract (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) produced 75, 68 and 63% reduction in fasting blood sugar level respectively, on day 14 of treatment. The extract produced time-dependent effect, but did not show a dose-dependent effect. Its optimum antidiabetic activity was noted at the dose of 125 mg/kg and this was comparable to glibenclamide 2 mg/kg (positive control). The extract (125 mg/kg) showed good oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) effect in both normoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic rats. The OGTT effect of the extract (125 mg/kg) did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from glibenclamide (2 mg/kg). The antioxidant effect of the extract was assayed through the determination of the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and catalase activity. The extract produced a dose-dependent decrease in the serum level of TBARS and gave its optimum catalase activity at the dose of 500 mg/kg. This study suggests that the B. micrantha extract has antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activities. Therefore, could be a potential source of novel antidiabetic and antioxidant agent for the management of diabetes mellitus.
 
Article
Background: Anthocyanins are phytochemicals with a multitude of pharmacological actions including anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects. This study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L., CM) fruits - that are rich in anthocyanins and known to have medicinal properties- in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Twenty-eight adult male rats were randomly assigned to four groups of seven animals each: non-diabetic control, diabetic control, glibenclamide-treated (0.6 mg/kg/day; 4 weeks) and CM fruit-treated (2 g/day; 4 weeks) group. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg). Fasting serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol (TC), low- (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), aspartate (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured at the end of study period. Results: Diabetic rats had significantly elevated levels of serum glucose, LDL-C, TG, AST, ALP and ALT and decreased levels of HDL-C compared to the non-diabetic group (p<0.05). Treatment with either glibenclamide or CM counterbalanced the above-mentioned abnormalities. The effects of CM were comparable to those of glibenclamide at the doses tested in this study. Serum glucose, TG, ALP and HDL concentrations in the normal group were significantly changed compared to the diabetic control group (p<0.05). There were no significant changes in evaluated biochemical parameters between the glibenclamide and CM groups with normal group. Histopathological examinations revealed a less severe hepatic portal inflammation in the CM-treated vs. other study groups. Conclusions: Dietary supplementation with CM fruits effectively prevents the development of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hepatic inflammation in alloxan-induced diabetes.
 
Phyto-chemistry study of five anti-diabetic medicinal plant/extracts 
Article
Abstract The hypoglycemic activities of nine sub-fractions from the methanolic leaf crude extract of Anisopus mannii were investigated in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The methanolic sub-fraction M at 400 mg/kg bw showed significantly (p<0.05) high reduction in fasting blood glucose (FBG) at 27.36 and 65.57% in normoglycemic and diabetic mice, respectively. In acute toxicity test, M at 2,000 and 5,000 mg/kg bw showed reduction in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine level, elevations in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and total bilirubin levels, as well as the body weights. The weight-ratios of kidney and liver to the body weight of the mice fed with these doses of M were reduced with no sign of histopathological alteration. The M at 250 mg/kg bw significantly reduced the FBG levels in a postprandial study. The hypoglycemic effect of M was eliminated when co-administered with isosorbide dinitrate or nifedipine indicating the induction of insulin secretion via K+ ATP-dependent channels. The UV/HPLC analysis of M indicated saponin at 7.7 mg/g. This study confirmed the traditional use of A. mannii for diabetes mellitus and the potential for the further development as a novel hypoglycemic drug.
 
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Aloe vera gel extract on plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and oral pathogenic bacteria in healthy volunteer. Fifty-three healthy volunteers were participated and interviewed for history of allergy, current systemic diseases and medications. Participants were received 250 mL of A. vera gel extract daily for 14 consecutive days. At days 0 and 15 of the experiment, blood samples were collected and analyzed for biochemical markers. The plasma TAC was evaluated by ferric reducing ability of plasma technique. The biochemical markers, including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), serum albumin (ALB), serum globulin (GLB), total bilirubin (TB), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr) and creatinine clearance (CrCl) were measured. The antibacterial effect of A. vera gel extract against Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus mutans was also investigated. Statistical analysis was performed using paired t-test to compare between baseline and 14 days post-intervention. Neither allergy nor side effects of A. vera gel extract was detected. After 14 days of A. vera gel extract consumption, plasma TAC was significantly greater than that of baseline (p = 0.001). ALP, TB, TP and GLB were significantly increased (p <0.05) which were still within normal range. AST, ALT, ALB, BUN, Cr and CrCl were not significantly different. A. vera gel extract significantly reduced the number of Lactobacillus spp. (p <0.05), not S. mutans. Our data revealed that A. vera gel extract significantly increased plasma TAC, and decreased the number of Lactobacillus spp. without any clinical side effects.
 
Experimental design for in vivo study. Here, Control group received saline for 21 successive days before paraffin (as vehicle of CCl 4 ) injection prior to sacrifice; CCl 4-treated control group received saline before CCl 4 injection, prior to sacrifice; Two doses of 400 and 800 mg gel per kg body weight per day were administered instead of saline.
Effects of dietary Aloe vera gel on CCl 4-induced hepatic cell damage. (A) Control group; (B) carbon tetrachloride-treated control group that showed severe fatty degeneration (red arrow), cell necrosis (yellow circle), and PMN infiltration (green arrow); (C) 400 mg/kg; (D) 800 mg/kg.
Article
Aloe vera is a semi-tropical plant of Liliaceae family which has a wide range of applications in traditional medicine. In the present study, we sought to investigate the heptaoprotective potential of Aloe vera gel as a diet supplement. To achieve this goal, we have designed in vitro and in vivo experimental models of chemical-induced liver damage using male Sprague-Dawley rat. In the in vitro model, its effect was evaluated on Fenton's reaction-induced liver lipid peroxidation. Co-incubation with gel significantly reduced the generation of liver lipid peroxide (LPO). Next, to see the similar effect in vivo, gel was orally administered to rats once daily for 21 successive days. Following 1 hour of the last administration of gel, rats were treated with intra-peritoneal injection of CCl4. Dietary gel showed significant hepatoprotection against CCl4-induced damage as evident by restoration of liver LPO, serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin towards near normal. The beneficial effects were pronounced with the doses used (400 and 800 mg/kg body weight). Besides, we did not observe any significant drop in serum albumin, globulin as well as total protein levels of gel-administered rats. Histopathology of the liver tissue further supported the biochemical findings confirming the hepatoprotective potential of dietary gel.
 
Article
The protective effect of licorice and diclofenac sodium in doses of 50 mg/kg bwt. and 5 mg/kg bwt. respectively against liver toxicity induced by CCl4 (1ml/kg bwt.) in olive oil [1:1 (v/v)] every other day for 8 weeks and by hepatic ischemia/reperfusion in adult male albino rats was studied. Different antioxidant and liver function parameters were reported to find the protective effect of both licorice and diclofenac sodium against hepatotoxicity. Results showed that licorice protected against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as well as ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury. On the other hand, diclofenac sodium caused deleterious effects, especially in presence of CCl4, where a high mortality rate was observed.
 
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The bioactive properties of Manuka honey are now well recognised, but the nature of honey (a sticky, viscous fluid) can make it hard to use as a health remedy. A new technology using encapsulation of Manuka honey with alpha-cyclodextrin molecules has been developed, creating a free-flowing powder that can easily be added to foods and beverages, or tableted / made into capsules for use in health. In this study, we investigated for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Antioxidant capacity of raw Manuka honeys and matched complexes was measured using the CUPRAC method. Results showed that the antioxidant activity of honey decreased when complexed, this being directly related to dilution of the final product with alpha-cyclodextrin. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by measuring inhibition of neutrophil TNF-alpha secretion. Contradictory results were produced, with both stimulation and inhibition of TNF-alpha being observed. Data from this study indicate that the formation of cyclodextrin-based complexes of Manuka honey may potentiate the anti-inflammatory activity of honey, but this may differ depending on methylglyoxal content and the presence of other factors.
 
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: Public interest in and demand for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) services have increased in recent years throughout the Western world. The aim of the study was to assess trends in publications on CAM in the medical literature between 1963 and 2012 and to compare them with overall trends in publications on medical issues. : A search of the literature was conducted on CAM and integrative medicine using the PubMed and Google Scholar search engines with key search terms. : Articles on CAM began to appear in the medical literature 50 years ago. Over the years there has been an increase in the number of publications. On PubMed the increase was from 15,764 to 144,288 articles from 1963 to 2012. In the decade between 1963 and 1972 publications on CAM comprised 0.81 % of all the articles appearing in PubMed. Over the course of the 50 years, the percentage increased more than twofold to 1.92 % from 2003 to 2012. On Google Scholar there were 27,170 citations related to CAM between 1963 and 1972. This increased to 2,521,430 between 2003 and 2012. : Over the last 50 years there has been an increase in scientific publications on CAM in general, and on specific CAM treatments in particular.
 
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Dhan Prakash Prof
  • Amity University
Charu Gupta
  • Amity University
Farzad Shidfar
  • Iran University of Medical Sciences
Télesphore Benoit Benoît Nguelefack
Legssyer Abdelkhaleq
  • Université Mohammed Premier