Using data from the 1991 and 2000 Censuses, and the 2001 and 2008 PNAD of Brazil, this paper examines change in educational, racial and religious intermarriage. Different perspectives on social change make different predictions regarding shifts in the magnitude of marital homogamy within these three social characteristics. Racial homogamy is less pronounced in Brazil than in a variety of other contexts, educational homogamy is comparable to that reported in the United States, and religious homogamy is much more pronounced than either educational or racial homogamy. The most common pattern of social change is increased fluidity in mate selection. Homogamy parameters are becoming smaller for race, education and religion, but the pattern of change is not uniform. Boundaries appear to be increasing at the two tails of the education distribution and for some religious categories.
The abortion issue tests the conflict resolution capabilities of a political system. The reform statute passed in 1974 in France is one of the most liberal in the West and -one of the few in which lawmakers accepted a woman’s right to choose to interrupt her pregnancy. Yet it is filled with administrative hurdles making cumbersome the exercise of that right. This study explains how the policymaking process determined the content of the reform. Conclusions show the effectiveness of feminist groups exerting outside initiative in defining the issue, the reinforcement of their demands by political parties and legislators, and the leadership and will of the President and his Minister in making the final policy choice.
This paper examines a mismatch between the surveys used to study U.S. household composition and the dynamics of living arrangements prevailing among many low-income African Americans. Mounting survey findings suggest that many low-income African Americans engage in a series of short cohabitations resulting in children with a succession of partners. Ethnographic data suggest these behaviors may be based within a relationship paradigm that needs to be understood on its own terms. Because of the tenuous nature of these relationships, we refer to this paradigm as transient domesticity. An original analysis of partnership and child custody statuses using the 2001 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) presented provides an indication of the extent of transient domesticity among low-income African Americans. Multivariate analysis suggests that transient domesticity or a paradigm that results in similar characteristics is more common among low income and African American adults and not unique to low-income African Americans. Low-income African Americans as compared to higher-income whites and other subpopulations were much less likely to be married, although most of them reported they were single as opposed to cohabiting. The majority (60%) of low-income African American females age 20-44 were single parenting. The discussion presents recommendations for improving the measurement of living arrangements that may provide greater insight into transient domesticity. The discussion also examines possible improvements to our conceptualization of transient domesticity.
Given the dominant culture's emphasis upon being thin in the United States, we investigated the hypothesis that obesity is a childhood characteristic that has a disruptive effect upon the parenting of European American parents. Past research suggests, however, that the African American community is less concerned about issues of being overweight, and therefore child obesity was expected to have less impact upon the parenting practices of African American mothers and fathers. Therefore, we did not expect to find a relationship between quality of parenting and child's obesity for African American parents. These hypotheses were tested using two samples: the first was comprised of approximately 847 European American families, and second consisted of 867 African American families. The findings supported the hypotheses. Our analyses showed the predicted negative association between child's weight and the parenting of European American mothers and fathers whereas there was no such relationship for African Americans parents. These results were largely consistent across four dimensions of parenting (warmth, monitoring, inductive reasoning, and problem solving), and held for both daughters and sons.
Do the different ideological legacies of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) result in persisting differences in women's housework in the unified Germany? In this paper, I examine the housework of employed German women, singles and as well as women with partners, in the decade after unification using data from the German Socioeconomic Panel (GSOEP). This comparison allows me to assess the role of regional differences in shaping women's housework, while further distinguishing between full-time and part-time workers. The study shows that women with partners do more housework than single women do, regardless of region of residence. Among singles, there are no East-West differences in either the level of housework or the mechanisms that shape it. However, among women with partners, West German women do significantly more housework. These differences are only in part explained by differential participation in full-time and part-time employment. East German women's individual earnings are less effective than West Germans' in reducing housework for both full-time and part-time workers. Overall, the results of the study imply that the different ideological legacies FRG and the GDR do have a lasting impact on the housework of partnered women through family roles, while singles do not seem to be affected by any remaining differences in the socio-political context.
Kidney transplantation as a medical innovation involves the entire extended family in a major decision. Will a relative donate a kidney to help save the life of a dying patient? It is the aim of this study to use the transplant experience as a research site to enhance our knowledge of how individuals in a family attempt to make a major and highly stressful decision. Over a 1½ year period 124 families were followed through the transplant experience with questionnaires and repeated qualitative interviews. The results indicate that only a minority of related donors and non-donors (non-volunteers) perceived themselves as going through a rational decision-making process involving deliberation and conscious choice. Instead the majority seemed to follow one of two patterns compatible with Schwartz’s “moral-decision-making” model. First, the vast majority of donors, and a substantial minority of nondonors appeared to make an instantaneous choice and commitment with deliberation. Secondly, other subjects postponed donation without a conscious choice being made. A few donors of this type became “locked into” donation by taking a few first steps in the testing procedure; while a substantial minority of non-donors drifted into non-donation without arriving at a clear-cut decision.
A substantial number of Latino farmworkers migrate to the U.S. from Mexico and other Central American countries, many of whom are fathers. This study investigated migrant Latino farmworkers' fathering behaviors, father involvement correlates, and family relationship variables. We analyzed structured interview data from primarily Mexican migrant farmworker fathers (N=192) in North Carolina. Father child phone contact, coparenting cooperation, and relationship quality with children's mothers were interrelated and positively correlated with fathers' closeness to their children. Pre-migration father engagement was negatively correlated with fathers' reported closeness to their children following migration. A positive migration outlook among fathers seemed to connect with more cooperative coparenting and less depressive symptomology. Our fmdings suggest migration for migrant farmwork may still afford men close family relationships given cultural values emphasizing the importance of fathers' financial provision to their family members.
Australia has a larger and more diverse immigrant population than most Western societies. Australia's immigration history is linked to the story of family migration as Australia sought immigrants for permanent settlement. However, it is important to aviod over-generalisation when studying immigrant families in Australia today. The main hypothesis is that in order to understand the immigrant family in Australia today it is necessary to study the intersection of factors such as ethnicity, class, gender and racism. This article approaches the study of Australia's immigrant families by first making the distinction between immigrants from English-speaking countries and those from non-English-speaking countries. It then looks to differences that emerge from a more detailed study of the immigrant family by ethnic origin before exploring the impact of social class on the lives of immigrant families, viewed through the prism of the social construction of immigrants in Australia. The conclusion is that the immigrant family in Australia is an elusive concept, with immigrant families experiencing a wide variety of situations due to particular intersections of ethnicity, class, gender and racism. Nevertheless, immigrant families from non English-speaking backgrounds tend to be relatively disadvantaged - according to the socio-economic indicators - compared to immigrant families from English-speaking countries.
We compare patterns of movements into and out of poverty by children in Britain and Germany using data from the British Household Panel Survey and the German Socio- Economic Panel for the period 1992-7. Compared to Germany, in Britain poverty persistence is greater, and poverty exit rates in particular are lower. In both countries poverty is particularly persistent among children in lone parent households and households with a nonworking head. Events such as family formation and dissolution, and changes in household labour market attachment are associated with child poverty transitions in the direction expected, and in both countries. However a large fraction of the observed poverty transitions are not accounted for by these events.
Although there exists a growing body of literature dedicated to understanding the complexities of grandparenting, few researchers have documented the demographic patterns and social trends that encompass contemporary grandparenthood. Concomitantly, in instances where researchers have described such patterns, data are largely derived from studies profiling American populations. This paper, therefore, examines social trends in grandparenthood and outlines the demographic context within which Canadians participate in grandparent-grandchild relationships. Drawing on nationally representative samples and data derived from both the 1990 and 1995 General Social Surveys of Canada, this study analyzes patterns influencing grandparenthood such as grandparents' rates of survival, the prevalence of grandparenthood, multiple generation families, step-grandparenthood and the availability of grandchildren. In addition, analysis considers rates of intergenerational cohabitation and surrogate parenting as well as grandparents' participation in additional social roles.
Firstly, this paper intends to analyze the kind of relationships existing inside a family. In order to do that, the author makes an effort to reconsider its historical forming process applying classical anthropological texts. At this stage, the analysis proposes two different types of relationships between human beings: the primal, which arose from the most elementary feelings of love, protection, accompaniment and a strictly social relation rose from needs of cooperation and collective work. Family is an expression of both kinds of relationships. Secondly, this work analyzes nuclear family as a result of a historical process associated with the development of capital and social conditions, which make its consolidation possible. Thirdly, the author proposes a discussion about crisis of nuclear family under the contemporary global
transformation perspective of capital accumulation. As a conclusion, it describes some reflections on perspectives that those transformations brought to the role of the family.$$Family evolution, Contemporary social
transformation, Costa Rica.
Studied the relationship between marital status and tuberculosis among women in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1785-1819 by analyzing parish death lists and family records. Findings indicate that consumptive women tended to marry at slightly later ages, were more often widowed, single, or separated, and had fewer children; data also show that "stress and strain" was an important factor in the tendency to assess consumption as a cause of death in umarried women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Observed combinations of adult–child associative groupings in public places in 18 cultures between 1974 and 1981. Groupings were coded by the number of either men or women associated with a child and the appearance of a man, woman, and child together (nuclear family template). Findings indicate that the nuclear family template is a popular mode of association in discretionary and public places, the popularity of which may increase with a shift away from the traditional division of labor. (French & Spanish abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Explores the relationship between the myth of family tranquility and nonviolence, the role of the woman in the family, and the ideology of popular culture as represented in a Canadian women's magazine,
Chatelaine, from 1939 to 1980. Purposive sampling yielded 78 articles for content analysis. Results show a movement toward situating conflict within the dyadic relationship. However, this apparent progressiveness is belied by suggested solutions to conflict that most typically propose accommodation by the woman to the wishes or needs of her husband. Traditional values of the woman assuming responsibility for management of tension and conflict are re-presented in a different guise. Aspects of familial violence were dealt with in 11 articles since 1960. The most common explanation for violence was individual psychopathology, an explanation that neglects the pervasiveness of the phenomenon and reinforces the myth of family nonviolence. It is suggested that the magazine presents a family-conflict model in which problems are psychologically based and solutions are most frequently reached through direct or indirect accommodation/management by women. The coding scheme is appended. (French & Spanish abstracts) (3 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Explored the process of acculturation in the Indo-Canadian family. 330 30–65 yr olds parents' acculturation attitudes were examined in relation to their 228 11–21 yr old children's attitudes and behavior problems. This study had 3 objectives. First, it aimed to develop reliable and valid measures of acculturation attitudes and beliefs for the sample. It explored the relationship of acculturation with socialization beliefs. Finally, the connection between acculturation attitudes and behavioral and disciplinary problems of 2nd generation adolescents was examined. Ss completed questionnaires assessing demographics, acculturation attitudes, socialization beliefs, and behavioral occurrences. Parents indicated the frequency of their involvement in children's discipline-related issues and school-related activities. Children indicated experiencing disciplinary problems, problems with the law, and drinking or smoking habits. Results show that aspects of socialization beliefs were associated with acculturation attitudes that advocated maintenance of cultural identity. Salient aspects of North American socialization beliefs seemed to be adopted by Ss who preferred assimilation. Ss who wished to keep the best of both worlds subscribed the socialization beliefs shared by both cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The Soviet social system and its transformation during the post-Stalin period have exerted a tremendous impact on the Soviet family and related institutions. Trends in the Soviet Union across the last three decades have affected the Soviet family in different ways--some of these trends, like the decay of socialism and the rise in privatization, havelcd to the strengthening of the family, while other trends, such as the demoralization of Soviet society and rampant individualism unrestrained by social values, have encouraged lifestyles which are incompatible with even the mildest family bonds.
Glasnost and the liberalization of Soviet society, plus the transition from a harsh, despotic, Orwellian state militantly hostile to private life to a society where the individual’s rights are at least partially recognized by the state, had led to a radical weakening of all social ties, including those of the family.
Hypothesized that Canadian Indian parents would demonstrate a more liberal approach to child rearing than Canadian White parents. 54 Indian parents (mean age 28.6 yrs) and 41 White parents (mean age 32.1 yrs) with a child less than 6 yrs old completed the NC 158 Q-Sort Inventory of Parenting Behaviors (J. T. Lawton et al, 1983). Ss rated each item in terms of ideal and actual parenting behavior. Results indicated more similarities than differences in White and Indian parents' reports of actual child-rearing behaviors. The only significant cultural differences were found for physical behaviors. Discrepancies between parenting beliefs and actual practices were found for White parents only. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the structure and dynamics of 20 Vietnamese and 30 Sino-Vietnamese families living in North America. Data from interviews of Ss and their sponsors indicate that the individual's background and cultural heritage affect his/her willingness and ability to adjust to resettlement. This cultural baggage, along with the conditions and opportunity structure of Victoria, Canada, produced a mind set and an emotional state that affected the individual's interaction with other family members and kin. Suggestions are provided to remedy deficiencies found in the existing literature on Vietnamese and Sino-Vietnamese families; hypotheses and predictions concerning patterns of family adustment in North America are also offered. (French & Spanish abstracts) (48 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Tested the hypothesis that pressures from outside the family social system (e.g., school or work) tend to decrease marital adjustment, while satisfactory relationships support it by administering a questionnaire to 100 female and 98 male married US university students. Situational variables included community satisfaction, health, friends, voluntary organizations, felt pressures, and life satisfaction. Social background variables, interaction, and marital adjustment were also measured. Results show that communication was the best predictor of marital adjustment for both males and females. However, the inclusion of situational variables improved prediction significantly for males. It is suggested that situational variables must be included with personality, social background, and cross-cultural factors in the study of marital adjustment. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Investigated the private, religious devotional practices (i.e., Bible reading and prayer at home) of 208 couples, 52 from each of 4 religious categories (sect, evangelical, liberal, and institutional/authoritarian [Catholic]) to determine their impact on marital adjustment. Mean ages for the marital groups were 35.5, 36.6, 40, and 36.6 yrs, respectively. Mean length of marriage for the groups was 14, 13, 13.5, and 13 yrs, respectively. Results show that prayer and Bible reading were perceived by sect and evangelical members, but not by liberal and Catholic members, as highly important to their handling of marital problems. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the role of adjustment and the relationships of some selected variables with the adjustment of couples when either of the 2 spouses is absent. Results from 264 duolocal husbands (mean age 36.5 yrs) and duolocal wives (mean age 26 yrs) indicate that the variables modernity values, marital adjustment, and monthly income were related to the adjustment of duolocal husbands, while frequency of home visits by husbands and number of years wives lived without husbands were related to the duolocal wives' adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Conflict between a parent and an adolescent may be indicative of problems of family cohesion, and may predict poorer self-esteem and problems of emotion and behavior. This idea is explored in high school and junior college populations in Alberta, Canada, and in Britain. In all, 1,796 Ss (aged 12–19 yrs) completed the summary scale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD), which was also completed by a parent. Results were generally similar in both cultures. On all scale items, adolescents were significantly more critical of their family life than were their parents. The degree of difference between parent and child descriptions of family functioning was significantly correlated with the adolescents' Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale scores, as well as self-completed, standardized measures of problems of emotion and behavior. Differences between parent and child's responses to the FAD were better predictors than FAD scores alone. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The linkage between family structure, language, and ethnic identity is investigated to find out the effects of 2 major socialization mechanisms: one, family cultural transmission, and the other, structural symbolic interaction. The data on 135 Chinese-American children (aged 5–13 yrs) indicates that family language proficiency is retained mainly through parental teaching; thus, first-born children and those with fewer siblings were favored. The construction of ethnic identity by children has followed a different process. Volition and social construction by children themselves, as predicted by structural interactionists, were found to have some influence in determining their version of ethnicity. The evidence further suggests that children reacted negatively to parental pressure to retain Chinese identity and that family structure, e.g., sibling size or birth order, also delimits a range for these children's reactions and identity formation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Analyzed 1,800 classified matrimonial advertisements appearing in an Israeli newspaper over 35 yrs (beginning in 1948) to examine changing ideals and perceptions of husbands and wives in Israel. Findings show that the discrepancy between desirable attributes in brides and those in grooms has lessened considerably over the years. Also, the past view that marriage is a partnership has gradually shifted toward more emphasis on companionship, based more on personal attraction and mutual satisfaction than on complementarity of material interests. (French & Spanish abstracts) (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Compared attitudes toward aging and the needs of old people among 200 college students from Taiwan and 400 students of Chinese descent living in the US. Ss completed the Attitude Toward Old People Scale and the Needs of Old People Scale; they also indicated whether they lived in a household that included their grandparents, whether they would choose to live with their grandparents, and whether they had a religious affiliation. Results indicate that both groups had favorable attitudes toward aging and old people. However, Taiwanese held less stereotypical views of old people, while the Chinese-Americans held more positive views. Results are discussed in view of the role of increased urbanization and educational, societal, and family support for attitudes toward the aged. (French & Spanish abstracts) (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Compared family relationships in stepfamilies with those in traditional families. The definition of stepfamilies included unmarried mothers entering into 1st marriages or those created informally through cohabitation, and data were drawn from 60 women who had borne illegitimate children and 60 legitimate childbearers matched for age, parity, and year of delivery. All mothers were 18–21 yrs old when they had their 1st child. Interviews took place when the eldest child was 2, 5, or 10 yrs old and covered such topics as family composition, history of the family, attitudes about family life, and relationships between family members. Data on family relationships were used to compare the 32 identified stepfamilies with the 68 2-parent families and with 15 of the single-parent families. Three types of family alliance were found (neutral, offensive, and defensive), and these alliances were shown to be widespread among all families. Variables that tended to mitigate some of the painful consequences of steprelationships are discussed, and it is suggested that difficulties encountered by stepchildren and stepparents may have more to do with external obstacles than with internal resistance to the new family roles. (French & Spanish abstracts) (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Surveyed 31 American married couples and 53 Indian couples in arranged and love marriages on marital satisfaction and communication practices. Couples in Indian arranged marriages rated marital satisfaction higher than did American couples or Indian love marriages. Indian love marriages bore greater similarity to American companionate marriages in that verbal, nonverbal, and sexual communication had a greater influence on marital satisfaction than was the case with Indian arranged marriages. It is suggested that submissiveness and appropriate selection and external support of a wife influence the degree of satisfaction in arranged marriages. (French & Spanish abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Administered to male and female American and Chinese college students a 122-item questionnaire developed by P. Rosenkrantz et al (see record
1968-13746-001) to measure sex-role stereotypes and self-concepts. 58 American and 43 Chinese male Ss rated American and Chinese male characteristics, respectively, while 54 American and 78 Chinese males rated American and Chinese female characteristics. 79 American and 62 Chinese females rated American and Chinese male characteristics, while 92 American and 50 Chinese females rated American and Chinese female characteristics. Results show that a pervasive double standard exists in both Chinese and American males' perception of females. Significant differences were also found in self-concepts of American and Chinese Ss. Females had significantly different concepts of males than males had of themselves. Specific differences between groups are analyzed. The role of the Chinese student on an American campus is discussed. (21 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the family photographs on display in 105 homes in an urban working-and-lower-middle-class neighborhood and an urban-, and a suburban-upper-middle-class area. Suburban and working-and-lower- middle-class homes displayed an average of 28 photographs, and the urban upper-middle-class homes had an average of 22. Almost all the photos were of family members. Pictures of nonkin were usually part of a context which highlights kin relations and above all the nuclear family. The stress on informal depictions has to do with a notion of pleasure that underlines those family occasions on which the central agenda is having fun with members of the nuclear unit. None of the pictures depicted a head of the household's divorced spouse; almost none depicted a family member as unhappy or lonely. This may be a form of denial of the fragility of the nuclear family. (French & Spanish abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses the role of the family in relation to immigrants to the US. Family considerations often motivated immigrants to make the journey to America, and family considerations also influenced their settlement and occupational choices. Whatever the form of immigrant family structure (transplanted nuclear and/or extended, surrogate, communal, or newly established), family members clustered together in ethnic communities that remained family focused. Immigrants who had strong families to support them and/or compatible values with those of the host society also had an edge in attaining the dream of economic security. Although some families broke up in America as they might not have in the old country, most adapted and put down roots. (French & Spanish abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This study examines the network of rights and obligations found in the Filipino American family. I show that family and kinship links are extended to provide a broader base for interdependence and mutual support. This paper relates economic adaptation to family organization and function.
The data were gathered by participant-observation, formal and informal interviews, and by collecting extensive life and family histories. The data are derived from a continuing study of a Filipino community in Central California between 1973-74 and 1978-80.
Reviews the impact of feminist scholarship on family research by showing how the conceptualization of gender has transformed sociological understanding of the family. Whether or not people self-consciously identify as feminists, structural changes in the relationship of family and work are producing new forms of gender relationships and new beliefs about family relationships. While feminist beliefs may not be the only causal agent for changes in belief systems, the development of feminist values sets the ground for further transformation in societal beliefs and practices. Feminist theory provides the intellectual context for understanding the transformation of gender relations in families. Issues discussed include diversity in family forms, challenges to the hegemony of family ideology, and the social structural interactions of work and family. (French & Spanish abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Compares the histories of 2 of America's emblematic families, the Rockefellers and the Kennedys, to illustrate upper-class generational patterns of social ascent and decline. Certain milestones are examined for each family: the 1st generation's acquisition of its wealth, the 2nd generation's staking out of its claim, and the 3rd generation's balancing of privileges and temptations to sustain top rank. Upper-class families must reverse the general goal of modern parenting, which is to prepare children to leave the nest. By contrast, upper-class families do all they can to keep their children bound to the family, ready to deny themselves for the collective welfare and to subordinate personal desires to family duties. The American dream of family thus takes on a special class coloring with important generational ramifications. (French & Spanish abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the correspondence among the symbolic image of the American male as a father, the generalized paradigm of the US father-figure, and data on adult male–child interactions. Findings show that elements of the symbolic image of fathers shifted in the mid-70's, resulting in a perspective change about how fathers were viewed in society. A stereotyped image of the paternal role in cartoons is also discussed. Analyses are compared with cross-cultural observational data that indicate that males are with children in public places in significant proportions when their presence is not restricted by cultural norms (e.g., working hours). Suggestions as to why US men are portrayed in a negative light when interacting with children are presented. (French & Spanish abstracts) (60 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examines the portrayal of the family in the "New American Cinema" from 1967 to the present. The focus is on the interplay among family screen images, dominant ideology, and the larger social structure, exploring the guidelines, prescriptions, and proscriptions American films have provided concerning the structure, values, and functions of the family. Six major cycles of family films are examined: the decline of the family in the late 1960s, the attempt to substitute the nuclear family with alternative family structures in the late 1960s and early 1970s, a cycle of films about White suburban families in the mid and late 1970s, a cycle depicting tormented and troubled families in the late 1970s and early 1980s, a cycle of youth-oriented films in the mid 1980s, and a return to traditional family values and structures in the late 1980s. (French & Spanish abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined cultural differences in the development of social competence by analyzing 260 parents' rankings of importance of 8 social competency items (assertiveness, good behavior, openness to experience, persistence, self-direction, sensitivity, sociability, and tolerance). Ss were all parents of children aged 8–18 yrs and included 157 mothers (mean age 40.8 yrs) and 103 fathers (mean age 42.8 yrs). 136 were Americans of European ancestry, and 124 were Americans of Japanese ancestry. A multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) disclosed a significant main effect for ethnicity and for the interaction of ethnicity by age of child. Results are interpreted with respect to J. U. Ogbu's (see record
1981-30217-001) model of cultural ecology, and it is concluded that the cultural background of parents affects their valuing of competencies in their children. (French & Spanish abstracts) (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Against the background of the traditional procedures and functions of ancestor worship in Korea, the recent changes in actual practices and selected attitudes are examined. Findings indicate that those traditional or religious elements that are directly contradictory to the ideology of modernization and yet not in conflict with the fundamental values of ancestor worship, are more easily susceptible to change, compared to those elements which constitute the basic values of ancestor worship. The long- and short-range future of ancestor worship is discussed. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Compares 2 models of grandparenting, 1 common in Anglo-American culture and the other in Apache culture that defines the grandparent as important in the socialization and care of children. Extensive interviews were conducted from 1989–1991 with 13 grandmothers, 4 adult daughters, a medicine man, and an Anglo teacher. The initial focus was on the place of the grandmother in transmitting traditional values and teaching family work skills. Also explored is the role of grandmothers as being a responsible for the physical support of their children and grandchildren. The Anglo-American pattern is seen as moving beyond cares of childraising with subtle boundaries between generational households, and the Apache pattern is depicted as cross-generational reciprocity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Surveyed the childrearing values of 579 White and 480 Black low-income mothers of 5th- and 6th-grade children from rural areas in the southeastern US. Ss were interviewed to assess maternal values with regard to obedience/conformity, self-direction/internalization, honesty, and attempts to succeed. Responses were compared with working and middle class samples of mothers interviewed by M. Kohn (1969, 1977). Results show that Ss from the present investigation were more likely to select conformity/obedience and success attainment values and less likely to select values representing self-direction and internalization than those from Kohn's sample. While low-income rural Ss acknowledged the need for conformity as an adaptive mechanism for immediate socioeconomic circumstances, they maintained a desire for their children to rise above their current status. (60 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This research investigates the impact of socio-economic changes on the traditional role of women in Saudi Arabia. A descriptive-comparative study was conducted using sixty-two women and their daughters, representing two generations and three economic groups all living in an urban community of Dammam. The information obtained from older women who had lived in Arabia prior to its oil boom supplied the baseline date for the comparison with young generation women, born and living in Arabia following the discovery of oil.
The study found major social and cultural changes reflected in family structure and marriage styles, as well as in the rising number of educated women. Despite these changes, however, no significant modification in the traditional role of women was observed. This is believed to be because employment opportunities for women in the modem sectors of the economy remain extremely limited while the traditional economic contributions of women have become undervalued.
Reviews social research on the Arab family in Israel during (1) the 1950s and 1960s and (2) the 1970s and 1980s. Three main family units are distinguished: the
hamula (kinship group), the extended family, and the nuclear family. The complexity of the modernization process among Arabs in Israel is reflected in family lifestyles. Although the
hamula has been integrated into the modern system, the economic role of and identification with the kinship group have changed. Despite changes in the structure of the extended family, however, there has been some continuity in the extended relationships between family members. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Exploration of attitudes towards arranged marriages were examined from the perspective of second generation Pakistani Muslim women living in a western society. Symbolic Interactionism and Interpretive Interactionism were the theoretical and methodological considerations respectively. 20 single females (aged 16-30 yrs), living in Canada or the United States, were interviewed utilizing an unstructured schedule interview. The main research question addressed the role of western values in influencing mate-selection practices. Other questions centered around the Pakistani women's definition of the situation with regards to arranged marriages. The results indicated that even though Pakistani parents, especially fathers, are perceived to be resistant to change, western values are playing a determining role in the process of mate-selection for second generation Pakistani Muslim females. Most Pakistani women are adapting and modifying attitudes which reflect the ideas of western ideology of greater self-expression and personal gratification. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Measured attitudes of 182 college students toward traditional and current norms of arranged marriages and mate selection in India. Analysis of responses to the question on mate selection indicated that male Ss, non-Brahmins, Hindus, and Ss from high income families tended to be more liberal and express more independent attitudes than their counterparts. A majority of the Ss stated that they would like to have the opportunity to meet their future spouse, while only about one-fifth of the Ss supported the traditional practice of not meeting future spouse before marriage. In general, the study supports the thesis that the forces of modernization are resulting in liberal attitudes toward mate selection among Indian college students. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Indian culture is described as one in which the family holds primacy over the individual. Therefore, isolating the patient from the family may be counterproductive to the therapy. Two case examples are given of psychotherapy conducted by the authors in the West with 2 Asian Indian males (a 34-yr-old engineer and a 27-yr-old studying business administration). In both cases, the families played a role in the therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the stressful experiences of youth in Southeast Asian refugee families resettled in Canada. While many studies have focused on the mental health of adult refugees few have examined the situation of their children. The authors suggest that these refugee children face an array of stressors upon settlement in their new country; school, family, social. The authors interviewed 16 individuals and 3 focus groups to determine the salient stressors of refugees. School adjustment (marginalization and cultural conflict), parent–child relationships (communication difficulties and parental expectations), and internal conflicts (acculturation, values, and ethnic identity) were all identified as significant stressors. Implications for research and clinical environments is suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses Black families' aspirations for education and home ownership. Although a good education is a major aspiration of Black parents at every economic level, most see society as placing more limitations on Black life chances and opportunities than on those of others. This leads the children not to take schooling seriously for their own lives as they witness unemployment and worry about their future job prospects. In regard to housing, an increasing number of Blacks are moving to the suburbs where they can enjoy a quality of housing superior to that of the inner cities. However, the part of the Black community able to move to better housing comprises only half of all Black households. This leaves a large group, especially female-headed households and the Black elderly, whose dreams remain frustrated. (French & Spanish abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The purpose in the pilot study reported here was to develop a process to test, quantitatively, the relationship between information about families’ social identities arrived at through three different sources: 1) coders’ ratings of family photographs, 2) family self-ratings of social identity, and 3) family scores on a true and false instrument that measures social identity. The process that was developed has been labeled the Family Photo Assessment Process or FPAP.
From the results of preliminary testing, it appears that coders can be trained to reliably assess several dimensions of the family’s social identity from viewing family photos and interviewing family members. It also appears that there are cultural differences in the dimensions discernable from family photos. Subsequently research will reveal if these cultural differences are evident in comparisons between American and Japanese photos.
The long range questions are: Will the family photo album emerge as another “slice of data” on which to access family social identity? Will the family photo album emerge as a source of information on which to make cross-cultural comparisons of family life?
New reproductive technologies have the potential to radicalize family life, as they could blur kinship lines, separate biological and social parenthood, and encourage couples to create 'designer babies'. On the other hand, these technologies could help more married couples create socially-acceptable nuclear families and reduce unwanted childless marriages. This article uses the stories from qualitative interviews with couples seeking fertility treatments in New Zealand to interrogate motives for treatment, gendered experiences with procedures, and views about the future of marriage without children. The interviews show that, despite the potential of medically assisted conception, these participants use reproductive technologies as a vehicle to normality and social acceptance. The results of this study, combined with overseas research, suggest that medically assisted conception could reinforce pronatalism and patriarchal families rather than lead to a future revolution in family life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This article examines the nature of privacy in the family. It provides an empirical illustration of privacy zonings within the private sphere of the family that is based on survey data from 414 Chinese residents in Hong Kong. The results of the analysis point to 2 main features in the respondents' conception of privacy: first, the permeability of interpersonal boundaries shows a hierarchical pattern linked to the intimacy hierarchy between the individual and the other family members; second, the level of desire for privacy is different between counterparts in dyadic relationships, such as husband–wife, parent–child, brother–sister. Although differences do not occur across all privacy components, they appear to be connected to the asymmetric power structure in the traditional Chinese family. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Investigated attitudes toward cohabitation and marriage among Canadian women, focusing on the structural variables which mold such attitudes. Data analyzed were from the Canadian Fertility Survey (1984) of 5,315 women (aged 18–49 yrs). Women who were older, married, living in rural areas, less educated, non-Catholic, frequent churchgoers, and who desired more children were more conservative in their attitudes toward cohabitation and marriage. Quebec women tended to be more liberal than women living elsewhere. (French & Spanish abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)