Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1099-1298
Print ISSN: 1052-9284
Publications
Stress has been shown to deplete the self-regulation resources hypothesized to facilitate effective role functioning. However, recent research suggests that positive affect may help to replenish these vital self-regulation resources. Based on revised Stress and Coping theory and the Broaden-and-Build theory of positive emotion, three studies provide evidence of the potential adaptive function of positive affect in the performance of roles for participants experiencing stress. Participants were students (Study 1), caregivers of ill children (Study 2), and individuals recently diagnosed with HIV (Study 3). In cross sectional analyses, using role functioning as an indicator of self-regulation performance, we found that positive affect was significantly correlated with better self regulation performance, independent of the effects of negative affect. The effects were not as strong longitudinally, however, and there was little evidence of a reciprocal association between increases in positive affect and improvements in role functioning over time. The results provide some modest support for hypotheses stemming from the Broaden and Build model of positive emotion and revised Stress and Coping theory, both of which argue for unique adaptive functions of positive affect under stressful conditions.
 
All psychological and social research presents ethical dilemmas, many of which centre around the difficulties which flow from the power imbalances between those conducting the research and the research respondents or participants. Issues of power are magnified in research undertaken in contexts of poverty, and there is a burgeoning literature on ethical issues in research in developing countries. In this article, we augment the existing literature by focusing on the experiences of an assessor working in a controlled trial of a mother-infant intervention in a poor South African community. We consider issues of community expectations, the presentation to our project of physical health problems, the issue of HIV/AIDS, cultural beliefs which impact on the research, child protection issues, and the tensions between research assessment and ubuntu--a cultural norm which requires helpful engagement with others. We suggest that our experiences may assist with the development of further research.
 
This paper reports a follow-up of 39 women who had donated eggs to an assisted conception unit. Their experience of donation and their motivation and attitudes were assessed. Comparisons were made with a group of semen donors who were attending a second unit. Female and male donors donated for altruistic reasons and neither group wished to have contact with recipients or donor offspring or have their identity revealed. Female donors were more involved in the donation process and more interested in the outcome of donation. They also appeared to be more motivated by 'helping' than male donors. The sample of female donors contained a small group of women who were donating to sisters and friends. In comparison with anonymous donors, these women reported more effects upon the family and issues of secrecy and openness were more apparent. The results are discussed in the light of previous studies and the legal framework for donation in the UK. Attention is drawn to the lack of social psychological analyses in this controversial medical area.
 
Mental health professionals' attitudes towards deaf people were examined in relation to their previous contact with deaf people and their knowledge of deafness. Data were gathered regarding different aspects of contact, including the number and type of relationships participants had had with deaf people. A cognitive-processing theory of attitude change following contact (Rothbart & John, 1985) was explored. Knowledge of deafness did not correlate with attitudes towards deaf people but a relationship was found between the amount of contact that professionals had with deaf people of equal or higher status and more positive attitudes.
 
Despite moves towards more openness over the allocation of treatment in the National Health Service (NHS), the public remains dependent upon the media for most of its information. This paper concerns the issue of rationing and how this was represented in newspaper articles following a controversial decision by a health authority to withhold a particular treatment from a 10-year old girl suffering from leukaemia. Relevant articles on this issue from a cross-section of newspapers were subjected to analysis using the method of Grounded Theory. Three major themes emerged: (i) the criteria for allocating treatment; (ii) who should make the decisions; and (iii) the consequences of transparency in the context of the current ‘market’ ethos in the NHS. Views diverged depending upon how the issue was framed, with some taking a patient-centred perspective and others emphasizing the dilemma of priority-setting. Some welcomed greater transparency, but for others this underlined the incompatibility of two distributive domains, namely, the delivery of care and compassion vs. the more ‘rational’ cost–benefit calculations associated with the economic domain. Overall, the tone of debate was at a fairly superficial level with little consensus about how to begin to address these issues. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
This paper explores the social dimensions and, in particular, the social responsibilities of men and women who provide gametes for others. The implications of providing, receiving or being conceived by such gametes are considered within the context of the relationships between the involved parties. A fourth party—health professionals and most notably doctors—have played a major part in the management of these relationships. Their traditional approach was to define clearly the boundaries between the providers, the recipient/s and the offspring, this being represented by the practice of secrecy and anonymity. Challenges to this traditional position are increasingly being made, most notably by the families that have resulted from the use of third-party gametes. It is argued that gamete providers need to take responsibility for their actions and that this increasingly means considering the rights and needs of the offspring. The contention of doctors that gamete providers would not be prepared to come forward unless they were guaranteed anonymity and secrecy is challenged by the presentation of data from studies that have sought the opinions of oocyte and semen providers on this issue. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Recently, considerable energy has been focused on extending the mandate of anti-racism. Modern (or symbolic) racism and discursive psychology have argued that racism has taken on more covert forms. A longitudinal examination of newspaper coverage of two important race-related newsprint stories in New Zealand (involving Winston Peters, Tuku Morgan and New Zealand First) identified discourses of ‘plausible deniability’ involved in warranting or defending statements about minorities against accusations of racism. We discuss implications of symbolic politics for minorities who are perceived to have violated societal norms, and show how nationalism is used as a framework for denying racist intent. Analyses of historical context show how ‘race’ forms only one lens from which to view issues of intergroup relations. While the press was sensitive to issues of racism, they demonstrated little awareness of concurrent issues of neo-liberal economics, or market fundamentalism. Anti-racism may be motivated not only by the ideals of egalitarianism, but also by underlying dynamics of economic power in a global economy. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
This study aimed at predicting intentions to avoid casual sex and to use condoms, through self-efficacy, attitudes, optimistic bias in perceived risk, knowledge and past sexual risk behaviour. To this end, a mixed-sex sample of high school and university students between 16 and 25 years completed questionnaires at two points in time. Intentions to avoid casual sex were predicted positively by the attitude towards avoiding casual sex and assertiveness in sexual relationships, and negatively by communication about sex. The intention to use condoms was predicted positively by the perceived benefits of condom use, and negatively by past sexual risk behaviour and fatalism. Gender and sexual experience were found to have a moderating influence, implying that AIDS education should use different messages for these target groups. Since the results show that condom use is quite a powerful habit and that sexually non-active subjects had more positive intentions towards safe sex, AIDS education should start at a young age in order to establish safe sex habits from the beginning. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
A vast body of literature has reported on the association between unemployment and poor psychological health. Nonetheless, there remains limited understanding of the influence of meaningfulness of time use, suggested by some to be the key mediator between time use and health. This project set out to explore the association between meaningful time use and health in 18- to 25-year-old unemployed people. In April 2007, 150 unemployed 18- to 25-year-old Australians (56% female) completed an online survey package exploring meaningfulness of time use and health. Hierarchical stepwise regression equations were developed to analyse the relationship between psychological health and measures of meaningful time use. Results provided partial support for the hypothesis that measures of meaningful time use would contribute to the prediction of psychological health. The addition of the person measure for the combined construct of ‘meaningful time use’ failed to make a significant contribution towards the prediction of psychological health. However, ‘reason for doing the activity’ emerged as a significant predictor. Findings provide preliminary evidence for the establishment of activity-based programs to support young unemployed people. Further research is required to evaluate the outcomes of such programs and to replicate this study with other groups of unemployed individuals. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Homosexuality has been one of the most contested issues in the history of social psychoanalysis. To better understand the issue's medical and social significance, we need a micro-historical analysis illuminating doctor-patient interactions in changing historical contexts. This paper sheds light on the clinical practice of the well-known founder of interpersonal theory, Harry Stack Sullivan (1892–1949), with a focus on four patients: two from the 1920s and two from the 1930s. During these decades, many psychiatrists, including neo-Freudians like Sullivan, considered homosexuality a mental illness. But Sullivan himself was a gay man, and he attempted to create efficacious therapeutic relationships amid a generally homophobic medicine. This comported with his effort to create professional coalitions with social psychologists and sociologists. In both clinical and non-clinical settings, he tried to find solutions to individual problems by redefining a limiting socio-cultural environment of therapy. Ambitious as this plan was, his patients' response to his approach varied from cautious cooperation to apparent rejection, as his actions became more immersed in the ambiguous realm of sexual subjectivity. In examining this change, I raise the question of what constituted ethically sound, professionally acceptable behaviours and efficacious therapeutic relationships, particularly in the historical context of the emerging collaboration between psychoanalysis and social psychology. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
This article examines the discursive construction of the 1978–1979 social movement that ultimately became the Iranian Revolution, as constructed through the discourse of the charismatic leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. This article illustrates that Khomeini was able to strategically co-opt the Shiite symbolism of the Battle of Karbala to bring together the most unlikely of bedfellows to unite in one common opposition movement. We first provide a summary of the socio-political events that contextualised Khomeini's discourse and then examine two commemorative declarations given by Khomeini in the key months before the overthrow of the Pahlavi regime. We will illustrate, via a discourse-historical analysis, that the two primary narratives prominent in Khomeini's discourse are as follows: (i) the continuation of the Battle of Karbala and (ii) the idea of a foreign conspiracy and a dangerous foreign other. We will also describe various discursive strategies that rendered Khomeini's discourse purposefully vague enough to appeal to Iran's fragmented opposition. Although the conspiratorial appeal of Khomeini's speeches has been discussed in the literature, we seek to show that it is the co-opting of a national myth in an all-encompassing language that drives the mass appeal of the discourse. The methods described in this study can be utilised by social and community psychologists seeking to understand how political actors discursively construct history in such a way as to serve their political ends. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Previous critiques of traditional psychology portrayed a discipline that examines social problems from an exceptionalistic perspective and decontextualizes the subjects of its inquiries. We analysed 10 years of psychological research on domestic violence, sexual assault, and sexual harassment to determine whether this criticism applied to violence against women research. Specifically, we examined the purpose, level of analysis, sample, and context of 1396 PsychLit abstracts. We found that almost half reported an examination of causal factors. Only one quarter reported intervention studies. Most studies focused at the individual level of analysis and few included contextual factors. Investigators explored questions about domestic violence most frequently among samples of victims and perpetrators drawn from clinical settings. Sexual assault and sexual harassment researchers depended on victims and perpetrators to a lesser extent, but tended to rely upon convenience samples from college settings. Representative community samples were used in only 9% of studies. These findings support the view that psychological research on violence against women suffers from a heavy emphasis on exceptionalism at the expense of a universalistic perspective, the latter of which we contend is critical to advancing the field and reducing a major threat to women's health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Traeen et al. (1992) present some interesting survey data on sexual behaviour amongst young Norwegians, and propose explanations of the results obtained in terms of cultural phenomena. This commentary draws on the author's own, as well as others', research to raise some questions regarding Traeen et al.'s claims. In particular, attention is drawn to some of the problems involved in the terminology used in asking questions about the contexts of sexual behaviour, and the ambiguities which have been found concerning such areas as ‘knowledge of partner’ and ‘length of knowing partners prior to intercourse’. The cultural explanations of the results reported are questioned on the grounds that they ignore the very strong data obtained in other countries concerning gendered power relations. Whilst there is no doubt that information is urgently needed on sexual activity amongst young people, it is argued that care needs to be taken in how far data derived purely from questionnaire studies can be used to enable full explanations to contextual issues. Some dangers of designing interventions on partial or misleading explanations are pointed out.
 
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of an intervention designed to prevent unwanted pregnancy in adolescents. A stratified sample of 74 compulsory schools was drawn at random from all compulsory schools in the county of Nordland in northern Norway. Of these 54 schools were willing to participate. The participating schools were assigned to four different groups according to a Solomon four-group design. A total of 1183 pupils gave their informed consent for participation. For the intervention, a textbook in sex education was developed and handed out to pupils and teachers participating in the intervention groups. Data collections were carried out 1999–2001. The results from this study stem from data collected at post-test 1. The individual was used as unit of analysis. Among adolescents who made their coital debut between the pre-test and post-test 1, more of those in the intervention group than in the pre-test group reported use of contraception during first sexual intercourse. No other statistically significant effect of the intervention was found. The reason may be biased drop-out. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
The institutionalization of biodiversity conservation through legal instruments has led to mixed reactions at both the individual and community levels, with conflict and resistance co-existing with support. The overall purpose of this paper is to describe how rural communities living in areas included in the Natura 2000 Network of protected sites, where local practices of land use are regulated by new legal directives, receive biodiversity conservation goals. Previous studies suggest that this reception is strongly shaped by place identification, but their contradictory results demand further clarification. This study examines the role of psycho-social variables identified by previous studies as potentially relevant moderators of identification: (a) Vested interest in natural resources, (b) evaluation of the designation process of protected areas and (c) institutional trust. It further extends previous research by analysing the support given to contextually relevant ecological practices. Results reveal a positive link between place identification and attitudes in the high vested interest condition and show that support for conservation practices is better predicted in the high vested interest and low trust conditions. The discussion focuses on the relevance of analysing contextually relevant psycho-social moderators when attempting to understand how local communities' relation with biodiversity conservation is affected by legislative innovation. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Relevant post-traumatic factors in resilience or vulnerability responses
Continued
Characteristics of the shelters at the time of the study (April 2001)
Level of participation of the refugees in community tasks
A participatory research action was undertaken in the two largest shelters established after the earthquakes in El Salvador (2001). One hundred fifteen semi-structured interviews were carried out among refugees, which later formed the basis for a self-managed community plan. Comparisons between the two shelters—which differed primarily in whether the grouping of tents was made to reflect the community of origin of the survivors (shelter Santa Gertrudis) or not (shelter El Cafetalón)—showed that refugees in Santa Gertrudis participated more often in community activities, and had more positive emotional memories, fewer feelings of having been humiliated and less emotional discomfort than refugees in El Cafetalón. The results suggest that forms of organisation and management which consider elements of dignity, participation and respect for the capacity of the victims to control their own lives are relevant factors for effective individual and community coping after a catastrophe. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Although the study of national identity in social psychology has examined the various ways in which the national group is ‘imagined’, little attention has been paid to the many collective national commemorations, celebrations and rituals of state assumed to unite the nation. This is surprising given the number of celebrations and commemorations which fill the calendars of modern nations throughout the world and which are assumed by social scientists to play some part in the reproduction of the national community. Taking the British Royal Golden Jubilee celebrations of 2002, the present study examines how understandings of Anglo-British national identity are manifest in conversational interviews during and after these events. In line with previous examinations of Anglo-Britishness, our respondents typically resisted imagining the national community as a homogenous whole and distanced themselves from depictions of the Jubilee as a nationalistic event. Support for the Jubilee was contingent upon the event being apolitical and inclusive. We suggest that such collective national events could potentially facilitate ways of imagining the national community in terms of diversity and inclusivity rather than homogeneity and exclusivity. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Research on charitable giving has tended to examine either the individual characteristics of donors, or those of households. However, both approaches overlook the interactive processes that take place within households which may influence charitable donation in a variety of ways. For example, the system of financial organisation adopted by a couple can set limits on the degree of individual financial autonomy, and this in turn can influence the financial decision-making of each partner. This paper presents the results of a study that examined charitable decision-making within the context of household financial behaviour. It investigated whether such decisions tend to be individual or joint, and the extent to which they are regarded as an integral part of household financial management. Six focus groups were carried out with people who were currently married or living with a partner. The results suggest that charitable giving is dealt with in accordance with the style of money management of the household, although it occupies a more marginal position than other items of expenditure. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
We argue that the events of 11 september 2001 (911) should be understood as a tragedy in the Greek sense of the term. Contemporary US views of tragedy typically communicate a sense that little can be done to predict or explain catastrophic events. This leads to feelings of hopelessness and helplessness. Accordingly, traditional US psychological interventions focus upon ameliorative efforts only. In Greek notions of tragedy, however, the hero(ine) has a character flaw that contributes to his/her demise. Lessons are learned, and catharsis results. From the standpoint of the US as a tragic hero, psychological interventions should be both ameliorative and preventative. We contend that this overemphasis on ameliorative work and the limited views of terrorism's root causes are counterproductive. Indeed, we recommend that individual US psychologists and the American Psychological Association leadership engage in both ameliorative efforts and broadly conceived preventative work. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
This paper presents experiences and reflections on the use of a participatory research methodology under the difficult conditions of a war situation in northern Uganda. We draw from two complimentary approaches in action research to explain our methodology while doing research on the reintegration of formerly abducted children. First, the experience oriented approach, which emphasizes the need to articulate experience as a basis for learning and knowledge. Second, the exemplary participatory approach which highlights the importance of enhancing empowerment and the need to find solutions for social problems. We find these two approaches useful for doing action research in a conflict area because of their emphasis on experience and empowerment respectively. In our research, experience is important because of the children's encounter with the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) rebels that both needs to be understood and justifies reintegration. On the otherhand, empowerment is important for our assumption that the children's experience and encounter with the LRA has disempowering effects on them. We demonstrate the use of the approaches in our research by enhancing participation, balancing power relations and being aware of ethical issues while at the same time attempting to make the research valid inspite of the challenges. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
People with a physical disability are a population who for a number of reasons may be vulnerable to social isolation. Research into Internet-based support sites has found that social support and an online sense of community can be developed through computer mediated communication channels. This study aims to gain an understanding of the benefits that membership of disability-specific online communities may have for people with a physical disability. An online survey was administered to a sample of users of such sites (N = 160). Results indicated that users did receive moral support and personal advice through participating in such online communities. Further, results indicated that online social support and feeling a sense of community online were positively associated with participants' well-being in the areas of personal relations and personal growth. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
A state-wide substance abuse prevention programme, entitled KidsInTouch, incorporated a multifaceted approach involving: (a) media-based interventions; and (b) parent training workshops. KidsInTouch was targeted at parents and their children, ages five to 12 years. The media-based interventions attempted to increase children's and parents' awareness and knowledge about substance abuse and prevention. In addition, the intervention advertised and solicited audience participation in parent training workshops. Parents participating in the parent training workshops, in comparison to the control parents, evidenced significant improvement in both alcohol and other drug knowledge and parenting skills. The implications of using the media and involving children and their parents in substance abuse prevention programmes are discussed.
 
Some of the problems associated with the phenomena of child sexual abuse (CSA) are considered from the perspective of the ‘terrain of power’ (see Hagan and Smail, 1997) in which individuals are located, and the use of power-mapping is exemplified by means of a single-case study. Group work with survivors of CSA currently being developed in Sheffield is described, throwing into relief the way in which the misuse of power, both past and present, is at the core of their difficulties, and showing how models of helping need to attempt directly to increase powers and resources available to clients. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
In this paper, we explore some of the issues facing professionals in the UK currently involved in providing services for South Asian women who have experienced sexual abuse. The study describes part of a wider Economic and Social Research Council funded project, based upon interviews and focus groups with both professionals and women survivors of sexual abuse. Drawing on semi-structured interviews and two focus groups with 37 professionals including psychological therapists, refuge and project workers, from a range of organisations, our aim in this paper is to provide a discursive analysis of some of the key dilemmas faced by professionals working with sexual abuse in South Asian communities by exploring two central interpretive repertoires: ‘culture not self’ and ‘symptom talk as solution’. The analysis indicates that professionals face a series of dilemmas when working with South Asian women survivors. They highlight the tension between individualised models of personhood in many psychological therapies and the challenge to these by South Asian communities who hold a more relational view of the person. One of the strategies used by professionals to work with the tensions between ‘culture’ and the ‘reality’ of the survivor's pain was the translation of women's distress into symptoms of mental disorder. However, the consequences of this intervention raised some serious issues, including further pathologisation and stigma. The implications of these findings will be discussed in terms of how to understand the experiences of South Asian women from a more socially grounded perspective and to explore the issues they face in accessing and receiving appropriate services to deal with the aftermath of sexually abusive experiences. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Childhood sexual abuse is a major aetiological factor in the development of mental health difficulties experienced by women. Although this conclusion is supported by two decades of extensive research, it has had little impact on the provision of mainstream mental health services. It remains exceptional for there to be specialist therapy or counselling provision for women survivors of childhood sexual abuse within statutory mental health services. This represents a serious gap in service provision and, it is argued, results in extended and inappropriate treatment for women survivors using mental health services. In this article, the development of a multi-agency approach to the provision of groupwork for women survivors of childhood sexual abuse within mental health service is described. A women-centred model of groupwork is outlined. Evaluation and funding are discussed. It is argued that, as a time-limited and effective treatment option, groupwork for women survivors of childhood sexual abuse should form a central part of service provision within statutory adult mental health services.
 
The study reports a group-randomized trial of a theatre-based intervention to prevent sexual abuse targeting first and second grade primary school children in Germany. A sample of 148 first and second graders saw a live performance of a play designed to promote skills in dealing with abuse-prone interactions with adults, watched a recording of the play on DVD or were assigned to a no intervention control group. Both the live performance and the DVD groups showed significant increases in the target variables (distinguishing good/bad touch and secrets, getting help, rejecting unwanted touch) from baseline to post-intervention and a follow-up after 2 weeks, while the control group did not show changes. The live performance and DVD groups participated in a further follow-up 30 weeks post-intervention, which showed sustained effects of the intervention. The findings indicate that with appropriately culture-sensitive measures, sexual abuse prevention programmes can have sustainable effects with young primary school children. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
The response of the Roman Catholic Church (RCC) to the clergy child sex abuse crisis is examined in the context of six cases in an Irish archdiocese. The RCC was not proactive in engaging with complainants and did not accept organizational responsibility for its personnel. Its statements on the crisis were abstract and sometimes transcendent in tone and its attempts to account for its inaction used apologia rather than apology. The Church's reliance on apologia is similar to that found in secular bureaucracies that believe themselves to be ‘client-independent’. It is argued the Church needs to implement a ‘client complaint’ procedure similar to that found in ‘client-dependent’ commercial enterprises and that it must also reconnect with its own core values. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Youth involvement in substance abuse can be a source of considerable distress for their parents. Unilateral family interventions have been advocated as one means by which concerned family members can be supported to assist substance-abusing family members. To date there has been little research examining the impact of unilateral family interventions on the directly participating family members. In this study the early impact of an 8-week parent-group programme known as Behavioural Exchange Systems Training (BEST) was evaluated using a quasi-experimental, waiting list control design. The professionally led programme had been developed to support and assist parents in their efforts to cope with adolescent substance abuse. Subjects were 66 parents (48 families) accepted for entry into the programme between 1997 and 1998. Comparison was made between 46 parents offered immediate entry into the programme and 20 parents whose entry to the programme was delayed by an 8-week waiting list. At the first assessment 87% of parents showed elevated mental health symptoms on the General Health Questionnaire. Evidence suggested exposure to the intervention had a positive impact on parents. Compared to parents on the waiting list, parents entered immediately into the intervention demonstrated greater reductions in mental health symptoms, increased parental satisfaction, and increased use of assertive parenting behaviours. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
The Prevention of Professional Abuse Network (POPAN) is the first national organization within the UK to address the problem of the abuse of clients and patients by health and social care providers. POPAN has a small staff group of eight people and a larger network of advisers, supporters and allies; its activities include campaigning, training, consultancy, and the provision of information, advice and advocacy. Jennie Williams is a clinical psychologist and trustee of POPAN, she has supported the development of the organization since the early 1990s; Jo Nash was the main person involved in the development and provision of the advocacy service between September 1997 to January 2000. This is the edited version of a taped and transcribed interview that took place in 1999. Jo Nash is uniquely placed to provide information of significance to anyone using or providing health and social care services. Her work as an advocate has given her a very particular insight into the challenges faced by those seeking redress for professional abuse, and she has first hand experience of providing advocacy to people who are vulnerable and reluctant to trust anyone offering help. In this interview Jo Nash directs attention to the considerable limitations in current complaints systems, practices and procedures, and offers comment on the implications for change. Her work with POPAN provides continual reminders of the importance of prevention, and she identifies a number of ways in which action can be taken to prevent health and social care practitioners abusing their patients and clients. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Two studies investigated the relative social acceptability of certain prejudices within a society (Study 1) and between societies (Study 2), using (less) internal motivation to control prejudice as an indicator of social acceptability. In Study 1, White British participants reported less internal motivation to control prejudice against people with schizophrenia than against Black people. In Study 2, Jamaican participants reported less internal motivation to control anti-homosexual prejudice than did either British participants or American participants. Other differences in motivation to control prejudice were smaller, absent, or at odds with this difference, indicating that differences in motivation to control anti-homosexual prejudice were not solely due to cultural differences concerning motivation to control prejudice in general. Results are discussed in terms of novel findings, relevance to the literature and possible future research. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Dutch adults from a nationwide Internet panel (N = 426) were asked to imagine that their next-door neighbours would move out and that people with intellectual disability would move in. Severity of disability and group size were varied to manipulate intergroup threat. These two factors independently influenced social acceptance and a variety of emotional and behavioural measures. In particular, it was found that a large group with severe disability aroused the strongest negative response, whereas a small group with mild disability aroused the weakest negative response. Small groups with a severe disability and large groups with a mild disability aroused similar and intermediate negative responses. Results are discussed in terms of theories of intergroup threat and stigmatisation. Practical implications for predicting the success of de-institutionalisation and social integration of groups with special needs are addressed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Relatively few studies have investigated judgements towards male rape, and no published studies have investigated gay men's judgements towards this offence. The current study investigated the effects of gender and sexuality on victim blame and male rape myth acceptance in the depicted rape of a gay man. It was predicted that heterosexual men would make the most anti-victim judgements, while gay men would make the most pro-victim judgements. One hundred and fifty members of the UK population read a scenario that depicted a male rape, and then completed a questionnaire that measured blame and rape myths. As predicted, heterosexual men endorsed more rape myths and blamed the victim more than heterosexual women or gay men. Gay men made the most pro-victim judgements overall. Results are discussed in relation to homophobia and traditional gender roles. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
This research aims to investigate the impact of minority members' decision about whether or not to adopt the majority's religion on how the majority perceives these minority members and on beliefs about religious and cultural diversity. It is hypothesized that the adoption of the majority's religion would be more positively evaluated, the minority person adopting the religion would be perceived to identify more with the national polity and less with the minority ingroup, the minority group as a whole would be more positively viewed, more tolerant religious beliefs would prevail and the majority would accept cultural maintenance by the minority. However it is also hypothesized that the positive effect of this strategy would be moderated by the origins of the minority person. Greek-Orthodox students (n = 223) participated in a 2 (type of decision) x 5 (group membership) between-subjects design conducted in Greece, a mono-religious society which has become culturally diverse due to immigration. The target groups represent religious minorities with Greek citizenship (Jews and Muslims of Thrace), immigrant groups of different ethnic orientation and similar religious background (Albanian Muslims and Pakistanis) or groups sharing ethnicity but differing in religious beliefs (Albanian Muslims and Albanian atheists). The moderation hypothesis was confirmed for perceived identification with the minority ingroup, presenting Albanians in a worse position. However, group membership influenced mainly group perceptions and beliefs about diversity. The theoretical and political implications of the findings and their importance for the specific context are discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Violence against women within the context of intimate relationships is a complex social problem in Aotearoa/New Zealand and internationally. Such abuse by men is particularly problematic because of its prevalence, and because of the extent and magnitude of deleterious effects on the health and psychological well-being of women and children. In New Zealand, the legal system is assumed to play an important role in protecting women and children from domestic violence. Through the Domestic Violence Act 1995 and the amended Guardianship Act 1968, persons who are physically, sexually or psychologically abusive to their children, or to their partner whilst children are present, may only be entitled to supervised access to these children. Although supervised access has been found to increase the safety of women and children, it remains a contentious issue. Because of the role that legal professionals have in the implementation of relevant legislation, the present research explored how lawyers make sense of supervised access in the context of domestic violence. Eighteen male and female lawyers were interviewed. Their interview transcripts were then subject to discourse analysis. This paper illustrates and discusses discourses used in relation to supervised access, including those that support protecting children from the harm of domestic violence through supervised access, and those that challenge the need for children's protection. Within the cluster of latter discourses, supervised access was not considered a means of balancing children's relationships with both parents with children's need for protection, or a way of enabling men to have a safe relationship with their children. Rather, it was constructed as violating men's rights to a relationship with their children, and children's right to a relationship with both parents. The prevalence of discourses opposing supervised access could affect the likelihood of women obtaining protection orders and supervised access conditions, and hence, women and children's safety. However, perpetuation of ‘supportive’ discourses could enhance women and children's well-being, and facilitate safe ongoing relationships between children and non-custodial parents. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Forty children were assessed 6 weeks and 8 months after involvement in a road traffic accident (RTA). Ten of the 21 children suffering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at 6 weeks continued to fulfil diagnostic criteria at 8 months. There was no evidence of delayed onset of PTSD in children who had not developed this condition at 6 weeks. Talking about the accident and feeling understood were associated with recovery. Providing children with opportunities to talk about their accident may be helpful in preventing or reducing psychological distress. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Existing social psychological perspectives tend to overlook the fact that public expressions of racial, ethnic or national prejudice normally constitute collaborative accomplishments, the product of joint action between a number of individuals. Awareness of the inherently dialogical character of prejudiced talk affords appreciation of the ways in which expressions of ethnic or racial antipathy need not simply be used to display a speaker's private attitudes or to defend a group position, but may also be oriented to the local context of talk in action. Recognizably prejudiced talk may be used to claim the floor, to bully, to amuse, to shock, to display intimacy and solidarity, to mark a variety of personal and social identities or to key the informal, backstage, character of a social encounter. The fact that prejudiced talk can be intricately woven through the delicate choreography of everyday sociability may greatly complicate any attempts to challenge it. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
This study explores the role of perceived accountability in riot police action. The basic hypothesis is that accountability, provided that non-violent norms are made salient, will lessen the chances of escalation of a conflict between police and demonstrators. Four platoons participated in a field experiment conducted at the Dutch Riot Police Academy, in which they played a riot simulation. In a 2 × 2 design, the effects of accountability and Department on attitudes and norms concerning the action of ‘police’ and ‘demonstrators’ were tested. Measurements were made before and after the simulation. Internal analysis, involving redefined accountability categories, provided support for our hypothesis. That is, perceived accountability proved to be related to a heightened public self-awareness, a less extremely positive evaluation of fellow group members, and less intergroup differentiation. The limitations of an internal analysis are discussed, as well as the importance of the nature of organizational norms and of the accountability forum in predicting the effect of accountability.
 
During the 1970s a series of events irrevocably changed the way in which policing was carried out in England and Wales. This paper describes how the police became politicized as it enforced government policies that resulted in violent police/public confrontation. It then explores how the Metropolitan Police Service began a process of re-engagement with the highly complex society of London, by community-focused policing models. The theoretical and practical difficulties of community policing are discussed in relation to legislation that required greater community involvement in policing. A theme of accountability is generated throughout the paper showing how political extremism challenged a bi-partite system of police governance, unique to the Metropolitan Police in the context of the UK, by demanding local accountability. This resulted in conflicting legislation that promotes both localized and centralized forms of accountability. The paper concludes with a speculative theory of how policing may develop in London as a department of a local government. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
This paper presents a discursive analysis of a political news interview as a site for the interactional organization of the public constitution of recent past. In a context of commemoration and finding out the truth about the past, the focus is on how the collective memory of socio-political events and political accountability is managed and what discursive practices representatives of nation-states draw upon to understand and construct ideological representations of socio-political events, namely the Romanian ‘revolution’ of 1989. The analysis shows how the possibility versus the actuality of knowing the truth about the events, (political) accountability and stake for actions are discussed, framed and given significance by constituting the ‘events’ of 1989 as ‘revolution’. The analysis further reveals how this ascribed categorial meaning is used by the interviewee as background for delegitimizing critical voices and sidestepping responsibility for past actions and knowing the truth. Social and community psychologists can learn more about how individuals and communities construct ideological versions of socio-political events by considering the interplay between questions of political accountability and arguments over the meaning of political categories, and engaging with the accounting practices in which the meaning of socio-political events is being negotiated by members of society Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Research over the last three decades has demonstrated that a substantial minority of both professional and lay people have negative and rejecting attitudes towards the mentally ill. We argue that these attitudes may, in part, be a function of a tendency to perceive the mentally ill as somehow inherently dangerous and liable to violence. The evidence for the association between schizophrenia and violence suggests that although people with schizophrenia may be somewhat more likely to act violently than members of the general public, the magnitude of the differential is not sufficient to explain the perceived association. Alternative explanations for the correlation are therefore considered. Specifically, the influences of the media, errors in information processing and the process of stereotyping in accounting for the development of a perceived association between schizophrenia and violence are examined. Finally, the implications for enhancing the acceptance of people with schizophrenia into the community are discussed.
 
Teenage motherhood has been a source of considerable debate in policy and media circles in recent years. This paper explores the meanings of teenage motherhood for young women who were mothers before the age of 21, who were living in economically deprived areas of England and most of whom had been in residential or foster care. Qualitative interviews were carried out at several sites across England, with a total of 33 young women taking part in group interviews and one-to-one interviews. The accounts of the young women suggest that they talk about motherhood in three main ways: as ‘hardship and reward’, ‘growing up and responsibility’ and ‘doing things differently’. It is argued that these ways of talking about motherhood present a different picture of teenage motherhood from that of dominant discourses. Furthermore, the young women are active in negotiating and constructing their own identities as mothers, carers and women. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
In this paper we examine the impact of the social construction of ethnic identities on the likelihood of local community participation. We do so in the context of an applied interest in the current policy emphasis on partnerships between government and local communities in initiatives to reduce health inequalities, and a conceptual interest in the role of social representations in perpetuating unequal power hierarchies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 75 residents of a deprived multi-ethnic area in south England. Informants described themselves as African-Caribbean, Pakistani and White English; half men and half women, aged 15–75. We draw attention to the way in which ethnic identities may be constructed in ways that undermine the likelihood of local community participation. Stereotypical representations of ethnically defined ingroups and outgroups (the ethnic ‘other’) constituted key symbolic resources used by our informants in accounting for their low levels of engagement with local community networks. We examine the content of these stereotypes, and highlight how their construction is shaped by historical, economic and social forces, within the context of the ‘institutional racism’ that exists in England. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
In this study discourse analysis was used in order to gain a greater understanding of the multiple meanings that women smokers attach to cigarette smoking. The discursive constructions used by women to explain and justify their smoking behaviour were identified by analysing the transcripts of four semi-structured interviews. All respondents framed their accounts of cigarette smoking within a discourse of addiction, reflecting the prevalence of this construction within the disciplines of medicine, psychology and health promotion. The deterministic and disempowering implications of this discourse are discussed in relation to the subsequent identification of constructions of control and self-regulation which were utilized by most of the respondents. This article also discusses the significance and implications of these discursive constructions to health promotion efforts. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
This paper explores the discursive construction of immigrants' criminality in interview accounts obtained by a sample of Greek people in Thessaloniki (Northern Greece). Analysis, which adopts a discursive approach to stereotypes and category construction, indicates that fear and insecurity on the part of Greek people are represented as a sine qua non consequence of immigration to Greece. Two different lines of argument are used to account for the arousal of fear. According to the first, fear constitutes a corollary of a widespread stereotypical representation of immigrants as criminals. The stereotype of immigrants' criminality is considered to be ill-warranted and it is attributed to the media or to other unspecified people. According to another, more regularly used, line of argument, however, fear is predicated upon the sordid living conditions of immigrants in Greece which make the probability of them being involved in illegal acts particularly high. In this case, fear is seen to derive from a ‘rational estimate’ of the probability of immigrant's involvement in criminal acts. Nested within the discourse of ‘risk’ the stereotypical image of immigrants' criminality is sustained and used to account for the need to protect the ‘ingroup’ from ‘immigrant groups’ through immigration control and surveillance. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
This paper outlines an eight-fold typology of coping actions based upon a qualitative analysis of the accounts provided by 50 close relatives of people with drug problems. In a number of different ways relatives draw attention to the contrasts between these distinguishable ways of coping. Emphasis is placed upon the provisional nature of this typology and upon the compromises between, and combinations of, ways of coping that are often used by relatives in practice. Different ways of coping represent alternative choices for relatives, often explicitly expressed by them as difficult dilemmas. Links are suggested between the ways of coping identified here and those discussed in the literature on coping with other disorders and disabilities in the family, with ways of coping described in the general literature on coping with stress, and with types of social action appearing in general models of interpersonal behaviour. Implications for counselling close relatives of people with drug problems are also outlined.
 
In this study 39 participants who had all been hospitalized, either in Britain or Australia, at least once for anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia, were interviewed about their experiences of treatment for an eating disorder. Each interview lasted approximately 1 hour and was semi-structured in nature covering: (i) the beginning of participants' problems and their initial diagnosis; (ii) their history of previous interventions; (iii) their current in-patient treatment episode; (iv) their views on their recovery and future. Interview was audio-tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The resulting interview transcripts were then analysed qualitatively using a discourse analytic methodology in order to identify the ways in which participants discursively constituted their treatment experiences. More specifically, the article focuses on an analysis of how ‘the eating disordered patient’ was constituted in participants' accounts both as a self-construction and as a construction attributed to healthcare workers. The implications of these subject im/positions of ‘the eating disordered patient’ are discussed. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Research on helping behaviour has emphasized the importance of the group and particularly the nation in establishing the norms and boundaries of emergency helping. Less attention has been paid to the role of the national group in longer-term routine helping such as charitable giving. This is particularly important given recent research on intergroup helping which points to the impact of power relations on willingness of national groups to give and receive aid. The present research examines people's accounts of charitable giving in their day-to-day lives in Ireland, a country which has recently undergone a transformation in economic development and international relations. Discursive analysis of five focus groups with 14 Irish university students illustrates how participants proactively invoke national identity to account for giving or withholding charity. Our findings demonstrate how Irish national identity can be strategically and flexibly used to manage participants' local moral identity in the light of Ireland's changing international relations and in particular how participants display concerns to be seen to intend ‘autonomous’ rather than ‘dependency’-oriented helping. The findings suggest that both national identity and international relations provide resources for individuals negotiating the complex demands and concerns surrounding charitable giving. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Top-cited authors
Patrick Devine-Wright
  • University of Exeter
Charlotte Rayner
  • University of Portsmouth
Cathy Campbell
  • The London School of Economics and Political Science
Claudia Pahl-Wostl
  • Universität Osnabrück
Mark D Griffiths
  • Nottingham Trent University