Having a baby who is prenatally or postnatally diagnosed with a medical condition places considerable stress on the parents, infants, and their developing relationship. Infant mental health (IMH) services offer an opportunity to address the challenges and support the parent-infant relationship. The present study outlined a continuum of care IMH program embedded within various medical settings of a large metropolitan children’s hospital. Applications of IMH principles within the fetal care center, neonatal intensive care unit, high risk infant follow-up clinic, and the patient’s home are described. Descriptive data about families served across settings and a case study are provided in order to illustrate the implementation of this unique IMH intervention model.
Addressing hazardous drinking during medical-surgical care improves patients’ health. This formative evaluation examined patients’ consideration of options to change drinking and engage in treatment. It explored whether interventions such as “DO-MoST” overcome treatment barriers. We interviewed 20 medical-surgical patients with hazardous drinking in a trial of DO-MoST, and 16 providers. Analyses used a directed content approach. Patients were receptive to and comfortable discussing drinking during medical-surgical care. Interventions like DO-MoST (patient-centered, motivational approach to shared decision making) addressed some treatment barriers. Patients and providers viewed such interventions as helpful by building a relationship with a psychologist who facilitated self-awareness of drinking behaviors, and discussing connections between alcohol- and physical health-related problems and potential strategies to address drinking. However, both groups expressed concerns about individual and system-level barriers to long-term change. Interventions like DO-MoST bridge the gap between the patient’s medical treatment episode and transition to other health care settings.
The study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT03258632).
Non-attendance to kidney transplant evaluation (KTE) appointments is a barrier to optimal care for those with kidney failure. We examined the medical and socio-cultural factors that predict KTE non-attendance to identify opportunities for integrated medical teams to intervene. Patients scheduled for KTE between May, 2015 and June, 2018 completed an interview before their initial KTE appointment. The interview assessed various social determinants of health, including demographic (e.g., income), medical (e.g. co-morbidities), transplant knowledge, cultural (e.g., medical mistrust), and psychosocial (e.g., social support) factors. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to determine the strongest predictor of KTE non-attendance. Our sample (N = 1119) was 37% female, 76% non-Hispanic White, median age 59.4 years (IQR 49.2–67.5). Of note, 142 (13%) never attended an initial KTE clinic appointment. Being on dialysis predicted higher odds of KTE non-attendance (OR 1.76; p = .02; 64% of KTE attendees on dialysis vs. 77% of non-attendees on dialysis). Transplant and nephrology teams should consider working collaboratively with dialysis units to better coordinate care, (e.g., resources to attend appointment or outreach to emphasize the importance of transplant) adjusting the KTE referral and evaluation process to address access issues (e.g., using tele-health) and encouraging partnership with clinical psychologists to promote quality of life for those on dialysis.
Pediatric recurrent abdominal pain is commonly associated with negative impacts on quality of life (QOL). Positive schemas (core beliefs about the self with subthemes of self-efficacy, optimism, trust, success, and worthiness) are a resilience factor that has not yet been examined within a pediatric recurrent pain context. This cross-sectional study examined (a) associations between positive schemas, pain coping, and youth QOL, and (b) exploratory analyses to investigate whether specific positive schema subthemes predicted QOL outcomes in youth with recurrent abdominal pain. Participants were 98 youth with recurrent abdominal pain (i.e., pain related to a disorder of gut–brain interaction [DGBI] or organic cause) who completed measures on positive schemas, QOL, and pain coping. Age and diagnostic status were controlled for in analyses. Positive schemas were significantly positively correlated with emotional, social, school, and overall QOL, as well as with approach and problem-focused avoidant coping, and significantly negatively correlated with emotion-focused coping. Worthiness was the strongest and only significant predictor of youth social functioning. Positive schemas may be an important cognitive resilience factor to consider within interventions for pediatric recurrent pain.
Chronic illness experiences often interfere with daily functioning (a concept known as illness intrusiveness) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, less is known about the role of specific symptoms in predicting illness intrusiveness in sickle cell disease (SCD). This exploratory study examined associations between common SCD-related symptoms (i.e., pain, fatigue, depression, and anxiety), illness intrusiveness, and HRQoL among adults with SCD (n = 60). Illness intrusiveness significantly correlated with fatigue severity (r = .39, p = .002), depression severity (r = .45, p < .001), anxiety severity (r = .41, p = .001), physical HRQoL (r = - .53, p < .001), and mental HRQoL (r = - .44, p < .001). Multiple regression revealed a significant overall model, (R2 = .28, F(4, 55) = 5.21, p = .001), with fatigue, but not pain, depression, or anxiety, significantly predicting illness intrusiveness (β = .29, p = .036). Results suggest that fatigue may be a primary factor contributing to illness intrusiveness-a determinant of HRQoL-in individuals with SCD. Given the limited sample size, larger confirmatory studies are warranted.
Providing effective healthy behavior change interventions within primary care presents numerous challenges. Obesity, tobacco use, and sedentary lifestyle negatively impact the health quality of numerous medical patients, particularly in underserved patient populations with limited resources. Primary Care Behavioral Health (PCBH) models, which incorporate a Behavioral Health Consultant (BHC), can offer point-of-contact psychological consultation, treatment, and also provide opportunities for interdisciplinary psychologist—physician clinical partnerships to pair a BHC’s health behavior change expertise with the physician’s medical care. Such models can also enhance medical training programs by providing resident physicians with live, case-based learning opportunities when partnered with a BHC to address patient health behaviors. We will describe the development, implementation, and preliminary outcomes of a PCBH psychologist—physician interdisciplinary health behavior change clinic within a Family Medicine residency program. Patient outcomes revealed significant reductions (p < .01) in weight, BMI, and tobacco use. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Approximately 3–10% of children have severe feeding issues, and some require enteral/tube nutrition to grow and thrive. For many children, tube feeding is temporary, making efficacious interventions for tube weaning essential. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of tube weaning treatments. Outcomes included percentage of participants completely weaned from the tube, and mean percentage of kilocalories consumed orally following treatment. Data were extracted from 42 studies, including cohort studies and single-subject research design studies. We evaluated moderators of treatment success, including treatment setting, use of behavioral approaches, use of hunger provocation, and use of a multidisciplinary approach. Results indicated that, after treatment, children received significantly more calories orally, and 67–69% of children were fully weaned. These analyses suggest that current interventions are generally effective; however, variability within treatments exist. Prospective randomized clinical trials are needed to understand effective components of weaning interventions.
Children with electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) often present with cognitive deficits and behavioral difficulties. Children that present with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intellectual disability, and ESES would be expected to manifest more complex symptoms and increased behavioral difficulties given the nature of these disorders. Despite the complex presentation, there is little research to support effective treatments that manage behavior challenges and associated symptoms of ASD in such patients. In the present case report, the authors implemented a validated parent management training intervention, The Research Unit on Behavioral Interventions (RUBI) Autism Network Parent Training program (RUBI-PT) via telemedicine to manage symptoms of ADHD, ASD, and disruptive behaviors in an 8-year-old South-Asian boy with ESES and associated mild intellectual disability. The family participated in 15 RUBI-PT sessions over 22 weeks. Parent report and ratings using the clinical global impression, improvement scale (CGI-I) indicated reductions in challenging behavior and improvement in adaptive skills. The current case report demonstrates the utility of RUBI-PT in the treatment of behavioral difficulties in a patient with ASD, ADHD, and ESES. Further, the present study explores future directions for the use of RUBI-PT to address behavioral challenges associated with ESES and commonly co-occurring conditions and highlights the importance of cultural responsive practice in the context of parent management training.
The purpose of this study was to use qualitative interviews to ascertain the perspective of pediatric primary care providers on the implementation of Integrated Behavioral Health (IBH) as provided by psychologists within an expanded HealthySteps™ model, and with a particular focus on prevention of behavioral health symptoms in the first five years. A semi-structured interview guide was used to assess medical providers’ perceptions of behavioral health integration into their primary care clinics. A conventional qualitative content analysis approach was utilized to identify patterns of meaning across qualitative interviews. Four themes were identified: (1) practice prior to IBH and initial concerns about integration, (2) psychologist’s role and perceived added value, (3) what integration looks like in practice, and (4) perceived families’ response to and experiences with IBH. Despite initial concerns about potential disruptions to clinic flow, providers indicated that adoption of IBH was seamless. The distinct roles of the psychologist were clear, and both treatment and prevention services provided by IBH were valued. Multidisciplinary collaboration and real-time response to family needs was seen as especially important and primary care providers reported that families were accepting of and highly valued IBH.
We used the Common Sense Model to understand weight management treatment representations of diverse patients, conducting semistructured interviews with 24 veterans with obesity, recruited from multiple U.S. Veterans Health Administration facilities. We performed a directed content analysis to summarize representations and assess differences across demographic groups. Patients’ representations were impacted by gender, socioeconomic status, and disability status, creating group differences in available treatment (e.g., disability-related limitations), negative consequences (e.g., expense), treatment timeline (e.g., men emphasized long-term lifestyle changes), and treatment models (e.g., women described medically driven models). Patients identified conventional representations aligning with medical recommendations and relating to positive consequences, long-term treatment timelines, and medically driven models. Finally, patients discussed risky representations, including undesirable attitudes related to short-term positive and negative consequences and long-term negative consequences. Applying the Common Sense Model emphasized diverse representations, influenced by patients’ identities. Understanding representations may improve treatment to meet the needs of diverse preferences.
We investigated the feasibility of a web-based cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce cancer-related fatigue (CRF) among survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma. In this before-and-after trial, patients were primarily recruited via the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG). We assessed feasibility (response and drop-out rate) and preliminary efficacy including CRF, quality of life (QoL), and depressive symptomatology. T tests compared baseline levels with t1 (post treatment) and t2 (3 months of follow-up). Among 79 patients contacted via the GHSG, 33 provided interest (42%). Among the seventeen participants, four were treated face-to-face (pilot patients), 13 underwent the web-based version. Ten patients completed the treatment (41%). Among all participants, CRF, depressive symptomatology, and QoL improved at t1 (p ≤ .03). The effect in one of the CRF measures remained at t2 (p = .03). Except for QoL, post-treatment effects were replicated among the completers of the web-based version (p ≤ .04). The potential for this program has been demonstrated, but needs to be re-assessed after identified issues on feasibility have been resolved.
Trial registration: The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Number: NCT03968250).
We set out to replicate findings of significant (a) reductions in pain, psychological distress, and motivational incongruence (i.e., insufficient motive satisfaction) after interdisciplinary multimodal pain treatment and (b) associations between reductions in motivational incongruence (i.e., improved motive satisfaction) and decreases in psychological distress (Vincent et al., Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings 28:331–343, 2021). 475 Patients with chronic primary pain completed standardized self-reported questionnaires assessing motivational incongruence, psychological distress, pain intensity, and pain interference at intake and discharge from a tertiary psychosomatic university clinic. We used hierarchical linear models to analyze motivational incongruence’s effects on psychological distress. We partially replicated Vincent et al.’s findings. Significant reductions in pain, psychological distress, and motivational incongruence after treatment were found. Reductions in motivational incongruence were associated with reductions in psychological distress. Similarly, a better motive satisfaction mediated the relationship between pain interference and psychological distress. Our findings show that reducing motivational incongruence may be a key component of treating chronic primary pain; we recommend to assess and target motivational incongruence to improve interdisciplinary multimodal pain treatment.
This investigation examined links between three related personality styles as assessed with the Relationship Profile Test—destructive overdependence, dysfunctional detachment, and healthy dependency—and indices of health and health-related behavior in a mixed-sex (74% female) sample of 100 primary care patients with a mean age of 38.62 (SD = 12.99). Fourteen primary care physicians also participated. As hypothesized, destructive overdependence and dysfunctional detachment scores were positively correlated with number of contacts with the emergency department; healthy dependency scores were inversely related to emergency department contacts and number of overnight hospitalizations. Healthy dependency scores were associated with an array of positive health behaviors; destructive overdependence scores were negatively associated with positive health behaviors. In addition, healthy dependency scores were inversely related to physician ratings of a difficult doctor-patient relationship. These results demonstrate that destructive overdependence, dysfunctional detachment and healthy dependency scores are associated in expected ways with indices of health and health-related behavior, and help illuminate the underlying factors that contribute to comparatively poor health and variations in health service use among overdependent and detached medical patients.
Cancer patients’ quality of life (QoL) and distress are affected by dispositional factors such as attachment anxiety or avoidance. In this review, we aimed to provide a thorough overview of the relationship between attachment dimensions and QoL and distress among early-stage breast cancer patients. Following PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic search using PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cinahl, Google Scholar, and PMC Europe. We reviewed 8 eligible studies describing 1180 patients. Insecure attachment appeared to be related to poorer QoL and higher distress levels. Avoidant attachment was more frequent and was more often associated with more negative outcomes. Healthcare providers should consider investigating modifiable personality traits in the immediate post diagnosis period to identify patients more vulnerable to mental health problems, deliver personalized care, and reduce emotional burden.
Health Locus of control (LOC) refers to one’s beliefs regarding control over one’s health. This study aimed to determine the relationship between LOC on clinical and psychosocial aspects associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). 5059 participants with MS completed a questionnaire pack including the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale. Associations between LOC and sociodemographic (age, gender, educational level) and clinical variables (duration, disability, depression, anxiety, self-efficacy, QoL) were explored. LOC was found to be significantly associated with all of the clinical variables and age, but not gender or educational level. When controlling for level of disability, Chance (CLOC) was associated with higher self-efficacy, lower anxiety and higher QoL than Powerful Others (PLOC), while Internal (ILOC) had no association. The proportion with ILOC preference was lower in increased disability. In MS, believing that health is controlled mainly by chance confers the most benefit with regard to quality of life. There is prima-facie evidence that LOC preference changes with MS progression, in a pattern that is protective against psychological distress.
Tension between doctors and patients as a social problem has existed for a long time; thus far, there is no good solution. From the perspective of trust between doctors and patients, this research studies the relieving effect of perspective-taking interventions on the tension between doctors and patients. This study used a randomized, single-blind online experiment. 133 participants were randomly divided into an intervention group (n = 67) and control group (n = 66). Participants were asked to complete writing tasks from the doctor’s perspective. Patients’ trust in doctors was measured at 3 time points: before intervention, immediately after intervention, and 10 days after the intervention. Findings showed a significant interaction effect between time measurement and group. In the intervention group, a pairwise comparison of time measurements showed a significant difference between T1 and T2. Perspective-taking interventions can improve patients’ trust in doctors, but this effect diminishes over time.
Many adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with type 1 diabetes (T1D) engage in weight management behaviors (i.e., trying to lose weight), and efforts to manage weight may impact glycemic control. We assessed objective/subjective weight status and weight management behaviors in a diverse sample of 76 AYAs with T1D, and examined differences in sociodemographic characteristics and A1c levels by the following categories: (1) Overweight BMI/weight management (n = 21), (2) overweight BMI/no weight management (n = 6), (3) in/below-range BMI/weight management (n = 25), (4) in/below-range BMI/no weight management (n = 24). Subjective overweight status was more common among late adolescents and females; female gender was associated with weight management behaviors. AYAs endorsing weight management behaviors evidenced higher A1c values than those who did not. Clinicians working with AYAs should be aware of associations among weight management and glycemic indicators and routinely screen for weight management behaviors. Future research should explore interventions to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors among AYAs.
The properties and utility of the Primary Care PTSD Screen for DSM-5 (PC-PTSD-5) remain unstudied in community-based populations. This study evaluates the performance of the PC-PTSD-5 to determine whether it can be used as a brief alternative to the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) in a large public hospital in the southeastern United States. Participants (N = 422; 92.7% Black; 85.8% female; M age = 42.0 years, SD age = 13.4 years) completed the PCL-5 and PC-PTSD-5 after recruitment from medical clinic waiting rooms and admission lists. Using chance-corrected test quality indices and item response theory (IRT) analyses, we determined optimal cut-scores for screening and examined item performance. Approximately 45.0% of the sample screened positive for probable DSM-5 PTSD using the PCL-5. The PC-PTSD-5 demonstrated high internal consistency and strong associations with PCL-5 scores (total, r = .79; items, rs = .51-.61). A cut-score of one was optimally sensitive for screening (κ = .96), and a cut-score of four had the highest quality of probable efficiency (κ[.5] = .66) for detecting self-reported DSM-5 PTSD on the PCL-5. IRT analyses indicated Item 1 (nightmares, intrusive memories) provided the most information, and other items may not be incrementally useful for this sample. Findings provide preliminary support for the use of the PC-PTSD-5 as a brief alternative to the PCL-5 among chronically trauma-exposed patients in the public healthcare setting.
The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine changes in COVID-19 and illness-related perceptions, gastrointestinal symptoms, coping, catastrophising, psychological distress, and QoL during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 831 adults with a gastrointestinal condition completed an online questionnaire at baseline (May—October 2020). Of those, 270 (32.5%) participants (85.2% female, mean age = 47.3 years) provided follow-up data (March—May 2021). Repeated-measures multiple analysis of variance and a cross-lagged panel model were used to test the study hypotheses. Gastrointestinal symptoms and COVID-19 perceptions at follow-up were strongly predicted by their baseline values, while illness perceptions were predicted by baseline gastrointestinal symptoms. Cross-lagged relationships indicated a reciprocal relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and psychological distress. Moreover, gastrointestinal symptoms had substantial predictive utility, strongly predicting future gastrointestinal symptoms, and to a lesser extent, more negative illness perceptions, greater psychological distress, and greater use of adaptive coping strategies across time.
Pediatric donors may be at increased risk of psychological and social challenges following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Through a retrospective chart review, we evaluated the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of pediatric donors over time and examined facilitators and barriers to implementing a longitudinal psychosocial assessment. Fifty-one pediatric donors (M = 10.7 years, SD = 3.7) completed an HRQL questionnaire across six time points (T1 to T6) from prior to donation to 2 years after. Change in mean scores was assessed using a linear mixed-effect model for repeated measures design. Facilitators and barriers to implementation were examined. HRQL of pediatric donors improved between T1 and T6 with significant change in physical, emotional, and overall functioning. Facilitators to retention included the support of a clinical coordinator. Barriers to implementation included the absence of infrastructure to maintain contact with pediatric and their families. HRQL of pediatric donors of HCT improved steadily over time. Pattern of results suggests a need to further explore factors that contribute to change across time. Development of a longitudinal standardized assessment protocol that can be prospectively and feasibly implemented is integral to supporting the well-being of this group.
Maternal health is a critical component of optimal child health and development. Consequently, the American Academy of Pediatrics added postpartum depression (PPD) screening to their psychosocial screening guidelines in 2017. The Healthy Mothers, Healthy Children Project (HMHCP) was an interprofessional initiative aimed at preparing for, then implementing and maintaining pediatrician-completed PPD screening at 1-month well visits in a pediatric primary care clinic. Roles of pediatric psychology and rates of PPD screening were examined. Pediatric psychologists actively participated as leaders and collaborators in a variety of non-clinical roles from HMHCP preparation through maintenance. The clinic achieved high and continuously improving PPD screening rates following HMHCP implementation. Importantly, PPD screening rates were equitable across race and gender. The current study outlines feasible non-clinical roles that pediatric psychologists can fulfill in support of routine PPD screening within pediatric primary care. It also highlights associated benefits and outcomes for the clinic, providers, and patients.
Despite increased attention devoted to diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) within academic medicine, representation, lack of workforce and leadership diversity, and bias within medicine remain persistent problems. The purpose of the current study was to understand the current efforts and attention to DEI within academic departments of surgery in the United States. 251 department of surgery websites were reviewed, using a standardized data collection form and scoring procedure, accompanied by a 10 percent fidelity check by an independent reviewer. Only 16% of departments of surgery included DEI-specific information, such as a DEI mission statement or initiatives on their departmental sites, with less than seven percent of departments reporting a DEI committee. Such public information may have implications for recruitment and retention of diverse faculty and trainees, downstream effects for patient care, and could be critical to public accountability to improve diversity and create a culture of equity and inclusion.
Haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) can be a highly distressing procedure that negatively impacts quality of life (QoL). Self-help interventions can help improve psychopathology and wellbeing in patients with physical illness, but have rarely been trialled with HSCT recipients. This study aimed to pilot the utility of a self-help manual intervention during the acute phase of HSCT. Forty autologous and allogeneic HSCT candidates were randomly assigned to a self-help manual intervention or treatment as usual (TAU). Psychological distress (BSI-18) and QoL (FACT-BMT-Vs4) were measured pre-, 2–3 weeks and 3 months post-HSCT. Linear mixed-effects analyses showed no significant group-time interaction for global QoL (p = .199) or global distress (p = .624). However, highlighting a protective role during admission, manual participants showed minimal QoL or somatic distress change at 2–3 weeks post-transplant compared with moderate-large effects for reduced QoL (d = 0.62) and increased somatic distress (d = − 0.81) for TAU patients. Thematic analysis suggests the manual helped prepare patients for transplant and provided strategies to improve distress and QoL. This pilot provides preliminary evidence for the benefit of a self-help manual during hospitalisation for a HSCT. More intensive, recovery-focussed care, however, may be needed to improve psychological health in the post-hospital period. Retrospectively registered trial (ANZCTR No. 12620001165976, 6th November 2020).
Medical mishaps are well-known sources of distress. However, some mishaps may give medical professionals an opportunity to experience personal growth. We examined the associations between medical mishaps, second victim distress, and posttraumatic growth. A total of 157 physicians and 139 nurses completed a survey that included questions about mishaps, Second Victim Experience and Support Tool and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Overall, 82.8% of the physicians and 48.9% of the nurses experienced at least one mishap. Lack of training, rumination, and impact of mishaps were associated with distress among nurses, whereas rumination, impact, and stressfulness were associated with distress among physicians. On the other hand, the impact of mishaps is the only factor that was associated with posttraumatic growth among nurses, whereas none with physicians. This study suggests that the posttraumatic growth from medical mishaps is not associated with the theory-driven event-related factors, and highlights the importance of further investigation.
Diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) efforts at academic medical centers (AMCs) began prior to 2020, but have been accelerated after the death of George Floyd, leading many AMCs to recommit their support for DEI. Institutions crafted statements to decry racism, but we assert that institutions must make a transparent, continuous, and robust financial investment to truly show their commitment to DEI. This financial investment should focus on (1) advocacy efforts for programs that will contribute to DEI in health, (2) pipeline programs to support and guide minoritized students to enter health professions, and (3) the recruitment and retention of minoritized faculty. While financial investments will not eliminate all DEI concerns within AMCs, investing significant financial resources consistently and intentionally will better position AMCs to truly advance diversity, equity, and inclusion within healthcare, the community, and beyond.
Given the long-standing history of systemic racism in psychological science, diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) efforts are increasingly vital to the advancement and improvement of the field. This commentary extends the seminal work of the article Upending Racism in Psychological Science: Strategies to Change How Our Science is Conducted, Reported, Reviewed, and Disseminated (Buchanan et al., Am Psychol, https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/6nk4x, 2020) by providing tangible applications and recommendations to improve DEI integration into pediatric adherence science. Real-world adherence examples are discussed regarding the challenges faced in systematically integrating DEI principles, potential solutions to overcoming barriers, and the implications of these efforts on scientific advancement in an effort to address and dismantle research practices that perpetuate inequity and White supremacy. Specifically, we provide discourse and practical guidance related to the conduct, reporting, reviewing, and dissemination of pediatric adherence science to promote dialog and produce actionable change toward the promotion of health equity and social justice.
Parents of children with diagnoses of Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS) may experience significant psychological distress related to their child’s severe and relapsing illness and challenges with the traumatic nature of its treatment. No manualized or studied psychological interventions specifically for parents of youth with PANS have existed prior to this study. In this pilot study, we assessed the feasibility, satisfaction, and treatment fidelity of a brief 9-session group therapy intervention for parents based on principles of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). We hypothesized that, if initially elevated, symptoms of depression, anxiety, and trauma would decrease and participants’ utilization of positive coping mechanisms would increase post-intervention. We adapted an existing evidence-based group intervention developed for parents of children with premature infants to target sources of stress and coping in parents of children with PANS. Ten parents participated in the study. The 9-session intervention used a combination of techniques that included cognitive restructuring, coping skills, self-care, and a trauma narrative to address psychological stress, trust, grief, and unwanted emotions. Outcome measures included parental symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as rating of parental satisfaction with the intervention. The treatment was feasible and deliverable with high fidelity. The intervention was rated as useful and satisfactory by parents (overall average usefulness of 4.54 and satisfaction of 4.71 out of 5.0). Elevated symptoms of PTSD and depression decreased with large effect sizes (Cohen’s d = 1.42 and Cohen’s d = 1.38, respectively). Participating parents demonstrated significantly more active coping and acceptance behaviors and stances. A brief 9-session group therapy intervention based on principles of trauma-focused CBT was found to be effective in reducing symptoms of psychological distress in parents of children with PANS.
The Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) committee was established in 2017 within the Department of Pediatrics at Rush University Medical Center (RUMC), an academic medical health center located on the near west side of Chicago, IL. Results from climate surveys highlighted the need for increased DEI initiatives within the department, and a renewed national reckoning on racial tensions sparked an additional sense of urgency for system-level change. This paper outlines the initial creation and ongoing efforts of the DEI committee. Information related to the structure of our committee, aims of our work, progress toward identified goals, as well as ongoing barriers is provided. Academic medical health centers are tasked not only with working and training together, but also to care for a diverse group of patients within a larger community. As such, academic medical health centers represent a unique backdrop and opportunity for individual and system-level change.
The present study sought to understand similarities and differences in the experiences of women with mild, moderate and severe menstrual pain. Women aged 18–50 years were recruited from the community between May and July 2019 (n = 624). Participants were asked to rate their menstrual pain severity using a Numerical Rating Scale categorised into mild (scores 1–4), moderate (scores 5–7), and severe dysmenorrhea (scores 8–10) and respond to three open-ended questions about the impact of menstrual pain. Inductive template thematic analysis was used to understand patterns of meaning and compare and contrast the experience of menstrual pain across severity. Three themes were derived, including ‘Dysmenorrhea is more than menstrual pain;’ ‘It puts a hold on lives;’ and ‘Lack of health-related information.’ Women across all pain severities reported disabling symptoms, disrupted physical activity and the need for education and treatment. Those experiencing mild pain reported relatively brief symptoms and minor impacts, whilst those with moderate, and especially severe pain reported debilitating symptoms and extensive impacts. Supportive care including education is needed for all menstruating people.
Stigma is a strong concern in the effort to manage the impact of many chronic diseases on patients and affects the quality of life (QoL) of patients, but little is understood regarding how this happens. We explored the perspective that stigma reduces health-related QoL (HRQoL) by evoking the traumatic experiences associated with HIV diagnosis. Outpatients (n = 250) receiving HIV-related care were recruited from 2 hospitals in the southeastern region of Nigeria. Participants completed measures of stigma, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and HRQoL. Mediation analyses were conducted using Hayes PROCESS Macro for SPSS. Result showed that stigma was negatively associated with HRQoL; patients who reported more traumatic symptoms also reported poorer HRQoL. Traumatic stress symptoms mediated the path between stigma and all the dimensions of HRQoL. Findings suggest that recognizing and addressing trauma symptoms are important in the management of PLWH. Perhaps addressing trauma would reduce the impact of stigma on HRQoL.
While cigarette use among U.S adults has recently decreased, vulnerable subgroups continue to smoke at high rates, including individuals receiving Medicaid insurance. These individuals have also experienced treatment access disparities, highlighting the need for approaches that leverage their strong desire to quit. We conducted interviews with 100 adult primary care patients receiving Medicaid who were current tobacco users about their use, openness to technology-based interventions, and readiness to change. Most (92%) reported current cigarette use and readiness to change averaged 6.98 out of 10 (SD = 2.82). Nearly all were open to completing an iPad-based tobacco screening (95%) and brief intervention (90%) at their next appointment, while 91% and 88% were willing to talk with their provider or a cessation counselor, respectively, about the subsequent results. Results persisted across age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Openness to technology-based interventions in this population provides support for future work that may ultimately reduce disparities.
The current study explored whether women who had experienced Postpartum Intrusive Thoughts of Intentional Harm (PPITIH) were more likely to disclose these thoughts and less likely to experience shame about such thoughts after being exposed to psychoeducation about PPITIH. The study also examined whether shame was a significant predictor of the number of people to whom the participant had disclosed their PPITIH. Additionally, a content analysis was used to explore participants’ responses to the psychoeducation. One hundred and thirty-nine women completed the web-based study. The number of participants reporting PPITIH significantly increased following the exposure to the psychoeducation and participants’ levels of shame significantly decreased. No relationship was found between participants’ level of shame and the number of people to whom they had disclosed their experiences with PPITIH prior to the study. Themes of relatability, reassurance, and resonance emerged from the responses of participants who reported having experienced PPITIH; whereas those of surprise/sadness/shock and similarities emerged from those who denied having experienced them.
Breast cancer impacts not only the physical and mental health of patients but also the people around them-especially their caregivers. This study examined the relationship between post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and caregiver burden in breast cancer patients through the mediating pathway of anxiety and depression.
A total of 236 breast cancer patients from China completed the Chinese Version of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (PSS), the Chinese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Chinese version of the General Anxiety Symptoms Scale (GAD-7). In addition, caregivers of these breast cancer patients were surveyed by the Caregiver Self-Assessment Questionnaire (CSAQ).
Structural equation model showed that our model fitted well [χ2 /df = 1.966, TLI = 0.959, CFI = 0.994, RMSEA (90% CI) = 0.065 (0-0.12)] and revealed that anxiety, but not depression, mediated the relationship between PTSS in breast cancer patients and caregiver burden.
The level of PTSS was positively correlated with anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients, and the level of anxiety and depression was positively related to caregiver burden. The PTSS of patients positively predicted caregiver burden and this relationship appears to be mediated by the patient's anxiety.
Prior research suggests post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with the development of esophageal symptoms. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of PTSD in veterans with esophageal symptoms, and assess for differences in objective esophageal motility and reflux classifications. Consecutive veterans reporting esophageal symptoms (e.g., dysphagia and reflux) underwent clinical evaluation with standard reflux and motility testing. Relevant demographic, mental health, and clinical esophageal information was gathered. Patients were classified into “PTSD” and “Non-PTSD” groups based on the documentation of a clinician-confirmed diagnosis of PTSD in the medical chart. Of the 273 consecutive veterans (89% men, mean age: 62 years) that met inclusion criteria for the study, 34% had a clinician-confirmed diagnosis of PTSD. Differences existed between PTSD and non-PTSD groups on smoking, bipolar disorder, depression, ADHD, and opiate use. However, no differences existed in objectively determined motility or reflux phenotypes. While PTSD was highly prevalent among our sample of symptomatic veterans, the presence of PTSD was not associated with differences in motility classifications and reflux phenotypes. These findings are consistent with recent research in psychogastroenterology, which suggests psychological processes are important to consider across esophageal classifications.
Despite a focus on neurocognition in pediatric intestinal failure (IF) to date, we examined social-emotional and adaptive functioning.Methods
Children (N = 63) in our IF rehabilitation program underwent neuropsychological assessments including caregiver- and teacher-reported questionnaires. Results were compared to norms using z-tests. Caregiver and teacher reports were compared using t tests. Medical and demographic factors were examined in an exploratory manner using correlation and targeted regression analyses, adjusting for gestational age and full-scale IQ.ResultsCaregiver and teacher reports indicated poorer executive, internalizing, behavioral, and adaptive functioning compared to norms. Teachers reported more executive dysfunctions than caregivers. Necrotizing enterocolitis diagnosis predicted internalizing emotional problems. Immigrant status predicted poorer social and practical adaptive functioning. Living with biological parents predicted fewer externalizing emotional and behavioral problems.Conclusions
The group displayed social-emotional and adaptive functioning concerns. Identifying medical and demographic risks can allow for screening and intervention.
The aim of this study was to describe the levels of depression, anxiety, stress, and distress in patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). The 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and Distress Thermometer were administered preoperatively, postoperatively day 10, and at hospital discharge to 169 patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis undergoing CRS and HIPEC. The mean preoperative values for DASS-21 subscale scores were 4.7 (depression), 4.2 (anxiety), and 8.4 (stress), and the mean preoperative Distress Thermometer rating was 4.0. No significant changes in levels of depression, stress, or distress were noted thereafter. The DASS-21 anxiety subscale score significantly increased at hospital discharge (p = .005). Higher levels of preoperative psychological depression, anxiety, stress and distress were associated with worse mental component scores. Higher preoperative depression levels were associated with the provision of more clinical psychologist occasions of service, and higher preoperative distress levels were associated with younger age. Preoperative psychological measures are important for ensuring CRS and HIPEC patients that require additional support are identified and provided with ongoing psychological interventions.
Pain catastrophizing (PC) is a negative cognitive distortion to actual or anticipated pain. This study aims to investigate the relationship between pain catastrophizing, emotional intelligence, pain intensity, and quality of life (QoL) in cancer patients with chronic pain. Eighty-nine outpatients with chronic pain attending pain clinics and palliative care units were recruited. Participants were men (42.7%) and women (57.3%) with an average age of 56.44 years (SD = 14.82). Self-report psychological measures were completed, including a measure of emotional intelligence, a standard measure of PC, a scale assessing pain intensity, and a scale measuring QoL. The PC scale was found to assess three correlated yet different dimensions of pain catastrophizing (helplessness, magnification, and rumination). Moreover, as expected, patients with PC scale scores ≥ 30 had lower scores in functional QoL dimensions and higher scores in the fatigue, pain, and insomnia symptom dimensions. Regression analyses demonstrated that PC (B = − 0.391, p = 0.004), pain intensity (B = − 1.133, p < 0.001), and education (B = 2.915, p = 0.017) remained the only significant variables related to QoL, when controlling for demographic and clinical confounders. Regarding mediating effects, PC and pain intensity were jointly found to be significant mediators in the relationship between emotional intelligence and QoL. Results are discussed in the context of the clinical implications regarding interventions designed to improve cancer patients' quality of life and offer new insight, understanding, and evaluation targets in the field of pain management.
Some emotional and social aspects of infertility affect the response of the infertile women to the treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of unified transdiagnostic protocol (UP) and mindfulness-based stress reduction protocol (MBSR) on emotion regulation and uncertainty intolerance in infertile women receiving IVF. Forty-five infertile women with symptoms of anxiety and depression were included in the study. They were randomly assigned in two intervention groups and one control group. The UP was performed for 10 sessions and MBSR was performed for eight sessions. All participants completed emotion regulation and uncertainty intolerance questionnaires at pre-test, post-test, and follow-up stages. Both interventions had a significant effect on increasing patients' emotion regulation (p ≤ 0.05), but only unified transdiagnostic protocol had a significant effect on intolerance of uncertainty (p ≤ 0.05). Findings show that UP and MBSR have increased emotion regulation. Also UP could reduce the rate of uncertainty intolerance.
The study aimed to determine different lifestyle and clinical factors that predict self-rated health (SRH) in non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP) patients. In this cross-sectional study, 360 NCCP patients filled out questionnaires about depression, somatization, body sensation, type D personality, and pain intensity. In addition, participants’ lifestyle and socio-demographic data were obtained. Multiple regression analyses revealed that among men, pain intensity (OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.03, 1.12), depression (3.10; 1.38, 9.18), somatization (1.18; 1.08, 1.29) and sleep quality (6.23; 1.42, 27.27) were associated with self-rated health. In women NCCP patients, depression (2.44; 1.05, 6.82) pain intensity (1.05; 1.01, 1.10), and physical activity (2.21; 1.07, 5.55) were associated with SRH. The results on the predicting factors of SRH in NCCP patients provide potential insights for more advanced clinical management of NCCP. In addition, they can be applied to improve health policies and promote healthy behaviors among NCCP patients.
Nurses experience a high incidence of workplace bullying and are at a higher risk of suicide than the general population. However, there is no empirical evidence on how exposure to workplace bullying is associated with suicide ideation and attempts among nurses. Nurses were recruited from tertiary hospitals in Shandong Province, China, using stratified cluster sampling. Suicide ideation and attempts were assessed using two items, and the Workplace Psychologically Violent Behaviors Instrument was used to measure subtypes of workplace bullying. The prevalence of workplace bullying, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts was 30.6%, 16.8%, and 10.8%, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, victims of workplace bullying were at a high risk of suicide ideation and attempts. Among workplace bullying subtypes, individuals’ isolation from work and direct negative behaviors were predictors of both suicide ideation and attempts; attack on personality only predicted suicide attempts. The more bullying subtypes experienced by nurses, the greater their likelihood of suicide ideation and attempts. These findings suggested that workplace bullying was associated with an increased risk of suicide ideation and attempts in nurses, with both independent and cumulative risks. Interventions should focus on prevention and managing the effects of workplace bullying among nurses.
A single session of Emotional Awareness and Expression Therapy (EAET)—the EAET Interview—was previously shown to lead to clinical benefits for patients with centralized somatic conditions in primary care (Ziadni et al. in Health Psychol 37(3):282–290, 2018) and tertiary care (Carty et al. in Pain Med 20(7):1321–1329, 2019) settings. There has yet to be an examination of patients’ experiences of and reactions to the EAET Interview, which is crucial in evaluating possible clinical implementation of the interview. We conducted secondary analyses on 88 patients (M age = 41.32, 90.9% women) from the two prior trials (primary care N = 51; tertiary care N = 37). Analyses examined interview processes (stress disclosure themes, working alliance, and emotional processing) and patients’ reactions to the interview (interview credibility and perceived value of the interview), comparing the two samples and examining correlations among these variables. All patients disclosed at least one stressful life experience, commonly interpersonal problems (89.2%) and childhood adversity (51.5%). Patients had moderately high levels of working alliance and emotional processing during the interview and reported high interview credibility and perceived value of the interview. More extensive emotional processing of stressors was associated with more positive patient reactions to the interview, including higher interview credibility (r = .23) and perceived value (r = .32). We conclude that the single-session EAET Interview was valued by most patients, and patients’ emotional processing is particularly beneficial. Addressing the trauma and emotional conflicts of patients with centralized somatic conditions is both feasible and valuable in front-line medical settings.
American Indian (AI) mothers experience high rates of postpartum depression (PPD). We evaluated the factor structure of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) among AI mothers from a rural AI serving health system. We also investigated potential associations between EPDS scores and selected psychosocial factors (n = 315). Exploratory Factor Analysis (n = 157) showed that a one-factor structure best fits the data. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis was then conducted to examine the fit of the one-factor model (n = 158). Goodness-of-fit statistics showed overall poor model fit (RMSEA = .13) which may be suggestive of an indicator of depression among Natives not detected by the EPDS. Results of the multiple regression analysis were non-significant. The findings demonstrated that while the EPDS measured aspects of PPD, there may be additional aspects of depression specific to the AI women in our sample not captured by the EPDS. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
Pain usually receives insufficient attention by individuals due to the misconception that pain is a natural consequence of aging. For persons aged 65 and older, a disease requiring further research is fibromyalgia, characterized by chronic pain without clear pathology. Mind–body therapies like mindfulness are beneficial for this population as they affect psychological and biological aspects of pain. These therapies emphasize a nonjudgmental acceptance of thoughts and attention to the experience without attempting to resist or change them. Despite the potential benefits of mindfulness interventions for persons with fibromyalgia aged 65 and older, only few studies have examined the effects of these therapies, yielding conflicting findings. Importantly, no study has yet to be conducted exclusively on this population. This comprehensive review examined existing literature focusing on the effects of mindfulness-based interventions on the physical and mental well-being of persons with fibromyalgia aged 65 and older. It highlights the need for further research on the relationship between mindfulness, fibromyalgia, and gerontology, calling for a standard protocol of intervention.
Childhood obesity is a complex medical condition associated with biopsychosocial complications that requires a multifaceted treatment approach. Historically weight management treatment has been challenging to access for racially minoritized youth. This study evaluated factors influencing treatment attendance for racially minoritized youth in a pediatric weight management program between 2018 and 2021. Medical information from 228 participants was collected, including demographics, insurance type, use of telehealth visits, measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL), distance from the weight management program, and medical history. Although participants entering the weight management program came from across the state, racially minoritized participants from the Indianapolis area were more likely to attend the program. Racially minoritized participants farther from the program were comparatively underrepresented. Relative to families from majority backgrounds, racially minoritized families had the highest public health insurance rates. Specific physical and mental health comorbidities may further increase risk. Results have important implications for pediatric weight management programs to improve access and treatment opportunities for racially minoritized and underserved populations.
COVID-19 social distancing mandates increased social isolation, resulting in changes in pain severity and interference among individuals with chronic pain. Differences in personality (e.g., introversion/extraversion) may modulate responses to social isolation. We examined the influence of introversion on reported social distancing-related increases in pain interference and assessed for mediators of this relationship. Individuals with chronic pain (n = 150) completed validated questionnaires 4–8 weeks after implementation of social distancing mandates. Introversion/extraversion was measured using a subscale of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and changes in pain and psychosocial variables were calculated by comparing participants’ recalled and current scores. Association between introversion/extraversion and other variables were assessed using linear regression. A parallel mediation was used to examine mediators of the association between introversion and change in pain interference. Higher introversion was associated with a decrease in pain interference after social distancing (Rho = − .194, p = .017). Parallel mediation analysis revealed that the relationship between introversion/extraversion and change in pain interference was mediated by changes in sleep disturbance and depression, such that higher introversion was associated with less isolation-induced sleep disruption and depression, and thereby less worsening of pain interference. These findings suggest that personality factors such as introversion/extraversion should be considered when personalizing treatment of chronic pain.
Maintaining the resilience of healthcare workers (HCWs) during the protracted COVID-19 pandemic is critical as chronic stress is associated with burnout, inability to provide high-quality care, and decreased attentiveness to infection prevention protocols. Between May and July 2020, we implemented the ICARE model of psychological first aid (PFA) in a novel online (i.e., telehealth) format to address the psychological support needs of HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic. We found that HCWs needed psychological support related to obtaining clear information about pandemic policies and guidelines, navigating new rules and responsibilities, and processing overwhelming and conflicting emotions. The HCWs in our program repeatedly expressed appreciation for the support we provided. Future directions include establishing online discussion forums, increasing opportunities for individual support, and training HCWs to provide peer support using PFA. This program has far-reaching potential benefit to HCWs and to society at large in the context of a pandemic.
The objective of this study is to examine the incidence and clinical indicators for use of cardiorespiratory (CR) monitor use. We also examined parents’ perceptions on the usefulness of home CR monitoring when their preterm infants were discharged from the hospital. A retrospective patients record review was conducted to assess CR monitor use at discharge in preterm infants from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2017. Participants received a telephone survey that examined parents’ CR monitor experiences and use. Over the study period, forty-four infants were discharged home on CR monitor with the incidence rate of 8.1%. Of those, 28 parents were surveyed between 1 and 2 years post discharge. Most parents reported feeling secure but anxious using the CR monitor. Parents who reported experiencing false alarms frequently also reported having feelings of anxiety while using the CR monitor. Findings from this preliminary study support the importance of understanding the role of parent perceptions of families with infants on CR monitors.