Thrombin, a potent platelet activating agent, has previously been found to increase intracellular calcium levels and/or thromboxane A2 synthesis in leukemic cell lines exhibiting specific markers of the megakaryocyte/platelet lineage. However, its functional role on these cells has not been defined. As thrombin is implicated in the regulation of cellular proliferation or differentiation in various other cell types, we investigated the functional effects of thrombin on the megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cell line, and further explored its receptor coupling mechanisms on these cells. We observed that thrombin caused in 1% serum containing culture medium, a reduction in the proliferation of MEG-01 cells, without affecting their differentiation stage as determined by the expression of platelet glycoproteins GPIIb/IIIa and GPIb, FVIII-related-antigen and cell-size measurement, which are specific markers for megakaryocyte maturation. In addition, incubation of MEG-01 cells with thrombin resulted in dose-dependent increases in cAMP levels, and in inositol-trisphosphate formation and intracellular Ca2+ levels. All these responses required thrombin proteolytic activity. The lipoxygenase inhibitor, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, blunted thrombin-induced calcium increase without affecting thrombin-induced increase in cAMP levels, suggesting different thrombin coupling mechanisms with these two second messenger pathways. In addition, the inhibitory effect of thrombin on MEG-01 cell growth was mimicked by cAMP level enhancing agents such as forskolin, prostaglandin E1 and Bt2cAMP. These results suggest the involvement of a cAMP-dependent mechanism in the thrombin-induced reduction in MEG-01 cell growth.
We used the osteogenic sarcoma cell line, UMR-106-01, to determine whether the rise in free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and cellular cAMP following PTH stimulation are able to be regulated independently. For this purpose, we compared the effect of a PTH antagonist, stimulation of protein kinase C, augmentation by prostaglandins, and the time course of desensitization of the two cellular responses. Two x 10(-7) M of the PTH antagonist 8,18Nle 34Tyr-bPTH(3-34) amide ([Nle,Tyr]bPTH(3-34)A) was required to inhibit 10(-9) M bPTH(1-34)-stimulated cAMP generation by 50%. 10(-7) M bPTH(1-34) completely overcame the inhibition induced by 10(-6) M [Nle,Tyr]bPTH(3-34)A. Only 7 x 10(-8) M and 2.7 x 10(-7) M [Nle,Tyr]bPTH(3-34)A were required to half maximally inhibit the [Ca2+]i increase evoked by 3 x 10(-8) and 10(-7) M bPTH(1-34), respectively. In addition, dissociation between [Ca2+]i and cAMP signals was observed when modulation by protein kinase C and prostaglandins was tested. Preincubation of the cells with 10 nM TPA for 5 minutes markedly inhibited the PTH-evoked [Ca2+]i increase. Short incubation with PGF2 alpha augmented the PTH-evoked [Ca2+]i increase. Similar pretreatments had no effect on the PTH-stimulated cAMP increase. Finally, preincubation with 1.5 x 10(-9) M bPTH(1-34) for 20 minutes almost completely blocked the effect of 10(-7) M bPTH(1-34) on [Ca2+]i, while preincubation with 5 x 10(-9) M bPTH(1-34) for 4 hours was required to inhibit the effect of 10(-8) M bPTH(1-34) on cAMP production by 50%. The differences in the regulation of the two PTH-stimulated cellular signaling systems, in particular, the response to antagonists and the time course of desensitization, could be at the level of the PTH receptor(s) or at a postreceptor domain.
We examined the interaction between OSU-03012 (also called AR-12) with phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors to determine the role of the chaperone GRP78/BiP/HSPA5 in the cellular response. Sildenafil (Viagra) interacted in a greater than additive fashion with OSU-03012 to kill stem-like GBM cells. Treatment of cells with OSU-03012/sildenafil: abolished the expression of multiple oncogenic growth factor receptors and plasma membrane drug efflux pumps and caused a rapid degradation of GRP78 and other HSP70 and HSP90 family chaperone proteins. Decreased expression of plasma membrane receptors and drug efflux pumps was dependent upon enhanced PERK-eIF2α-ATF4-CHOP signaling and was blocked by GRP78 over-expression. In vivo OSU-03012/sildenafil was more efficacious than treatment with celecoxib and sildenafil at killing tumor cells without damaging normal tissues and in parallel reduced expression of ABCB1 and ABCG2 in the normal brain. The combination of OSU-03012/sildenafil synergized with low concentrations of sorafenib to kill tumor cells, and with lapatinib to kill ERBB1 over-expressing tumor cells. In multiplex assays on plasma and human tumor tissue from an OSU-03012/sildenafil treated mouse we noted a profound reduction in uPA signaling and identified FGF and JAK1/2 as response biomarkers for potentially suppressing the killing response. Inhibition of FGFR signaling and to a lesser extent JAK1/2 signaling profoundly enhanced OSU-03012/sildenafil lethality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Components of the extracellular matrices (ECM) exert pleiotropic effects in many cell systems, but little is known of the effect of ECM on hormone signal transduction. We have investigated the effect of ECM substrates on cell growth and signal transduction by calcitonin (CT) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) using the rat osteosarcoma cell line, UMR 106-06. Type I collagen (collagen[I]) and Matrigel changed the morphology of the cells and significantly inhibited cell growth by 37% or 23%, respectively, compared with control. None of laminin, fibronectin, or type IV collagen affected cell shape or proliferation. Cells cultured on collagen (I)-coated plates showed increased specific binding of labeled CT compared with cells on plastic plates. The effect was apparent by 24 h and persisted for at least 72 h. None of the other ECM affected CT binding. Scatchard analysis revealed that collagen(I) increased CT receptor numbers but not receptor affinity. Consistent with increased binding capacity, cells plated on collagen(I) had increased responses to each of CT and PTH in terms of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production compared to control cells. In addition, cAMP production by prostaglandin E2, cholera toxin, and forskolin was increased by 30-70% compared to control. These data suggest that collagen(I) had effects not only on membrane receptors but on guanosine triphosphate (GTP) binding proteins (G proteins). The effect of collagen(I) on CT binding was no longer present when the cells were freed from the plates by enzymatic dispersion and binding measured in cell suspensions. In UMR 106-01 cells transiently transfected with the porcine CT receptor cDNA, binding was similarly induced by collagen(I). These data are the first demonstration that collagen(I) may play an important role in signal transduction, affecting both receptors and G proteins in UMR 106-06 cells. These results draw attention to the potential role of the ECM of bone in hormone-induced responses.
The subclone M-07e, derived from the interleukin-3 (IL-3)-responsive human myeloid cell line M-07, is strictly dependent on either IL-3 or granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for its growth and survival. This cell line may be regarded as a candidate model to investigate the poorly understood events triggered by growth factors binding to human hemopoietic cells. Both IL-3 and GM-CSF induce in M-07e cells an increase of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, which reaches its maximum at 24-30 h and fully depends on de novo protein synthesis. The growth factors do not elicit translocation of protein kinase C to the membrane; thus a role of the kinase in ODC induction is ruled out. An amiloride-inhibitable Na+/H+ exchanger is present in the membrane of M-07e cells; its apparent Km for extracellular Na+ is 47.77 mM; and its activity is greatly enhanced when the cytoplasm is acidified. Growth-factor-evoked ODC activation and DNA synthesis are blocked in a dose- and time-dependent manner when M-07e cells are incubated with ethylisopropylamiloride, a specific inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchanger. The exchanger does not appear to be directly activated by IL-3 or GM-CSF, but its operation is strictly required for the biological effects of these growth factors on M-07e cell line.
The cell line M-07e requires either Interleukin-3 (IL-3) or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for proliferation in vitro. Cells deprived of growth factor for up to 48 hours remain viable but no longer divide. The growth-factor-deprived M-07e cells begin to divide within 48 hours of reexposure to IL-3. Flow cytometric analysis of M-07e cells labeled with hypotonic propidium iodide demonstrates that the percentage of cells undergoing DNA synthesis decreases from 24%, in a log phase population of IL-3 stimulated cells, to 1% when cells are deprived of IL-3 for 24 hours. IL-3-deprived cells accumulate predominantly in a flow cytometry peak representative of G0/G1. DNA synthetic activity, as determined by tritiated thymidine uptake and flow cytometry, resumes between 12 and 18 hours after reexposure to IL-3, reaching a peak of up to 40% by 24 hours and returning to log phase levels by 72 hours. Prior to initiation of DNA synthesis, increases are seen in mRNA levels for five-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP). Following reexposure to IL-3, a rapid time-dependent biosynthesis of leukotriene D4 (LTD4) is induced by M-07e cells. When IL-3 is added in the presence of any of three lipoxygenase inhibitors tested (Piriprost, caffeic acid, nordihydroguiaretic acid) or FLAP inhibitor, MK-886, there is dose-dependent inhibition of the resumption of proliferation and of DNA synthesis. Flow cytometric cell cycle analysis demonstrates that the inhibited cells remain in the G0/G1 population and do not progress through the cell cycle. These results are consistent with our previous observation that an intact lipoxygenase pathway is necessary for hematopoietic growth-factor-stimulated colony formation of normal bone marrow myeloid progenitors and suggest that the induction of a lipoxygenase metabolite or metabolites is necessary for myeloid cells to progress through the cell cycle when stimulated by a hematopoietic growth factor.
The superinduction of the polyamine catabolic enzyme spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) has been implicated in the cell type-specific cytotoxic activity of some polyamine analogues. We now report that one polyamine analogue, 1,12-dimethylspermine (DMSpm), produces a large induction of SSAT with no significant effects on growth in the human large cell lung carcinoma line, NCl H157. This cell line has been demonstrated to respond to other analogues with SSAT superinduction and cell death. Treatment of the lung cancer cell line with DMSpm produces a rapid increase in SSAT activity and a near complete depletion of the natural polyamines. Additionally, DMSpm supports cell growth in cells which have been depleted of their natural polyamines by the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, 2-difluoromethylornithine. The current results suggest that significant induction of SSAT can occur in the absence of cytotoxicity when the inducing polyamine analogue can support growth and that increased SSAT activity alone is not sufficient for cytotoxicity to occur.
Phorbol diesters have been reported to stimulate the Na+/H+ antiport of a variety of cells including sea urchin eggs. Since stimulation of the Na+/H+ antiport is necessary for metabolic derepression during fertilization and protein kinase C is a target of phorbol diesters, enhanced Na+/H+ exchange during fertilization may be a result of protein kinase C activity. Protein kinase C is probably physiologically activated by diacylglycerols, which are derived from hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol. Treatment of sea urchin eggs with 1,2-diacylglycerols was found to stimulate the Na+/H+ antiport. The 1,3-isomers were without effect. Further, the effects of 1,2-diacylglycerol and phorbol diester are not additive with respect to Na+/H+ exchange. While a direct participation of protein kinase C activity during fertilization remains to be demonstrated, these data support the hypothesis that protein kinase C activity plays a role in fertilization. However, the cytotoxic effect of protein kinase C activators suggests effects associated with their pleiotropic nature.
Prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha); which stimulates DNA synthesis in resting 3T3 cells, also stimulates the incorporation of [32P]PO4 into phosphatidylinositol. The effect is selective for PGF2 alpha when compared with PGE1, PGE2, and PGF2 beta. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) also stimulates DNA synthesis but does not affect phosphatidylinositol turnover. PGE1, which acts synergistically with PGF2 alpha to enhance DNA synthesis, does not affect the ability of PGF2 alpha, to enhance the incorporation of [32P]PO4 into phosphatidylinositol. PGF2 alpha, also causes a small increase in the cellular content of 1,2-diacylglycerol. This effect is not shared by EGF or PGE1. Stimulation of phosphatidylinositol metabolism resulting in an increase in the cellular content of 1,2-diacylglycerol may thus constitute an event in the pathway leading to the initiation of DNA synthesis in which PGF2 alpha differs in its action from EGF.
Alkaptonuria (AKU) results from defective homogentisate1,2-dioxygenase (HGD), causing degenerative arthropathy. The deposition of ochronotic pigment in joints is so far attributed to homogentisic acid produced by the liver, circulating in the blood and accumulating locally. Human normal and AKU osteoarticular cells were tested for HGD gene expression by RT-PCR, mono- and 2D-Western blotting. HGD gene expression was revealed in chondrocytes, synoviocytes, osteoblasts. Furthermore, HGD expression was confirmed by Western blotting, that also revealed the presence of five enzymatic molecular species. Our findings indicate that AKU osteoarticular cells produce the ochronotic pigment in loco and this may strongly contribute to induction of ochronotic arthropathy.
Treatment of mammalian cells with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) produces a G1 to S (G1/S) phase cell cycle block. In addition, it has been noted that a smaller proportion of cells accumulates in the G2/M compartment in 1,25D3-treated cultures. Since cyclins have a major influence on the regulation of cell cycle progression, we determined the expression of cyclins A and B as markers of the G2 phase and of cyclin E as the marker of G1/S transition. No increase in the steady-state levels of cyclin A or cyclin B mRNA was detected in the total cell population or in the cyclin B1 protein in the G2/M cell cycle compartment. In contrast, immunodetectable cyclin E protein was increased in cell cultures as a whole and specifically in the G2/M compartment cells. Determination of BrdU incorporation into DNA by flow cytometry showed marked inhibition of DNA replication in cells with DNA content higher than 4C, and autoradiography of 3H-TdR-pulsed cells showed that polynucleated cells did not replicate DNA after 96 h of treatment with 1,25D3 or analogs. Taken together, these experiments show that at least a portion of the G2/M compartment in 1,25D3-arrested cultures of HL60 cells represents G1 cells at a higher ploidy level, which are blocked from entering the high ploidy S phase.
We examined 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D(3))-induced expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase (CYP24) and apical calcium channel (TRPV6) mRNA levels in 2-, 9-, and 15-day cultures Caco-2 cells that model proliferating, post-proliferative, and differentiated enterocytes. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-induced (10 nM, 8 h) CYP24 and TRPV6 mRNA levels were significantly greater in differentiated and post-proliferative than proliferating Caco-2 cells (>16X and >3X, respectively). Neither CYP24 mRNA half-life nor induction of a -298 bp rat CYP24 promoter-luciferase reporter construct (10 nM 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), 24 h) were different between proliferating and post-proliferating Caco-2 cells. We next tested whether the blunted response of natural genes to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in proliferating Caco-2 cells is due to altered chromatin remodeling. VDR and coactivator protein levels do not increase with differentiation but the level of the co-repressor Alien falls by 50% with differentiation. Over-expression of Alien reduced 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-induced activity of a minimal VDRE containing promoter-luciferase construct by more than 60% in differentiated Caco-2 cells while siRNA knockdown of Alien in proliferating Caco-2 cells increased 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-induced CYP24 mRNA level by 40%. These observations suggest that Alien is a regulator of VDR-mediated gene transcription in Caco-2 cells. In addition, we found that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-induced association of VDR with chromatin and with the CYP24 promoter was lower in proliferating cells. This suggests that decreased recruitment of VDR to vitamin D response elements also contributes to the blunted transcriptional responsiveness to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in proliferating Caco-2 cells.
Exposure of leukemia cells to the physiologically active form of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) normalizes their phenotype to cells that resemble mature monocytes. One of the earliest detectable events in this process is an upregulation of the nuclear receptor for 1,25D3, the vitamin D receptor (nVDR). In contrast, the novel analog of 1,25D3, 1,25-dihydroxy-5,6 trans-16-ene-vitamin D3 (5,6-16D3), which has recently been reported to have low calcium-mobilizing activity in vivo, rapidly induced the expression of CD14, CD11b, and monocyte-specific esterase (MSE), classical markers of the mature monocyte, but upregulated nVDR expression less than 1,25D3. This upregulation was shown to be the result of altered degradation of the nVDR protein, while the levels of nVDR mRNA were constant. Knock-out of nVDR transcriptional activity by a decoy VDRE double-stranded deoxyoligonucleotide, markedly abrogated 1,25D3-induced differentiation, but incompletely inhibited 5,6-16D3-induced differentiation. These findings suggest that the unique ability of 5,6-16D3 to induce cell differentiation but not systemic hypercalcemia, may be due to the activation of pathways which initiate differentiation independently of nVDR.
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] has been proposed as a physiologic regulator of keratinocyte growth and differentiation. Utilizing a proliferative serum-free culture system, we have found that a physiologic (picomolar) concentrations this hormone stimulated proliferation of primary mouse epidermal keratinocytes; at higher (nanomolar to micromolar) doses, growth was inhibited by 1,25(OH)2D3. We investigated the nature of the signal transduction mechanism underlying the response to 1,25(OH)2D3 and observed little or no effect of either low or high concentrations of the hormone on cytosolic calcium levels or Fos expression. Furthermore, the protein kinase C inhibitor, Ro 31-7549, had very little effect on the growth inhibition induced by a high dose (1 microM) of 1,25(OH)2D3. This lack of rapid signal transduction events was consistent with the inability of a short (4-hour) exposure to 1,25(OH)2D3 to initiate a complete growth-inhibitory response as measured using [3H]thymidine incorporation. Our results indicate that physiologic concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 are required for optimal keratinocyte growth. Furthermore, we found no evidence of rapid effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and suggest that in mouse epidermal keratinocytes, the response to this hormone is mediated by a slow transduction pathway, such as that activated by the intracellular 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor (VDR).
Activator protein-1 (AP-1) complex plays a central role in the regulation of both growth and differentiation in many cell types. Monocytic differentiation of HL-60 cells by TPA (12-0-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate) has been reported to be paralleled by increased AP-1 binding to DNA and by elevated c-jun expression, suggesting transcriptional level of control. We show that two forms of AP-1 complex, designated AP-1/1 and AP-1/2, can be demonstrated in logarithmically growing HL-60 cells, that the exposure of these cells to 10(-8) M 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) results in increased binding of these complexes to the AP-1 DNA element, and that the AP-1 complex can be resolved into at least three forms in differentiated cells. Binding to, or competition with, a mutated form of the AP-1 binding site shows that the most slowly migrating complex (AP-1/3) binds to DNA with greater specificity than do complexes AP-1/1 and AP-1/2, while antibody inhibition and binding studies performed at 37 degrees C indicate that jun proteins predominate in AP-1/2 complexes. Exposure of extracts from differentiated, but not untreated, HL-60 cells to 2 mM ATP increases the prominence of AP-1/3 complexes, and reduces the DNA binding of AP-1/1 complexes. Treatment of the extracts with phosphatases abolishes the binding of AP-1/2 and AP-1/3 to DNA, and increases the binding intensity of AP-1/1. When extracts from differentiated cells are mixed with extracts from undifferentiated cells the AP-1/3 complexes become less prominent, suggesting than an inhibitory activity in undifferentiated cells prevents the formation of AP-1/3 complexes. These studies show the association of multiple forms of AP-1 complex with the mature monocytic phenotype, and suggest several levels of control of monocytic differentiation.
The replication of several human and animal cancer cell lines is regulated in vitro and in vivo by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3], the hormonally active form of vitamin D3. We have examined the effects of concentrations of 1,25-(OH)2D3, which inhibit cellular replication, on the cell-cycle kinetics of a 1,25-(OH)2D3-responsive human breast cancer cell line, T 47D. After 6 or 7 days of treatment, a time period representing approximately five cell population doublings of control cultures, concentrations of 1,25-(OH)2D3 in the range 10⁻⁹ M to 10⁻⁶ M caused a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in cell numbers. Treatment of cells growing in charcoal-treated fetal calf serum with 10⁻⁸ M 1,25-(OH)2D3 for 6 days reduced cell numbers to 49% ± 9% (n = 9) of control, and this was associated with a marked increase in the proportion of cells in the G2 + M phase of the cell cycle from 9.7% ± 0.5% (n = 11) to 19.6% ± 2.3% (n = 9), significant by paired analysis (P > 0.002). At higher concentrations of 1,25-(OH)2D3 (10⁻⁷ −10⁻⁶ M), there was a concentration-dependent decline in S phase and increases in both Go/G1 and G2 + M phase cells.
We are interested in determining the signaling pathways for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D)-induced differentiation of HL60 leukemic cells. One possible candidate is Raf-1, which is known to signal cell proliferation and neoplastic transformation through MEK, ERK, and downstream targets. It can also participate in the regulation of cell survival and various forms of cell differentiation, though the precise pathways are less well delineated. Here we report that Raf-1 has a role in monocytic differentiation of human myeloid leukemia HL60, which is not mediated by MEK and ERK, but likely by direct interaction with p90RSK. Specifically, we show that Raf-1 and p90RSK are increasingly activated in the later stages of differentiation of HL60 cells, at the same time as activation of MEK and ERK is decreasing. Transfection of a wild-type Raf-1 construct enhances 1,25D-induced differentiation, while antisense Raf-1 or short interfering (si) Raf-1 reduces 1,25D-induced differentiation. In contrast, antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) and siRNAs to MEK or ERK have no detectable effect on differentiation. In late stage differentiating cells Raf-1 and p90RSK are found as a complex, and inhibition of Raf-1, but not MEK or ERK expression reduces the levels of phosphorylated p90 RSK. These findings support the thesis that Raf-1 signals cell proliferation and cell differentiation through different intermediary proteins.
The effects of hormonal modulators of osteoblast function, parathyroid hormone, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and prostaglandins on [Ca(2+)](i) in periosteal-derived osteoblasts from rat femurs have been investigated. Our results show that application of parathyroid hormone PTH (10(-5) M) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) (4 microM) result in a rapid heterogeneous elevation in [Ca(2+)](i) that, in the case of PTH, is dependent on both extracellular and intracellular sources of calcium. Variable responses to treatments have been found within populations of cells. The PGE(2) response is dose dependent. Treatment with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (10(-8) M) induces a brief (60-90 sec) elevation in [Ca(2+)](i) that is almost totally abolished in EGTA-buffered Ca(2+)-free medium. Interactive effects of multiple hormone treatments have been observed. Pretreatment with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) results in near-total inhibition of the PTH and PGE(2) responses. In conclusion, modulation of [Ca(2+)](i) appears to play a role not only in the direct effects of osteotropic hormones on osteoblasts but also in the synergistic and antagonistic effects between circulating hormones.
Our laboratory has recently demonstrated that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(1,25(OH)2D3) rapidly stimulated membrane polyphosphoinositide breakdown and increased intracellular calcium, as well as activated protein kinase C (PKC) in vitamin D-sufficient rat colonocytes. These effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 were, however, lost in vitamin D-insufficient rats and restored by the in vivo repletion of 1,25(OH)2D3. In the present studies we have examined the ability of 1,25(OH)2D3 to stimulate the phosphorylation of colonic membrane proteins in intact D-sufficient cells. In addition, we investigated the effects of vitamin D status on the phosphorylation of these membrane proteins in broken cell preparations. These studies demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 increased the phosphorylation of at least two colonic membrane proteins with apparent molecular weights of 42,000 (pp42) and 48,000 (pp48) in intact cells of vitamin D-sufficient rats. Moreover, in vitamin D-sufficient rats, treatment of colonocytes with 1,25(OH)2D3 or 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a known activator of PKC, significantly increased the phosphorylation of pp42 and pp48 in broken cell preparations. The kinetics of these phosphorylations in response to 1,25(OH)2D3 were both rapid and transient. In addition, PKC19-36, a specific PKC inhibitor, decreased the phosphorylation of pp42 and pp48, whereas okadaic acid (OA), a type 1 and 2A protein phosphatase inhibitor, further augmented their phosphorylation in response to 1,25(OH)2D3. The isoelectric points of pp42 and pp48 were 5.79 and 5.97, respectively, and both were predominantly phosphorylated on threonine residues. In contrast to our findings in colonocytes from vitamin D-sufficient animals, basal phosphorylation of pp42 and pp48 were increased in membranes prepared from vitamin D-insufficient rats. Moreover, these phosphorylations failed to change in response to 1,25(OH)2D3-treatment of colonocytes from vitamin D-insufficient rats. The basal phosphorylation of each of these proteins was restored to control levels, as was their ability to respond to the direct addition of 1,25(OH)2D3 following the in vivo repletion of vitamin D-insufficient rats with this secosteroid. In summary, we have identified two acidic membrane proteins from rat colonocytes that are phosphorylated in both intact and broken cell preparations in response to 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment, an event modulated by vitamin D status and mediated, at least in part, by PKC.
Vitamin D derivatives have demonstrated anti-cancer activity, but their clinical use is precluded by hypercalcemia. Previously, we found that carnosic acid potentiates differentiation of human leukemia cells induced by low concentrations of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25D(3)). In this study, we investigated if this effect is a general property of antioxidants, and whether there is a common mechanism whereby antioxidants potentiate monocytic differentiation. We found that all antioxidants tested enhanced differentiation-related cell cycle arrest induced by a low (1 nM) concentration of 1,25D(3). Addition of antioxidants to 1,25D(3) activated the JNK pathway as indicated by increased phosphorylation of c-jun and ATF-2, although each compound alone had a minimal effect. Antioxidants also enhanced the 1,25D(3)-induced AP-1 DNA binding and transactivation ability. Expression of Egr-1 and c-fos was increased by combinations of antioxidants and 1,25D(3), in parallel with the activation of the JNK pathway. The potentiation of differentiation by antioxidants was inhibited by JNK inhibitor SP600125 and a dominant negative JNK 1/2 construct, and Egr-1 and c-fos expression was proportionally decreased, suggesting that JNK pathway regulates these transcription factors. While potentiating the prodifferentiation effect of 1,25D(3), antioxidants did not promote the elevation of basal levels of intracellular calcium by 1,25D(3). The results indicate that JNK-AP1 pathway has an important role in the potentiation of 1,25D(3)-induced differentiation by antioxidants, and regulates expression of Egr-1 and c-fos. Combinations of antioxidants with 1,25D(3) should be further evaluated for use in cancer chemoprevention and therapy.
We examined the role of the extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK) in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D(3))-induced gene expression in the differentiated Caco-2 cells. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-regulated expression of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 24-hydroxylase (CYP24) gene (both natural gene and promoter construct) was strongly modulated by altering ERK activity (i.e., reduced by MEK inhibitors and dominant negative (dn) ERK1 and ERK2, activated by epidermal growth factor) but ERK inhibition had no effect on 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-regulated expression of the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 6 (TRPV6). ERK5-mediated phosphorylation of the transcription factor Ets-1 enhanced 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-mediated CYP24 gene transcription in proliferating but not differentiated Caco-2 cells due to reduced levels of ERK5 and Ets-1 (total and phosphoprotein levels) in differentiated cells. MEK inhibition reduced 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-induced 3X-VDRE promoter activity but had no impact on the association of vitamin D receptor (VDR) with chromatin suggesting a role for co-activator recruitment in ERK-modulation of vitamin D-regulated CYP24 gene activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the ERK1/2 target, mediator 1 (MED1), is recruited to the CYP24, but not the TRPV6, promoter following 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment. MED1 phosphorylation was sensitive to activators and inhibitors of the ERK1/2 signaling and MED1 siRNA reduced 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-regulated human CYP24 promoter activity. This suggests ERK1/2 signaling enhances 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) effects on the CYP24 promoter by MED1-mediated events. Our data show that there are both promoter-specific and cell stage-specific roles for the ERK signaling pathway on 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-mediated gene induction in enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells.
Aberrant constitutive expression of the NF-kappaB c-Rel and RelA subunits in breast cancer cells was shown to promote their survival. Recently, we demonstrated that aggressive breast cancers constitutively express high levels of the RelB subunit, which promotes their more invasive phenotype via induction of the BCL2 gene. As these cancers are frequently resistant to therapy, here we tested the hypothesis that RelB promotes their survival. High RelB expressing Hs578T and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were more resistant to gamma-radiation than MCF7 and ZR-75 cells, which express lower RelB levels. Knockdown of RelB in Hs578T led to decreased survival in response to gamma-irradiation, while conversely ectopic expression of RelB in MCF7 cells protected these cells from radiation. Similar data were obtained upon treatment of Hs578T or MCF7 cells with the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin. High serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are associated with decreased breast cancer risk and mortality, although, the mechanisms of its protective actions have not been fully elucidated. Treatment of Hs578T and Her-2/neu-driven NF639 cells with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 decreased RelB/RELB gene expression and levels of pro-survival targets Survivin, MnSOD and Bcl-2, while increasing their sensitivity to gamma-irradiation. Thus, RelB, which promotes survival and a more highly invasive phenotype of breast cancer cells, is a target of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, providing one mechanism for the observed protective role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in patients with breast cancer.
Interaction between c-fos and 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 (VD) on the type I collagen synthesis was studied. VD inhibited collagen synthesis and type I collagen mRNA expression in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. In contrast, VD reversed the inhibition of collagen synthesis and mRNA expression of the c-fos transfectants that overexpressed c-fos gene to a comparable level as those of the control transfectants. The gel shift assay showed the vitamin D receptor (VDR) complex binding to vitamin D responsive element (VDRE) was inhibited under constitutively expressed c-fos gene, suggesting that c-fos gene product, c-Fos, may inhibit the binding of VDR complex to VDRE by making a c-Fos-VDR complex. The result suggests the existence of a fine tuning between c-fos and VD in the bone metabolism which may be relevant to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid bone lesion.
The effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) on DNA fragmentation, altered expression of the heat shock protein (hsp) 70 gene, and protooncogenes c-myc and c-myb was studied during chemical induction of erythroid differentiation in K562 cells. Preincubation of K562 cells with 1,25(OH)2D3 did not alter the concentration of hemoglobin in cells which did differentiate, but led to a reduction in the accumulation of low molecular weight DNA generated by Ara-C administration. The extent of this reduction was similar to the degree of inhibition of hemoglobin formation in the culture as the whole. Preincubation with 1,25(OH)2D3 had no effect on the increase of hsp 70 gene expression induced by a 48-hr treatment with Ara-C, but prevented the Ara-C-induced down-regulation of the protooncogene c-myc. The protooncogene c-myb was down-regulated after 15 min of treatment with Ara-C, and exposure to 1,25(OH)2D3 prior to Ara-C caused a further down-regulation of its expression. The data suggest that the events associated with erythroid differentiation may be separable into at least two groups; one of these may have an influence on the kinetics of the cell cycle traverse, and the other may be related to the expression of the erythroid phenotype.
p53/56(lyn) is a member of the src family that is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells and is thought to play a role in cellular proliferation. In this study, we demonstrate the participation of p53/56(lyn) in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1, 25D(3))-induced growth arrest in HL60 cells. We show that the mRNA and protein levels of p53/56(lyn) are markedly elevated after 1, 25D(3) treatment, which is accompanied by an increase of p53/56(lyn) kinase activity. We also demonstrate that treatment with p53/56(lyn) antisense oligodeoxynucleotides reverses the 1,25D(3)-induced G1/S block, and results in an accumulation of cells with S-phase DNA content. BrdU pulse-chase experiments reveal that this accumulation results from an increased proportion of cells actively synthesizing DNA, which are inhibited from exiting the S-phase compartment. These results indicate that upregulation of p53/56(lyn) contributes significantly to the G1/S growth arrest induced by 1,25D(3) in HL60 cells and thus its activation may be a desirable outcome of chemotherapeutic regimens.
Upregulation of p27Kip1 protein in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-treated cancer cells is mediated via enhancement of gene transcription and reduction of protein degradation. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits the expression of p45Skp2, the F-box protein which is implicated in p27Kip1 degradation, to reduce turnover of p27Kip1 protein. In this study, we elucidate the underlying mechanism by which 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits p45Skp2 in human LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Western blot and RT-PCR analysis suggest that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppresses p45Skp2 via transcriptional repression. Promoter activity assays indicate that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 directly inhibits p45Skp2 promoter activity. Deletion analysis shows that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 response element is localized at -447/-291 bp region from the translational start site of the p45Skp2 promoter. Mutation analysis suggests that two Sp1 sites localized at -386/-380 and -309/-294 bp region are required for transcriptional repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay demonstrates that VDR indirectly binds to these Sp1 sites in vivo and this binding is increased after 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 treatment. Re-CHIP assay suggests that VDR and Sp1 form a complex to bind to the Sp1 sites. DNA affinity precipitation assay (DAPA) shows that histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) is recruited to the Sp1 sites after 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulation. Re-CHIP assay verifies that binding of Sp1 and HDAC1 to p45Skp2 promoter is enhanced after 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 treatment. HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) reverses the inhibition of p45Skp2 promoter activity by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Collectively, our results suggest that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces the formation of VDR/Sp1 complex and acts via a Sp1- and HDAC1-depedent pathway to inhibit p45Skp2 transcription.
The level of 1,25(OH)2D3 receptors in cultured mouse osteoblast-like (OB) cells is modulated by the rate of cell proliferation. We have studied two 1,25(OH)2D3-induced bioresponses to ascertain whether the changes in receptor levels during growth in culture alter cell responsiveness. Nuclear receptor levels were high (127 fmol/100 μgDNA) in rapidly dividing (log) cells and low (25 fmol/100 μg DNA) in quiescent (confluent) cells. The bioresponses we studied were induction of 25(OH)D3-24-hydroxylase. activity (24-hydroxylase) and inhibition of collagen synthesis. The basal levels of 24-hydroxylase were low and similar in cells at log growth phase and confluence. At a maximal induction dose of 13 nM, 1,25(OH)2D3 induced a three-fold rise in enzyme activity at long growth phase, but only caused less than two-fold rise at confluence. The half-maximal dose (ED50) was slightly shifted from 0.6 nM to 0.8 nM. Daily measurement of 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor levels and maximal induction of 24-hydroxylase activity throughout the culture cycle showed a strong correlation between receptor abundance and enzyme induction. The basal level of collagen synthesized by cells in log growth phase was ∼ 5% and increased to ∼ 8% at confluence. Maximal inhibition of collagen synthesis by 1,25(OH)2D3 reached 80% of control levels in log cells, but was only 40% of control in confluent cells. The ED50 was ∼ 0.1 nM in the log cells and increased to ∼ 1 nM at confluence. Daily assay of 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor levels and 1,25(OH)2D3 responses during the culture cycle indicated a correlation between changes in receptor level and the extent of inhibition of collagen synthesis. These changes in biore-sponse at various growth phases did not occur in rat OB cells where the 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor levels were independent of cell proliferation. The results indicate that cell proliferation rate, via change in receptor levels, determines the magnitude and sensitivity of the cellular responses to 1,25(OH)2D3.
Extracellular calcium (Cao) and the steroid hormone 1,25(OH)2D, induce the differentiation of human epidermal cells in culture. Recent studies suggest that increases in intracellular free calcium (Cai) levels may be an initial signal that triggers keratinocyte differentiation. In the present study, we evaluated cornified envelope formation, the terminal event during keratinocyte differentiation, and correlated it with changes in the Cai levels during differentiation of keratinocytes in culture induced by Cao or 1,25(OH)2D. Keratinocytes were grown in different Cao concentrations (0.1 or 1.2 mM) or in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D (10(-11) to 10(-7) M), and the Cai levels were measured using the fluorescent probe Indo-1. Our results suggest that the induction of cornified envelope formation is associated with an increase in Cai level during calcium-induced differentiation. Cao and the calcium ionophore ionomycin acutely increased Cai and cornified envelope formation. In contrast, the effect of 1,25(OH)2D on increasing Cai levels and stimulating cornified envelope formation was long-term, requiring days of treatment with 1,25(OH)2D. Our data are consistent with other recent studies and support the hypothesis that Cao regulates keratinocyte differentiation primarily by acutely increasing their Cai levels. The role of calcium in the mechanism of action of 1,25(OH)2D on keratinocyte differentiation is less clear. The increase in Cai of keratinocytes during 1,25(OH)2D induced differentiation may be essential for or subsequent to its prodifferentiation effects.
We investigated the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) on the expression of scavenger receptors in human monocytic cell line (THP-1 cells) treated for 24 h with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) which induces their differentiation into macrophages. The capacity to degrade 125I-labeled acetyl low density lipoprotein (LDL) was developed in accordance with macrophage differentiation. The treatment with 10 nM 1,25(OH)2D3 for 72 h inhibited the degradation of acetyl LDL by THP-1 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits scavenging function in macrophages. In order to clarify the mechanism of its inhibitory effect on degradation of acetyl LDL, we performed the ligand binding assay using 125I-labeled acetyl LDL. Scatchard analysis revealed that 1,25(OH)2D3 decreased the number of scavenger receptors without changing the affinity for acetyl LDL. We next examined the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the expression of scavenger receptor mRNA. The mRNA of type I scavenger receptor was first detected in THP-1 cells 4 days after the treatment with TPA, the mRNA level increased up to 6 days, and then decreased. The treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 for 72 h dramatically decreased the mRNA levels after the acquisition of macrophage phenotypes as evidenced by nonspecific esterase staining. However, 1,25(OH)2D3 did not affect the activity of nonspecific esterase nor the induction of interleukin-1 beta mRNA by lipopolysaccharide in THP-1 macrophages. These findings suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 exclusively decreases the expression of scavenger receptors in TPA-induced THP-1 macrophages without affecting the basic cellular functions as macrophages.
Both TGF-beta and 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin-D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) have been reported to decrease the proliferation of normal human keratinocytes. The effect and expression of TGF-beta in keratinocytes treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 was investigated. Human keratinocytes were grown in the presence of various concentrations of TGF-beta and/or 1,25(OH)2D3 prior to enumeration. TGF-beta, alone, has a half maximal dose of inhibition (ED50) of approximately 750 pg/ml after seven days in culture in Keratinocyte Growth Medium (KGM; Clonetics) supplemented with 1.5 mM calcium. When 1,25(OH)2D3 (10(-7)M) was also added to cultures with various concentrations of TGF-beta, the ED50 shifted an average of 2-fold less. The presence of TGF-beta (10 pg/ml) augmented the potency of 1,25(OH)2D3 by at least 10-fold. In keratinocyte cultures, the antiproliferative effect of the two compounds together is synergistic. In keratinocytes grown for 1 week in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3 at 10(-6)M, the TGF-beta 1 message increased approximately 5-fold. An increase is detected within 2 hours of exposure to 1,25(OH)2D3. There was only a 50% increase in the levels of TGF-beta 2 and no detection of TGF-beta 3. When keratinocyte cultures were treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 and neutralizing antibodies to TGF-beta, the induced-antiproliferative activity was blocked by more than 50%. The keratinocytes produced more active than latent TGF-beta after growth with high doses of 1,25(OH)2D3.
1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) interact synergistically to induce monocytic differentiation of U937 histiocytic lymphoma cells. Addition of TPA causes an otherwise ineffective dose of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 to induce differentiation. The induced differentiation depends on the simultaneous (vs. sequential) presence of both agents. The kinetics of induced differentiation are consistent with a G1 specific cellular response to initiate the metabolic cascade culminating in cell differentiation. The induced differentiation occurs with down-regulation of c-fos protein and an accompanying up-regulation of RB protein expression, consistent with a possible need for up-regulated RB expression to maintain a given differentiated phenotype and suppress transcriptional activators that might typically be associated with proliferation.
The murine myelomonocytic leukemia cell line WEHI-3B D+, which differentiates in response to granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), can also be induced to differentiate into monocyte-macrophages by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) treatment, whereas the WEHI-3B D- subline, which is unresponsive to G-CSF and PMA, can be induced to differentiate to granulocytes as well as monocytes by 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25-(OH)2 D3], the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D3. A newly developed variant of the WEHI-3B D+ line, named WEHI-3B D+ G, which was responsive to G-CSF but not to PMA, was also differentiated to granulocytes by 1,25-(OH)2 D3. Although vitamin D3 has been reported to induce macrophage differentiation in responsive tumor cells, this is the first demonstration that 1,25-(OH)2 D3 can induce granulocyte differentiation. In both differentiation pathways, cessation of cellular proliferation accompanies changes in morphologic and cytochemical properties of the cells. This suggests that leukemic cell lines unresponsive to differentiation agents acting at the cell surface retain their ability to differentiate in response to agents that do not act via the plasma membrane such as 1,25-(OH)2 D3, which has cytosolic/nuclear receptors. Vitamin D3 could act through different cellular pathways inducing differentiation or by bypassing only the first step of a common differentiation cascade used by agents with cell surface receptors such as CSF. These results suggest that low doses of 1,25-(OH)2 D3 may be useful in combination with hemopoietic growth factors (CSFs) as therapeutic agent to induce leukemic cell differentiation in vivo.
Adequate responses to various hormones, such as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (calcitriol) are a prerequisite for optimal osteoblast functions. We have previously characterized several human diploid osteoblastic cell lines that exhibit typical in vitro aging characteristics during long-term subculturing. In order to study in vitro age-related changes in osteoblast functions, we compared constitutive mRNA levels of osteoblast-specific genes in early-passage (< 50% lifespan completed) with those of late-passage cells (> 90% lifespan completed). We found a significant reduction in mRNA levels of alkaline phosphatase (AP: 68%), osteocalcin (OC: 67%), and collagen type I (ColI: 76%) in in vitro senescent late-passage cells compared to early-passage cells, suggesting an in vitro age-related impairment of osteoblast functions. We hypothesized that decreased osteoblast functions with in vitro aging is due to impaired responsiveness to calcitriol known to be important for the regulation of biological activities of the osteoblasts. Thus, we examined changes in vitamin D receptor (VDR) system and the osteoblastic responses to calcitriol treatment during in vitro osteoblast aging. We found no change in the amount of VDR at either steady state mRNA level or protein level with increasing in vitro osteoblast age and examination of VDR localization, nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity revealed no in vitro age-related changes. Furthermore, calcitriol (10(-8)M) treatment of early-passage osteoblastic cells inhibited their proliferation by 57 +/- 1% and stimulated steady state mRNA levels of AP (1.7 +/- 0.1-fold) and OC (1.8 +/- 0.2-fold). Similarly, calcitriol treatment increased mRNA levels of AP (1.7 +/- 0.2-fold) and OC (3.0 +/- 0.3-fold) in late-passage osteoblastic cells. Thus, in vitro senescent osteoblastic cells maintain their responsiveness to calcitriol and some of the observed in vitro age-related decreases in biological markers of osteoblast functions can be reverted by calcitriol treatment.
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and all-trans retinoic acid (RA), the active metabolites of vitamins D and A respectively, regulate the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. Both the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the retinoic acid receptor family (RAR) bind to DNA response elements as heterodimers with the retinoic X receptor (RXR), suggesting that there are pathways of action that are shared by both compounds. Therefore, we examined the interactions of 1,25(OH)2D3 and RA upon the proliferation and differentiation of normal human keratinocytes (NHK) and of a squamous cell carcinoma cell line, SCC4. Although both 1,25(OH)2D3 and RA were each able to inhibit NHK proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, when they were administered in combination, proliferation was stimulated, suggesting mutual antagonism. In contrast, SCC4 cells proved insensitive in terms of proliferation to 1,25(OH)2D3 and to all but the highest concentration (10(-6) M) of RA. 1,25(OH)2D3 exerted a biphasic effect on transglutaminase (TGase) and involucrin (INV) mRNA levels, with maximal stimulation at 10(-9) M. RA inhibited TGase and INV mRNA levels and antagonized the stimulation by 1,25(OH)2D3. A similar pattern was observed for TGase protein, but, RA, which, by itself, reduced INV, markedly enhanced the ability of 1,25(OH)2D3 to raise INV levels, possibly by inhibiting 1,25(OH)2D3-stimulated TGase activity and cross-linking of soluble INV into the insoluble cornified envelope (CE). Thus, in NHK cells, RA antagonizes the antiproliferative prodifferentiating actions of 1,25(OH)2D3, but assessment of a single marker, such as INV protein, may be misleading.
The epidermis is both a target tissue for and a source of 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol. The present study determines which of the epidermal cell populations synthesizes 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol and which responds to this hormone. Epidermal keratinocytes from new born rat epidermis were separated by unit gravity sedimentation into poorly differentiated cells, slow-cycling more differentiated cells, actively proliferating cells, and terminally differentiating subpopulations. The keratinocyte populations were characterized by cell size analysis, cell morphology, and DNA and RNA contents (acridine orange flow cytometry). 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis was studied by measuring the conversion of [3H] 25(OH)D3 to [3H] 1,25(OH)2D3. The purified product was tested for its ability to compete with synthetic [3H] 1,25(OH)2D3 for binding to chick intestinal cytosol. The responses of the keratinocyte subpopulations to exogenous 1,25(OH)2D3 were evaluated by the increase in 25(OH)D3-24 hydroxylase activity. Furthermore the expression of 1,25(OH)2D3 receptors (VDR) was examined in these cell populations. The results show that only the least differentiated cells produced 1,25(OH)2D3. In contrast, immunocytochemical detection of VDR, the VDR mRNA, and a 25(OH)D3-24 hydroxylase response to 1,25(OH)2D3 were mainly found in the more differentiated cells. Thus, the ability of epidermis to synthesize 1,25(OH)2D3 and be simultaneously sensitive to it depends on the state of cell differentiation. This suggests that the mammalian epidermis contains a paracrine system in which the more differentiated keratinocytes are sensitive to the 1,25(OH)2D3 produced locally by neighboring immature ones.
The activity of kinase suppressor of ras (KSR), a kinase or a molecular scaffold upstream from Raf-1, is involved in the MEK/ERK MAP kinase cascade which can signal cell growth, survival, or differentiation, depending on the cellular context. We provide evidence here that KSR is upregulated in HL60 cells undergoing differentiation induced by low (0.3-3 nM) concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25D(3)), and an antisense oligo (AS), but not a sense oligo, to KSR inhibits this differentiation. The inhibition of differentiation by AS-KSR oligo was less apparent when the concentration of 1,25D(3) was increased, suggesting that at the higher concentrations of 1,25D(3) KSR is not essential for the signaling of the differentiated phenotype. The reduced differentiation of HL60 cells exposed to AS-KSR was paralleled by reduced phosphorylation of Raf-1 Ser 259, and of p90RSK, used here as read-out for MAPK cascade activity. Conversely, ectopic expression of Flag-tagged wild type KSR potentiated the differentiation-inducing effects of low concentrations of 1,25D(3). Additional data suggest that the kinase activity of KSR is required for these effects, as transfection of a kinase inactive KSR construct did not significantly increase the 1,25D(3)-induced differentiation. Enzyme assays performed with KSR immunoprecipitated from 1,25D(3)-treated cells showed kinase activity when recombinant Raf-1 was used as the substrate, but not when the 1,25D(3)-treated cells were pretreated with AS-KSR oligos. Taken together, these data suggest that KSR participates in signaling of monocytic differentiation by augmenting the strength of the signal transmitted through Raf-1 to downstream targets.
Prior studies have shown that 24,25-(OH)2D3 and 1,25-(OH)2D3 regulate protein kinase C (PKC) in costochondral chondrocytes in a cell maturation-dependent manner, with 1,25-(OH)2D3 affecting primarily growth zone (GC) cells and 24,25-(OH)2D3 affecting primarily resting zone (RC) cells. In addition, 1,25-(OH)2D3 has been shown to increase phospholipase A2 activity in GC, while 24,25-(OH)2D3 has been shown to decrease phospholipase A2 activity in RC. Stimulation of phospholipase A2 in GC caused an increase in PKC, whereas inhibition of phospholipase A2 activity in RC cultures increased both basal and 24,25-(OH)2D3-induced PKC activity, suggesting that phospholipase A2 may play a central role in mediating the effects of the vitamin D metabolites on PKC. To test this hypothesis, RC and GC cells were cultured in the presence and absence of phospholipase A2 inhibitors (quinacrine and oleyloxyethylphosphorylcholine [OEPC]), phospholipase A2 activators (melittin and mastoparan), or arachidonic acid alone or in the presence of the target cell-specific vitamin D metabolite. PKC specific activity in the cell layer was determined as a function of time. Phospholipase A2 inhibitors decreased both basal and 1,25-(OH)2D3-induced PKC activity in GC. When phospholipase A2 activity was activated by inclusion of melittin or mastoparan in the cultures, basal PKC activity in RC was reduced, while that in GC was increased. Similarly, melittin and mastoparan decreased 24,25-(OH)2D3-induced PKC activity in RC and increased 1,25-(OH)2D3-induced PKC activity in GC. For both cell types, the addition of arachidonic acid to the culture media produced an effect on PKC activity that was similar to that observed when phospholipase A2 activators were added to the cells. These results demonstrate that vitamin D metabolite-induced changes in phospholipase A2 activity are directly related to changes in PKC activity. Similarly, exogenous arachidonic acid affects PKC in a manner consistent with activation of phospholipase A2. These effects are cell maturation- and time-dependent and metabolite-specific.
The effects of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2D3) (10(-13)M-10(-8) M) and 24R ,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol ( 24R ,25-(OH)2D3) (10(-12)M-10(-7) M) on cell proliferation and proteoglycan deposition were examined in our newly developed multilayer culture system for rabbit and human articular chondrocytes. The cells are embedded in an extracellular matrix similar to that seen in vivo and maintain their in vivo phenotype. We extracted and purified native proteoglycans and degraded material from three culture compartments: the medium, intercellular matrix, and cells. Proteoglycan synthesis and deposition were analyzed by measuring 35SO4 incorporation, hexuronic acid, and galactose contents. In both rabbit and human chondrocyte cultures, chronic 1,25-(OH)2D3 treatment inhibited chondrocyte proliferation and stimulated proteoglycan synthesis and accumulation in the three compartments at 10(-12)-10(-8) M; maximal effect was at 10(-10)M. Cell proliferation was reduced by 55% and the content of hexuronic acid (or galactose) was increased to about three times that of controls in all compartments. 1,25-(OH)2D3 did not alter the proteoglycan composition. Chronic 24R ,25-(OH)2D3 treatment induced comparable effects with a maximum at 10(-8)M. When human dermal fibroblasts were treated as above both vitamin D metabolites increase mitosis. 1,25-(OH)2D3 mainly reduced the pericellular deposition of proteoglycans, while 24R ,25-(OH)2D3 appeared to reduce their synthesis and deposition in both medium and pericellular compartments. These results suggest that both 1,25-(OH)2D3 and 24R ,25-(OH)2D3 act specifically on articular chondrocytes to promote phenotype expression.
Metabolites and derivatives of vitamin D are well-known inducers of monocytic differentiation, but the mechanistic basis for their action is not fully elucidated. Here we show that the product of protooncogene Cot1 represses the monocytic phenotype in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells induced to differentiate by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25D), even though the expression of cellular Cot1 increases early in the process of 1,25D-induced differentiation. Interestingly, the expression of the two members of the Kinase Suppressor of Ras (KSR) family of molecular scaffolds, known to be positive regulators of Ras signaling and of 1,25D-induced differentiation, increases in parallel with Cot1 in 1,25D-treated cells. However, KSR1/2 are negatively regulated by Cot1, as determined by transfection of siCot1, and confirmed by a reverse effect of ectopic expression of Cot1. The effect of Cot1 in AML cells appears to be cell-type specific, as previous reports in other cell types found KSR-2 to be a negative regulator of Cot1, a reverse relationship. Also in contrast to findings in other cells, in AML cells Cot1 exerts negative control on the MAP kinase pathways, since siCot1 increases the levels of activated Raf1, p90RSK, JNK1, c-jun, and p38, though not of MEK/ERK. These findings have implications for therapy of AML, since in AML cells active MAPKs hasten cell differentiation, and specific pharmacological inhibitors of Cot1 kinase activity have recently became available, thus making Cot1 a "druggable" target.
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a multifunctional polypeptide, abundant in bone, that regulates both proliferation and differentiation of a wide variety of cells, but its role in osteoclast differentiation remains controversial. We have recently shown that long-term cultures of human cord blood monocytes, in the presence of 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2D3), give rise to cells that express two markers of the osteoclast phenotype, namely, the vitronectin receptor (VNR) and the calcitonin receptor (CTR). TGF-β enhanced the proportion of cells expressing the VNR.
Partial hepatectomy (HPX), which proliferatively activates the remaining liver cells, triggered two transient prereplicative surges in the total activities of cytoplasmic types I and II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase holoenzymes, and of nuclear catalytic subunits from cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. It also induced a transient prereplicative increase in the activities of a nuclear Ca2+-calmodulin-stimulable, protamine-phosphorylating protein kinase, and a nuclear poly(L-lysine)-phosphorylating, 105 kDa protein kinase. Thyroparathyroidectomy (TPTX) delayed and reduced the first surge and completely eliminated the second surge of both of the cytoplasmic cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases, reduced the rises in the activity of nuclear catalytic subunits, and completely eliminated the surge of the Ca2+-calmodulin-stimulable protein kinase, but did not affect the surge of the nuclear 105 kDa protein kinase. The impairment of the responses of the two cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases to HPX in TPTX rats was not accompanied by a rise in the level of heat-stable inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity. One intraperitoneal injection of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D1 into TPTX rats immediately after HPX completely restored the post-HPX surges in the activity of type I cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but the hormone, even in high doses, had little or not effect on the type II isoenzyme or the nuclear Ca2+-calmodulin-stimulable, protamine-phosphorylating enzyme.
Treatment of avian myelomonocytic cells with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) results in an approximately two fold increase in levels of Na,K-ATPase beta 1 subunit mRNA and protein (both total and plasma membrane-associated). The changes in beta 1 subunit expression occur in the absence of a detectable increase in expression of any of the three alpha subunit isoforms or in Na,K-ATPase activity. The selective induction of the expression of the beta subunit in avian myelomonocytic cells by 1,25(OH)2D3 reveals a previously unobserved feature of the regulation of Na,K-ATPase expression, while the targeting of beta subunit polypeptides to the plasma membrane in the absence of a corresponding increase in active Na,K-ATPase suggests that, in these cells, transport of the beta subunit to the plasma membrane may be independent of its binding to the alpha subunit.
1,25-(OH)2D3 (1,25) and 24,25-(OH)2D3(24,25) mediate their effects on chondrocytes through the classic vitamin D receptor (VDR) as well as through rapid membrane-mediated mechanisms, which result in both nongenomic and genomic effects. In intact cells, it is difficult to distinguish between genomic responses via the VDR and genomic and nongenomic responses via membrane-mediated pathways. In this study, we used two analogues of 1,25 that have been modified on the A-ring (2a, 2b) and are only 0.1% as effective in binding to the VDR as 1,25, to examine the role of the VDR in the response of rat costochondral resting zone (RC) and growth zone (GC) chondrocytes to 1,25 and 24,25. Chondrocyte proliferation ([3H]-thymidine incorporation), proteoglycan production ([35S]-sulfate incorporation), and second messenger activation (activity of protein kinase C) were measured after treatment with 10(-8) M 1,25, 10(-7) M 24,25, or the analogues at 10(-9)-10(-6) M. Both analogues inhibited proliferation of both cell types, as did 1,25 and 24,25. Neither 2a nor 2b had an effect on proteoglycan production by GCs or RCs. 2a caused a dose-dependent stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) that was not inhibited by cycloheximide or actinomycin D in either GC or RC cells. 2b, on the other hand, had no effect on PKC activity in RCs and only a slight stimulatory effect in GCs. Both cells produce matrix vesicles, extracellular organelles associated with the initial stages of calcification, in culture that are regulated by vitamin D metabolites. Since these organelles contain no DNA or RNA, they provide an excellent model for studying the mechanisms used by vitamin D metabolites to mediate their nongenomic effects. When matrix vesicles were isolated from naive cultures of growth zone cells and treated with 2a, a dose-dependent inhibition of PKC activity was observed that was similar to that found with 1,25-(OH)2D3. Plasma membranes contained increased PKC activity after treatment with 2a, but the magnitude of the effect was less than that seen with 1,25-(OH)2D3. Analogue 2b had no affect on PKC activity in either membrane fraction. When matrix vesicles from resting zone chondrocyte cultures were treated with 24,25-(OH)2D3, a significant decrease in PKC activity was observed. No change in enzyme activity was found for either 1,25-(OH)2D3 or the analogues. PKC activity in the plasma membrane fraction, however, was increased by 24,25-(OH)2D3 as well as by analogue 2a. This study shows that these analogues, with little or no binding to the vitamin D receptor, can affect cell proliferation and PKC activity, but not proteoglycan production. The direct membrane effect is analogue specific and cell maturation dependent. Further, by eliminating the VDR-mediated component of the cellular response, we have provided further evidence for the existence of a membrane receptor(s) involved in mediating nongenomic effects of vitamin D metabolites.
The anti-neoplastic effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) are well documented in numerous tumor cell systems and animal models of cancer. However, despite this pre-clinical success, the clinical use of 1,25D is currently impeded by the dose-limiting hypercalcemia, and the risk of development of resistance to 1,25D. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of resistance to 1,25D of HL60-40AF cells, a model of drug-resistant acute myeloid leukemia, derived from HL60 cells by cultivation in the presence of 1,25D. The data indicate that transcriptional activity of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in 40AF cells increases only briefly when the cells are treated with 1,25D, despite greater basal cellular levels of VDR protein in the resistant than in the 1,25D-sensitive cells. Analysis of the 40AF VDR mRNA sequence indicated alterations in the 5' untranslated region (UTR), but coding domain variations were not observed. When resistance to 1,25D-induced differentiation of 40AF cells was reversed by a combination of 1,25D with potentiators of differentiation (plant derived antioxidants and a p38MAPK inhibitor), an increase in the level of nuclear VDR, as well as an increase in CYP24 mRNA expression was observed. These data suggest that decreased ability of 1,25D to induce VDR nuclear localization and the consequent VDR target gene transcription may be an important reason for the resistance of 40AF cells to 1,25D. Further, our data show that VDR localization and phosphorylation can be increased by combining 1,25D with potentiators of differentiation. Analysis of the mechanisms that underlie the reduction and potentiation of 1,25D-mediated changes in VDR activity may lead to the identification of new cellular targets that enhance 1,25D-induced monocytic differentiation.
The G1-S boundary of non-neoplastic cells requires extracellular Ca2+ for successful transition. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate but not inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate can partially replace Ca2+ and stimulate the initiation of DNA synthesis of Ca2+-deprived T51B rat liver cells but only if sufficient extracellular Ca2+ (i.e., 0.075 mM) is present. The potent tumor promoter and protein kinase C activator 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate is also capable of replacing extracellular Ca2+ and partially stimulating the initiation of DNA synthesis. In addition, both inositol-1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate added together elicit a full DNA synthetic response.
Fluorescence anisotropy measurements are widely used as sensitive indicators of cell membrane fluidity. 1-[4-(trimethylamino)phenyl]-6-phenyl hexa-1,3,5-triene (TMA-DPH) is a cationic fluorescent aromatic hydrocarbon that anchors at the lipid-water interface of membrane lipid bilayers. Its uptake into porcine pulmonary artery and aortic endothelial cells was monitored and the probe remained specifically localized on the cell surface for at least 4 h. It can therefore be recommended for use for specific plasma membrane lipid fluidity measurements in these cells. The effect of hyperoxia on plasma membrane fluidity was measured by using TMA-DPH. In both cell types, hyperoxic damage resulted in decreases in plasma membrane fluidity. Recovery was achieved 48 h after a 42-h hyperoxic exposure. These results indicate that TMA-DPH is a sensitive probe of plasma membrane lipid domains of pulmonary artery and aortic endothelial cells and that hyperoxia causes reversible changes in the physical state of superficial lipid domains of the plasma membrane of these cells.
The possibility that one or both of the synthetic triamines, 1,3,6-triaminohexane and 1,4,7-triaminoheptane, could substitute for the naturally occurring polyamines in the growth of SV-3T3 cells was investigated. It was found that these triamines did lead to a restoration of growth in cells in which spermidine content had been depleted by exposure to the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor 2-difluoromethylornithine. This resumption of a normal growth rate occurred prior to the reduction in the content of cellular decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine, suggesting that this nucleoside (which increases in concentration several hundred-fold in cells treated with 2-difluoromethylornithine) does not cause the reduction of cell growth. However, unlike the increase in cell growth brought about by spermidine, which continued indefinitely, the increase produced by 1,3,6-triaminohexane or 1,4,7-triaminoheptane was transient. Cell growth in the presence of 2-difluoromethylornithine and these triamines stopped after about three or four population doublings. This corresponded to the time at which the intracellular spermine content of the cells was reduced to values less than 20% of normal. It is suggested that the increased growth rate of spermidine-depleted cells in response to these triamines is due to their uptake into the cell and ability to displace spermine from intracellular sites, thus making spermine available to fulfill the polyamine function(s) essential for growth. These results indicate that the naturally occurring polyamines spermidine or spermine are essential for continued cell growth and cannot be replaced by analogues containing only primary amino groups.