Journal of Cellular Biochemistry

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1097-4644
Print ISSN: 0730-2312
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is one target of BCR-ABL fusion gene of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Moreover, it drives a compensatory route to Imatinib mesylate (IM) possibly involved in the progression of leukemic progenitors towards a drug-resistant phenotype. Accordingly, mTOR inhibitors are proposed for combined therapeutic strategies in CML. The major caveat in the use of mTOR inhibitors for cancer therapy comes from the induction of an mTOR-phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3k) feedback loop driving the retrograde activation of Akt. Here we show that the rapamycin derivative RAD 001 (everolimus, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research) inhibits mTOR and, more importantly, revokes mTOR late re-activation in response to IM. RAD 001 interferes with the assembly of both mTOR complexes: mTORC1 and mTORC2. The inhibition of mTORC2 results in the de-phosphorylation of Akt at Ser(473) in the hydrophobic motif of C-terminal tail required for Akt full activation and precludes Akt re-phosphorylation in response to IM. Moreover, RAD 001-induced inhibition of Akt causes the de-phosphorylation of tuberous sclerosis tumor suppressor protein TSC2 at 14-3-3 binding sites, TSC2 release from 14-3-3 sigma (restoring its inhibitory function on mTORC1) and nuclear import (promoting the nuclear translocation of cyclin-dependent kinase [CDK] inhibitor p27(Kip1), the stabilization of p27(Kip1) ligand with CDK2, and the G(0)/G(1) arrest). RAD 001 cytotoxicity on cells not expressing the BCR-ABL fusion gene or its p210 protein tyrosine kinase (TK) activity suggests that the inhibition of normal hematopoiesis may represent a drug side effect.
A: PA-MSHA photographed by electron microscopy. B: PA photographed by electron microscopy. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at]
Effect of PA-MSHA or PA on cell proliferation. Values are given as a percentage of untreated control cells. The data are presented as the averages for triplicate results from a representative experiment; bars, SD. A,B: Dose-dependent (a,c) and time-dependent (b,d) effect of PA-MSHA on MDA-MB-231HM (A,a,b), MDA-MB-468 (A,c,d), MCF-10A (B,a,b) and MCF-7 (B,c,d) cell proliferation. C: Dose-dependent (a,c) and time-dependent (b,d) effect of PA on MDA-MB-231HM (a,b) and MDA-MB-468 (c,d) *P < 0.05 for MDA-231HM or MDA-MB-468 cells treated with PA-MSHA versus control.
PA-MSHA redistributed cell cycles. Cell-cycle distribution of MDA-MB-231HM (A) and MDA-MB-468 cells (B) in the three phases of the cell cycle are represented by percentages and representative pictures under these treatment conditions. *P < 0.05 for cells treated with PA-MSHA versus control in all G0–G1, S and G2-M phases.
A: Phase contrast microscopic pictures showing the morphology of MDA-MB-231HM (a–d) and MDA-MB-468 (e–h) cells treated with the indicated concentrations of PA-MSHA for 24 h. Cells were photographed under a microscope (magnification, 200×). B: PA-MSHA induced ultrastructural morphological change of MDA-MB-231HM cells under the transmission electron microscope. Cells were treated with 1.8 × 108/ml PA or with 3.6 × 108/ml PA-MSHA for 12, 24, and 48 h, respectively. Bars were as shown in the pictures. C: Nuclear staining of MDA-MB-231HM and MDA-MB-468 cells with Hoechst 33258. Upper panel: control Cells with intact nuclear morphology. Middle and lower panel: Cells treated with PA-MSHA for 24 h with typical punctuated nuclear morphology of apoptotic cells (original magnification, 400×). D: the apoptotic fraction of cells detected by annexin V staining (x-axis)/propidium iodide (y-axis) staining after different treatments. The ratio of apoptotic cells which should be the annexin V positive/PI negative fraction was measured in MDA-MB-231HM (a–d), MDA-MB-468 (e–h) in serum-free medium with PA or in increased concentrations of PA-MSHA as indicated with serum-free medium for 24 h. Results are representative of three independent experiments. E: The percentages are displayed showing the annexin V-positive/PI negative fraction. Columns are expressed as mean ± SD of three independent experiments. *P < 0.05 for PA-MSHA versus control in MDA-MB-231HM cells. #P < 0.05 for PA-MSHA versus control in MDA-MB-468 cells.
The cells were treated with PA-MSHA at the indicated concentrations for 24 h. MDA-MB-231HM cells (A,C) and MDA-MB-468 cells (B,D) were treated with PA-MSHA (A,B) or PA (C,D) for 24 h. Each antibody was used in at least three independent experiments. Protein loading was normalized based on β-actin. Lane 1: Control; Lane 2: PA-MSHA or PA of 1.8 × 108/ml; Lane 3: PA-MSHA or PA of 3.6 × 108/ml; Lane 4: PA-MSHA or PA of 6 × 108/ml. The densitometric quantitation on caspases and Fas, relative to control group, was done on the bands of Western blotting and shown below each lane.
To investigate the effects of PA-MSHA (Pseudomonas aeruginosa-mannose sensitive hemagglutinin) on inhibiting proliferation of breast cancer cell lines and to explore its mechanisms of action in human breast cancer cells. MCF-10A, MCF-7, MDA-MB-468, and MDA-MB-231HM cells were treated with PA-MSHA or PA (Heat-killed P. aeruginosa) at different concentrations and different times. Changes of cell super-microstructure were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis induced by PA-MSHA were measured by flow cytometry (FCM) with PI staining, ANNEXIN V-FITC staining and Hoechst33258 staining under fluorescence microscopy. Western blot was used to evaluate the expression level of apoptosis-related molecules. A time-dependent and concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of PA-MSHA was observed in MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231HM cells but not in MCF-10A or MCF-7 cells. The advent of PA-MSHA changed cell morphology, that is to say, increases in autophagosomes, and vacuoles in the cytoplasm could also be observed. FCM with PI staining, ANNEXIN V-FITC and Hoechst33258 staining showed that the different concentrations of PA-MSHA could all induce the apoptosis and G(0)-G(1) cell cycle arrest of breast cancer cells. Cleaved caspase 3, 8, 9, and Fas protein expression levels were strongly associated with an increase in apoptosis of the breast cancer cells. There was a direct relationship with increased concentrations of PA-MSHA but not of PA. Completely different from PA, PA-MSHA may impart antiproliferative effects against breast cancer cells by inducing apoptosis mediated by at least a death receptor-related cell apoptosis signal pathway, and affecting the cell cycle regulation machinery.
HIF-1alpha plays a major role in activating gene transcription and is important for maintaining homeostasis under hypoxic conditions. Since tumors are often in a hypoxic state, HIF-1alpha is a potential target for the development of novel cancer therapeutics. This study was performed to determine the antitumoral efficacy of an antisense HIF-1alpha inhibitor, RX-0047 on different human cancer cell lines (MDA-MB 231, HME50-T, PC-3, Panc-1 and A549) in vitro. A549 lung cancer and PC-3 prostate cancer cells containing a luciferase gene reporter were used for in vivo xenograft animal models. Progressive tumor development was quantified using live animal BLI (bioluminescence imaging) in addition to ex vivo imaging and histology. All cell lines tested were sensitive to inhibition of cell growth with 10 nM and higher ranges of RX-0047, additionally RX-0047 sensitizes cells to ionizing radiation treatments. Finally, RX-0047 (30 mg/kg) inhibited the formation of human lung metastasis in xenograft mouse models and reduced tumor size in flank models.
The fluorescent Dye H33342 (H342) is a bis-benzimidazole used for intravital fluorescent staining. In this report, we found that H342 completely abolished histone 2a mRNA but had no effect on alkaline phosphatase gene expression and protein synthesis in UMR 106-01 rat osteoblast-like cells. The complete loss of histone 2a mRNA occurred after only 20 min of treatment with H342. This effect is unlikely to be a result of inhibition of DNA synthesis, which was only partly suppressed. The mechanism of the action of H342 on histone 2a mRNA is presently unknown.
Regulation of the subcellular distribution of PKC isoforms by 1,25(OH)2D3 in UMR 106-01 cells. Cells were treated with either 0.1% ethanol (control vehicle) or 100 nM 1,25(OH)2D3 for 20 min, and then cytosol (C), membrane (M), and nuclear (N) fractions were prepared and immunoblotted with antibodies specific for PKC-α, -βI, -βII, -δ, -ε, -ζ, -ι, and AC type VI. Blots are representative of three independent experiments.
Effect of the PLC inhibitor U73122 (A) and PI-3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin (B) on 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated translocation of PKC isoforms. UMR cells were treated for 20 min with 100 nM 1,25(OH)2D3 (VD3), with or without 10 μM U73122 (U) or 10 nM wortmanin (W), and then cytosol (C), membrane (M) and nuclear (N) fractions were prepared and immunoblotted with antibodies specific for PKC-βI, -δ, or -ζ. Blots are representative of three independent experiments.
Characterization of 1,25(OH)2D3 effects on AC (A) mRNA and (B) protein expression in UMR cells. Cells were treated with either 0.1% ethanol (control vehicle) or 100 nM 1,25(OH)2D3 for 20 min, and then total RNA or whole cell lysate was collected. A: Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was performed using AC VI-specific primers and PCR products (230 bp) were resolved in 1.5 % agarose gel. B: For Western blot analysis, cell lysate (80 μg) was resolved on 8% SDS–PAGE, transferred to nitrocellulose and immunoblotted with antibody specific for AC VI (130 kDa). Blots are representative of three independent experiments.
In vivo phosphorylation of AC VI in UMR 106-01 cells. Cells were phosphate-deprived for 2 h and then radiolabeled with 0.2 mCi/ml [32P] ortho-phosphate for another 2 h. Treatment were carried out at the last 20 min of incubation with 0.1% ethanol (control vehicle), 1 μM PMA (positive control), 100 nM 1,25(OH)2D3 with or without 1 μM Gö6850, 10 nM wortmannin and 100 nM CaMKII inhibitor. The cell lysate was incubated with 10% Pansorbin and AC VI specific-antibody, with or without the blocking peptide, or pre-immune serum. The immunoprecipitates were resolved in 8% SDS-PAGE, then stained, dried, and exposed to phosphorimager. The quantitation of [32P] incorporation was determined by scanning densitometry. Values are mean ± SE from three independent experiments (n = 3).
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) treatment of osteoblastic cells was shown previously to attenuate Parathyroid hormone (PTH) response by inhibiting adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism by which 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) inhibits AC in rat osteoblastic UMR 106-01 cells. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment inhibited both PTH and forskolin-stimulated AC activity by 25%-50% within 12 min in a concentration-dependent manner suggesting a direct inhibition of the AC enzyme. Treatment with 25(OH)D(3) had no effect on basal or stimulated AC activity. We determined the profile of AC subtypes expressed in UMR cells and found AC VI to be the dominant subtype accounting for 50% of AC mRNA. Since AC VI can be inhibited by protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation, we examined 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) activation of various PKC isoforms. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased the membrane translocation of PKC-betaI, -delta, and -zeta with a concomitant increase in PKC activity. The translocation of PKC-betaI and -delta was blocked by the PLC inhibitor U73122 whereas that of PKC-zeta was abolished by the PI-3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin. The attenuation of cAMP production by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was antagonized by the PKC inhibitors Go6850, calphostin C, and wortmannin, but not by a calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor. Treatment with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) for 20 min increased AC VI phosphorylation by 10.8-fold and this was blocked partially by Go6850 and partially by wortmannin but was unaffected by CaMKII inhibitor. These results demonstrate that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) activation of PKC isoforms leads to phosphorylation of AC VI and inhibition of PTH-activation of this pathway in osteoblasts.
Pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not clear. In this study we aimed to identify proteins involved in NAFLD development in free fatty acids (FFA)-induced hepatosteatotic cells and in human liver biopsies. Steatosis was induced by incubating a normal human hepatocyte-derived cell line L-02 with FFA. Differentially expressed proteins in the steatotic cells were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomics. Involvement of one of the up-regulated proteins in steatosis was characterized using the RNA interference approach with the steatotic cells. Protein expression levels in liver biopsies of patients with NAFLD were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Proteomic analysis of L-02 steatotic cells revealed the up-regulation of ERp57, a condition not previously implicated in NAFLD. Knockdown of ERp57 expression with siRNA significantly reduced fat accumulation in the steatotic cells. ERp57 expression was detected in 16 out of 17 patient biopsies and correlated with inflammation grades or fibrosis stages, while in 5 normal biopsies ERp57 expression was not detectable in hepatocytes. In conclusion, ERp57 was up-regulated in FFA-induced steatotic hepatic cells and in NAFLD patient livers and demonstrated steatotic properties in cultured cells. Further investigations are warranted to verify the involvement of ERp57 in NAFLD development.
The cadherin/catenin complex plays a key role in the initiation of cell-cell recognition, and adhesion, and the elaboration of structural and functional organization in multicellular tissues and organs. It is associated with tumor metastasis and also acts as an "invasion suppressor" of cancer cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is notorious for its highly metastatic nature. The expression of the E-cadherin/catenin complex is down-regulated in NPC tumor specimens. To obtain better insight into the intercellular adhesive property of NPC cells, we used immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoprecipitation, and immunoblot analysis to examine the expression of the classical cadherins and beta-catenin in a NPC cell line, TW-039. The results demonstrate a change in the distribution of E-cadherin from cytosolic flakes to cell-cell contacts with increasing time in culture. Between days 1 and 5 after plating, the detergent-insoluble fraction of E-cadherin increased from 20% to 37% of total E-cadherin, and that for P-cadherin increased from 33% to 40%. By contrast, the values for beta-catenin remained unchanged (26% and 25%). Both immunofluorescence and immunoblot studies suggested that P-cadherin may be involved in pioneer contact adhesion of TW-039 cells. Interestingly, E-, P-, and N-cadherin are co-expressed in this cell line. Immunoprecipitation studies also showed that other members of the cadherin family may be involved in the contact adhesion of TW-039 cells.
Taxol affects microtubule dynamics by promoting microtubule assembly. To obtain a better insight into possible cross-talk between the microtubule- and actin-based cytoskeletons, we studied the short-term effects of Taxol treatment on the expression of actin and the E-cadherin/catenin complex in the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line TW-039 using immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and immunoblotting methods. Morphologic changes in actin filaments, including ventral actin clumps and perijunctional actin blebs, were seen at Taxol concentrations > or =1 microM. Levels of detergent-soluble E-cadherin fell to 53% or 58% compared to controls in cells treated, respectively, with 1 or 5 microM Taxol, while levels of detergent-soluble beta-catenin fell to 76% or 74%. Levels of the detergent-soluble pool of alpha- and gamma-catenin and the detergent-insoluble pool of the E-cadherin/catenin complex were unchanged by Taxol treatment and no significant difference was seen in the levels of adenomatous polyposis coli or glycogen synthase-3beta or tyrosine phosphorylation patterns. These results suggest that modulation of microtubule dynamics by Taxol may have effects on the expression of actin and the cytosolic E-cadherin and beta-catenin in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells through pathways not involving the phosphorylation of beta-catenin.
The cell-permeable diacylglycerol mediators have been shown to mimic partially the effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on cultured cells. In order to evaluate the metabolic stability of the lipid mediators, several radiolabeled diacylglycerols were synthesized and their uptake and intracellular fate in cultured HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) cells was compared with TPA. In addition to whole cell assessment, the stability of diacyl lipids and TPA was evaluated in a buffer/water system and in the presence of serum and subcellular fractions. The compounds studied include 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol (DiOG), 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OaG), 1-palmitoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (PaG), the ether-linked analog 1-palmityl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (ePaG), and TPA. TPA was comparatively stable to lipase hydrolysis in all systems examined. First, the data show that within 5 min at pH 7.9, nearly 50% of the PaG (originally greater than 92% 1,2-isomer) had isomerized, and rapid formation of the 1,3-isomer also occurred with OaG and ePaG. The metabolism of OaG and PaG by serum hydrolases, using a reaction medium containing 10% serum, was chiefly by acetate hydrolysis; however, fatty acid was also liberated. After a 60-min incubation 68% of the [14C]OaG was converted, by serum enzymes, to monooleoylglycerol plus oleic acid. Heat-inactivation of serum reduced the enzymatic formation of fatty acid by 60-70%. ePaG was also metabolized by serum enzymes, but the ether-linked alkylglycerol product was stable. The results of cell-free studies (postmitochondrial supernatant) showed that cellular enzymes were present that could, like serum, convert the diacylglycerols to monoacylglycerols and free fatty acids. Studies using cultured cells showed that radiolabeled OaG, PaG, and ePaG were rapidly taken up by the cells and metabolized. Labeled metabolic products from the diacylglycerols appeared, in a time-dependent manner, in cellular phospholipids and triacylglycerols. The results from experiments employing 1-acyl-2-acetyl-sn-[3H]glycerol and [3H]acyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol indicate that the intracellular mode of mediator metabolism is via complete hydrolysis with subsequent incorporation of 3H-acyl groups into complex lipids. Data are also presented which show that a substantial amount of cellular lipid acyl group modification occurs and large amounts of glycerol are produced when cells are cultured with OaG. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the diacylglycerol mediators, when compared with TPA, are not stable and are metabolized by both serum and cellular enzymes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Bone metastases from prostate origin generate an osteoblastic reaction that is expressed in vitro by increased osteoblast proliferation. The urokinase-like plasminogen activator (u-PA) present in the media conditioned by tumoral prostatic cells acting as a ligand of the cellular membrane receptor (u-PAR), has been identified as the specific factor that modulates this proliferative reaction. The present study represents an effort to unravel the intracellular pathway by which u-PA activates osteoblastic proliferation and to evaluate the role of cellular receptor u-PAR in this proliferative phenomenon. Our results show that in vitro u-PA stimulates proliferation of SaOS-2 osteoblastic cells by activating the MAP kinase route of ERK 1 and 2 and the p38 pathway. These results are in accordance with the inhibition of intermediate activation and cell proliferation by PD 098059 and SB 203580, specific inhibitors of MEK and p38, respectively. We also show that SaOS-2 cells increase their proliferative response when cells are plated onto vitronectin, the second natural ligand of u-PAR, and that culturing SaOS-2 cells in the presence of u-PA represents a stimuli for u-PAR expression. On the basis of these results we propose that osteoblastic cells respond to the prostate-derived u-PA stimuli in a very efficient manner that includes the utilization of two different signaling routes and the stimulation of the expression of the u-PA receptor.
Inositol phosphate action in an intact cell has been investigated by intracellular microinjection of eight inositol phosphate derivatives into Xenopus laevis oocytes. These cells have calcium-regulated chloride channels but do not have a calcium-induced calcium release system. Microinjection of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (IP4), inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4,5-trisphosphate (cIP3), inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), or inositol 4,5-bisphosphate [(4,5)IP2], open chloride channels to induce a membrane depolarization. However, inositol 1-phosphate (IP1), inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (IP5), inositol 1,4-bisphosphate, or inositol 3,4-bisphosphate are unable to induce this depolarization. The depolarization is mimicked by calcium microinjection, inhibited by EGTA coinjection, and is insensitive to removal of extracellular calcium. By means of the depolarization response, the efficacy of various inositol phosphate derivatives are compared. IP3 and cIP3 induce similar half-maximal, biphasic depolarization responses at an intracellular concentration of approximately 90 nM, whereas IP4 induces a mono- or biphasic depolarization at approximately 3400 nM. At concentrations similar to that required for IP3 and cIP3, (4,5)IP2 induces a long-term (greater than 40 min) depolarization. The efficacy (cIP3 = IP3 = (4,5)IP2 much greater than IP4) and action of the various inositol phosphates in an intact cell and their inability to induce meiotic cell division are discussed.
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) is involved in the regulation of proliferation and differentiation of a variety of cell types including cancer cells. In recent years, numerous new vitamin D3 analogs have been developed in order to obtain favorable therapeutic properties. The effects of a new 20-epi analog, CB1093 (20-epi-22-ethoxy-23-yne-24a,26a,27a-trihomo+ ++-1alpha,25(OH)2D3), on the proliferation and differentiation of human MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line were compared here with those of the parent compound 1,25D. Proliferation of the MG-63 cells was inhibited similarly by 22%, 50% and 59% after treatment with 0.1 microM 1,25D or CB1093 for 48 h, 96 h, and 144 h, respectively. In transfection experiments, the compounds were equipotent in stimulating reporter gene activity under the control of human osteocalcin gene promoter. In cell culture experiments, however, CB1093 was more potent than 1,25D at low concentrations and more effective for a longer period of time in activating the osteocalcin gene expression at mRNA and protein levels. Also, a 6-h pretreatment and subsequent culture for up to 120 h without 1,25D or CB1093 yielded higher osteocalcin mRNA and protein levels with analog-treated cells than with 1,25D-treated cells. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed stronger VDR-VDRE binding with analog-treated MG-63 cells than with 1,25D-treated cells. The differences in the DNA binding of 1,25D-bound vs. analog-bound VDR, however, largely disappeared when the binding reactions were performed with recombinant hVDR and hRXRbeta proteins. These results demonstrate that the new analog CB1093 was equally or even more effective than 1,25D in regulating all human osteosarcoma cell functions ranging from growth inhibition to marker gene expression and that the differences in effectivity most probably resulted from interactions of the hVDR:hRXRbeta-complex with additional nuclear proteins.
Cellular differentiation of neoplastic cells after exposure to 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25 D(3)) is accompanied by altered cell cycle regulation. In previous studies, blocks in both G(1)/S and G(2)/M checkpoints have been observed in 1,25D(3)-treated HL60 cells, but the mechanism of the 1,25D(3)-induced G(2)/M block has not been previously reported. In this study, we show by cell cycle analysis, using bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase labeling, that the G(2)/M block in 1,25D(3)-treated HL60 cells is incomplete. We also demonstrate that although the 1,25D(3)-treated cells exhibit elevated levels of cyclin B1, Cdc25C, and Cdk7, which are positive regulators of the G(2)/M traverse, these cells have decreased protein levels of p34(cdc2) and decreased p34(cdc2) kinase activity. This provides potential mechanisms for the observed accumulation of cells in the G(2) cell cycle compartment and occasional polyploidization following treatment of HL60 cells with 1,25D(3). The data also suggest that the ability of some cells to traverse this block may be the result of cellular compensatory mechanisms responding to decreased p34(cdc2) activity by increasing the levels of other regulators of the G(2) traverse, such as cyclin B1, Cdc25C, and Cdk7.
Effects of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor and activator on 1,25(OH)2D3-induced gene expression were examined in rat intestinal epithelial cells, IEC-6 cells. A potent PKC inhibitor, H-7 (20 microM), completely abated 1,25(OH)2D3-induced 24-hydroxylase gene expression at 3 and 6 h. The effect of H-7 was dose dependent with IC50 around 5 microM. Other protein kinase inhibitors, HA-1004 and H-89 (20 microM), had no effects. Furthermore, the activation of PKC by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) potentiated the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 by 1 h. TPA appeared to exert its effect at a transcriptional step, since mRNA stability was not affected by TPA treatment. At 3 h after the treatment of the cells with H-7 and TPA, vitamin D receptor (VDR) contents estimated by 3H-1,25(OH)2D3 binding capacity were 72.4 and 63.2% of vehicle-treated cells without significant changes of binding affinities, suggesting that the effect of H-7 and TPA was not the result of changes in VDR content or its binding affinity. In conclusion, PKC is involved in 1,25(OH)2D3-induced 24-hydroxylase gene expression in IEC-6 cells between 1,25(OH)2D3-VDR binding and VDR-induced gene transactivation.
The rapid effect of 1 alpha,25(OH(2))-vitamin D(3) [1 alpha, 25(OH(2))D(3)] on tyrosine kinase Src and its relationship to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) was investigated to further characterize the hormone signaling mechanism in chick muscle cells. Exposure of cultured myotubes to 1 alpha,25(OH(2))D(3) caused a time-dependent increase in Src activity, which was evident at 1 min (one-fold) and reached a maximum at 5 min (15-fold). Immunoblotting with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody of immunoprecipitated Src showed that the hormone decreased Src tyrosine phosphorylation state with maximal effects at 5 min. Using a database for protein consensus motifs we found a putative tyrosine phosphorylation site (amino acids 164-170: KTFDTTY) within the primary sequence of the chick VDR. When the myotube VDR was immunoprecipitated it appeared onto SDS-PAGE gels as a single band of 58 kDa recognized by an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. Prior treatment of cells with (1)alpha,25(OH(2))D(3) significantly increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the VDR (two- to three-fold above basal levels). In agreement with Src being a SH2-domain containing protein involved in recognition of tyrosine-phosphorylated targets, immunoprecipitation with anti-Src antibody under native conditions followed by blotting with anti-VDR antibody, or using the antibodies in inverse order, showed that the VDR co-precipitates with Src, thus indicating the existence of a VDR/Src complex. Stimulation with the cognate VDR ligand significantly increased formation of the complex with respect to basal conditions. These results altogether provide the first evidence to date for 1 alpha,25(OH(2))D(3) activation involving Src association to tyrosine phosphorylated VDR.
Commitment of members of the monocyte/macrophage family to the bone resorptive phenotype, in vitro, requires contact, of these osteoclast precursors, with osteoblasts or related stromal cells. The osteoclast-inductive properties of these stromal cells are typically expressed, however, only in the presence of steroid hormones such as 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D3) and dexamethasone (DEX). To gain insight into the means by which steroid treated accessory cells induce osteoclast differentiation we asked, using differential RNA display (DRD), if gene expression by this stromal cell population differs from that of their untreated, non-osteoclastogenic counterpart. We identified four known genes specifically expressed by 1,25D3/DEX-treated ST2 stromal cells: 1) a family of rat organic anion transporters, 2) Na/K ATPase ss-subunit, 3) tazarotene-induced gene 2 (TIG2), and 4) prostaglandin G/H synthase I, or cyclooxygenase 1 (Cox-1). The regulation of these genes in 1,25D3/DEX-treated ST2 cells was demonstrated by Northern blot analysis of treated (osteoclast-supporting) and untreated (non-osteoclast-supporting) ST2 cells; the genes have a limited and specific tissue mRNA expression pattern. Northern blot analysis of treated and untreated ST2 cell total RNA using either a DRD-derived Cox-1 cDNA or a Cox-1 specific oligonucleotide confirmed the steroid regulation of Cox-1 mRNA. Surprisingly, there is no detectable expression by untreated or steroid exposed ST2 cells, of Cox-2, the classical regulated cyclooxygenase isoform. In contrast to 1, 25D3/DEX, serum treatment rapidly induces Cox-2 mRNA, substantiating the capacity of ST2 cells to express the gene. These data establish that steroid induction of the osteoclastogenic properties of stromal cells is attended by Cox gene expression, a phenomenon consistent with the capacity of eicosinoids to impact the resorptive process. The response of osteoclast-supporting ST2 cells to 1,25D3/DEX treatment may be one prostaglandin-mediated event which specifically involves Cox-1 regulation.
We investigated the existence of a capacitative Ca2+ entry (CCE) pathway in ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast-like cells and its responsiveness to 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]. Depletion of inner Ca2+ stores with thapsigargin or 1,25(OH)2D3 in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ transiently elevated cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i); after recovery of basal values, Ca2+ re-addition to the medium markedly increased Ca2+ entry, reflecting pre-activation of a CCE pathway. Recovery of the Ca2+ overshoot that followed the induced CCE was mainly mediated by the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase. Addition of 1,25(OH)2D3 to the declining phase of the thapsigargin-induced CCE did not modify further [Ca2+]i, indicating that steroid activation of CCE was dependent on store depletion. Pre-treatment with 1 microM Gd3+ inhibited 30% both thapsigargin- and 1,25(OH)2D3-stimulated CCE, whereas 2.5 microM Gd3+ was required for maximal inhibition ( approximately 85%). The activated CCE was permeable to both Mn2+ and Sr2+. Mn2+ entry sensitivity to Gd3+ was the same as that of the CCE. However, 1-microM Gd3+ completely prevented capacitative Sr2+ influx, whereas subsequent Ca2+ re-addition was reduced only 30%. These results suggest that in ROS 17/2.8 cells CCE induced by thapsigargin or 1,25(OH)2D3 is contributed by at least two cation entry pathways: a Ca2+/Mn2+ permeable route insensitive to very low micromolar (1 microM) Gd3+ accounting for most of the CCE and a minor Ca2+/Sr2+/Mn2+ permeable route highly sensitive to 1 microM Gd3+. The Ca2+-mobilizing agonist ATP also stimulated CCE resembling the Ca2+/Sr2+/Mn2+ permeable entry activated by 1,25(OH)2D3. The data demonstrates for the first time, the presence of a hormone-responsive CCE pathway in an osteoblast cell model, raising the possibility that it could be an alternative Ca2+ influx route through which osteotropic agents influence osteoblast Ca2+ homeostasis.
Epidermal keratinocytes are able to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and induce vitamin D activity upon UVB irradiation. To find out whether this property is keratinocyte specific, we investigated this characteristic in two other cell types, namely intestinal CaCo-2 cells and the macrophage-like differentiated THP-1 cells. THP-1 macrophages and preconfluent CaCo-2 cells contain the vitamin D receptor (VDR), possess 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1 and CYP27A1) and 1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) activity, and survive the low UVB doses essential for vitamin D3 photoproduction. Upon irradiation, 24-hydroxylase (CYP24) mRNA is induced in both cell types pretreated with the sterol Delta7-reductase inhibitor BM15766 whereby the 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) content was increased. Transfection studies in CaCo-2 cells with a vitamin D response element-containing construct revealed the involvement of the VDR in this UVB-dependent CYP24 induction. The CYP24 inducing activity in BM15766-pretreated UVB-irradiated CaCo-2 cells and THP-1 macrophages was identified as 1,25(OH)2D3 by combined high-performance liquid chromatography radioimmunoassay. Addition of vitamin D binding protein to the CaCo-2 cells attenuated UVB-induced CYP24 induction suggesting the possibility of a paracrine or autocrine role for the photoproduced 1,25(OH)2D3. In conclusion, preconfluent CaCo-2 cells and THP-1 macrophages are able to induce vitamin D activity upon UVB irradiation and hence combine all parts of the vitamin D photoendocrine system, a characteristic which is therefore not keratinocyte specific.
Organ culture of 19-day-old chick embryo duodena was utilized to evaluate the mechanism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3)-dependent calbindin-D28k (CaBP) expression. Duodenal CaBP and 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor (VDR) expression were assessed by Western blot analysis, while CaBP and VDR mRNA levels were determined by Northern blot analysis. In untreated duodena, both VDR protein and mRNA were present, while CaBP protein and mRNA were undetectable. Treatment of cultured duodena with 25 nM 1,25(OH)2D3 resulted in detectable CaBP mRNA after 4 h which continued to increase during a 24 h time period. Under these conditions, localization of [3H-1 beta]1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 in duodenal chromatin is rapid (< or = 30 min). Thus, the delayed accumulation of detectable CaBP mRNA cannot be explained by slow nuclear binding of 1,25(OH)2D3. The inclusion of 1.6 microM actinomycin D in the organ culture partially inhibited the 1,25(OH)2D3-regulated increase in CaBP mRNA, which implies that there is a transcriptional component involved in the increased CaBP mRNA levels. Similarly, quantitative polymerase chain reaction studies allowed the detection of CaBP pre-mRNA and mRNA sequences 1 h after hormone treatment, suggesting that CaBP gene transcription is initiated rapidly. Treatment of cultures with 36 microM cycloheximide 1 h prior to 1,25(OH)2D3 addition resulted in superinduction of VDR mRNA levels but sharply reduced CaBP steady-state mRNA levels. This dramatic reduction in CaBP mRNA reveals that 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated CaBP expression is dependent on ongoing protein synthesis. Thus, we propose that a labile auxiliary protein or other cofactor, which may or may not be 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent, is necessary for 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated CaBP gene transcription in chick duodena.
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is known to mediate the biological actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) through its ability to regulate cellular programs of gene expression. We identified VDR- and retinoid X receptor (RXR)-interacting LXXLL peptides using a mammalian two-hybrid system and examined whether these molecules could block vitamin D and 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cis RA) response. Peptides were identified that were reactive to RXR alone as well as to both VDR and RXR. Peptide fusion proteins were then examined in MC3T3 E1 cells for their ability to block induction of the osteocalcin promoter by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) or stimulation of an RARE-TK reporter by 9-cis RA. Peptides that interacted with both VDR and RXR blocked 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-dependent transcription by up to 75%. Peptides that interacted with RXR blocked 9-cis RA induced transcription. Two RXR-interacting peptides, however, were also found to block 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) response effectively. These studies support the idea that comodulator recruitment is essential for VDR- and RXR-mediated gene expression and that RXR is required for 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-induced osteocalcin gene transcription. This approach may represent a novel means of assessing the contribution of RXR in various endogenous biological responses to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3).
Though extensive studies have been conducted, questions regarding the molecular effectors and pathways underlying the regulatory role of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in human osteoblasts other than cell differentiation and matrix protein production remain unanswered. This study aims to identify genes and pathways that are modulated by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment in human osteoblasts. Primary osteoblast cultures obtained from human bone tissue samples were treated with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (10(-7)  M) for 24 h and their transcritptomes were profiled by microarray analysis using the Affymetrix GeneChip. Statistical analysis was conducted to identify genes whose expression is significantly modulated following 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment. One hundred and fifty-eight genes were found to be differentially expressed. Of these, 136 were upregulated, indicating clear transcriptional activation by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Biostatistical evaluation of microarray data by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) revealed a relevant modulation of genes involved in vitamin D metabolism (CYP24), immune functions (CD14), neurotransmitter transporters (SLC1A1, SLC22A3), and coagulation [thrombomodulin (THBD), tissue plasminogen activator (PLAT), endothelial protein C receptor (PROCR), thrombin receptor (F2R)]. We identified a restricted number of highly regulated genes and confirmed their differential expression by real-time quantitative PCR (RT qPCR). The present genome-wide microarray analysis on 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) -treated human osteoblasts reveals an interplay of critical regulatory and metabolic pathways and supports the hypothesis that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can modulate the coagulation process through osteoblasts, activates osteoclastogenesis through inflammation signaling, modulates the effects of monoamines by affecting their reuptake.
The skin fulfills an important role in the vitamin D photo-endocrine system. Epidermis is not only the site of vitamin D3 photoproduction. In addition, epidermal keratinocytes contain the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and possess 25-hydroxylase and 1alpha-hydroxylase activity indicating that all components of the vitamin D system are present. We investigated whether these components cooperate in inducing vitamin D activity upon treatment with physiological UVB doses. Upon irradiation, 24-hydroxylase mRNA was induced in keratinocytes pretreated with a sterol Delta7-reductase inhibitor (BM15766) whereby the 7-dehydrocholesterol content increased by 300-fold. Transfection experiments with a vitamin D response element containing construct confirmed VDR-dependent gene activation. Furthermore, the UVB-dependent induction of 24-hydroxylase was blocked by the cytochrome-P450 inhibitor ketoconazole. The 24-hydroxylase inducing photoproduct was transferable to unirradiated keratinocytes by medium and cellular homogenates of UVB-irradiated, BM15766-pretreated cells and was identified as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Addition of vitamin D binding protein blunted UVB-induced 24-hydroxylase suggesting the possibility of a paracrine or autocrine role for 1,25(OH)2D3. In conclusion, epidermal keratinocytes can produce vitamin D3, convert it to 1,25(OH)2D3 and respond to it upon UVB irradiation in the absence of exogenous 7-dehydrocholesterol and therefore contain a unique and complete photo-endocrine vitamin D system.
The biologically active form of vitamin D3, the nuclear hormone 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD), is an important regulator of cellular growth, differentiation, and death. The hormone mediates its action through the activation of the transcription factor VDR, which is a member of the superfamily of nuclear receptors. In most cases the ligand-activated VDR is found in complex with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) and stimulates gene transcription mainly from VD response elements (VDREs) that are formed by two hexameric core binding motifs and are arranged either as a direct repeat spaced by three nucleotides (DR3) or as an inverted palindrome spaced by nine nucleotides (1P9). The two VD analogues CB1093 and EB1089 are both very potent inhibitors of the proliferation of MCF-7 cultured breast cancer cells displaying approximately 100-fold lower IC50 values (0.1 nM) than the natural hormone. In addition, CB1093 is even more potent in vivo than EB1089 in producing regression of experimental mammary tumors. Moreover, both VD analogues induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, but CB1093 is effective at concentrations approximately 10-fold lower than EB1089. In accordance, the reduction of Bcl-2 protein expression showed CB1093 to be more potent than EB1089. This suggests that the antiproliferative effect of CB1093 may be related mainly to its apoptosis inducing effect, whereas EB1089 may preferentially have effects on growth arrest. EB1089 is known to result in a selectivity for the activation of IP9-type VDREs, whereas CB1093 shows a preference for the activation of DR3-type VDREs. This promoter selectivity suggests that the effects of VD and its analogues on growth arrest and the induction of apoptosis may be mediated by different primary VD responding genes. In conclusion, CB1093 was found to be a potent inhibitor of rat mammary tumor growth in vivo. CB1093 also displayed a high potency in vitro in the induction of apoptosis, a process that may be linked to a promoter selectivity for DR3-type VDREs.
It is known that pharmacological or toxic doses of vitamin D induce bone resorption both in vivo and in vitro, whereas physiological doses of the vitamin have a protective effect on bone in vivo. To investigate the discrepancies of the dose-dependent effect of vitamin D on bone resorption, we examined the in vivo effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] on the expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNAs in bone of thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) rats infused with or without parathyroid hormone (PTH). Continuous infusion of 50 ng/h of PTH greatly increased the expression of RANKL mRNA in bone of TPTX rats. Expression of OPG mRNA was not altered by PTH infusion. When graded doses of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was daily administered orally for 14 days to normocalcemic TPTX rats constantly infused with PTH, 0.01 and 0.1 microg/kg of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) inhibited the PTH-induced RANKL mRNA expression, but 0.5 microg/kg of the vitamin did not inhibit it. Regulator of G protein signaling-2 (RGS-2) gene expression was suppressed by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) dose-dependently, but PTH/PTHrP receptor mRNA expression was not altered. Bone morphometric analyses revealed that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) suppressed PTH-induced osteoclast number in vivo. These results suggest that pharmacological or toxic doses of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) stimulate bone resorption by inducing RANKL, but a certain range of physiological doses of the vitamin inhibit PTH-induced bone resorption, the latter mechanism appeared to be mediated, at least in part, by the suppression of the PTH/PTHrP receptor-mediated signaling.
The kinetics of type I procollagen synthesis in a human osteosarcoma cell line, MG 63, were investigated after treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2 D3), a hormonal inducer of phenotypic differentiation. Pulse label and chase experiments demonstrated greatly enhanced production and more rapid reduction of intracellular procollagen molecules in the 1,25-(OH)2 D3-treated cells as compared to the nontreated case. After a chase for 1 h, labeled procollagen was reduced by nine-tenths in 1,25-(OH)2 D3-treated cells, while half of the radioactivity still remained in nontreated cells. The expression rate of type I collagen, which was examined by pulse label experiment, was elevated in association with an increase in the mRNA coding for the type I collagen alpha 1 chain by 1,25-(OH)2 D3 treatment. However, the amount of intracellular procollagen present after 4 h continuous labeling was almost the same, independent of the 1,25-(OH)2 D3 treatment. Thus, we conclude that strage of the molecule was not affected. The results therefore suggest an increase in both the synthesis and secretion of type I collagen. The 1,25-(OH)2 D3 treatment was also found to induce the alpha subunit of prolyl 4-hydroxylase and to be associated with an elevated level of hydroxyproline in the procollagen. Moreover, gelatinase B-resistant procollagen molecules, indicative of intracellular procollagen molecules in the stable triple helical form, were detected only in the 1,25-(OH)2 D3-treated cells. These data suggest more efficient proline hydroxylation is involved in rapid secretion of procollagen after hormone administration. The present evidence points to posttranslational control of procollagen synthesis.
We have previously reported an absence of a 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated effect on 45Ca handling by intestinal epithelial cells isolated from normal chicks (Nemere and Campbell [2000] Steroids 65:451-457). In the current work, we provide evidence that in similar cell preparations, 1,25(OH)2D3 increased 32P uptake within 5 min of addition, and reached 150% of controls after 10 min (P < 0.05). Both isolated enterocytes and the perfused duodenal loop system exhibited apparent biphasic dose-response curves for 1,25(OH)2D3-stimulated 32P uptake and transport, and inhibition of stimulation by 24,25(OH)2D3. A comparison of signal transduction activators demonstrated the following parallels in both isolated intestinal cells and perfused duodena: lack of effect of forskolin (a protein kinase (PK) A activator) on 32P handling, but simulation by BAY K8644 (a calcium channel activator) and phorbol ester (a PKC activator). Finally, we tested the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on phosphate uptake in epithelial cells isolated from birds of increasing ages (7, 14, and 28 wk). In contrast to the robust response of cells from young, growing chicks, 1,25(OH)2D3 had no effect on enterocytes from 14 or 28 wk birds. Western analyses with Ab 099 against the 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D3)-Membrane-Associated Rapid Response Steroid (MARRS) binding protein revealed a decrease in average density of the immunoreactive band with age. PKC activity determined in isolated epithelial cells exhibited a decrease in average basal (control) activity with age, as well as a decrease in response to 1,25(OH)2D3 activation. In enterocytes from 7-14- or 28-week birds, PKC was enhanced 170, 120, and 105% of controls, respectively. The combined data validate 32P uptake in isolated enterocytes as a model system to study 1,25D3-MARRS protein function, and indicate that for phosphate transport, the rapid actions of 1,25(OH)2D3 are physiologically more important in growing animals than immature ones.
The biologically active metabolite of vitamin D3, 1,25 (OH)2 D3, exerts important immunoregulatory effects in addition to being a central mediator of calcium/phosphate metabolism. Utilizing an interleukin 1 responsive murine T cell line and 125I-interleukin 1α, we show that 1,25 (OH)2 D3 (5,50 nM) enhanced 125I-interleukin 1α binding up to almost 2-fold over control. This 1,25 (OH)2 D3 effect occurred in a dose-dependent manner and was detectable after 24 h but not before 7 h of culture. Scatchard analysis of 125I-interleukin 1α binding data demonstrated that 1,25 (OH)2 D3 enhanced interleukin 1 receptor number without a significant change in affinity. The biologically less potent metabolite of vitamin D3, 25 (OH) D3, also augmented 125I-interleukin 1α binding but at steroid levels 2-3 log orders greater than 1,25 (OH)2 D3. This observation, combined with the presence of high-affinity 3H-1,25 (OH)2 D3 receptors (88 sites/cell, K = 0.45 nM) in cytosolic extracts, strongly suggests that the nuclear vitamin D receptor mediates this steroid's effect on interleukin 1 receptor expression. Based on the capacity of an anti-type 1 interleukin 1 receptor monoclonal antibody (35F5) to block 1,25 (OH)2 D3-enhanced 125I-interleukin 1α binding, we conclude that this steroid augments type 1 interleukin 1 receptor expression. When combined with interleukin 1, a cytokine that also impacts MD10 interleukin 1 receptor expression, 1,25 (OH)2 D3 enhanced interleukin 1 receptor expression Northern blots hybridized with a 32P-type 1 interleukin 1 receptor cDNA probe show that 1,25 (OH)2 D3 enhanced type 1 interleukin 1 receptor steady state mRNA levels. Functionally, 1,25 (OH)2 D3 pretreatment augmented the MD10 proliferative response to suboptimal levels of interleukin 1 (< 100 fM interleukin 1α). These findings further support 1,25 (OH)2 D3's role as an immunoregulatory molecule and provides a possible mechanism by which this steroid could potentiate certain immune activities.
The steroid derivative 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is a regulator of bone biology, and there is evidence that 1,25(OH)2D3 modulates arachidonic acid metabolism in osteoblastic cell model systems and in bone organ cultures. In the present studies, 1,25(OH)2D3 decreased prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis by normal adult human osteoblast-like (hOB) cell cultures by about 30%. The decrease was observed under basal incubation conditions, or in specimens stimulated by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta) or by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). The inhibition of the TGF-beta-stimulated PG production appeared to reflect a diminished efficiency of arachidonic acid conversion into PGs by the cells, while the efficiency of substrate utilization for PG biosynthesis was unaffected by 1,25(OH)2D3 pretreatment in the unstimulated samples, or in samples stimulated with TNF or with TNF plus TGF-beta. Free arachidonic acid levels were decreased following 1,25(OH)2D3 pretreatment in the TNF stimulated samples. hOB cell phospholipase A2 activity was measured in subcellular fractions, and this activity was decreased by 20-25% in the 1,25(OH)2D3 pretreated samples. The addition of the selective inhibitor AACOCF3 to the phospholipase A2 assays provided evidence that it was the cytoplasmic isoform of the enzyme that was affected by the 1,25(OH)2D3 pretreatment of the hOB cells. Thus, 1,25(OH)2D3 regulation of hOB cell biology includes significant effects on arachidonic acid metabolism. In turn, this could influence the effects of other hormones and cytokines whose actions include the stimulated production of bioactive arachidonic acid metabolites.
The unique hereditary enamel defect clearly related to the disturbance of one enamel matrix protein is X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta (AI), in which several mutations of amelogenin gene have been identified. The clinical phenotype of many of these subjects shows similarities with enamel defects related to rickets. Therefore, we hypothesized that rachitic dental dysplasia is related to disturbances in the amelogenin pathway. In order to test this hypothesis, combined qualitative and quantitative studies in experimental vitamin D-deficient (-D) rat model systems were performed. First, Western blot analysis of microdissected enamel matrix (secretion and maturation stages) showed no clear evidence of dysregulation of amelogenin protein processing in -D rats as compared with the controls. Second, the ultrastructural investigation permitted identification of the internal tissular defect of rachitic enamel, the irregular absence of intraprismatic enamel observed in -D animals, suggesting a possible link between prism morphogenesis and vitamin D. In addition, the steady-state levels of amelogenin mRNAs measured in microdissected dental cells was decreased in -D rats and up-regulated by an unique injection of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)). The present study shows evidences that amelogenin expression is regulated by vitamin D. This is the first study of an hormonal regulation of tooth-specific genes.
Activation of ERK1 and ERK2 protein kinases has been implicated in diverse cellular processes, including the control of cell proliferation and cell differentiation (Marshall [1995] Cell 80:179). In human myeloblastoid leukemia HL60 cells rapid (ca. 15 min) but transient activation of ERK1/2 has been reported following induction of macrophage/monocyte differentiation by phorbol esters, or by very high (10(-6) M) concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25D3), while retinoic acid-induced granulocytic differentiation was accompanied by sustained activation of ERK1/2. We report here that monocytic differentiation of HL60 cells induced by moderate (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) concentrations of 1,25D3 could be divided into at least two stages. In the first phase, which lasts 24-48 h, the cells continued in the normal cell cycle while expressing markers of monocytic phenotype, such as CD14. In the next phase the onset of G1 cell cycle block became apparent and expression of CD11b was prominent, indicating a more mature myeloid phenotype. The first phase was characterized by high levels of ERKs activated by phosphorylation, and these decreased as the cells entered the second phase, while the levels of p27/Kip1 increased at that time. Serum-starved or PD98059-treated HL60 cells had reduced growth rate and slower differentiation, but the G1 block also coincided with decreased levels of activated ERK1/2. The data suggest that the MEK/ERK pathway maintains cell proliferation during 1,25D3-induced monocytic differentiation of HL60 cells, but that ERK1/2 activity becomes suppressed during the later stages of differentiation, and the consequent G1 block leads to "terminal" differentiation.
Macrophage colony stimulating factor (CSF-1) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) are potent inducers of macrophage differentiation. Both appear to modulate protein phosphorylation, at least in part, through protein kinase C (PKC) raising the question as to whether they concurrently impact on macrophage-like cells. In this regard, we utilized the CSF-1 dependent murine macrophage-like line BAC 1.25F5. CSF-1 treatment of these cells for 30 min leads to particular phosphorylation of a 165 kDa protein, the putative CSF-1 receptor, and a 210 kDa moiety. 1,25(OH)2D3 exposure for 24 h prior to addition of CSF-1 enhances phosphorylation of the 165 kDa species and, especially, the 210 kDa protein. Phosphorylation of the latter protein is 1,25(OH)2D3 dose- and time-dependent and the molecule is specifically immunoprecipitated with a rabbit polyclonal anti-talin antibody. Experiments with okadaic acid show that the enhanced phosphorylation of talin does not result from serine phosphatase inhibition. CSF-1 and 1,25(OH)2D3, alone or in combination, do not increase talin protein expression. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genestein, blocks 1,25(OH)2D3/CSF-1 induced phosphorylation of the putative CSF-1 receptor but has no effect on talin phosphorylation which occurs exclusively on serine. In contrast to genestein, staurosporin, an inhibitor of PKC, inhibits phosphorylation of talin. Moreover, exposure of 1,25(OH)2D3 pretreated cells to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in place of CSF-1 also prompts talin phosphorylation. Finally, 1,25(OH)2D3 enhances 3[H]PDBu binding, indicating that the steroid increases PMA receptor capacity. Thus, CSF-1 and 1,25(OH)2D3 act synergistically via PKC to phosphorylate talin, a cytoskeletal-associated protein.
The rapid, non-genomic actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] have been well described, however, the role of the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) in this pathway remains unclear. To address this question, we used VDR(+/+) and VDR(-/-) osteoblasts isolated from wild-type and VDR null mice to study the increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) and activation of protein kinase C (PKC) induced by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Within 1 min of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (100 nM) treatment, an increase of 58 and 53 nM in [Ca(2+)](i) (n = 3) was detected in VDR(+/+) and VDR(-/-) cells, respectively. By 5 min, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) caused a 2.1- and 1.9-fold increase (n = 6) in the phosphorylation of PKC substrate peptide acetylated-MBP(4-14) in VDR(+/+) and VDR(-/-) osteoblasts. The 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-induced phosphorylation was abolished by GF109203X, a general PKC inhibitor, in both cell types, confirming that the secosteroid induced PKC activity. Moreover, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment resulted in the same degree of translocation of PKC-alpha and PKC-delta, but not of PKC-zeta, from cytosol to plasma membrane in both VDR(+/+) and VDR(-/-) cells. These experiments demonstrate that the 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-induced rapid increases in [Ca(2+)](i) and PKC activity are neither mediated by, nor dependent upon, a functional nuclear VDR in mouse osteoblasts. Thus, VDR is not essential for these rapid actions of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in osteoblasts.
The steroid hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] rapidly stimulates the uptake of phosphate in isolated chick intestinal cells, while the steroid 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24,25(OH)2D3] inhibits the rapid stimulation by 1,25(OH)2D3. Earlier work in this laboratory has indicated that a cellular binding protein for 24,25(OH)2D3 is the enzyme catalase. Since binding resulted in decreased catalase activity and increased H2O2 production, studies were undertaken to determine if pro-oxidant conditions mimicked the inhibitory actions of 24,25(OH)2D3, and anti-oxidant conditions prevented the inhibitory actions of 24,25(OH)2D3. An antibody against the 24,25(OH)2D3 binding protein was found to neutralize the inhibitory effect of the steroid on 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated 32P uptake. Incubation of cells in the presence of 50 nM catalase was also found to alleviate inhibition. In another series of experiments, isolated intestinal epithelial cells were incubated as controls or with 1,25(OH)2D3, each in the presence of the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, or with 1,25(OH)2D3 alone. Cells exposed to hormone alone again showed an increased accumulation of 32P, while cells treated with catalase inhibitor and hormone had uptake levels that were indistinguishable from controls. We tested whether inactivation of protein kinase C (PKC), the signaling pathway for 32P uptake, occurred. Incubation of cells with phorbol-13-myristate (PMA) increased 32P uptake, while cells pretreated with 50 microM H2O2 prior to PMA did not exhibit increased uptake. Likewise, PMA significantly increased PKC activity while cells exposed to H2O2 prior to PMA did not. It is concluded that catalase has a central role in mediating rapid responses to steroid hormones.
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), has diverse effects in a variety of tissues and cell types, including skin. Since 1,25(OH)2D3 affects both fibroblast and keratinocytes, we evaluated the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on wound healing. We investigated the effect of the topically applied 1,25(OH)2D3 or vehicle on the healing of cutaneous wounds in rats in a blinded manner. Wound areas were measured by planimetry technique. Healing was expressed as the percentage of the original wound area that was healed. 1,25(OH)2D3 at concentrations between 5 and 50 ng/day caused a dose-dependent acceleration of healing. Time course and specificity studies indicated that 1,25(OH)2D3 specifically promoted healing between 1-5 days after wounding as compared with vitamin D (0.5 microgram/day), which showed no significant improvement over control. Our results suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogues may be a new class of compounds that could be developed to enhance wound healing.
The immune cytokine interleukin 4 has newly recognized effects on skeletal metabolism. While the interaction of many cells ultimately determines bone mass, we have examined the possibility that the osteoblast may be an IL-4 target in bone by characterizing IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) expression by MC3T3-E1 (MC3T3) murine osteoblastic cells. Based on 125I-IL-4 binding, MC3T3 cells express large numbers of IL-4 receptors (125I-IL-4 Bmax = 3,000-7,500 sites/cell, 125I-IL-4 K = 13-40 pM) with an affinity similar to the IL-4 receptor expressed by an IL-4-responsive T cell line. Monoclonal anti-IL-4R antibodies (M1) blocked specific MC3T3 125I-IL-4 binding and MC3T3 total cell RNA contained full-length IL-4R mRNA as detected by reverse transcription DNA amplification utilizing IL-4R primers and Northern blot analysis. Functionally, IL-4 treatment of MC3T3 cells resulted in increased cellular proliferation (10-20%) and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase levels (20-40%). While parathyroid hormone (PTH) exposure did not influence IL-4R levels, vitamin D3 treatment augmented MC3T3 125I-IL-4 binding, in a time-dependent manner, up to threefold after a 24 h exposure with a metabolite specificity indicating the involvement of the vitamin D receptor. Equilibrium binding studies showed that the impact of 1,25 (OH)2 D3 on MC3T3 125I-IL-4 binding was due to an increased IL-4R Bmax. Cycloheximide treatment inhibited 1,25 (OH)2 D3-induced IL-4R upregulation, suggesting that protein synthesis was required. Furthermore, the steroid increased steady-state IL-4R mRNA levels in both a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The IL-4R message half-life was not altered by 1,25 (OH)2 D3, suggesting that increased IL-4R mRNA expression resulted from increased IL-4R gene transcription. Taken together, these findings raise the possibility that IL-4's influence on mineral metabolism could be mediated by osteoblasts and that the effectiveness of this cytokine may be influenced by vitamin D3's impact on IL-4R expression.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has influence over osteoclastogenesis and myelopoiesis, but the regulational mechanism is not well-defined. In this report, formation of osteoclast-like (OCL) cells from primitive myeloid colony-forming cells (PM-CFC) as mediated by 1,25(OH)2D3 was examined. Our results present in this report clearly show that 1,25(OH)2D3 dose-dependently stimulated OCL cell formation when added to suspension cultures of individually replated PM-CFC colonies. Marrow cells were plated with either granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or the human bladder carcinoma cell line 5637 conditioned medium (5637 CM) as the source of colony-stimulating activity. The 1,25(OH)2D3 effect of osteoclast differentiation was associated with a concomitant decrease in clonogenic growth of myelopoietic progenitors in response to colony-stimulating activity. Secondly, the effect of adding the known stimulator of hematopoiesis, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and/or 1,25(OH)2D3 on human myeloid colony growth was assessed. IL-1beta enhanced the formation of primitive myeloid colonies in response to GM-CSF by 160%. On the other hand, 1,25(OH)2D3 dose-dependently inhibited both GM-CSF- and 5637 CM-driven myeloid colony formation by as much as 90% at 100 nM. Addition of IL-1beta to GM-CSF-stimulated cultures dampened the inhibitory effect of 1,25(OH)2D3. The inhibition of myeloid clonogenic growth by 1,25(OH)2D3 was almost abolished (89%) by simultaneously adding anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha monoclonal antibody (anti-TNF-alpha MoAb) to the culture medium. These results collectively suggest divergent roles for 1,25(OH)2D3 in osteoclastogenesis and myelopoiesis, promoting the differentiation of OCL cells from primitive myeloid cells but inhibiting the proliferation of later myeloid progenitor cells. This inhibition of myeloid progenitors may be mediated by TNF-alpha.
The hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD) has the potential for clinical use in several diseases, such as cancer, osteoporosis, and psoriasis. The action of VD is mediated by primary responding genes that contain in their promoter region a binding site for the transcription factor VDR. Most of the known VD response elements are formed by a direct repeat of two hexameric core binding motifs spaced by three nucleotides (DR3) bound by a heterodimer of VDR and the retinoid X receptor (RXR). Various VD analogues have been developed in order to optimize the therapeutic profile of VD. This report presents a novel experimental system that may help in the understanding of the structural basis for the high potency of a VD analogue like KH1060, which is a 20-epi-22-oxa-derivative of VD. In human breast cancer cells, MCF-7, the half-maximal gene activation values for KH1060 and seven of its structural precursors were determined on a DR3-type VD response element. These eight analogues cover conservative structural changes from 20-epi-VD (MC1288) to KH1060. With a modified version of the limited protease digestion assay the functional affinity of the analogues to VDR was measured. The functional receptor affinity of the eight analogues was found to be directly proportional to their potency in VDR-RXR-mediated gene activity.
Resistance to the action of vitamin D (D) occurs in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), an effect mediated by nuclear factor kappa B (NfkappaB). To determine the mechanism of NfkappaB inhibition of D-stimulated transcription, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (CHIP) were done in osteoblastic ROS 17/2.8 cells that had been treated with TNF-alpha or transfected with the p65 subunit of NfkappaB. These treatments caused stable incorporation of p65 into the transcription complex bound to the vitamin D response element (VDRE) of the osteocalcin promoter. Deletion analysis of p65 functional domains revealed that the p65 N-terminus and a midmolecular region were both required for the inhibitory action of p65. Pull-down assays were done using an immobilized glutathione S-transferase (GST)-VDR fusion protein to study the effect of p65 on VDR binding to steroid coactivator-1 (SRC-1), a major D-dependent coactivator. p65 inhibited VDR-SRC-1 binding in a dose-dependent manner. Mutations of p65 that abrogated the inhibitory effect on D-stimulated transcription also failed to inhibit VDR-SRC-1 binding. The inhibitory effect of p65 on VDR transactivation was not due to recruitment of a histone deacetylase (HDAC), since inhibition was not relieved by the HDAC inhibitors sodium butyrate or trichostatin A. Overexpression of SRC-1 or the general coactivators, Creb binding protein or SRC-3, also failed to relieve p65 inhibition of transcription. In addition, Chip assays revealed that TNF-alpha treatment prevented D recruitment of SRC-1 to the transcription complex. These results show that TNF-alpha inhibition of vitamin D-action includes stable integration of p65 in the VDR transcription complex. Once anchored to proteins within the complex, p65 disrupts VDR binding to SRC-1, thus decreasing the efficiency of D-stimulated gene transcription.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. They induce ectopic bone formation in rat and are pleiotropic initiators of inducible osteogenic precursor cells. A lot of reports have studied the presence of BMPs and their effects on bone marker expression in many different cell lines, however none describe the regulation of BMP3 by different factors and expression conditions. When a human bone marrow stromal cell (HBMSC) culture was treated simultaneously with 1,25(OH)2D3 (10(-8) M) and BMP3 (2.5 ng/ml), the total osteocalcin content in the cell layer and in the culture medium was higher than when the culture was treated with either factor alone (162%). To elucidate this synergistic activity, Northern blot analysis was done to study the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on BMP3 mRNA expression. Several human cell lines (MNNG, U-2OS, MG-63, KHOS, TE85, HOS) and HBMSC were treated by 1,25(OH)2D3 (10(-8) M for 24 h). Purified mRNA from treated and untreated cells were denatured using glyoxal and dimethylsulfoxide, and were fractionated on a 1% agarose gel. After electrophoresis, RNA were blotted onto a nylon membrane and incubated with 32P-labeled BMP3 and GAPDH riboprobes. Northern blot analysis revealed that, the BMP3 mRNA level was increased in a few cell lines (MG-63, HBMSC, HOS) after the addition of 1,25(OH)2D3 when compared to the untreated cells (127%+/-1; 130.5%+/-19.5; 207%+/-14). An higher stimulation was observed in HBMSC primary culture when compared to differentiated HBMSC. In view of these results, we now investigate the following hypothesis: does the BMP3 promoter exhibit the vitamin D receptor response like the osteocalcin gene?
1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), the hormonally active form of vitamin D(3), acts through two different mechanisms. In addition to regulating gene expression via the specific intracellular vitamin D receptor (VDR), 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) induces rapid, non-transcriptional responses involving stimulation of transmembrane signal transduction pathways. The activation of second messengers supports the hypothesis that a membrane-bound steroid receptor similar to those that mediate peptide hormone biology exists. Skeletal muscle is a target tissue for 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Avian embryonic skeletal muscle cells (myoblasts/myotubes) have been shown to respond both genomically and non-genomically to the hormone. The present study provides evidence indicating that short-term treatment (1-10 min) with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) induces translocation of the VDR from the nuclear to the microsomal fraction in chick myoblasts. This translocation is blocked by colchicine, genistein, or herbimycin, suggesting the involvement of microtubular transport and tyrosine kinase/s in the relocation of the receptor. By isolation of plasma membranes, it was demonstrated that the hormone increases the amounts of VDR specifically in this fraction. These results suggest that the nuclear VDR may be the receptor that mediates the non-genomic effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in chick myoblasts.
Seventeen day chicken embryonic osteoblasts treated over a 30-day period with 1,25(OH)2 D3 showed a 2-10-fold decrease in collagen, osteopontin and osteocalcin protein accumulation, alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity, and mineral deposition. Comparable inhibition in the steady state mRNA levels for alpha 1(I) and alpha 2(I) collagen, osteocalcin, and osteopontin were observed, and the inhibitory action of the hormone was shown to be specific for only the late release populations of cells from sequential enzyme digestions of the chick calvaria. In order to determine whether the continuous hormone treatment blocked osteoblast differentiation, the cells were acutely treated for 24 h with 1,25(OH)2 D3 at culture periods when the cells proliferate (day 5), a culture period when the cells cease further cell division and are increasing in the expression of their differentiated functions (day 17), and a culture period when the cells are encapsulated within a mineralized extracellular matrix (day 30). Inhibition of the expression of collagen, osteocalcin, and osteopontin were observed at days 17 and 30, while no effect could be detected for the 5-day cultures. To further define whether the inhibitory effect was specific for cells expressing their differentiated phenotype, 1,25(OH)2 D3 treatment was initiated at day 17 and continued to day 30 after the cells have established their collagenous matrix. In these experiments further collagenous matrix deposition, mineral deposition, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteocalcin synthesis were also inhibited after the hormone treatment was initiated. These results, in summary, show that 1,25(OH)2 D3 in primary avian osteoblast cultures derived from 17-day embryonic calvaria inhibits the expression of several genes associated with differentiated osteoblast function and inhibit extracellular matrix mineral deposition.
We have previously shown that the steroid hormone 1, 25-dihydroxy-vitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] stimulates total cell protein kinase C (PKC) activity in rat duodenum, an effect that is severely impaired in old animals. We further examined the role of 1, 25(OH)(2)D(3) on PKC as it relates to aging by measuring hormone-induced changes in subcellular localization of PKC activity and isoenzymes in duodenal mucosae from young (three-month-old) and aged (24-month-old) rats. Short treatment of duodenum with 1, 25(OH)(2)D(3) (0.1 nM, 1 min) increased membrane-associated PKC activity, whereas it decreased the activity in the cytosol of young rats but was without significant effect in aged animals. Furthermore, the ability to translocate was present in young animals after a short treatment with the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA; 100 nM) or dioctanoyl-glycerol (50 microM), whereas the ability was absent in aged rats, suggesting that PKC function was impaired with aging independent of agonist stimulation. The expression of specific PKC isoenzymes and changes in their subcellular distribution after short exposure of the duodenum to the hormone were determined. Western blot analysis of total homogenates using antibodies to various PKC isoforms allowed detection of PKC alpha, beta, and delta. The expression of the straight theta and the zeta isoforms was in addition demonstrated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The pattern of isoenzymes present in the duodenum was unaffected by aging. In young rats, 1, 25(OH)(2)D(3) translocates PKC alpha, beta, and delta to the membrane and nucleus; however, no translocation of PKC isoforms was observed in 24-month-old animals in response to the hormone. In summary, in rat duodenum, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) modulation of PKC activity and isoenzyme subcellular distribution are impaired with aging and may explain age-induced alterations in the intestinal processes under the control of the hormone.
The effects of treatment with the osteotropic steroids 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), 17 beta-estradiol, or dexamethasone on [1-14C]arachidonic acid (AA) uptake and distribution into glycerophospholipid classes by normal adult human osteoblast-like (hOB) cells were investigated. Total uptake of [1-14C]AA was decreased in cells treated with dexamethasone when assayed after a 24-, 48-, or 96-h exposure to the hormone. Specific radiolabel incorporation into phosphatidylcholine was reduced by a 48-h treatment with dexamethasone with a concurrent increase in the radiolabeling of phosphatidylethanolamine. However, these changes were transient, and by 96 h of dexamethasone treatment the distribution of the radiolabeled fatty acid had reequilibrated to resemble the pattern found for vehicle treated samples. Total uptake of [1-14C]AA was diminished by 96-h treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 (79 +/- 3% of control, P < 0.01); at that time point, a significant decrease in the proportional radiolabeling of the phosphatidylinositol pool was identified (92 +/- 2% of control, P < 0.05). The 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent decrease in total uptake and in phosphatidylinositol incorporation of [1-14C]AA were found to be hormone dose dependent. Treatment with 24,25(OH)2D3 was without effect on either total [1-14C]AA uptake or the specific [1-14C]AA radiolabeling of the phosphatidylinositol pool. 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment decreased hOB cell uptake of [1-14C]oleic acid and decreased its proportional incorporation into the phosphatidylinositol pool. Gas chromatographic analyses revealed no 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent effects on total phosphatidylinositol lipid mass or on the mole percent of arachidonic acid within the phosphatidylinositol pool, leaving the mechanism of the effects of the secosteroid on hOB cell AA metabolism unexplained. 17 beta-Estradiol had no effects on the parameters of AA metabolism measured. As a consequence of their modulation of arachidonic acid uptake and its distribution into hOB cellular phospholipids, steroids might alter the biological effects of other hormones whose actions include the stimulated production of bioactive AA metabolites, such as prostaglandins or the various lipoxygenase products.
1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3) possesses proliferation and differentiation modulating effects in many cell types in vitro. We studied the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on 3H-thymidine incorporation in FRTL5 cells, a cultured rat thyroid follicular cell line. 1,25(OH)2D3 alone at 10(-11) and 10(-9) M exerted no effect on 3H-thymidine incorporation. However, at 10(-7) M, 1,25(OH)2D3 slightly enhanced 3H-thymidine incorporation. In the presence of 5% calf serum, 1,25(OH)2D3 increased 3H-thymidine incorporation induced by calf serum in a dose-dependent manner. 1,25(OH)2D3 also enhanced 3H-thymidine incorporation induced by PMA, an extrinsic stimulator of protein kinase C, without directly affecting PMA-induced protein kinase C translocation. In contrast to the stimulatory effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the calf serum and PMA-induced 3H-thymidine incorporation, 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited the increase in 3H-thymidine incorporation induced by TSH in a dose-dependent manner. This effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on TSH-induced 3H-thymidine incorporation may be, in part, due to post-cAMP pathways since 1,25(OH)2D3 also inhibited the increase in 3H-thymidine incorporation induced by Bu2cAMP without affecting the TSH-induced increase in cAMP. The stimulatory effect of insulin on 3H-thymidine incorporation, a cAMP-independent process, was also inhibited by 1,25(OH)2D3. We conclude that 1,25(OH)2D3 affects 3H-thymidine incorporation in FRTL5 cells raising the possibility of a physiologic role for 1,25(OH)2D3 in the growth and function of thyroid follicular cells.
1alpha-Hydroxy-23 carboxy-24,25,26,27-tetranorvitamin D(3) (calcitroic acid) is known to be the major water-soluble metabolite produced during the deactivation of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3). This deactivation process is carried out exclusively by the multicatalytic enzyme CYP24 and involves a series of oxidation reactions at C(24) and C(23) leading to side-chain cleavage and, ultimately, formation of the calcitroic acid. Like 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3), 1alpha,25-1,25-(OH)(2)D(2) is also known to undergo side-chain oxidation and side-chain cleavage to form calcitroic acid (Zimmerman et al. [2001]. 1,25-(OH)(2)D(2) differs from 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) by the presence of a double bond at C(22) and a methyl group at C(24). To date, there have been no studies detailing the participation of CYP24 in the production of calcitroic acid from 1,25-(OH)(2)D(2). We, therefore, studied the metabolism of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) and 1,25-(OH)(2)D(2) using a purified rat CYP24 system. Lipid and aqueous-soluble metabolites were prepared for characterization. Aqueous-soluble metabolites were subjected to reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. As expected, 1,23(OH)(2)-24,25,26,27-tetranor D and calcitroic acid were the major lipid and aqueous-soluble metabolites, respectively, when 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) was used as substrate. However, when 1,25-(OH)(2)D(2) was used as substrate, 1,24(R),25-(OH)(3)D(2) was the major lipid-soluble metabolite with no evidence for the production of either 1,23(OH)(2)-24,25,26,27-tetranor D or calcitroic acid. Apparently, the CYP24 was able to 24-hydroxylate 1,25-(OH)(2)D(2), but was unable to effect further changes, which would result in side-chain cleavage. These data suggest that the presence of either the double bond at C(22) or the C(24) methyl group impedes the metabolism of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(2) to calcitroic acid by CYP24 and that enzymes other than CYP24 are required to effect this process.
To elucidate potential mediators of vitamin D receptor (VDR) action in breast cancer, we profiled the genomic effects of its ligand 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) in cells derived from normal mammary tissue and breast cancer. In non-transformed hTERT-HME cells, 483 1,25D responsive entities in 42 pathways were identified, whereas in MCF7 breast cancer cells, 249 1,25D responsive entities in 31 pathways were identified. Only 21 annotated genes were commonly altered by 1,25D in both MCF7 and hTERT-HME cells. Gene set enrichment analysis highlighted eight pathways (including senescence/autophagy, TGFβ signaling, endochondral ossification and adipogenesis) commonly altered by 1,25D in hTERT-HME and MCF7 cells. Regulation of a subset of immune (CD14, IL1RL1, MALL, CAMP, SEMA6D, TREM1, CSF1, IL33, TLR4) and metabolic (ITGB3, SLC1A1, G6PD, GLUL, HIF1A, KDR, BIRC3) genes by 1,25D was confirmed in hTERT-HME cells and similar changes were observed in another comparable non-transformed mammary cell line (HME cells). The effects of 1,25D on these genes were retained in HME cells expressing SV40 large T antigen but were selectively abrogated in HME cells expressing SV40 + RAS and in MCF7 cells. Integration of the datasets from hTERT-HME and MCF7 cells with publically available RNA-SEQ data from 1,25D treated SKBR3 breast cancer cells enabled identification of an 11-gene signature representative of 1,25D exposure in all three breast-derived cell lines. Four of these 11 genes (CYP24A1, CLMN, EFTUD1 and SERPINB1) were also identified as 1,25D responsive in human breast tumor explants, suggesting that this gene signature may prove useful as a biomarker of vitamin D exposure in breast tissue. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
We demonstrated previously that daily injection for 3 days of the less calcemic vitamin D analogs: JK 1624 F(2)-2 (JKF) and QW 1624F(2)-2 (QW) followed by estradiol-17beta (E(2)) in female rats upregulated creatine kinase-specific activity (CK) in skeletal tissues. In this study, we evaluated both histomorphological and biochemical changes due to a regime of 4 days treatment with JKF or QW, followed by injection of E(2) on day 5, repeated for 2.5 months. Ovariectomized female rats (Ovx) were injected 2 weeks after surgery, with JKF or QW at 0.2 ng/g BW followed by injections of E(2) (1 microg/rat) on day 5 of each week for 2.5 months. Rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last injection and bones were analyzed. JKF alone decreased growth plate width, increased % total bone volume (%TBV), with no change in cortical thickness. In contrast, QW restored growth plate width and %TBV with no change in cortical thickness. Combined with E(2), JKF restored %TBV and growth plate width but with no change in cortical thickness, while QW restored significantly all parameters including cortical thickness. Moreover, there was also an increase in the responsiveness of CK to E(2) in epiphyseal cartilage and diaphyseal bone but not in uterus. Thus, vitamin D less calcemic analogs increased responsiveness to E(2) morphologically as well as biochemically. We, therefore, conclude that combined treatment of less calcemic analogs vitamin D and E(2) might be superior for treatment of bone damage caused by ovariectomy in female rats and might be applied for post-menopausal osteoporosis.
Active calcium transport is carried out by calcium channel proteins, cytosolic buffering or transfer proteins, and pump proteins. Several components of this transport system have recently been verified using gene knockout (KO) models. We previously generated calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k) KO mice and reported that induction of expression of some calcium transport proteins can compensate for the CaBP-9k gene deficiency. In the current study, we have further clarified the compensatory regulation of calcium transport genes by two calcium regulating hormones, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) and parathyroid hormone (PTH), in CaBP-9k KO mice, because the levels of these hormones differ between the KO and wild-type (WT) mice. The induction of transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 6 (TRPV6) in the duodenum was observed in adult KO male mice but induction was not modified by physiologic doses of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Duodenal TRPV6 transcription in WT and female KO mice were modulated by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in a dose-dependent manner. This compensatory gene induction was not detected in the mice fed a vitamin D(3)-deficient diet. Compensatory gene induction was not affected by PTH. Thus, the compensatory expression of duodenal TRPV6 in the KO male mice may be tightly correlated with serum 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Vitamin D receptor (VDR) transcription and protein levels were measured to examine whether VDR expression mediates differential regulation of duodenal TRPV6 between WT and KO mice, but expression and levels of VDR were similar in both genotypes. The compensatory TRPV6 transcripts in KO mice may be modulated by endogenous vitamin D(3) via other factors of VDR signaling complexes.
1,25-(OH)2D3 and 24,25-(OH)2D3 mediate their effects on chondrocytes through the classic vitamin D receptor (VDR) as well as through rapid membrane-mediated mechanisms which result in both nongenomic and genomic effects. In intact cells, it is difficult to distinguish between genomic responses via the VDR and genomic and nongenomic responses via membrane-mediated pathways. In this study, we used two hybrid analogues of 1,25-(OH)2D3 which have been modified on the A-ring and C,D-ring side chain (1 alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-3 beta-hydroxy-20-epi-22-oxa-26,27-dihomo vitamin D3 (analogue MCW-YA = 3a) and 1 beta-(hydroxymethyl)-3 alpha-hydroxy-20-epi-22-oxa-26,27-dihomo vitamin D3 (analogue MCW-YB = 3b) to examine the role of the VDR in response of rat costochondral resting zone (RC) and growth zone (GC) chondrocytes to 1,25-(OH)2D3 and 24,25-(OH)2D3. These hybrid analogues are only 0.1% as effective in binding to the VDR from calf thymus as 1,25-(OH)2D3. Chondrocyte proliferation ([3H]-thymidine incorporation), proteoglycan production ([35S]-sulfate incorporation), and activity of protein kinase C (PKC) were measured after treatment with 1,25-(OH)2D3, 24,25-(OH)2D3, or the analogues. Both analogues inhibited proliferation of both cell types, as did 1,25-(OH)2D3 and 24,25-(OH)2D3. Analogue 3a had no effect on proteoglycan production by GCs but increased that by RCs. Analogue 3b increased proteoglycan production in both GC and RC cultures. Both analogues stimulated PKC in GC cells; however, neither 3a nor 3b had an effect on PKC activity in RC cells. 1,25-(OH)2D3 and 3a decreased PKC in matrix vesicles from GC cultures, whereas plasma membrane PKC activity was increased, with 1,25-(OH)2D3 having a greater effect. 24,25-(OH)2D3 caused a significant decrease in PKC activity in matrix vesicles from RC cultures; 24,25-(OH)2D3, 3a, and 3b increased PKC activity in the plasma membrane fraction, however. Thus, with little or no binding to calf thymus VDR, 3a and 3b can affect cell proliferation, proteoglycan production, and PKC activity. The direct membrane effect is analogue-specific and cell maturation-dependent. By studying analogues with greatly reduced affinity for the VDR, we have provided further evidence for the existence of a membrane receptor(s) involved in mediating nongenomic effects of vitamin D metabolites.
Retinoids, cytokines as well as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and analogs possess properties known to contribute potentially to cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects. They induce cell differentiation, inhibit cell proliferation, suppress expression of viral oncogenes, and inhibit angiogenesis necessary for tumor growth. Since clinical combination chemotherapy of cytotoxic agents has proven superior to monotherapy, this modality might also be useful for other classes of antitumor drugs. A series of retinoids, such as all-trans-, 13-cis-, 9-cis retinoic acid, and acitretin, cytokines, 1,25(OH)2D3, and analogs have been investigated in model systems of differentiation, proliferation, viral oncogenes, and angiogenesis. The three classes of compounds have common effects but nevertheless show a variance depending on the particular representative of each class. Combination of compounds of the different classes led in the various models to a higher efficacy compared with the compounds given alone. Cytokines such as IFN alpha, IFN gamma, G-CSF, TNF alpha, IL-1, and IL-4 markedly potentiate the differentiation-inducing effect of retinoids. Cytokines as well as retinoids combined with 1,25(OH)2D3 and analogs synergistically enhanced differentiation induction in human transformed hemopoietic cell lines. On a series of human transformed epithelial cell lines a panel of cytokines, such as IFN alpha, IFN gamma, TNF alpha, TGF beta, and EGF acted synergistically with retinoids on inhibition of proliferation. This was also observed by combining retinoids with 1,25(OH)2D3 and analogs. Retinoids as well as interferons alpha and gamma have the capacity to suppress the oncogene expression of human papilloma viruses which are involved in induction and growth of certain malignancies such as cervical cancer.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Top-cited authors
Gary Stein
  • University of Vermont
Neelam Jaiswal
  • National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra
Jane Lian
  • University of Massachusetts Medical School
Andre J van Wijnen
  • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
  • Government College University Faisalabad