Scholarship is emerging on intervention models that purposefully attend to cultural variables throughout the career assessment and career counseling process (Swanson & Fouad, in press). One heuristic model that offers promise to advance culturally-relevant vocational practice with African Americans is the Outline for Cultural Formulation (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). This article explicates the Outline for Cultural Formulation in career assessment and career counseling with African Americans integrating the concept of cultural identity into the entire model. The article concludes with an illustration of the Outline for Cultural Formulation model with an African American career client.
What was only an idea 15 years ago is now accepted practice and an essential component of career guidance programs. Quality information, flexible delivery systems, and active user services are fundamental components of systematic career information development, delivery, and use. In Oregon, a consortium management structure has made it possible for the Career Information System to serve a varied user base.
The future lies in the same general directions. There are still millions of people who need but do not have ready access to useful career information. On the other hand, coordinated data is increasingly available; lower cost and more user-oriented information media are making computerized career information systems feasible for more organizations; and there is increasing evidence that user-controlled organizations such as the career information consortium are effective in helping agencies and institutions provide the career information that people need.
In conclusion these are my hopes for career development in the year 2000, and beyond:
Empowering the individual through awareness of theprocesses which lead to continuous self understanding over the career span.
Engagement of the individual in the process of acquiring knowledge of resources which can be used in a systematic continuous discovery of changing career opportunities.
Enlightened counseling by empowering individuals to find career satisfaction through work and leisure options in the context of an ever changing developmental life span.
It seems to me that is part of the Frank Parsons heritage from the past 85 years. This heritage seems well positioned to take us into the 21st century if we have the wisdom and insight necessary to utilize the best research and resources available to us now and in the future.
In times of dramatic social change, new career options emerge and old options may become obsolete. We investigated predictors of change in general career aspirations and of plans to attend a university of East German adolescents from 1989 (before German unification) to 1991 and 1995, respectively, after German unification. Higher pre-unification self-efficacy beliefs were associated with an increase in general career aspirations and a higher probability of switching from non-college-bound vocational training to attending a university. In addition, better pre-unification school grades and having parents who graduated from a university increased adolescents'' probability to switch to a university. Furthermore, interaction effects of self-efficacy with grades and cognitive abilities appeared, indicating that for individuals with high self-efficacy, cognitive abilities became more important and grades less important in predicting the wish to pursue university studies. We concluded that beliefs in one''s capabilities, and high academic abilities are important resources in vocational reorientation in times of social change.
This country has the proven products, methods, and committed community resources to meet most of our career development program improvement and expansion needs. But career educators must be vigorous in keeping abreast of current resources and approaches. They also need to evaluate materials for effectiveness before committing time and money to their use. Career educators need to continue to spawn local innovation and creativity. Where outside resources are more practical or desirable, career educators should look to the ERIC Clearinghouse to identify new resources, and they should contact their state department of education career guidance and career education coordinators. These are often the best resources for identifying effective career development materials for use in your state.
The umbrella program called Keeping Options Open, initiated by Johnson County Community College (JCCC), is a collaborative partnership between JCCC and Johnson County high schools to meet the educational and career needs of learners. Assessment of academics and interests are key components when assisting students to make the best decisions regarding their high school and postsecondary educational plans. A pilot program was designed to deliver a series of 3-year tiered career development/academic readiness workshops for students and parents beginning in the sophomore year and building through the junior and senior years. The goal was to enhance career development for high school students by linking it with academic readiness.
The study in this article provided insights into the emotional needs of managers during the Preacquisition Stage of a potential acquisition. One manager claimed that “mergers are the wave of the future.” If one of six managers believes this in the retail industry, then we might assume that one out of every six employees has thought this at some time in his/her working life or at least thought about how mergers in general affect his/her working life. Therefore, it seems vital that retail employees have the attitude that “Acquisitions, of course, produce stress, but they are not always bad experiences that end up hurting the employees.” With the opposite attitude, the Preacquisition Stage will most likely be fraught with low employee morale, increased stress, resistance to change, higher turnover, and lower productivity.
The managers in the current study shared their reactions to the announcement of a potential merger. As can be expected, much stress and uneasiness was occurring. The suggested interventions in this article will help the EAP counselor respond to the stress through crisis, preventive, and educational methods. The employee assistance counselor can no longer wait for the merger to occur; rather, he/she must be involved early in the merger process, during the Preacquisition Stage. If employee assistance counselors do not begin insisting on early involvement, business mergers may remain on a contractual level only. The “contractual level” allows Hunsaker and Coombs (1988) to conclude that the psychological needs of the merging work forces are not typically considered, and “‘people’ issues are mishandled as the acquirer improvises instead of following a strategically designed, systematically conducted program for corporate integration” (p. 57). A systematically conducted program may help managers and employees feel more secure about their own careers; thus, about mergers in general.
This paper examines several conceptual frameworks that can inform elementary career intervention programming. Equity, social justice, and the development of intrinsic motivation are key concepts in the promotion of social action initiatives aimed at improving academic achievement and expanding future career options for all students. Early career interventions provide the ideal venue for prevention efforts in elementary schools. Relevant career theory forms the basis for the design and delivery of elementary career intervention programming.
Leisure activities in children may be a valid predictor of talented accomplishment in adults (Milgram, 1989, 1990a, 1991, in press). Lei- sure activities are intrinsically motivated out-of-school hobbies and activities that young people do for their own enjoyment and by their own choice, and not in order to fulfill school requirements or to earn grades or credits. Even though they are not related to school they may be highly intellectual endeavors (e.g., computer programming, working out mathematical solutions, conducting scientific experi- ments, composing music). One reason why these activities may in- deed predict adult accomplishment is because their performance require not only intellectual abilities, but also task commitment, per- sistence, and other cognitive and personal-social attributes that strongly determine life outcomes. Super (1984), a leader in the area of career development, claims leisure activities can be valuable explora- tory experiences which provide the opportunity to experience occupa- tionally-related activities. A series of innovative studies of intrinsically motivated creative activities and accomplishments in adolescence were conducted by
This leisure counseling model provides a general framework for the counseling process rather than a strict guideline. While some clients may progress orderly through the stages, other clients may move back and forth amongst different stages. The specific counseling needs of each client should guide the client's progress through the model accordingly. In short, within the model's framework the counseling process has a great deal of flexibility.
The purpose of this article has been to emphasize the importance of leisure counseling for addicted persons and to present a corresponding model that can supplement existing programs and support groups. Thus, the model is designed in such a way that it can be implemented in either individual or group settings. Whatever the particular application of this leisure counseling model, it adds an important extra dimension to existing addiction treatment approaches.
The importance of leisure counseling for addicted persons in recovery cannot be overemphasized. Because the addiction was the center of their lives, recovering addicts must forge a new lifestyle without their “drug of choice”: their best friend and greatest source of security and reassurance. Recognizing their struggle, the addiction leisure counseling model should help counselors facilitate this transition by enabling addicted clients to begin using leisure to satisfy many of their unmet needs.
Administrative support occupations form the largest major occupational group in America. These occupations are vital to the function of business organizations. Usually an organization will have greater numbers of positions in these occupations, at lower levels of the organization hierarchy, than they have managerial positions at higher levels of the organizational hierarchy. Administrative support occupations have traditionally been filled by women. Currently, high percentages of administrative support positions are held by women workers. Women make up: 99% of secretaries; 94% of typists and word processing personnel; 89% of personnel clerks; 92% of bookkeeping, accounting and auditing clerks; and 81% of general office clerks (Bureau of Labor Statistics [BLS], 1990). During this last decade of the 20th century, over 2.5 million job openings will occur in this group. Women, who compose almost half of the American work force, will fill the majority of these jobs. The historical movement of women into the clerical work force has been traced by Anderson (1989) and by Lowe (1987) who referred to clerical work as "the contemporary prototype of a female job ghetto" (p. 1). Interviews giving first hand accounts of how female office workers in the late 1970s saw themselves, their jobs, their conditions of work, their supervisors, and office work in general have been provided by Tepperman (1976). Goldberg (1983) found job dissatisfactions of female clerical workers focused on low wages, lack of promotion opportunities, the menial, routine, and boring nature of the
Although it is too early to evaluate progress toward the distal goal of the CLD Program, this local program has been successful in meeting the four proximal goals (open access, career and leadership enhancement activities, career counseling, and fiscal training). Thus, it has been demonstrated that a variety of local resources can be utilized to address career needs that were not being met by national programs.
A national longitudinal database (NELS: 88-94, 1996) was used to examine the occupational aspiration patterns, vocational preparation, and work-related experiences of adolescents who were either work-bound or college-bound two years after their initial transition from high school to work or postsecondary education. Adolescents' career choice and behavior patterns were analyzed at two separate points. Grades 8 and 10 achievement profiles of work- and unemployment-bound youths were similar; both groups had significantly lower achievement scores than college-bound youths. Socioeconomic status (SES) had considerable influence on determining both occupational aspirations and postsecondary transition status. Two-thirds of all young adults who were work-bound or unemployed/out of the work force were in the lowest two SES groups. Adolescents in the highest SES were four times more likely to be college-bound. Educational aspiration was a more accurate predictor of postsecondary status than occupational aspiration. Work-bound youths did not engage in higher levels of school-based work preparation than college-bound peers. Occupational aspirations of college-bound youth were relatively stable over the two-year period (from Grade 8 to 10), while those of noncollege-bound youths were more volatile. The prestige levels of occupational aspirations, for all youth, were relatively established by early adolescence and did not change significantly over time.
This paper uses a possible selves theoretical framework to examine whether and how adolescent girls' images of themselves as future scientists change during their transition from high school to college. Forty-one female high school graduates from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds, who had enrolled in an intensive math and science program while in high school, participated in interviews focused on their perceptions of factors that influenced their career plans over time. Participants suggested that career-related internships and intensive academic programs, especially those that yielded important mentoring relationships, were contexts in which they negotiated career-related possible selves and subsequent career plans.
Appropriate assessment, counseling and training techniques are imperative for the effective career education of MH adolescents. These techniques should be integrated and viewed as a series of student-centered developmental activities. Counselors can play an important role in the career development of MH adolescents by coordinating these activities. This requires collaboration with special education teachers, other professionals, parents and students themselves to integrate assessment, training, counseling and work experiences.
This issue has identified some of the kinds of career planning assistance currently available to individuals 50 years of age and older. The purpose of this concluding article is to serve as a bridge between these articles and subsequent efforts. Where shall we go from here? What steps are needed to provide a broader range of career services to more older adults? As more programs are designed, how will we know which interventions work best with what types of users? Kieffer's article identifies how human resource management policy could change to facilitate the vocational development of older adults; this article considers how individual counselors and agencies can contribute to that process.
The modem cash economy has transformed the Africans' traditional meaning structures and work has become a means for the satisfaction of major life tasks—survival, identity, community and meaning (Dovey & Mathabe, 1987) thus creating an urgent need for education for work in schools. School guidance programmes should adopt holistic developmental approach to address career counselling needs adequately.
We recommended that a model which can be used in South Africa must address the ‘person-prospective employer fit’. It must essentially capture the career needs of individuals and different employers. Such a model must be sensitive to cultural variations across different prospective employees, i.e., it should allow a wide enough definition of careers such that a broad spectrum of experience and interests can be acknowledged.
Finally, we recommended that career counselling programmes include a component to facilitate self-liberation and survival of apartheid. Such a self-liberation must include the individual's personal strategies to create meaning in their life.