Journal of Camel Practice and Research

Print ISSN: 0971-6777
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Cytogenetic study of Kachchhi camel was carried out using short term whole blood culture technique. RPMI-1640 containing 15% foetal bovine serum, pokeweed mitogen (2.5 microgram/ml) and antibiotic was used for the culture. The cell growth was arrested in metaphase using colchicine (0.5 microgram/ml) after 71 hrs. The metaphase spread were obtained after hyypotonic treatment using 0.56 per cent KCL for 10 minutes followed by 3:1 methanol : acetic acid. Giemsa stain karyotpe of male and female kachchhi camel revealed diploid chromosome complement consisting of 31 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes and 5 pairs of submetacentric chromosomes. X chromosome was one of the largest metacentric and chromosome was small metacentric.
 
The missionary-explorer David Livingstone imported six camels from India to Zanzibar and thence to what is now southern Tanzania in 1866. His purpose was to test the use of camels for transport and assess their resistance to the disease he believed to be transmitted by tsetse flies which was later discovered to be trypanosomosis. His camels did not live long and died from a combination of extreme ill treatment by their handlers and the effects of the tsetse fly within a few weeks of their arrival on the African mainland.
 
Departure of the Desert Column from Korti (Illustration by Elizabeth Butler, from Butler, 1887).  
Uniform of troopers of the Camel Corps during the Gordon Relief Expedition, 1884-1885 (right image shows arm patch of 1 st Battalion Grenadier Guards Detachment of the Guards Camel Regiment).  
Artists impression of the British Square at Abu Klea (note hospital tents) (print by G W Bacon & Co, The Strand, London).  
Plan of the British Square at Abu Klea showing disposition of fighting units (modified from Gleichen, 1887, from other sources). the central Government. Although it continued to be known as the Camel Corps it became fully motorised in 1935 which brought to an end – or almost --the active role of camels as a fighting force in Sudan after more than 50 years of operations (Keays, 1939; Daly, 1986). Just prior to its mechanisation it held a full dress parade in El Obeid in Kordofan for a visit of the Governor General of Sudan (Fig 8). It was then under the command of Major Hugh Boustead who retired  
The camel saddle: top left knifeboard tree; bottom left -mounted Infantry tree; right -fitted saddle (a, 'zuleetah' of red leather and white canvas; b, saddle cover of red leather; c, rolled blankets and tent; d - Namaqua rifle bucket of brown leather with strap to fasten over near side; e, water skin resting on yellow leather flap; f, feed grain bag; g, girth; h, stirrup; j, red leather protecting flaps; k, small red cushion of doubtful use) (adapted from Gleichen, 1887).  
A religiously inspired revolt by Muslims in Sudan in the early 1880s lead by the Mahdi (a self-proclaimed Islamic prophet) eventually succeeded in overcoming the country’s Egyptian administrators. The British sent General Gordon to Khartoum to attempt to reverse the situation but he was besieged in his palace. Following public pressure Britain mounted an expedition to relieve Gordon. The main body was the Camel Corps – a novelty for the British military forces – comprising four Regiments. Three – Heavy, Light and Guards Camel Regiments – drew personnel from regular British Army Cavalry Regiments. The fourth – Mounted Infantry Camel Regiment – drew on British Army Infantry Regiments already in Egypt supplemented by soldiers from the UK. The Camel Corps was relatively successful as a fighting force. Camels were also used by Artillery, Engineer, Medical and Transport and Communications units. After the reconquest of Sudan in 1898 the Camel Corps was reconstituted into several Companies lead by British officers but manned by Sudanese personnel. Having participated in 16 “actions” (battles or skirmishes) between February 1884 and November 1899 the Camel Corps undertook 43 “patrols” between January 1902 and January 1930: “patrol” was a euphemism for British flag-waving or for persuading – or forcing – recalcitrant native tribes to submit to central Government. Continuing in name as the Camel Corps it became fully motorized in 1935, ending the active role of camels as a fighting force in Sudan after more than 50 years of operations. Sudan provided 18,000 camels to an expeditionary force to oust the Italian occupiers and re-instate Emperor Haile Selassie as ruler of Ethiopia. Camels were fundamental to military operations in Sudan in the period under review. Without them the campaigns and the victories achieved would have been much more difficult.
 
A colorimetric assay using MTT salt was used to measure the in vitro proliferative response of peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs) of Sudanese camels vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine. The mean stimulation index of PBMs of camels after vaccination was significantly higher than before vaccination (P < 0.01). The results suggest possible protection of camels from brucellosis using strain 19 Brucella abortus vaccine.
 
The proportion of living sperm in semen from 11 Jaisalmeri camels was assessed by means of a fluorescence staining technique using the Hoechst 33258 stain. The objectives were to study the head membrane integrity (%) of the spermatozoa and to make its comparison with the sperm motility (%) obtained with phase-contrast microscope. The head portions of dead spermatozoa get blue staining and give bright fluorescence under the microscope. The proportions of living and dead sperm in camel semen were readily identified through the use of Hoechst 33258. Mean sperm head membrane integrity (21.18±6.38%) was non-significantly higher in comparison to the mean motility (17.00±5.12%) .
 
The objective of this study was to investigate the antigenic components of Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) during infection. The antigenic components of intact and trypsin-treated T. evansi were identified using a combination of SDS-PAGE and Western immunoblotting against sera from infected rabbits and rabbits immunised with a soluble extract of the parasite. These sera recognised 14 components ranging from ∼ 172kDa to ∼21.5kDa. A non-trypsin-sensitive component of ∼ 42kDa, recognised strongly by sera from infected rabbits and rabbits immunised with the parasite soluble extract was, selected for further studies. This antigen purified by electro elution from acrylamide gels and mono-specific serum produced and used in both Western immunoblotting and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum raised against this antigen recognised only antigenic materials in the homologous T. evansi population by both Western immunoblotting and ELISA. Being a non-trypsin-sensitive antigen that was not, cleaved from the parasite by the process of trypsinisation, possibly indicate a non-surface association, yet a variant-specific antigen. The presence of such antigens in T. evansi parasites and their role in the process of antigenic variation is discussed. Conclusions were drawn and recommendations were suggested.
 
Haematological and biochemical findings in camels with Johne's disease.
This paper describes the clinical, haematological, biochemical and pathological findings in 60 camels (Camelus dromedarius) affected with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. The clinical findings were long-standing diarrhoea (sometimes intermittent), weight loss and poor condition. Haematological abnormalities included decreased haematocrit value, decreased haemoglobin concentration and leukocytosis. Analysis of serum revealed hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia and hyperglobulinemia. Other serum abnormalities included hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia and elevated serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase. The activities of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase as well as the concentrations of total bilirubin, urea nitrogen, creatinine, phosphorus and glucose were normal. Antemortem diagnosis of Johne's disease in the camels depended on the clinical as well as the results of Ziehl-Neelsen staining of rectal smears and detection of acid-fast bacilli. Postmortem examination showed highly thickened intestinal mucous membranes that form folds. Granulomatous lesions were seen in the mesenteric, hepatic and mediastinal lymph nodes. Histopathological examination showed intense infiltration of epithelioid cells in the mucosa and submucosa of the intestine. These cells also infiltrated the lymph node, which also showed abscess with liquefactive necrosis. Acid-fast bacilli were also seen inside the epithelioid cells in the intestine and lymph nodes. Other pathological changes included congestion and fatty changes in the liver and degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium in the kidney.
 
The ovaries and uteri from 4 pregnant camels were recovered at known stages of gestation; namely days 14, 25, 35 and 56 after ovulation. The day 14 and 25 uteri were perfused fixed with 3% glutaraldehyde: 3% paraformaldehyde and the remaining 2 uteri (days 35 and 56) were opened along their dorsal side and biopsy samples of allantochorion attached to endometrium were fixed in either 3% glutaraldehyde :3% paraformaldehyde or Bouins. Samples of each uterus were then processed and sectioned for transmission electron microscopy or light microscopy. The results showed that by the 14th day majority of the trophoblast had become closely apposed to the uterine luminal epithelium forming an epitheliochorial placenta. In some places the start of microvillar interdigitation was evident and by day 25 a well developed microvillar junction had formed between the foetal and maternal tissues. The day 35 and 56 specimen revealed the foetus in the middle of the left horn and histologically large multinuclear giant trophoblast cells of a syncytial nature had developed at frequent, but irregular intervals along the trophoblasts. The giant cells were more often than not situated over the mouth of a gland but their actual function in pregnancy is as yet unknown.
 
Present study was carried out to isolate the Heat Shock Protein-70 gene of Trypanosoma evansi using PCR. The desired amplicons of Heat Shock Protein-70 gene from genomic DNA of T. evansi were successfully amplified by PCR using gene specific primers at annealing temperature of 54°C. Amplified PCR product was identified on the basis of its size in agarose gel electrophoresis as 1956 bp. For cloning the purified DNA fragment was ligated to the pGEM- T Easy vector and ligated mixture was transformed into Escherichia coli JM109 strains. The cells containing recombinant plasmid were identified on the basis of white/blue colony selection on LB agar containing X-Gal, IPTG and ampicillin. Screening of recombinant was done by Restriction Enzyme digestion of plasmid DNAs using EcoRI and confirmed on the basis of gene size, i. e. 1956 bp for Heat Shock Protein-70 gene. Colony PCR was done for quick screening of plasmid inserts directly from E. coli colonies in the presence of insert specific primers.
 
In Nigeria and indeed Africa, camels are increasingly gaining economic importance due to their increasing value as source of meat, milk, hide and as draught animals. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of tuberculosis, based on lateral-flow technology in slaughter camels. Diagnosis of TB in camels faces many difficulties, with none of the standard available tests being able to detect the disease with some certainity. The intradermal tuberculin test, which is the traditional diagnostic tool in cattle, is not reliable in camels as it is in cattle but the serology-based test is showing potentials in various environments. A total of five hundred (500) camels, consisting of 188 males and 312 females, in Sahel part of northern Nigeria brought for slaughter at Kano abattoir were tested for TB infection using lateral-flow technology. The overall positive samples were one hundred and thirteen (113) with a prevalence rate of 22.6%. Out of these, 45 were males with a prevalence rate of 23.9% while 68 were females with a prevalence rate of 21.8%. The chi-square (x(2)) test of significance based on sex was not statistically significant (P>0.05). This study highlights the importance of tuberculosis in camels and its public health implications. Measures for control are also been suggested.
 
This research was conducted to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in camels. Faecal samples of 306 dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) in abattoir of Mashhad, a city in north east Iran and the capital of Khorasan province between October 2007 and September 2008 were analysed for Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopic examination of smears stained by modified Ziehl-Neilsen technique. The parasite was detected in 6 camels (1.9%). The same samples were examined by saturated solution of sodium nitrate floatation technique for Eimeria oocysts. During the laboratory examination of faecal samples, Eimeria spp. oocysts were identified in 57 (18.62%) of the dromedaries examined. Eimeria dromedarii was the most prevalent and Eimeria cameli the least. The prevalence of Eimeria was highest during the winter (p<0.05). This is the first report of cryptosporidiosis in dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Iran. The mucosae of the ileum, caecum and colon of infected camels were oedematous, congested and ulcerated. Histopathological examination of this ileum revealed distended, disorganised villi and crypts due to developmental stages of Eimeria, and moderate to severe inflammatory reaction was seen mainly by infiltration of eosinophils and lymphocytes.
 
This study was designed to describe the ultrasonographic findings in 33 dromedary camels with different abdominal disorders. These were categorised as pelvic abscesses (n=5), peritonitis (n=4), chronic enteritis (n=10) and intestinal obstruction (n=14). In camels with pelvic abscesses, transabdominal pelvic ultrasonography showed abdominal echogenic mass and aspirated contents were pus. A severely distended intact urinary bladder was imaged which contained echogenic sediments. In camels with peritonitis, transabdominal ultrasonography revealed echogenic fibrin threads floating in a hyperechoic peritoneal effusion. The intestines were also imaged floating in the fluid. Aspiration of a peritoneal fluid sample yielded a reddish coloured fluid. In camels with paratuberculosis, intestinal oedema, peritoneal effusion and enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes were recorded. In camels with intestinal obstruction, transabdominal ultrasonographic examination showed distended intestinal loops with weak intestinal motility. Transrectal ultrasonography revealed a highly distended rumen. In severe cases, transabdominal ultrasonography revealed intestinal contents within the intestinal loops indicating perforation of the intestines. In conclusion, ultrasonography can be used, in the field and in Veterinary Teaching Hospitals, as a non-invasive diagnostic approach in camels with abdominal disorders, and therefore help in early diagnosis and prognosis of such cases.
 
Relationships between incidence of the major reproductive abnormalities and age group, season, breed, and body condition score. 
Relationships between prevalence of reproductive abnormalities and factors, such as age, season, breed, and body condition score.
Reproductive tract abnormalities have a high impact on sexual activity and fertility. Knowledge of factors related to reproductive disorders is important towards understanding the variability prevalences and features of these anomalies. The relationship between season, age, breed, and the body condition score, and the prevalence of reproductive abnormalities in female dromedary camels were analysed in an observational study on 740 dromedary females. Data were obtained from 2 abattoirs in southeast Algeria from 2011 to 2013. The associations between reproductive abnormalities and the different factors were determined using a chi-square test. Various abnormalities with different degrees of severity were observed in 213 (28.8%) cases. Reproductive abnormalities were significantly associated with age group and season. The percentages of reproductive abnormalities recorded did not differ significantly among breeds and abattoir location. The findings indicated a significant relationship between reproductive disorders and the body condition score. The prevalence of overall reproductive abnormalities significantly varied between the wet and dry seasons. Abnormalities were significantly more frequent during the wet seasons (autumn, winter) than during the dry seasons (spring, summer). Based on these findings, the increased prevalence of reproductive disorders was associated with dry season, older age, and low body condition.
 
The results of two laboratory tests, PCR and culture were compared with each other for the recovery of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus from spiked camel, goat and sheep milk samples. The results showed the same sensitivity for camel milk but a lower PCR sensitivity for sheep and goat milk.
 
An eleven year old male alpaca (Lama pacos) was presented with a 2-week history of ataxia, intermittent seizures, left-sided head tilt and circling towards the left. The owner described episodes of seizure-like activity lasting 1-3 minutes, but the alpaca acted normally between episodes. On presentation the alpaca was depressed, ataxic on all four limbs, and preferred to remain sternal. The neurological deficits identified on history and physical examination were suggestive of asymmetrical brain stem disease. The seizure-like activity, circling, and tilting of head to the left, as reported by the owner were not observed during physical examination or hospitalisation. Initial diagnostic procedures revealed a mature neutrophilia, hyperglycaemia and elevated creatine phosphokinase. The CSF analysis was within reference range and no bacteria were recovered from culture. Initial therapy included intravenous lactated Ringer's solution at 50ml/kg/day and oxytetracycline (Oxybiotic-100; Butler) at 10 mg/kg IV q 24h. The following morning the alpaca's condition had deteriorated and permission was granted to euthanase. Gross necropsy revealed numerous nymphal and adult ticks in the left external ear canal adjacent to the tympanic membrane which were identified as Otobius megnini. A 2 cm diameter proliferation of bone accompanied by a caseous abscess was identified on the second molar of the left mandible. A 2.5 × 2 × 1.5 cm encapsulated mass with a 3mm capsule was adhered to the right lateral aspect of the brainstem, cerebellum and adjacent calverium contained exudate on cut surface was diagnosed as the brain abscess, histopathologically. Bacteriological culture of a swab from the brain abscess identified Arcanobacter pyogenes.
 
Sporadic cases of subcutaneous localised and internal abscesses due to Corynebacterium pyogenes and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis were recorded in both adult and young male and female camels. Subcutaneous localised single or multiple abscesses of various sizes were met with in the prescapular area, pectoral region, head, both sides of the neck, hind limbs, shoulders and on the flank. Internal abscesses were found mainly in the liver, followed by spleen, lung, kidney, stomach and associated regional lymph nodes. Secondary bacterial invasion with Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, E.coli, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Proteus was recorded. Haematological studies revealed a significantly high white cell count (upto 88 × 103), a low haemoglobin concentration (upto 36%), a low red blood cells count (upto 5.75) and a high neutrophilia (upto 83%) specially in the cases of internal abscesses. Confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of the Corynebacterium pyogenes and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, and other bacterial invadors was obtained by culture of abscess contents on sheep blood agar and MacConkey agar. Suspected isolates were identified using the API system. Sensitivity tests of the isolated bacteria were made using Mastring S discs.
 
Most of the Gram positive isolates were sensitive to amoxycillin, co-trimoxazole, trimethoprim, gentamicin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, doxycycline hydrochloride, ciprofloxacin and neomycin. The intermediate zone of inhibition of Gram-positive isolates was recorded with erythromycin. A majority of these organisms were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, bacitracin, lincomycin, sulphamethizole and sulphadiazine. Most of the Gram negative isolates were sensitive to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, norfloxacin, trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin. An intermediate response to tetracycline and kanamycin was recorded for these isolates and in general were resistant to sulphamethizol and polymyxin B. It was recorded that the most effective drug for both Gram positive and Gram negative isolates were gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and trimethroprim. On the basis of antibiogram results it was deduced that furazolidone, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and cloxacillin can be used to contain the S. aureus infection in wounds and abscesses in camel. Gram positive organisms were resistant to ampicillin whereas this drug was able to inhibit the growth of most of the Gram negative bacteria. Sulphdiazine was found ineffective to most of the Gram positive and all of the Gram negative bacteria.
 
The activity of coagulases from 30 S. aureus strains isolated from cutaneous wounds and abscesses in camel were studied against plasma from rabbit, cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, horse, camel and humans at 1, 3 and 5 hours. The various isolates coagulated the plasma from rabbit, human, buffalo, horse, cattle, goat, camel and sheep in decreasing order of superiority.
 
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the intestinal calcium absorption using stable strontium (Sr) as a surrogate marker in five newborn camels. Two tests were performed with an interval of 10 days for calculating the within-animals variation of plasma Sr (CV%). The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-300) 5 hours after an oral SrCl 2 load of 4.1 mmol was 10.11 ± 0.542 mmol/L-1/min. The within-animals CV% of AUC0-300 was 1.1.6. In our animals, plasma calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (Pi) levels were not significantly modified by Sr load. The fractional Sr excretion 5 hours after oral load in percentage of Sr dose administered was 1.03 ± 0.22% and Sr renal clearance was 4.12 ± 0.51 mL/min. Sr test had no significant effect upon renal excretion of Ca and Pi. Our results showed that in newborn camels, Sr absorption test is simple, reproductible and may be used in exploration of intestinal Ca absorption.
 
The authors describe the histopathological features of dermatomycosis and sarcoptic mange mixed infection accompanied with chronic granulomatous hidradenitis in five camel's skin samples collected from Al-Najaf slaughter house in Republic of Iraq. Direct examination of the skin scraping with 10% KOH revealed fungal organisms (mycelia and arthrospores) and mites which were consistent with Sarcoptic spp (Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli) in the macerated debris. Histological examination of the skin sections revealed dermatitis characterised by acanthosis with marked parakeratosis, hyperkeratosis and crust formation, rete-pegs, hyperplastic changes in sebaceous glands and hair follicles cells, granulomatous hidradenitis and infiltration with eosinophils, lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils. Sections stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Gomori's Methenamine silver (GMS) stain, revealed large numbers of fungal arthrospores and hyphae coloured bright magenta with PAS and black with GMS. In conclusion, this study reported mite infestation that occurs concurrently with dermatomycosis accompanied with granulomatous hidradenitis in a species belonging to the Camelidae. Additional studies including better understanding of pathogenesis of mixed infection and its effects on the skin immunity will be desirable for further understanding of those skin diseases in camels.
 
This study was designed to investigate the effect of oversized follicles on the behaviour and hormonal concentrations in female dromedaries. The estrous pattern of 26 dromedaries with oversized follicles was recorded during the breeding season. Thirty-three ovarian pairs with preovulatory and oversized follicles were recovered and sectioned from slaughtered adult camels (n=33). Blood (10 ml) was collected from all females and follicular fluid from slaughtered females for estimation of reproductive hormones and nitric oxide (NO). Oversized follicles lead to infertility problems in dromedaries such as repeat breeding, nymphomania and anestrous. Serum progesterone (P9) concentrations in repeat breeders with thin-wall oversized follicles (RB thin, n=10; 1411.50±93.39 pg/ml) and nymphomaniac with thin-wall oversized follicles (Nympho thin, n=8; 1710.00±107.74 pg/ml) were significantly (P<0.05) lower than that in anestrous animals with thick-wall oversized follicles (Anest thick, n=4; 2532.50±107.74 pg/ ml). Serum estradiol (E2) concentration was significantly (P<0.05) higher in Nympho thin (0.97±0.31 pg/ml) than Anest thick (0.30±0.08 pg/ml) camels. In Nympho-thin camels, serum testosterone (T; 39.75±4.85 pg/ml) and prostaglandin F2a (PCF2a 173.93±9.75 pg/ml) concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) higher than both T concentration (17.20 ± 3.63 pg/ml) in RB thin and PGF2a concentration (77.65±7.90 pg/ml) in RB thick camels (n=4). Serum NO concentrations in RB thin (2.49±0.03 nM) camels were significantly (P<0.05) higher than that in both RB thick and Anest thick camels. The oversized follicles lead to infertility problems in dromedaries, accompanied by changes in serum and follicular fluid reproductive hormones and NO concentrations.
 
Two experiments were conduted to evaluate the role of camel milk in preventing the detrimental effect of lead on rat. In the first, 6 groups of adult male rats were administered daily for 60 days the following: group 1 saline; group 2 camel milk; group 3 cow milk, group 4 lead acetate; group 5 camel milk plus lead and group 6 cow milk plus lead. In the second, pregnant female rats were divided and treated following the first experiment. The female were allowed to deliver pups, the treatment continued until weaning of the pups then, the male pups were left without treatment until puberty. Lead caused significant reduction in the body and reproductive organ weights; plasma and testicular testosterone, testicular zinc; antioxidant enzymes, luteinising and follicle stimulating hormones and semen characteristics, while it caused significant increase in malondialdehyde; testicular cholesterol and testicular and plasma lead. Camel milk treatment improved the estimated parameters in adult male rat. However, it could not alleviate these parameters in male rats born for mothers exposed to lead during pregnancy and lactation periods. Camel milk treatment improved the evaluated parameters in adult male rats exposed to lead intoxication albeit not all were identical to the control levels, however, it could not improve these parameters in adult male rats born for mothers exposed to lead during pregnancy and lactation.
 
The efficacy of a diminazene aceturate formulation, Trypan® (Ataros GmbH and Co.) which was recently developed and recommended for camel trypanosomosis, was tested in 11 (1 to 3 year old) dromedary camels. The animals were divided into 3 groups; 1, 2 and 3, comprising 4, 3 and 4 camels, respectively. Groups 2 and 3 camels were inoculated with Trypanosoma evansi KETRI 2455 (1 x 104 trypanosomes) via intravenous injection while group 1 was left uninfected. Clinical examination and parasitaemia determination were done daily whereas blood for haematology was collected weekly. Camels in group 2 and 3 were treated with Trypan at 3.5 mg/kg bwt intramuscularly (IM) at the onset of parasitaemia (day 8 post infection) and at peak parasitaemia (day 10 post infection), respectively. The control animals (group 1) were treated with Trypan® at 3.5 mg/kg bwt IM and observed daily for overt signs of toxicity. The camels did not show any sign of toxicity during the 3 months experimental period. Treatment with Trypan® at the onset of parasitaemia (group 2) resulted in clearance of trypanosomes within 18 hours. The animals however relapsed ten days after treatment and were treated curatively with 0.25 mg/kg bwt melarsomine. Camels treated at peak parasitaemia with Trypan® also became aparasitaemic within 18 hours. The clinical condition of the camels severely deteriorated despite no relapse. The camel were euthaniased 5 days post treatment to alleviate further suffering. At post-mortem there was exudative pneumonia, haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and myocarditis. Histopathology revealed involvement of the central nervous system, with heavy cellular infiltration and congestion of blood vessels. This implies that Trypan® suspension may not be effective in curing camels with acute T. evansi infections.
 
Sulphadimidine administered intravenously at a dose of 20 mg/kg to 20 each of Newzealand rabbits, Awassi goats, Awassi sheep, Jersey cattle, donkeys and one-humped camels produced a maximum plasma concentration of acetylated sulphonamide at 2 hours after administration. Data of acetylated sulphonamide from sheep, goats, cattle and donkeys fit a unimodal distribution, whereas those from rabbits and camels fit a bimodal distribution suggesting acetylator phenotype of sulphadimidine in camels and rabbits.
 
The acetylcholinesterase (AChe) is the essential enzyme to hydrolyse the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) in central neural system (CNS). In our study, homology modeling method was used to model the 3D structure of AChe from Camelus dromedarius. The obtained model was evaluated and verified. Analysis of its structure and electrostatic potential showed that the AChe from Camelus dromedarius consistsed of 14 alpha-helices and 13 beta-sheets forming a gorge with a negative value of electrostatic potential. Structure alignment of AChe from different animal species showed their remarkable similarity. The results of molecular docking performed by Autodock 4.0 showed that ACh binds with the acetylcholinesterase at the gorge with the active site which contained S203, E334 and H447 residues similar to the catalytic triad of most serine proteases.
 
Manipulation of cameline urine pH and its effect on urine disposition of ampicillin in camels was studied. Urine alkalinity (pH 8.5) achieved by oral administration of 900 mg of sodium bicarbonate/kg/ day (5 animals). Urine acidity (pH 4.5) was achieved by oral administration of 800 mg of ammonium chloride/ kg/day (5 animals). Normal urine (pH 7.4) was achieved by oral administration of normal saline (5 animals, controls). Ampicillin was administered intravenously to camels at a single dose of 4 mg/kg body weight. Ampicillin kinetics was estimated by microbiological method using Bacillus subtilis as a test organism. The mean percentage dose of ampicillin excreted unchanged in urine over 8 hours was 19.3 ± 0.3, 19.7 ± 0.3, 18.9 ± 0.2% in normal, alkaline and acidic urine, respectively. The maximum peak of excretion was 0.29, 0.31 and 0.30 mg/ml in normal, alkaline and acidic urine, respectively. The time taken to reach that peak of excretion was 5, 5.3 and 5.1 hours in normal, alkaline and acidic urine, respectively. The half-life of drug was 0.277, 0.271 and 0.274 hour in normal, alkaline and acidic urine, respectively. These results indicate that changes in urinary pH over the range studied did not affect ampicillin kinetics in urine of camel.
 
The intention of this study was to examine the effects of oral administration of L. acidophilus L,3 on the number of intestinal mucosal immune cells of young bactrian camels. Young camels were fed daily with L. acidophilus L3 (a concentration of 2x10(9)CFU/kg feed) and their intestinal immune cells were assessed on day 28 by the histology, histochemistry and cell counting methods. The number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), goblet cells (GCs), plasma cells and mast cells were counted, recorded and compared with the control group. Statistical analysis showed that the number of those intestinal mucosal immune cells were all increased in the probiotic group, compared with the control group and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The distribution tendency of those cells in small intestine was that: the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes, goblet cells and mast cells was gradually reduced from duodenum to ileum in two groups, whereas the number of plasma cells was gradually increased from duodenum to ileum. The results indicated that L. acidophilus L3 has intense influence on the number of mucosal immune cells in small intestine of young camels, supplementation of the diet with L. acidophilus L3 is able to enhance the intestinal mucosal immunity of young camels.
 
Fresh pasteurised whole camel milk was inoculated with 5% of Streptococcus thermophilus 37, Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp. bulgaricus CH2 and Lactococcus lactis and incubated at 43°C in a circulating water bath for 6 hours. The results showed that fermentation of the camel did not affect in moisture, protein and total solids contents significantly. Fermentation process significantly increased fat and ash content, while lactose content significantly decreased. Fatty acids analysis revealed that fermentation significantly increased the content of palmitic, oleic, myristic, capric, caprylic, lauric and linolenic, while palmitoleic acid and arachidic acid were significantly decreased. The stearic and linoleic acids content were not affected by fermentation process.
 
The fatty acid composition of hump fat stemming from 43 Algerian camels (Camelus dromedarius), 1 to 13 years old, both sexes, belonging to Sahraoui and Tergui breeds, was determined. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) represented 64.4% (weight basis) of total fatty acids, while the monounsaturated (MFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fractions accounted for 33.1 and 2.5%, respectively. The main saturated fatty acids, namely palmitic and stearic acids represented 49.6% and 38.8 % of SFA (31.5% and 25.5% of total fatty acids). Unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) were mainly represented by oleic acid, 78.1 % of MFA (25.9% of total fatty acids), linoleic acid which accounted for 88.5% of omega 6 (1.17% of total fatty acids) and linolenic acid accounting for 63.9% of ω3 (0.42% out of total fatty acids). SFA/PUFA was 0.039 and ω6/ω3, 2.81. The levels of fatty acids, SFA and MFA were significantly higher in females, while the contents in ω6, ω3, CLA, PUFA, as well as the PUFA/SFA and ω6/ω3 ratio were comparable in relation to both sexes. When reported to the breeds, the contents in MFA, PUFA and ω6 was higher in Sahraoui, as the ω6/ω3 ratio was. The percentage of SFA, however, was higher in Tergui.
 
Representation of the four classes resulting from classification analysis on the main factorial plan showing the distribution of the four groups of samples all along the main factor.  
The fatty acid composition is probably linked to one of the health effects attributed to camel milk. In the present paper, the fatty acid compositions of dromedary camel, bactrian camel and hybrids are analysed in Kazakhstan where all these species cohabit. The results confirm the higher quantity of unsaturated fatty acids compared to cow milk. Palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and miristic acid are the most important part of the camel milk fat. As our sampling method included 3 variation factors (species, season, regions) with not more than one sample per case, only general trends were observed. The milk samples collected in summer, on bactrian camel and in the Caspian region (Atyrau, Aralsk) tend to be richer in long-chain fatty acids. At reverse, the milk samples taken in winter, on hybrids or dromedary and from the southern part of Kazakhstan seem richer in short-chain fatty acids.
 
Thirty one dromedaries of different age and gender were necropsied and their sera tested for antibody levels to C. perfringens α-toxin. It was found that 15/31 dromedaries had low or no antibodies to C. perfringens A and therefore succumbed to clostridial enterotoxaemia. Sixteen dromedaries (16/31) had high C. perfringens A antibody titres. They died from different diseases. It is proposed to test all racing camels for C. perfringens A antibodies and vaccinate those animals which have low (<50%) or no titres to C. perfringens A.
 
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Bernard Faye
  • Cirad - La recherche agronomique pour le développement
Fa C Tuteja
  • National Research Centre on Camel
Rajesh Beniwal
  • Calendula Healthcare Ltd
Dhanpat Kumar Kochar
  • RUHS College of Medical Sciences, Jaipur, India
Mohammed Bengoumi
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations