A variety of collective phenomena are understood to exist to the extent that workers agree on their perceptions of the phenomena, such as perceptions of their organization’s climate or perceptions of their team’s mental model. Researchers conducting group-level studies of such phenomena measure individuals’ perceptions via surveys and then aggregate data to the group level if the mean within-group agreement for a sample of groups is sufficiently high. Despite this widespread practice, we know little about the factors potentially affecting mean within-group agreement. Here, focusing on work climate, we report an investigation of a number of expected contextual (social interaction) and methodological predictors of mean rWG, a common statistic for judging within-group agreement in applied psychology and management research. We used the novel approach of meta-CART, which allowed us to assess the relative importance and possible interactions of the predictor variables. Notably, mean rWG values are driven by both contextual (average number of individuals per group and cultural individualism-collectivism) and methodological factors (the number of items in a scale and scale reliability). Our findings are largely consistent with expectations concerning how social interaction affects within-group agreement and psychometric arguments regarding why adding more items to a scale will not necessarily increase the magnitude of an index based on a Spearman-Brown “stepped-up correction.” We discuss the key insights from our results, which are relevant to the study of multilevel phenomena relying on the aggregation of individual-level data and informative for how meta-analytic researchers can simultaneously examine multiple moderator variables.
Recent research on employee silence has grown rapidly, but findings remain quantitatively unsynthesized. This paper presents a comprehensive meta-analysis of antecedents and outcomes associated with employee silence derived from a proposed framework (k = 168 independent samples, N = 63,134 employees). The results demonstrated that employee silence was related to various leader-related factors, individual dispositions, and job perceptions and beliefs. Moreover, employee silence was also associated with essential well-being, job attitudes, and performance-related outcomes. Dominance analyses revealed that shared antecedents exerted differentiated roles in predicting silence and voice. Specifically, antecedents that align with behavioral activation systems (e.g., autonomy) accounted for a large proportion of the explained variance in voice, whereas antecedents that align with behavioral inhibition systems (e.g., psychological safety) accounted for a large proportion of the explained variance in silence. Subsequent analyses showed that associations with employee silence varied depending on distinguishable forms of employee silence. Finally, three forms of employee silence exhibited significant and incremental effects on job attitudes, task performance, and organizational citizenship behavior, with employee voice being considered simultaneously. These results also indirectly clued that employee voice and silence were distinct constructs. Beyond providing estimates of population correlations, the study implications and directions for future research are also discussed.
Based on the stressor-detachment model, previous research has assumed that work-related ICT use in the evening impairs psychological detachment. However, since most of the studies to date have assessed cross-sectional relationships, little is known about the actual direction of effects. In this 5-day diary study, we implemented a day-level longitudinal model to shed light on the causal relationships between work-related ICT use, detachment, and task progress (N = 340 employees, N = 1289 day-level cases). We also investigated the role of unfinished work tasks because we assumed, based on boundary theory, that they are a driving force leading to impaired detachment and work-related ICT use in the evening. Contrary to current research consensus but in line with our expectations, we found that low psychological detachment increased work-related ICT use and task progress. We found no evidence for reversed lagged effects. These results applied both to planned and unplanned ICT use. Furthermore, our results support the notion that unfinished work tasks precede ICT use and detachment. Thus, our findings suggest that work-related ICT use should not be treated as a stressor in its own right in the stressor-detachment model. Instead, it needs to be investigated as a behavioral outcome that employees engage in when they cannot detach from work.
Companies often discuss the importance of organizational pride and what they believe leads to it, yet research on this topic in the organizational sciences has not kept pace. Our paper narrows this research-practice gap by identifying important antecedents and consequences of organizational pride. To do so, we build theory on the nature of organizational pride as an important workplace attitude by explaining how it carries prescriptive implications in addition to evaluative properties, which provides new insights into how it operates. Empirically, we demonstrate in an experiment and a field study how employee perceptions of their organization’s virtuousness and competence affect their level of pride toward the organization, which subsequently impacts their task performance and organizational citizenship behaviors. We conclude with a discussion of the implications and future research avenues.
This study expands on Keiser and Arthur's (2021) meta-analysis of the after-action review (AAR), or debrief, by examining six additional task and training characteristics that contribute to or attenuate its effectiveness. The findings based on a bare-bones meta-analysis of results from 83 studies (134 ds [955 teams; 4,684 individuals]) indicate that the effectiveness of the AAR (overall d = 0.92) does indeed vary across the pertinent characteristics. The primary impact of this study pertains to the practical implementation of AARs; notably, the findings indicate that the AAR is particularly effective in task environments that are characterized by a combination of high complexity and ambiguity in terms of offering no intrinsic feedback. The types of tasks-often project and decision-making-that more commonly entail these characteristics are frequently used in industries that do not traditionally use the AAR. The results also suggest that more recent variants of the AAR (i.e., a reaction phase, a canned performance review) do not meaningfully add to its effectiveness. These findings are combined with those from prior meta-analyses to derive 11 empirically-based practical guidelines for the use of AARs. In sum, this study highlights the complexity of the AAR that results from the independent and interdependent influence among various components and characteristics, the examination of the effects of novel and ostensibly distinct variants or approaches to AARs, and the extension of AARs to tasks and contexts in which they are less commonly used.
As the number of women in leadership positions continues to rise, it is important to closely examine the gender pay gap at the executive level. Prior studies examining the gender pay gap in executive positions have typically focused on annual salary. The nature of an executive compensation package, however, offers the opportunity for a gender pay gap to emerge through multiple avenues, including the executive severance package. To examine potential gender differences in severance payouts, a series of OLS regressions with follow-up robustness analyses were conducted. After accounting for plausible alternative explanations, a gender-based gap in severance packages exceeding $500,000 in favor of male executives was identified. Furthermore, additional analyses suggest that these packages are more sensitive to firm performance for men than for women.
The original 18-item Job Engagement Scale (JES¹⁸) operationalizes a multidimensional hierarchical conceptualization by Kahn (1990) of the investment and expression of an individual’s preferred self in-role performance. Encompassing three dimensions (i.e., physical, cognitive, and emotional), job engagement is a known predictor of organizational performance and personal outcomes. Using a sample (N = 7185) of military and civilian personnel nested within 60 work units in the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and Canadian Department of National Defence (DND), we developed and cross-validated a 9-item short-form (the JES⁹) of the original JES¹⁸ in English and French. Results demonstrated that both linguistic versions of the JES⁹ and JES¹⁸ yielded comparable psychometric properties. The scales also displayed measurement invariance as a function of participants’ sex (male/female), employee type (civilian/regular force/primary reserve), and role (supervisor/employee). Finally, the associations between scores on the JES⁹ and the JES¹⁸ and a series of covariates (i.e., employees’ psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness, burnout, and turnover intentions) were assessed. Collectively, results highlight the strong psychometric soundness of the English and French versions of the JES⁹ and the JES¹⁸ for organizational practitioners and academics.
Research questionnaires frequently include dozens—if not hundreds—of self-report items. Lengthy questionnaires, however, are often a necessity. In some cases they are needed to assess the many variables found in a complex model; in other cases they are the result of the inclusion of a single lengthy measure. This raises an important question: Do participants provide accurate responses to measures positioned at the end of a lengthy questionnaire? One possibility is that participants experience fatigue during questionnaire completion, leading them to engage in careless responding, and thus compromising the accuracy of their responses. Another possibility is that even the longest research questionnaires are generally too short to evoke participant fatigue. This latter possibility suggests that participants are largely able to maintain their attention while completing most questionnaires. Given the lack of clarity on this issue, we conducted two experiments (Study 1 N = 244; Study 2 N = 461) in which we randomly assigned each participant to complete a block of target scales at either the beginning or the end of a lengthy (> 300-item) questionnaire. Each participant also recruited an informant who provided reports of the participant’s personality, attitudes, and behaviors. These informant data allowed us to examine the effects of the experimental manipulation on the target scales’ convergent and criterion-related validity. The findings of both studies indicated that the target scales performed similarly across the two conditions. Given the ubiquity of lengthy questionnaires, these findings have far-reaching practical implications.
Previous studies have examined how personality models (e.g., Big Five, HEXACO) relate to vocational interests. We adopt a novel approach by testing the associations between personality and vocational interests from the perspective of the general factor of personality (GFP). One interpretation of the GFP is that it reflects social effectiveness. Based on this interpretation, we predicted that the GFP is particularly related to interest in social jobs because people generally tend to be attracted to activities in which they perform well. To test this, we used four large data sets: the Professional Worker Career Experience Survey (study 1a; N = 752), OpenPsychometrics.org (study 1b, N = 108,209), Project Talent (study 2; N = 81,130), and the National Merit Twin Study (study 3: N = 1536 in 768 twin pairs). In each sample, we presented the direct associations as well as the results after using control variables (gender and cognitive ability). In study 1a and 1b, the GFP particularly related to interest in social and enterprising occupations. In study 2, the GFP related to interest in working with people and was also associated with a range of occupational scales involving social aspects. In study 3, the GFP only showed a consistent relation with social interests. This association was present at the phenotypical as well as genetic level. Notwithstanding some variation in findings across the different studies, the overall pattern seems to be in line with the notion that the GFP is positively associated with the preference for more socially laden jobs.
We tested an underexplored component of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory that high LMX is associated with valuing team-interests whereas low LMX is associated with valuing self-interests. We experimentally manipulated leaders’ behaviors to create different LMX conditions within novel teams. We also manipulated LMX conditions between members within teams to affect LMX relational separation (LMXRS; the degree to which one’s LMX is different from the average within the team). We expected that LMXRS would exaggerate the effects of LMX, particularly for those in low LMX conditions. We examined individuals’ collectivistic and individualistic conflict behaviors as behavioral mediators and indicators of team- and self-interest, respectively. Participants were 316 undergraduate students in teams of three participant followers with one confederate leader who followed a script to manipulate LMX(RS). Results suggest low LMX, particularly when coupled with high LMXRS, is associated with greater use of individualistic conflict behaviors and lower use of collectivistic conflict behaviors. The greater use of individualistic conflict behaviors and lower use of collectivistic conflict behaviors partially mediated the relationship between lower LMX condition and lower levels of leader satisfaction, teammate satisfaction, and motivation to work with the team, as well as higher levels of negative affect. Results hold implications for the prescriptive use of LMX theory, social ostracism within teams, and future research at the intersection of leadership and team research.
Despite the extensive interest in open-minded discussion in organizations, inconsistencies regarding its antecedents and consequences remain. Drawing upon cooperation and competition theory, we propose a theoretical framework of open-minded discussion. On the basis of 114 primary studies (128 independent samples), a meta-analytic investigation showed that cooperative goal interdependence was positively associated with open-minded discussion, which in turn was positively related to desirable work outcomes, including performance, creativity, relationship quality, LMX, and commitment, whereas competitive and independent goal interdependence were negatively related to open-minded discussion and desirable outcomes. We also explored three moderators: culture (i.e., East Asian cultures and North American cultures), level of analysis (i.e., incident, individual and team level), and research area (i.e., goal interdependence and conflict management). Results support the theorizing that cooperative goal interdependence develops mutual benefit motivation and integrative conflict management that in turn lead to open-mindedness where collaborators combine their best ideas that result in high quality contributions to organizations. Through the meta-analysis, we offer a more stringent test of cooperation and competition theory and expand the research on open-minded discussion in organizations across various contexts.
We use the conservation of resources (COR) theory to propose a work-family model of stress in remote work. We propose that interruptions from family are a unique hindrance stressor, detrimental for the employee’s challenge and hindrance stress responses in remote work, which, in turn, have distinct effects on resource-oriented attitudes and states of both the employee and spouse. Namely, we expect that both partners’ satisfaction with the work arrangement, employee engagement, and spouse family overload will be associated with the way the employee experiences stress in remote work (stress response). We also integrate the effort-recovery model to examine whether two types of breaks taken by employees while working remotely replenish resources lost through interruptions. Using a sample of 391 couples, we find support for all hypotheses that pertain to the employee. Findings involving the spouse support the primacy of the resource loss tenet in COR theory, in that these detrimental effects are significant in crossing over to the spouse via hindrance but are not significant via challenge stress. We discuss the implications of these findings, emphasizing that interruptions are harmful for both types of stress experienced by remote employees (i.e., lower “good” and higher “bad” stress responses), and interruptions appear to have far-reaching effects on both partners. However, choosing to use breaks for both nonwork goals and self-care can buffer these otherwise detrimental effects.
Meta-analytic reviews are a primary avenue for the generation of cumulative knowledge in the organizational and psychological sciences. Over the past decade or two, concern has been raised about the possibility of publication bias influencing meta-analytic results, which can distort our cumulative knowledge and lead to erroneous practical recommendations. Unfortunately, no clear guidelines exist for how meta-analysts ought to assess this bias. To address this issue, this paper develops a user’s guide with best-practice recommendations for the assessment of publication bias in meta-analytic reviews. To do this, we review the literature on publication bias and develop a step-by-step process to assess the presence of publication bias and gage its effects on meta-analytic results. Examples of tools and best practices are provided to aid meta-analysts when implementing the process in their own research. Although the paper is written primarily for organizational and psychological scientists, the guide and recommendations are not limited to any particular scientific domain.
Attachment style is essential in guiding individuals’ social interactions, especially in adversities. Based on social defence theory, we develop a moderated-mediation model to explore how employees’ attachment style guides employees’ reactions to threatening authoritarian leadership. Through a time-lagged design with 258 employees and their 142 direct leaders, we find that insecure attachment exhibits a positive role in alleviating authoritarian leaders’ negative indirect influence on employee voice via employees’ perceived status. However, secure attachment strengthens authoritarian leaders’ negative influence on employee status perception and voice behaviour. These findings expand the perspective of leadership drawn upon attachment theory and provide practical implications for management.
This study aims at resolving the inconsistent findings regarding the effects of time pressure on work engagement and personal resources by considering time pressure’s qualitative sources. Specifically, using the notion of statistical suppression, we argue that qualitative challenge and hindrance demands operate as suppressor variables and thus determine whether time pressure itself exerts a challenging or hindering potential. To test our assumptions, we conducted a daily diary study over the course of one workweek in a sample of 396 employees. We tested our hypotheses at the day-level. Results of multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that when controlling for qualitative challenge demands, time pressure positively related to exhaustion, but negatively related to work engagement and self-esteem. Suppression was significant. In contrast, when controlling for qualitative hindrance demands, time pressure was unrelated to work engagement, negatively related to self-esteem, and positively related to exhaustion, whereby qualitative hindrance demands did not act as a suppressor variable at the day-level. Additional analyses revealed that qualitative challenge and hindrance demands operated as suppressor variables at the person-level. In summary, when qualitative challenge demands were controlled for, time pressure operated as a hindrance demand. Yet, when qualitative hindrance demands were controlled for, time pressure operated as a challenge demand at the person-level. Our findings outline the need to account for the quality of work when assessing time pressure’s effects and further highlight the relevance of suppressor variables within the field of occupational health psychology.
Work–school conflict is a major stressor for many college students who have paid jobs while in college. Although work–school conflict experience is dynamic, the extant research has predominantly cast it and its consequences as between-person phenomena from a static perspective, ignoring its inherent temporal nature. As a result, little is known about the intra-individual changes in work–school conflict and their associated consequences as implied by the related theory. Drawing on the stressor–emotion model of counterproductive work behavior, we conducted a longitudinal weekly diary study to examine how work–school conflict change can predict changes in negative emotions and workplace deviance (i.e., the change-to-change effects). We also tested core self-evaluation, time management skill, and financial well-being as moderators of the proposed mediated relationship. Results from latent change score modeling showed that upward work–school conflict change had a positive relationship with upward workplace deviance change via upward changes in negative emotions. Further, time management skill and financial well-being weakened the indirect relationships between upward work–school conflict change and upward workplace deviance change. However, the moderating nature of core self-evaluation on the indirect relationship contrasted with our hypothesis. Implications for theory and future research are discussed along with implications for organizations and college institutions.
Anti-Black racism within the workplace has been negatively associated with psychological well-being, belonging, pay equity, and creativity (Neal-Barnett, Harvard Business Review, 2021; Tucker, SHRM, 2021). Moreover, after the deaths of George Floyd and countless other Black Americans, anti-Black racism has become a topic that has garnered international attention and demanded reformation of organizational culture (see Boykin et al., Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 2020). During a time when academic research on these topics is still in their nascent stages, we have assembled a team of practitioners to offer advice on what we believe are some of the most critical topics to tackle. These issues are not only ones that we—as Black individuals—personally feel are critical. But additionally, we—as practitioners who have had experiences in a wide scope of organizational settings—feel they are under challenges that simply must be addressed through empirical research, which is currently lacking. Our “call to action” focuses on these six key topics: (1) avoiding short-term solutions to a long-term problem; (2) maximizing the effectiveness of diversity, equity, and inclusion officers; (3) engaging White men as allies; (4) ensuring fairer selection systems for hiring; (5) effectively leveraging diversity, equity, and inclusion data; and (6) leveraging employee resource groups as critical business drivers. After discussing each section, we provide recommendations regarding what we believe need empirical attention, attention we believe is key to ultimately mitigate anti-Black racism in the workplace.
Widespread concern has been raised about the possibility of potential biasing factors influencing the measurement of organizational variables and distorting inferences and conclusions reached about them. Recent research calls for a measure-centric approach in which every measure is independently evaluated to assess what factor(s) may uniquely bias it. This paper examines three popular stressor measures from this perspective. Across three studies, we examine factors that may bias three popular measures of job stressors: The Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale (ICAWS), the Organizational Constraints Scale (OCS), and the Quantitative Workload Inventory (QWI). The first study used a two-wave design to survey 276 MTurk workers to assess the three stressor scales, four strains, and five measures of potential bias sources: hostile attribution bias, negative affectivity, mood, neutral objects satisfaction, and social desirability. The second study used an experimental design with 439 MTurk workers who were randomly assigned to a positive, negative, or no mood induction condition to assess effects on means of the three stressor measures and their correlations with strains. The third study surveyed 161 employee-supervisor dyads to explore the convergence of results involving the three stressor measures across sources. Based on several forms of evidence we conclude that potential biasing factors affect the three stressor measures differently, supporting the merits of a measure centric approach, even among measures in the same domain.
Occupational health and safety are critical in promoting the wellness of organizations and employees. The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the most life-threatening viruses encountered in recent history, providing a unique opportunity for research to examine factors that drive employee safety behavior. Drawing from terror management theory, we propose and test a moderated mediation model using data collected from employees working during a peak of the pandemic. We identify two sources of influence - one external (i.e., media exposure), and one internal (i.e., HR practices) to the organization - that shape employees' mortality salience and safety behaviors. We find that COVID-19 HR practices significantly moderate the relationship between daily COVID-19 media exposure and mortality salience, with media exposure positively associated with mortality salience at lower levels of HR practices but its effects substituted by higher levels of HR practices. Moreover, our results also show that mortality salience spurs safety behaviors, with age moderating this relationship such that younger - but not older - employees are more likely to engage in safety behaviors due to mortality salience. Taken together, we offer theoretical implications for the safety behavior literature and practical implications for organizations faced with health crises or having employees who commonly work in hazardous conditions.
We explored the question of how employees react to the perceived fairness of their manager’s treatment of customers. Current models of third-party justice reactions produce two tenable but mutually exclusive responses to observed manager-customer treatment: Relational affirmation, in which service employees engage customers in ways perceived to be congruent with manager-customer treatment, and relational restoration, in which they attempt to rebalance or restore their perceived relationship with customers to counteract observed treatment. Hypothesizing both effects, we explore the role of service employees’ relational identification with customers as a moderator of these two employee reactions. Across a field study of nursing assistants (n = 107) and their supervisors (n = 7), and a laboratory study with a simulated customer service help desk (n = 100), employee-customer identification was found to interact with supervisor-customer interpersonal justice such that the relationship between perceived justice and pro-customer behavior was positive when employee-customer identification was low (consistent with relational affirmation) and negative when employee-customer identification was high (consistent with relational restoration) (Study 1: β = −.22; Study 2: η² = .07).
The application of single-item measures has the potential to help applied researchers address conceptual, methodological, and empirical challenges. Based on a large-scale evidence-based approach, we empirically examined the degree to which various constructs in the organizational sciences can be reliably and validly assessed with a single item. In study 4, across 91 selected constructs, 71.4% of the single-item measures demonstrated strong if not very strong definitional correspondence (as a measure of content validity). In study 9, based on a heterogeneous sample of working adults, we demonstrate that the majority of single-item measures examined demonstrated little to no comprehension or usability concerns. Study 15 provides evidence for the reliability of the proposed single-item measures based on test–retest reliabilities across the three temporal conditions (1 day, 2 weeks, 1 month). In study 18, we examined issues of construct and criterion validity using a multi-trait, multi-method approach. Collectively, 75 of the 91 focal measures demonstrated very good or extensive validity, evidencing moderate to high content validity, no usability concerns, moderate to high test–retest reliability, and extensive criterion validity. Finally, in study 24, we empirically examined the argument that only conceptually narrow constructs can be reliably and validly assessed with single-item measures. Results suggest that there is no relationship between subject matter expert evaluations of construct breadth and reliability and validity evidence collected across the first four studies. Beyond providing an off-the-shelf compendium of validated single-item measures, we abstract our validation steps providing a roadmap to replicate and build upon. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
We propose a compensatory interactive influence of conscientiousness and GMA in task performance such that conscientiousness is most beneficial to performance for low-GMA individuals. Drawing on trait by trait interaction theory and empirical evidence for a compensatory mechanism of conscientiousness for low GMA, we contrast our hypothesis with prior research on a conscientiousness-GMA interaction and argue that prior research considered a different interaction type. We argue that observing a compensatory interaction likely requires (a) considering the appropriate interaction form, including a possible curvilinear conscientiousness-performance relationship; (b) measuring the full conscientiousness domain (as opposed to motivation proxies); (c) narrowing the criterion domain to reflect task performance; and (d) appropriate psychometric scoring of variables to increase power and avoid type 1 error. In four employee samples (N1 = 300; N2 = 261; N3 = 1,413; N4 = 948), we test a conscientiousness-GMA interaction in two employee samples. In three of four samples, results support a nuanced compensatory mechanism such that conscientiousness compensates for low to moderate GMA, and high conscientiousness may be detrimental to or unimportant for task performance in high-GMA individuals.
The purpose of this study is to develop and test a theoretical model that distinguishes how death anxiety and death reflection influence organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) directed towards the organization (OCB-O) and individuals within it (OCB-I). We draw from terror management and posttraumatic growth (PTG) theories to argue for prosocial motivation as a mediator for these relationships. We also examine organizational identification (OI) as a potential moderator. Data were collected from 241 employees every month for 3 months. Our findings support the mediating role of prosocial motivation. Death anxiety was negatively related to prosocial motivation, whereas death reflection was positively related to prosocial motivation. In turn, prosocial motivation was positively related to OCB-I and OCB-O. Regarding moderation, lower levels of OI strengthened the indirect effects of death anxiety on OCB-I and OCB-O through prosocial motivation. However, OI did not moderate the indirect effects of death reflection on OCB-I or OCB-O. These results highlight the conceptual differences between death anxiety and death reflection. In addition, these results emphasize the need to explore death anxiety and death reflection in organizational research.
Although people are generally motivated to perform well at work, there is often ambiguity regarding whether they are meeting their organization’s standards. As such, people often seek feedback from others. To date, feedback-seeking research has emphasized the feedback seeker, identifying traits and circumstances associated with feedback seeking, whereas far less is known about this process from the feedback source’s point of view. However, we expect that feedback sources will vary in their willingness to allocate effort toward delivering feedback. Specifically, integrating the cost-value framework of feedback with self-regulatory theories of goal prioritization, we predict that effort allocated toward a feedback episode is determined by the feedback source’s perceptions of the feedback seeker’s motives for seeking feedback. Across two complementary studies, we found perceived instrumental motives (i.e., a desire to improve one’s performance) to be positively related to the amount of effort put toward delivering feedback, and perceived image enhancement motives (i.e., a desire to impress the feedback source) to be negatively related to effort allocation. Importantly, Study 1 was a field study in which managers were asked to report on a recent episode in which a subordinate had sought their feedback, and Study 2 used an experimental design in which feedback-seeking motives were manipulated. Thus, the current research makes an important contribution to the literature by considering the often overlooked role that the feedback source plays in the feedback process. Moreover, triangulation of both field and experimental data enhances both the external and internal validity of our conclusions.
Despite scholars’ reliance on Schein’s (1990) three-interconnected layer framework of organizational culture (i.e., artifacts, values/norms, underlying assumptions), few, if any, measure artifacts. This gap is significant because artifacts are readily visible and provide valuable insight into understanding the perpetuation of norms through their manifestation in the work environment. Moreover, existing assessments focus on one layer only, either values/beliefs or underlying assumptions, resulting in only a partial picture of culture. In this tutorial-based paper, we demonstrate a grounded theory approach comprising content analysis, thematic analysis, and intensity scoring, to develop an unobtrusive method for coding artifacts seen in photos of office spaces. Unobtrusive methods reduce participant burden, which is critical because existing assessments of culture are time consuming and/or rely on numerous participants. We demonstrate how to use the photo coding method and wrap-up the tutorial by showing how artifact coding augments an existing qualitative culture assessment, emphasizing the added value of artifact assessment. We hope by providing an unobtrusive method to artifact coding, researchers will start assessing this important layer of culture to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of organizational culture.
Information and communication technologies enable employees to be available anywhere and anytime, raising availability expectations of work and nonwork contacts. Building on the theory of planned behavior and the person-environment fit theory, the present study examines how others’ availability expectations predict employees’ management of work and nonwork boundaries, and how these bidirectional boundary management behaviors relate to well-being. Results of structural equation modeling with data from 401 employees collected in two waves show that availability expectations of both coworkers and nonwork contacts predict how employees manage the boundaries of work and nonwork domains. Thereby, availability expectations are negatively related to segmentation of the two domains and coworkers' expectations show an indirect effect on employee well-being. Further, our study shows that work-nonwork and nonwork-work segmentation behavior have divergent effects on employee well-being, indicating that asymmetric boundary management behavior with high work-nonwork segmentation and low nonwork-work segmentation may be beneficial. Besides, moderation analyses underline the importance of enabling individuals to align their boundary management preferences with their actual behavior, especially when individuals have high work-nonwork segmentation preferences. By integrating and unveiling distinct antecedents of work-nonwork and nonwork-work segmentation behavior and their divergent effects on well-being, the present study contributes to a comprehensive framework for investigating and understanding bidirectional boundary management in the face of technology-enabled availability.
Numerous advancements have been made regarding how aspects of job roles and organizational environments affect work attitudes. However, less attention has been devoted to factors that might buffer attitudes against the adverse effects of job and organizational stressors. Grounded in the Buffering Hypothesis, we tested focus-matched hypotheses that considered the moderating roles of two workplace social resources—leader–member exchange (LMX) and perceived organizational support (POS)—in the relations between job and organizational stressors and job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Using multi-wave data from a sample of financial services employees (n = 1921), we found that independently, LMX did not buffer against the negative effects of job stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) on employee attitudes, nor did POS buffer against the effects of organizational stressors (i.e., low communication and ethical climates). Rather, only in conjunction did high LMX and POS jointly reduce the negative effects of job stressors on organizational commitment. When examining the three-way interactions among job stressors, LMX, and POS, POS was significantly more influential in buffering organizational commitment than was LMX, although there were interesting nuances to these effects. In particular, role ambiguity affected commitment most negatively when either LMX or POS (but not both) was lacking, whereas role conflict did not appreciably impair commitment when POS was high, even if LMX was low. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our result patterns.
The success of non-profit organizations depends mainly on the strategies they use to recruit new donors. One common strategy is to solicit donations upfront (mostly online)—but is this indeed an effective approach? We conducted three experiments (Ntotal = 1287), in which we compared an upfront appeal of that sort with one that offered prospective donors the opportunity to express their opinion about a given fundraising campaign—and then asked if they cared to donate to it. Drawing on foot-in-the-door and escalation of commitment theories, we found that soliciting an opinion (as opposed to a donation) led to greater engagement with the charity among prospective donors, as reflected by their greater willingness to read about the cause. This, in turn, encouraged them to donate. In experiment 1, we showed that the direct effect of request type on donations was mediated by the donors’ willingness to learn about the charity. In experiment 2, we showed that pairing an appeal for an opinion with a donation request was more effective than merely appealing for a donation. Finally, in experiment 3, we found that the more donors learn about a given cause, the stronger their emotional response to it, and the greater their donations to it. Further, we showed that soliciting an opinion (as opposed to a donation) made donors feel a greater connection with the organization. In sum, we propose a simple and cost-effective intervention that may help non-profit businesses become more effective.
Research has shown that the use of digital technologies in the personnel selection process can have both positive and negative effects on applicants’ attraction to an organization. We explain this contradiction by specifying its underlying mechanisms. Drawing on signaling theory, we build a conceptual model that applies two different theoretical lenses (instrumental-symbolic framework and justice theory) to suggest that perceptions of innovativeness and procedural justice explain the relationship between an organization’s use of digital selection methods and employer attractiveness perceptions. We test our model by utilizing two studies, namely one experimental vignette study among potential applicants (N = 475) and one retrospective field study among actual job applicants (N = 335). With the exception of the assessment stage in Study 1, the positive indirect effects found in both studies indicated that applicants perceive digital selection methods to be more innovative. While Study 1 also revealed a negative indirect effect, with potential applicants further perceiving digital selection methods as less fair than less digitalized methods in the interview stage, this effect was not significant for actual job applicants in Study 2. We discuss theoretical implications for the applicant reactions literature and offer recommendations for human resource managers to make use of positive signaling effects while reducing potential negative signaling effects linked to the use of digital selection methods.
Receiving social support is widely considered a positive workplace phenomenon, but what about the employees from whom the support is being sought? Following recent calls from social support scholars, we focus on the “potential support provider” perspective of the social support dynamic and propose that the measure of social burden (Yang et al., Stress and Health, 32(1): 70–83, 2016) currently used to capture this dynamic is significantly limited. In study 1, we refine and expand the measure of social burden by constructing and validating a measure of support elicitation experiences (SEE) that distinguishes between emotionally laden SEE (SEE-E; explicit or implicit requests for support with an emotional valence) and instrumental SEE (SEE-I; explicit requests for work-related support). In study 2, based on conservation of resources theory, we examine how SEE-E and SEE-I differentially relate to work outcomes and explore the potential costs of providing support in response to these behaviors. Results demonstrate that our measure of SEE is an improvement over the social burden measure and support the empirical distinctiveness of emotionally laden (associated with negative outcomes) and instrumental (associated with positive outcomes) support elicitations. In addition, we find some evidence that routinely providing support for both SEE-E and SEE-I carries implications for undesirable workplace behavior. Findings from this research support the notion that there are often differential effects for the kinds of support we elicit from our colleagues and provides researchers with an improved instrument to assess the social support dynamic from the perspective of potential support providers.
Sickness presence can have important individual and organizational consequences, such as health deterioration or productivity loss. Additional risks, such as negative customer reactions, may be particularly relevant in the service sector. Based on affective events theory and appraisal theories, we hypothesize that employee sickness presence negatively impacts customer repurchase and recommendation intentions. Furthermore, we explore potential affective mechanisms of these effects, including disease avoidance, personal anger, moral outrage, post-consumption guilt, and customer compassion for the employee. We conducted four studies, including three experimental vignette methodology studies (Ns = 227, 72, and 763) and a qualitative study (N = 54). In Study 1, employee sickness presence had negative effects on repurchase and recommendation intentions. Results of Study 2 show that customers experienced disgust, fear, anger, guilt, compassion, and indifference in response to sickness presence. In Study 3, anger explained the negative effects of employee sickness presence on repurchase and recommendation intentions, while appraisals of moral fairness were negatively related to both customer intentions. Finally, in Study 4, disgust and anger explained negative effects, while fear, guilt, and compassion explained positive effects of employee sickness presence on customer intentions. Appraisals of goal incongruence, reduced agency of the customer, and uncertainty were negatively related to customer intentions. The physical absence of the customer in the service encounter (phone call) mitigated the experience of disgust, fear, and anger, whereas it exacerbated feelings of compassion for the ill employee.
The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10869-021-09764-1.
An organizational climate of error management is associated with favorable organizational outcomes, including firm success, innovation, and safety. But how can an error management climate be induced? The present research used newly formed teams in a controlled setting as a model and tested the effect of two brief interventions on team climate and performance. In three-person teams, 180 participants worked on two team tasks that required communication and coordination, under 1 of 3 experimental conditions. Two of these were designed to induce an error management climate either indirectly, via the communication of social norms, or more directly, via explicit encouragement of experimentation and learning from errors. The third condition served as an error avoidant comparison group. In line with predictions, the climate induction increased processes of error management climate as perceived by teams, which in turn positively affected objectively measured team performance (mediation effect). These results strongly suggest that team error management climate can indeed affect performance and is not merely a correlate of unknown third variables that were unmeasured in previous correlational research. From a practical perspective, this research provides guidance on how principles of social influence may be leveraged to induce an error management climate.
Drawing on job demands-resources theory, we propose that perceived red tape, as a hindrance job demand, triggers attitudinal and behavioral precursors of turnover in employees (turnover intentions and job search behaviors) by reducing their work engagement. In addition, we hypothesize that career adaptability, as a personal resource, buffers the detrimental effects of perceived red tape. In Study 1, three-wave data collected from employees ( N = 202) working in Tanzanian public sector organizations supports the finding that work engagement mediates the effect of red tape on turnover intentions. Study 2 confirms this mediation, using data ( N = 405) collected at three time points from a Chinese private organization, further verifying the mediating role of work engagement in the effect of red tape on job search behaviors. Supporting the moderating role of career adaptability, Study 2 also found that career adaptability attenuated the influence of red tape on work engagement and, subsequently, on turnover intentions and job search behaviors. Our article theoretically and empirically contributes to the understanding of how and when perceived red tape in organizations leads employees to consider leaving and prepare to leave.
Although some research has suggested that customer mistreatment results in employees’ negative behavioral responses, other research has also sought to explore prosocial behavioral responses. We explain these inconsistent findings by considering the employees’ dynamic cognitional appraisals of daily customer mistreatment experience; these distinct cognition appraisals can explain why customer mistreatment could activate both dysfunctional and functional behavioral responses. We assumed that customer mistreatment could elicit an employee’s threat appraisal on some days, thus activating customer-directed counterproductive work behavior (CWB). Customer mistreatment could also result in a challenge appraisal on other days in which an employee focuses on a potential performance improvement opportunity, motivating them to engage in more prosocial service behavior. We predicted that an individual’s core self-evaluation (CSE) could moderate these effects, prompting customer mistreatment to be appraised as a challenge instead of a threat, which then reduces “take an eye for an eye” behavior responses (i.e., customer-directed CWB) and enhances “render good for evil” ones (i.e., prosocial service behavior). Our experience with research on 82 employees across 9 days, resulting in 625 responses, provided support for our predictions. The research provides a more comprehensive theoretical perspective to explain the dual paths of employees’ responses to customer mistreatment and also explains whether individuals’ CSE could help employees cope with customer mistreatment more positively.
Safety climate evolves in reflection of the effectiveness of organizational safety management efforts. The present study identified patterns of safety climate change over time and examined the role of error disclosure climate and counterfactual sharing in relation to safety climate change patterns. Online surveys were administered in a Chinese hospital three times at approximately 1-month intervals; the final sample included 451 healthcare workers nested within 62 teams. A latent growth mixture modeling approach was adopted to identify representative patterns of safety climate change at both individual and team levels and the predictors of those patterns. Three patterns of safety climate trajectories, declining (16%), improving (39%), and maintaining (45%), were identified at the individual level. Positive error disclosure climate and counterfactual sharing were significantly associated with increased probability of membership in the improving and maintaining trajectories compared to the declining trajectories. Counterfactual sharing mediated the relation between error disclosure climate and membership of safety climate trajectories. At the team level, two patterns of safety climate change, declining (15%) and improving (85%), were identified. Team counterfactual sharing was significantly associated with increased probability of membership in the improving trajectories compared to the declining trajectories. The current study demonstrated that an open and non-judgmental culture and the practice of sharing errors can contribute to improving safety climate over time.
The present paper reports three studies that were based on the general proposition that the effectiveness of transformational leadership (TL) depends on whether the displayed TL behaviors match the followers’ motives. Specifically, inspirational motivation should be effective with followers high on the power motive, intellectual stimulation should be effective with followers high on the achievement motive, and individual consideration should be effective with followers high on the affiliation motive. In study 1, in order to confirm the hypothesized conceptual relationships between TL and motives, we systematically analyzed the TL literature ( N = 139 papers) for motive content and found, as predicted, that descriptions of inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration were associated with power, achievement, and affiliation motive content, respectively. Study 2, a vignette study, confirmed that participants’ ( N = 113) motives determined their preferences for the respective TL behaviors. In study 3 ( N = 116), we manipulated TL behaviors with video clips and confirmed the predictions that followers’ affiliation [power] motive moderated the effects of individual consideration [inspirational motivation] on leaders’ influence and followers’ task performance. Mixed results were obtained regarding the expected moderating function of followers’ achievement motive on the effects of intellectual stimulation. Findings are discussed with respect to their importance in establishing TL as a motivation theory.
Core self-evaluations (CSEs) are fundamental traits that represent an individual’s appraisal of his/her self-worth and competency. CSEs have been directly linked to numerous workplace outcomes, yet less is understood about the mediating mechanisms through which CSEs are related to outcomes. In this study, we examine the process through which CSEs promote favorable outcomes by examining the mediating role of both leader-member exchange (LMX) and work engagement in the CSE—organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) relationship. Using an approach-avoidance theoretical framework, we hypothesize that the relationship between CSEs and OCBs is mediated by the quality of the individual’s relationship with their leader (i.e., LMX quality) and his/her level of work engagement. Our results provide broad support for the hypothesized multiple mediation relationships whereby CSEs are indirectly related to OCBs through both LMX quality and work engagement. A discussion of these findings and their implications for both theory and practice is provided.
Collecting job analysis ratings for a large number of jobs via surveys, interviews, or focus groups can put a very large burden on organizations. In this study, we describe and evaluate a streamlined, natural language processing-based approach to estimating (a) the importance of various knowledges, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) to jobs, and (b) how descriptive various interests are of work on a job. Specifically, we evaluate whether we can train a machine to accurately estimate KSAO ratings for jobs using job description and task statement text as the sole input. Data for 963 occupations from the U.S. Department of Labor’s Occupational Information Network (O*NET) system and an independent set of 229 occupations from a large organization provided the basis for the evaluation. Our approach produced KSAO predictions that had cross-validated correlations with subject matter expert (SME) ratings of knowledges, skills, abilities, and interests of .74, .80, .75, and .84, respectively (on average, across the 126 KSAOs examined). We found clear evidence for the validity of machine-based predictions based on (a) convergence among machine-based and SME-furnished ratings, (b) conceptually meaningful patterns of prediction model regression coefficients among the KSAOs examined, and (c) conceptual relevance of top predictor models underlying related clusters of KSAOs. We also found that prediction models developed on O*NET data produced meaningful results when applied to an independent set of job descriptions and tasks. Implications of this work, as well as suggested directions for future job analysis research and practice, are discussed.
Automated systems based on artificial intelligence (AI) increasingly support decisions with ethical implications where decision makers need to trust these systems. However, insights regarding trust in automated systems predominantly stem from contexts where the main driver of trust is that systems produce accurate outputs (e.g., alarm systems for monitoring tasks). It remains unclear whether what we know about trust in automated systems translates to application contexts where ethical considerations (e.g., fairness) are crucial in trust development. In personnel selection, as a sample context where ethical considerations are important, we investigate trust processes in light of a trust violation relating to unfair bias and a trust repair intervention. Specifically, participants evaluated preselection outcomes (i.e., sets of preselected applicants) by either a human or an automated system across twelve selection tasks. We additionally varied information regarding imperfection of the human and automated system. In task rounds five through eight, the preselected applicants were predominantly male, thus constituting a trust violation due to potential unfair bias. Before task round nine, participants received an excuse for the biased preselection (i.e., a trust repair intervention). The results of the online study showed that participants have initially less trust in automated systems. Furthermore, the trust violation and the trust repair intervention had weaker effects for the automated system. Those effects were partly stronger when highlighting system imperfection. We conclude that insights from classical areas of automation only partially translate to the many emerging application contexts of such systems where ethical considerations are central to trust processes.
Work-family conflict has become one of the most prominent challenges of modern-day work and a prominent research topic. However, the “family” in the work-family interface has been undertheorized, while research focuses on the workplace factors and individual characteristics in relation to work-family conflict (WFC). Placing the family at the center of theorizing, we adopt the Contextual Model of Family Stress (CMFS) as an overarching framework, which conceptualizes the family as a complex system comprising the family members, the environment in which they are situated, and their interactions with the environment and with one another. Guided by CMFS, we theorized WFC as a disturbance to the family’s structural and psychological contexts, which creates strain on the family well-being. Furthermore, we argued that family strain could produce strain and stress back to the focal workers, which reduces their voice behaviors at work. We further argue that workers’ work-family segmentation preference will shape their experience of WFC and moderate the indirect effect of WFC on employee voice behavior through family well-being. We collected data across two multi-wave, time-lagged surveys in America (M-Turk, N = 330) and in China (organization employees, N = 209). We found that employee-rated family well-being mediates the negative relationship between WFC and voice behavior, and the indirect relationship is stronger as the employees’ preference for segmentation is higher. The results open up a promising avenue for more nuanced inquiry into the family system framework and its role in the work-family interface.
That individuals hold personal, implicit beliefs about the consequences of voice (i.e., implicit voice theories (IVTs)), and thus are inherently reluctant to speak up, is one of the most ubiquitous concepts in the voice literature. An extensive body of research also shows how situational factors (e.g., voice climate) profoundly affect voice. Unfortunately, few studies explore how dispositional beliefs combine with situational factors to influence voicing in teams; thus, the literature is unclear about whether and how leaders can encourage voice when their team members implicitly believe that voice is unsafe and inappropriate (i.e., high IVTs). We address this question by proposing a moderated-mediation model linking leaders’ prior reactions to voice (i.e., voice acceptance versus rejection) to team voice intentions via voice climate, such that encouraging leader behaviors (acceptance), unlike discouraging leader behaviors (rejection), creates positive voice climates that increase team voice intentions. Furthermore, drawing from the trait activation theory, we propose that team IVTs composition (i.e., the average IVTs held by each team member) moderates the mediated effect of voice climate on team voice intentions, such that this relationship is strongest for teams with high IVTs because, for these teams, positive voice climates are both highly salient to, and disconfirming of, implicit voice beliefs. Results of a multi-task team experiment support this model. We discuss the theoretical implications of considering person and situation factors in tandem, the potential influence of team IVTs composition, and practical implications for how leaders can inspire voice in teams.
Anti-Black racism is a specific form of racism directed at Black people. In healthcare, there are poignant examples of anti-Black racism in the recruitment, selection, and retention stages of the job cycle. Research shows that anti-Black racism is associated with inequitable work outcomes and the under-representation of Black physicians. However, empirical findings are scattered with no organizing framework to consolidate these findings. To add to the literature, in this paper we present the attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) model (Schneider, 1987) as an organizing framework to discuss Black physicians’ experiences with anti-Black racism and discrimination throughout their careers. We draw from previous literature to highlight specific experiences of Black physicians at each stage of the job cycle (i.e., attraction, selection, retention), and we offer considerations on how practitioners can mitigate anti-Black racism throughout the job cycle. In the wake of COVID-19 and highly publicized social justice movements, healthcare systems are seeking ways to increase the recruitment, selection, and retention of Black physicians to ensure health equity. We believe this guide will be valuable to practitioners, leaders, researchers, and program directions seeking to advance diversity, equity, and inclusion of Black physicians in their healthcare systems. We conclude by providing practical implications and directions for future research.
The last few years have been a testament to the fact that anti-Black racism is alive and well in America. It manifests not only in macro-level indicators of social inequity (e.g., housing, education) but also manifests within individual organizations. Importantly, individuals in organizations can endorse anti-Black attitudes and other racist sentiments that influence others’ expressions of bias. In the current research, we examine the power of proximal organizational norms in two studies. In Study 1, 269 participants heard a member of their organization condone or condemn anti-Black attitudes and were then asked to give their own attitudes about Black Americans. Results revealed that participants were strongly influenced by the organization member’s stance on anti-Black racism; compared to those in the control condition, those who heard an organizational peer condone anti-Black attitudes were also more likely to condone, and those who heard an organizational peer condemn these attitudes were also more likely to condemn. In Study 2, we continued to examine the impact of norms on expressions of anti-Black bias by investigating the relationship between bias expression and both proximal (within an organization) and distal (within a more socially and physically distant reference group, i.e., country) norms. Consistent with Study 1, results from 183 participants showed that the proximal norms (but not the distal norms) were strongly related to the expression of anti-Black bias. We discuss the results by considering the critical role that both individual workplace allies and collective organizations can play in shaping the expression of anti-Black bias.
Despite increased media coverage of police using lethal force against Black civilians, little research aims to understand how such events affect employees, particularly Black employees, at work. We draw on spillover—transferring emotions and/or behaviors from one domain to another—to examine how collective, indirect trauma, or trauma experienced by a large group of people not directly involved in an event, affected employees at work. Across two studies, we investigated Black and White employees’ differential cognitive (Study 1), emotional, and interpersonal reactions (Studies 1 & 2) to hearing about police officers’ use of lethal force against Black civilians (i.e., collective, indirect racial trauma). Results from a survey with open- and close-ended questions (Study 1) supported our predictions that Black (vs. White) employees would be more upset about police shootings and would think about, talk about, and be more distracted by these incidents while at work. Open-ended responses revealed social support, seeking advice and comfort from our social networks, as a strategy Black and White employees may use to cope with collective, indirect racial trauma at work. Importantly, support communicating mutual understanding—or shared perspective—was particularly important for Black employees. An experiment (Study 2) further probed the emotional and relational consequences of interactions with coworkers and, counter to predictions, found coworkers who expressed pro-police attitudes (i.e., not communicating mutual understanding) in the aftermath of a racially biased shooting were negatively evaluated by Black and White employees. Our findings provide implications for research on spillover and understanding coworker/team dynamics in organizations.
The current work seeks to identify factors that support action initiation from the theoretical lens of self-regulation. Specifically, we focus on factors that reduce procrastination, the delay of the initiation or completion of activities. We draw from action control theory and propose that positive affect operates as a personal and time pressure as a situational factor that unblock routes to action. High positive affect makes people less prone to procrastination because positive affect reduces behavioral inhibition and facilitates the enactment of intentions. By contrast, when positive affect is low, people depend on time pressure as an action facilitating stimulus. We present results of a daily diary study with 108 participants that support our hypotheses. We replicate the findings in the context of work in a second daily diary study with 154 employees. We discuss benefits and drawbacks of the enactment of intentions under time pressure and implications of the results for how to reduce procrastination.
Organizations rarely invest in contingent employees, at least relative to the human resources efforts commonly afforded to permanent workers — but should they? Traditional social exchange theory suggests that motivation and loyalty should be difficult to cultivate in short-term, fixed-term relationships like contingent employment. However, a novel social exchange model (i.e., the anchoring model) suggests that socioemotional exchange relationships can develop quickly in response to highly salient “anchoring events.” We position employee onboarding as a positive anchoring event that can quickly and durably drive contingent workers’ socioemotional exchange in the form of work engagement, self-reported task performance, and intent to return to the employing organization. Specifically, we develop and test a temporally grounded process model based on the three proposed stages of the anchoring model. Our model was supported across two studies, an initial cross-sectional evaluation of the basic model within a heterogenous sample of contingent workers (n = 121), followed by a three-wave evaluation of the more detailed process model among an organizational sample of seasonal workers (n = 378). Findings provide evidence that the anchoring model, including the expanded framework developed here, explains contingent workers’ attitudinal and behavioral responses to human resources initiatives in a way that traditional organizational theories have not fully achieved. Finally, recommendations for effectively managing contingent workers, through onboarding as well as through other efforts such as training and development, are also discussed.