Journal of Business Research

Published by Elsevier
Online ISSN: 0148-2963
Publications
Article
Brand communities represent highly valuable marketing, innovation management, and customer relationship management tools. However, applying successful marketing strategies today, and in the future, also means exploring and seizing the unprecedented opportunities of social network environments. This study combines these two social phenomena which have largely been researched separately, and aims to investigate the existence, functionality and different types of brand communities within social networks. The netnographic approach yields strong evidence of this existence; leading to a better understanding of such embedded brand communities, their peculiarities, and motivational drivers for participation; therefore the findings contribute to theory by combining two separate research streams. Due to the advantages of social networks, brand management is now able to implement brand communities with less time and financial effort; however, choosing the appropriate brand community type, cultivating consumers' interaction, and staying tuned to this social engagement are critical factors to gain anticipated brand outcomes.
 
Article
Four criticisms against using socioeconomic and demographic (SED) factors in consumer behavior are reviewed: dissatisfaction with models of consumption behavior developed by economists and sociologists, obsolescence of SED factors in mass consumption societies, poor predictions produced by SED factors, and a grass-is-greener attitude held by consumer researchers. The insights offered substantially hurt the validity of these criticisms. Strategies for better theory and research in consumer behavior using SED factors are described.
 
Article
PIP 58 expectant couples were counseled about family planning postpartum and husbands and wives were asked to rank preference of methods. Husbands preferred IUDs (12%), the pill (7.6%), or diaphragms (8.2%). Wives preferred diaphragm (10%), foam (8%), jelly (8%), and IUDs (6%). The process of discussion was then charted. It was found that wives were more influential than husbands in the joint ranking process, which put IUDs 1st, followed by diaphragms and jelly. As discussion progressed, side effects became more important and the condom was selected as a compromise more often than any other method. It is suggested that marketing attempts for condoms emphasize the lack of side effects as well as promote the advantages to men.
 
Article
Practicing managers, systems analysts, and operations researchers need a systematic description of physical distribution (PD) as it currently exists. This article portrays the structure of PD as seen by practitioners in a variety of different firms. First-order and second-order factor analyses were conducted on the importance ratings assigned to 58 activities by 182 managers to develop a set of five areas portraying the field: internal materials movement, information-system operations, facilities planning, traffic management, and external materials movement.
 
Article
This article investigates nostalgia in post-socialist Russia from a consumer behavior perspective. The research includes the following components: 1) an overview of nostalgia and nostalgia proneness as a personality trait among Russians in the context of recent societal changes, 2) an analysis of four categories of nostalgia (personal, interpersonal, cultural, and virtual) and themes in nostalgia experiences provided by Russian respondents, and 3) a discussion of specific stimuli and advertising content in the Russian marketplace designed to evoke individual and collective nostalgia. The major nostalgia themes—specifically, the break-up of the Soviet Union, nature, and food—identified in the Russian responses are related to advertising and marketing elements for Russian products. The article also discusses the implications of consumer nostalgia for marketing and advertising strategy in the post-socialist Russian economy.
 
Article
This study utilizes a conflict theory lens to examine when work-related conflict, specifically cognitive and process conflict, is beneficial to family firm performance. The paper further discusses family-member exchange and generational ownership dispersion as moderators of the relationship between conflict and family firm performance. Contrary to expectations, cognitive conflict is negatively related to family firm performance. However, as predicted, family-member exchange and generational ownership dispersion are significant moderators of the conflict–performance relationships. First-generation firms experience greater performance when cognitive conflict is encouraged. Family-member exchange increases the positive effect process conflict has on performance.
 
Article
This study uses non-parametric methods to examine the difference in trading behavior between Chapter 11 bankruptcy firms and non-bankruptcy firms traded on New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)/American Stock Exchange (AMEX) exchanges. It documents new evidence about the anomaly of insider purchases rather than sales prior to Chapter 11 bankruptcy announcements. Insiders of Chapter 11 bankruptcy firms purchase significantly fewer shares than insiders of the control firms before the bankruptcy announcement. Although insider trading volume declines long before the announcement, the decline is statistically significant only during the 3-month period before the announcement. The study, however, finds no significant difference in trading behavior between insiders of firms that ceased to trade on and those that continue to trade on the NYSE/AMEX within 5 years after the bankruptcy announcements.
 
Article
This study utilizes the Miles and Snow typology within the context of firms in Chapter 11 bankruptcy. We specifically examine (1) the impact of constituent influence on management's choice of strategic archetype (prospector, defender, or reactor) and (2) whether successful emergence from Chapter 11 is more likely when managers propose prospector strategies which focus on marketing and product innovation, defender strategies which focus on cost efficiency, or reactor strategies which have no clearly defined orientation. Results of the study suggest that when firms are in distress, external constituents influence them not to pursue reactor strategies. Further findings indicate that firms with prospector strategies and well-defined marketing plans are most likely to emerge from Chapter 11.
 
Article
This study considers the role of corporate reputation and its relation to quality, perceived value, and loyalty in an online context. This milieu potentially challenges the relevance of the reported findings from the more traditional retail marketing situations. In this respect, a number of important questions are raised concerning how perceived value and quality impact on online loyalty and the effect corporate reputation has on this process. Research was conducted among customers of two diverse online vendors, one dealing in books and the other in shares. Findings from the two samples suggest that corporate reputation has a direct effect on online loyalty and provides an important mediating effect for perceived value and aspects of quality in terms of their impact on online loyalty.
 
Annual penetrations and purchase rates (leading brands of instant coffee)
Performance measures brand by brand (averages for 8 leading brands in 12 product categories)
Varied conditions for Dirichlet-type patterns
Annual observed and theoretical performance measures
A new brand: near-instant loyalty (doctors' ''new'' prescriptions of Prozac)
Article
Sales of a brand are determined by measures such as how many customers buy the brand, how often, and how much they also buy other brands. Scanner panel operators routinely report these “brand performance measures” (BPMs) to their clients. In this position paper, we consider how to understand, interpret, and use these measures. The measures are shown to follow well-established patterns. One is that big and small brands differ greatly in how many buyers they have, but usually far less in how loyal these buyers are. The Dirichlet model predicts these patterns. It also provides a broader framework for thinking about all competitive repeat-purchase markets—from soup to gasoline, prescription drugs to aviation fuel, where there are large and small brands, and light and heavy buyers, in contexts as diverse as the United States, United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, and Australasia.Numerous practical uses of the framework are illustrated: auditing the performance of established brands, predicting and evaluating the performance of new brands, checking the nature of unfamiliar markets, of partitioned markets, and of dynamic market situations more generally (where the Dirichlet provides theoretical benchmarks for price promotions, advertising, etc.). In addition, many implications for our understanding of consumers, brands, and the marketing mix logically follow from the Dirichlet framework. In repeat-purchase markets, there is often a lack of segmentation between brands and the typical consumer exhibits polygamous buying behavior (though there might be strong segmentation at the category level). An understanding of these applications and implications leads to consumer insights, imposes constraints on marketing action, and provides norms for evaluating brands and for assessing marketing initiatives.
 
Article
One-hundred Tax Court cases concerning Section 162(a) (2) were subjected to several multivariate PROBIT and discriminant analyses to determine which factors best define the location of a “tax home.” In each case, the government disagreed with the taxpayer and contended that the “tax home” was either nonexistent or was located in elsewhere. Various sensitivity analyses were performed to test model specifications regarding linear or quadratic functions, discriminant or PROBIT models, and temporal stability. A seven-variable linear discriminant model achieved an 88% Lachenbruch U classification accuracy and exhibited high stability with regard to the three sensitivity analyses. Implications for taxpayers, practitioners, legislators, and researchers are discussed.
 
Article
This research considers employee perceptions of the interorganizational relationships that exist between three types of marketing research organizations. Significant findings from this study support previous work in the field of ethics and point out the importance of the relationships between opportunistic behavior, ethical climates, and ethical profiles in different types of marketing research organizations.
 
Article
How well have marketable securities performed as a hedge against inflation?The question is a very old one to which many writers have addressed themselves. The evolutionary nature of financial markets, financial theory, and financial instruments requires continued reevaluation of previous investment decisions. The purpose of this study is to review the performance record of 14 risk classes of securities, which range from long-term government bonds through five different classes of common stock. The average annual investment relatives adjusted for price-level changes are compared for various periods during which the price level is essentially stable, rising, and falling.
 
Article
The manuscript reports on an integrative assessment of exporting research published in 821 academic articles during the period 1960–2007. Such an undertaking is deemed necessary due to the voluminous, multifarious, and fragmented nature of knowledge in this crucial field of international business. The study includes an analysis of each article on four major grounds (i.e., research design, scope of research, research methodology, and thematic areas), aiming to obtain a holistic picture of and identify trends in the subject. The content analysis reveals that:(a) the vast majority of exporting studies adopted a cross-sectional, field-oriented, and survey approach, while there was a steady increase of research with a formalized and causal character; (b) research into exporting had gradually shifted outside North America, involved multiple industries, and used exporters as the unit of analysis; (c) recent exporting studies have employed probability sampling designs, larger samples, construct validation procedures, and advanced analytical methods more extensively; and (d) export performance was the most widely examined topic, attracting continuous attention over time. Several conclusions are derived that can contribute to the field's theoretical and practical advancement.
 
Article
Using a simple version of the dividend cash flow (DCF) model of stock valuation, the cost of equity for public utilities is often inferred to be equal to the sum of the dividend yield and the expected rate of growth in dividends. Witnesses who employ this approach generally extrapolate past growth patterns into the future and then assume that investors expect these trends to continue; no effort is made to actually assess the expectations of investors. This approach to estimating the cost of equity for public utilities is criticized for the failure to develop testable hypotheses as an inferential basis for testing the statistical reliability of estimates of the cost of equity. This article demonstrates an alternative to the traditional approach, based on the premise that reliable estimates of the cost of equity are derived only within a methodological framework that produces testable hypotheses. The Gordon model of share valuation is formulated in such a way as to show that there is a systematic and predictable relationship between the ratio of market price to book value of common stock and a firm's normal or expected return on equity. This relationship suggests an econometric model that not only tests the Gordon model of share valuation but produces at the same time, inferences concerning the cost of equity. Using this approach, year-end estimates of the cost of equity for electric utilities are determined for the 16-yr period from 1961 to 1976.
 
Article
Quarterly data and multiple analysis procedures are used to test a model of the demand for cigarettes in the United States from 1961 through 1990. As in previous studies, the results show positive effects of income and negative effects of price. Antismoking messages, such as the publicity associated with the release of the Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health in 1964 and the public service announcements broadcast under the Fairness Doctrine from late 1967 through 1970, significantly reduce consumption. Several analysis procedures fail to show any relationship between aggregate cigarette advertising and consumption. Noteworthy new findings are that: (1) the 1964 decline in consumption levels lasted only one quarter; (2) smokers experience “money illusion” in that they respond more to nominal price changes than to real changes; (3) there is evidence of Granger causality from price and income to consumption; and (4) no significant change in the estimated demand elasticities occured during the period studied. The results also provide support for the common practice of analyzing cigarette demand without simultaneously modeling cigarette supply.
 
Article
Merged survey data from 1982 and 1990 of media allocation strategies of U.S. Congressional candidates include dramatic increases in the use and impact of direct mail advertising in general election campaigns. Further, this impact exhibited differential effects for incumbent and nonincumbent candidates, suggesting that different competitive situations should use different media allocation strategies to enhance behavioral goals. The political campaign is offered as a prototype of successful integrated marketing communications that can serve as an example to consumer goods marketers.
 
Article
Miles and Snow postulated that although an organization's adaptability is limited, different firms, using different decision making processes can be viable in the long run, even in the same industry. Here, we describe an investigation of Miles' and Snow's viability hypothesis in the banking industry. The research includes three contributions. First, it demonstrates the initial theory is inadequate for a turbulent environment; second, it suggests a methodological reason this theory has proven so difficult to evaluate—the strategy decision process effect is small, while many researchers were looking for large effects; and, finally, this study highlights that it is not the main effects of decision process, strategy, or environment that explain performance (in the banking industry), but interactions between them.
 
Article
This article presents a thorough analysis of the research published in the Journal of Business Research (JBR) during the period of 1985–1999. First, each article published in JBR was categorized into a primary content area according to the broad subject areas covered by the journal's editorial review boards. Marketing represents the largest area with 33% of the articles, followed by buyer behavior (18%) and international business (16%). Second, the contributing authors during the period of 1985–1999 were ranked according to the number of articles they had published in the journal. William R. Darden was the most published author with 9 articles, whereas Cynthia Webster was ranked first when adjusting for coauthorship. A similar analysis was conducted at the institutional level, with Louisiana State University being the top publisher with 27 articles. Additionally, we examined the impact of the published JBR articles in the top 12 journals corresponding to the JBR content areas. In this analysis, we found that JBR articles are heavily referenced in JBR, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science (JAMS), Journal of Marketing (JM), Journal of Retailing (JR), Journal of Marketing Research (JMR), Journal of International Business Studies (JIBS), and Journal of International Marketing (JIM). Individually, the JBR contributions by Robert E. Spekman and Shelby D. Hunt have had the most impact in the 12 journals used in the citation analysis. On the article level, the contribution by Emin Babakus and Gregory W. Boller titled “An Empirical Assessment of the SERVQUAL Scale” (published in 1992) has been the most frequently referenced article, having been cited 16 times since its publication.
 
Article
While conventional farming systems face serious problems of sustainability, organic agriculture is seen as a more environmentally friendly system as it favours renewable resources, recycles nutrients, uses the environment’s own systems for controlling pests and diseases, sustains ecosystems, protects soils, and reduces pollution. At the same time organic farming promotes animal welfare, the use of natural foodstuffs, product diversity and the avoidance of waste, among other practices. However, the future of organic agriculture will depend on its economic viability and on the determination shown by governments to protect these practices. This paper performs panel regressions with a sample of Catalan farms (Spain) to test the influence of organic farming on farm output, costs and incomes. It analyses the cost structures of both types of farming and comments on their social and environmental performance.
 
Article
This paper evaluates the significance and research impact of Arnould and Wallendorf's (1994), "Market-Oriented Ethnography: Interpretation Building and Marketing Strategy Formulation" (A&W). A&W provides a comprehensive theoretical aspect of market-oriented ethnography which is useful to marketing practitioners in formulating marketing strategy. A citation analysis is conducted to assess the scholarly impact of A&W. In the 13 year period (1996-2009), A&W receives 204 citations in Google Scholar and 86 citations in Scopus. In total 43 journals include citations to A&W. The findings show that the cited authors are referencing the work of A&W mainly in two aspects: (1) using an ethnographic approach as an exemplar qualitative methodology; and (2) using an etic/emic perspective to provide deeper insights in a cultural context. Evidence in this report supports the assertion that A&W is a seminal contribution to advancing alternative research methods in marketing in general that go beyond the continuing dominant logic of empirical positivism.
 
Article
Denison [Denison, D.R. (1996), What is the difference between organizational culture and organizational climate? A native's point of view on a decade of paradigm wars, The Academy of Management Review, 21 (3), 619-654] offers a paradigm to comprehend the difference between studying organizational culture and organizational climate from a methodological perspective. The present study uses a Scopus analysis to understand the contributions of Denison's work in contemporary research of organization studies, and to recognize benefits of his discussion on organizational culture and organizational climate. The Scopus analysis shows that Denison's article is seminal across academic disciplines from its appearance.
 
Top-cited authors
Naveen Donthu
  • Georgia State University
Barry J. Babin
  • Louisiana Tech University
Jagdish N. Sheth
  • Emory University
Adamantios Diamantopoulos
  • University of Vienna
Jean-Charles Chebat
  • HEC Montréal - École des Hautes Études commerciales