Journal of Brand Management

Published by Springer Nature
Online ISSN: 1479-1803
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Recent publications
Steps in article selection for review
Framework for future research
This paper conducts an integrative review and provides a synthesisation of key themes in the brand attachment literature. A total of 171 papers were selected and analysed using a framework-based approach. In addition to exploring the theories and frameworks, this review summarises the contexts, antecedents, outcomes, mediators, and moderators of brand attachment. Based on the gaps identified in current studies, directions are provided for future brand attachment research. The review suggests that there are multiple directions in which to take the domain further. Theoretical underpinnings require conceptual clarity and consistency with attachment theory, and the development and validation of research frameworks are essential. Furthermore, the application of contextual measurements and rigorous methodologies is warranted to address the shortcomings of the current literature. The recommendations of this review are expected to facilitate advancements in brand attachment research.
Conceptual framework
Structural path model
Customer advocacy is linked to various psychological and brand-related outcomes. However, the potential mechanisms of such relationships remain poorly understood. The present study investigates the route through which customer advocacy impacts brand loyalty in the retail banking sector. Based on a sample of 351 South African retail bank customers, the study employs a model with brand relationship quality and brand trust serving as mediating variables between customer advocacy and brand loyalty. The results confirm the prediction that customer advocacy is positively related to brand loyalty through a serial mediation of brand trust and brand relationship quality. These findings underscore the crucial roles of brand relationship quality and brand trust in contributing towards brand loyalty, thus providing preliminary evidence concerning the possible mechanisms through which consumer–brand relationship quality and trust in brands synergistically enhance brand loyalty.
Conceptual model
The majority of studies on internal brand equity examine its various dimensions and relationships between them. While prior research specifies organizational practices relevant for successful internal branding, the insights about the impact of essential organizational factors on internal brand equity are still limited. This study focuses on organizational resilience that is vital for the existence of organizations not only during a crisis, but also during everyday operations. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of organizational resilience on internal brand equity considering the effects triggered by self-service technology (SST) in retailing. Since retailing had been significantly transformed by technological innovations over the past decade, we explore the effects of employees’ perceptions about performance of SST. The results of a survey conducted among retail employees in Sweden demonstrate that organizational resilience and employees’ perceptions about technological innovations are critical for enhancing internal brand equity, which includes brand orientation, internal brand knowledge, internal brand involvement, and internal brand commitment.
Research model
Storytelling in advertisements has always been recognized as a potent and effective means of branding. However, the core elements of a story that translate to positive consumer attitudes are not fully understood. This study aims at understanding the attitudes of consumers toward storytelling video advertisements that contain humor and drama as their principal elements and how they translate to brand attitudes. Three stimuli-based experimental studies were conducted via Mturk. Study 1 (n = 232) was aimed at understanding the effect of affective reaction and cognitive evaluation on the attitude toward storytelling humorous advertisements. Study 2 (n = 252) considered the effect of the same variables on the attitude toward storytelling dramatic advertisements. Study 3 (n = 284) aimed at understanding the effects of attitude toward humorous and dramatic storytelling advertisements on the attitude toward the brand. Results indicated that the most significant driver of attitude toward humorous storytelling advertisements is affective reaction, whereas cognitive evaluation influences attitude toward dramatic storytelling advertisements. Attitude toward humorous storytelling advertisements contributes more to brand attitude formation than dramatic storytelling advertisements. The results of the study can help marketing executives develop advertisement strategies that can lead to favorable attitudes toward the brands being advertised.
Brand identity in human museum brands model (Ferreiro-Rosende et al. 2021)
Connection between museum brand identity and employee brand behaviour.
Source: Elaborated by the authors based on the literature (Ferreiro-Rosende et al. 2021)
The aim of this study is to analyse the gap between the museum brand identity and the employee brand behaviour during the interaction with visitors. To achieve this objective, a qualitative methodology was carried out for both the collection of documentation to identify the main characteristics of museum brand identity and participant observation for the analysis of employee brand behaviour. The study has been conducted in seven museums and monographic centres of the artist Pablo Picasso in Spain and France. The application of participant observation has made it possible to deduce three types of employee brand behaviour: visual, verbal and emotional brand behaviour. The results highlight the connection of employee behaviour with the brand dimensions related to the product, the artist, the symbolism and the link with the territory. However, the digital sphere and the elements of identity related to the organisation are not reflected in the interaction between employees and visitors. The research emphasises the need for explicit brand behaviour in the museums analysed so that the organisation’s mission and values reach visitors through employee–visitor interaction.
Illustrating brand genuinuity
Attitudes towards brand genuinuity scale items
Study 4 confirmatory factor analysis results
This paper aims to conceptualise attitudes towards brand genuinuity by developing and validating a psychometric scale through four studies. Study 1 generates a pool of potential scale items through a review of the literature, thesaurus search, focus groups, and expert surveys. Study 2 confirms the unidimensionality of the scale items using confirmatory factor analysis. Study 3 establishes convergent, discriminant, predictive, and nomological validity. Finally, Study 4 confirms the generalisability of the scale by applying it in a different context. The process resulted in a 5-item unidimensional scale measuring attitudes towards the brand’s genuinuity. The results demonstrated that brand genuinuity is a unique construct, and distinct from related concepts, brand sincerity, and brand heritage. The development and validation of the current scale fill an important gap in the advertising literature. It provides a better understanding of and mechanism to measure attitudes towards brand genuinuity, which could not be measured with previous scales. Likewise, the scale provides important insights for brand managers and will be an important tool for managers to test and confirm the degree to which new advertising material exhibits brand genuinuity.
Hypothesized relationships between trait skepticism and persuasion knowledge in their effects on brand warmth and brand competence. The arrow weight indicates relationship strength
Interaction of trait skepticism, persuasion knowledge, and press release detail. General = general information about a reforestation project; Specific = detail about native species being used in a reforestation project. Dashed line = persuasion knowledge control condition; solid line = persuasion knowledge treatment condition
Hypothesized relationships between pro-environment worldview beliefs and the attribution of brand-promotion motives, firm sincerity, brand warmth, and brand competence
Interaction of environmental worldview and persuasion knowledge predicting firm sincerity. Best-fitting regression lines. Solid line = persuasion knowledge control; dotted line = persuasion knowledge treatment
Interaction of skepticism, environmental worldview, and persuasion knowledge predicting brand-promotion motives. Best-fitting regression lines across mean levels of press release detail
Understanding consumers’ worldview beliefs can lead to more effective brand communication. Study 1 demonstrates that addressing consumers’ worldview beliefs directly in brand CSR communications can offset the influence of their trait skepticism toward persuasive messages. Study 2 provides evidence that worldview beliefs function independently of trait skepticism in predicting brand attitudes, particularly concerning brand warmth. Worldview beliefs can also account for an apparent relationship between consumers’ skepticism and their attribution of motives to a firm. Thus, the theoretical contribution underscores the importance of understanding consumers’ worldview beliefs as a construct that is distinct from trait skepticism. For managers, the manuscript offers guidance in ways to fend off possible consumer skepticism when crafting environment-related CSR communication. In terms of a methodological contribution, consumers’ attributions of a firm’s motives typically involve measuring a mixture of altruistic and firm-oriented motives, and the attributions can be assessed more precisely by using separate unipolar measures instead of relying on typical bipolar measures.
Conceptual model of the influence of corporate communicative strategies via social messengers on organization–public engagement and organization–public relationship outcomes
Results of the hypothesized model. Coefficients are standardized regression weights. For the sake of brevity, the error terms of indicators and disturbances of endogenous variables were omitted from the figure. *** p < .001
Mobile-based social messengers are overtaking social networking sites as the new frontier for organizations to engage online stakeholders. This study provides one of the earliest empirical studies to understand how organizations should communicate with mobile publics to enhance public engagement and improve organization–public relationships. This study focuses on WeChat—one of the world’s most popular social messaging apps. Through an online survey of 859 WeChat users in China, results showed that organizations’ information dissemination, interpersonal communication, and two-way symmetrical communication strategies effectively drive public engagement with the organization on WeChat, which in turn nurtures quality organization–public relationships. Strategic guidelines based on the study findings are provided.
Mean percentage free recall as a function of type of advertising and brand. Note: Error bars show standard errors
This study investigated the effects of corporate social and environmental responsibility (CSER) advertising, and programme-advertisement congruency, on advertising effectiveness. In a between-subjects design, participants (N = 128) viewed either three CSER or three neutral advertisements for the same brands embedded in either a “sustainable” or “neutral” programme. Measures of memory for advertising (free recall, cued recall, and brand recognition), and buying intention were obtained. The percentage recall and buying intention scores were significantly higher for CSER than neutral advertisements, but there was no effect on brand recognition. There were no significant effects of programme type nor significant interactions between programme and advertisement types found. The effectiveness of CSER advertising as measured by free recall was found to vary as a function of the brand being advertised, which was attributed to differences in the type of message being carried by the CSER advertisements.
Research framework
Logo used in the study
Anthropomorphic logos representing culturally embedded iconic character are used by firms to signal the expected performance of their brands. Yet, the extent to which such anthropomorphic brand logos influence consumers’ perceptions of an associated product’s or service’s functional performance is not well understood. We address this gap in the literature by conducting a study using a hypothetical anthropomorphized logo to gather survey data. Using structural equation modelling to test our research hypotheses, our findings show that an anthropomorphized logo representing a culturally embedded iconic character has a positive impact on perceived functional performance. More importantly, we show that the effect is strengthened as the appeal of the logo increases. Additional analysis revealed that logo-self connection explained the mechanism through which logo anthropomorphism affects the perceived functional benefits of the logo.
Brand extension evaluations based on the level of nostalgia (high nostalgia versus low nostalgia). Error bars represent standard errors of the mean
Brand extension evaluations based on nostalgia types (collective versus personal). Error bars represent standard errors of the mean
Brand extension evaluations based on the level of nostalgia (high nostalgia versus low nostalgia) and self-construal (independent versus interdependent self). Error bars represent standard errors of the mean
This study examines the effects of nostalgia marketing on consumers’ evaluation of a brand extension product. In Study 1, participants who were presented with nostalgic advertisements gave more positive evaluations of the extension product than did participants who were shown advertisements without any nostalgia-evoking stimuli. In particular, in Study 2, the nostalgia effect was reinforced in participants who were primed with collective nostalgia rather than personal nostalgia. Lastly, in Study 3, the nostalgia effect on the evaluations of the extension product was more pronounced for participants who were primed with interdependent self than independent self.
CAAR and AAR with market model across (− 30, + 30) event window
Average buy-and-hold abnormal returns
This research contributes to marketing literature by examining the signaling effect of two fundamental dimensions of brand identity: name and logo change. The purpose of this paper is to examine short and long-run market reaction to identity change through rebranding announcements of Indian banks from 2000 to 2019. The study uses event study methodology to estimate cumulative abnormal returns and market-adjusted buy-and-hold abnormal returns (BHARs) of rebranded banks and statistical significance is tested with both parametric and nonparametric test-statistics. The findings on an average suggest; (1) market reacts positively over the initial period around the announcement dates as investors realized positive and significant cumulative abnormal returns in short-run. (2) This positive short-term effects seem to be permanent as investors could earn positive and significant BHAR for holding their investments up to 12 months or 36 months interval following the month of announcement and with this banks significantly outperforms the NIFTY-BANK index. The study offers valuable insights to individual and institutional investors and also provides practical implications for bankers and for brand strategists. This significant and positive market reaction evidence can also serve as foundation for maximizing the financial value of such kind of strategic marketing actions.
Flowchart of the methodology
A chronological view of luxury marketing research
Country-wise representation
Generation-wise representation
Conceptual Model
The concept of luxury is archaic, but it is only recently that luxury marketing (LM) has caught academic attention. The result is a growth in global publications. This study examines 34 years of scientific research on LM through bibliometric and content analysis of Scopus data consisting of 893 articles from 271 journals. Results reveal that though the field is still in a nascent stage, it has been approached from multiple disciplines and methodologies. A structured bibliometric and content analysis enabled an in-depth study of the field's evolution. Further, the results of bibliographic coupling indicate clusters of emerging themes in LM scholarship such as sustainability, social media marketing, counterfeiting, among others. Finally, a conceptual framework emerging from the thematic clusters and future research directions follow.
Branded content experience continuum
Engagement–experience pyramid.
Adapted from Arnould and Thompson (2005), Brodie et al. (2011), Nysveen et al. (2013), Waqas et al. (2020, 2021a, b)
Social media branded content experience: antecedents and consequences.
Adapted from Azar et al. (2016), Barger et al. (2016), Calder et al. (2009), De Vries et al. (2012), De Vries and Carlson (2014), Hollebeek et al. (2014), Waqas et al. (2021b)
Social media has become a primary medium for brands to engage their customers. Brands are continually looking for ways to provide favourable experiences to engage customers on social media platforms. Despite the prolific research on social media in the marketing context, the consumer experience concept in social media remains underexplored to date. This paper addresses this gap by understanding consumer experience with the social media branded content using theoretical underpinnings of consumer culture theory and presenting a precise conceptualisation of consumer experience with the social media branded content. An accurate understanding of branded content experience will help practitioners enhance consumer engagement with their brands in social media. This study concludes with managerial implications and future research directions related to consumer experience in the social media context.
Brand equity transfer in M&A (based on Lambkin and Muzellec 2010)
In recent decades, the substitution of corporate brand names has been spurred by mergers, acquisitions, and corporate spin-offs. When a business unit is divested, brand equity must be transferred from an established brand name to a new brand name. The central research question addressed in this study is how a spin-off retains brand equity after rebranding. The study is based on a case study of the divestment and rebranding of a subsidiary of a multinational firm. A thematic analysis is conducted based on semi-structured in-depth interviews and archival data of the rebranding campaign. The case analysis grounds brand equity retention after rebranding in the resource-based theory. The findings indicate the perceived continuation of the spin-off’s intangible, tangible, and relational resources as the primary condition under which the spin-off retains the brand equity associated with the former parent company’s corporate brand name. This central insight raises theoretical and practical implications for the conceptualization of brand equity and brand names and the value of brand names. The ability of a brand entity to rebrand suggests that the value of a brand name can be based on the replacement costs of a brand name instead of the entire financial value of brand equity.
The purpose of this paper was to better understand lurkers’ and posters’ motivations sought and motivations achieved for lurking and posting within online brand communities and the resulting satisfaction levels of both groups within brand communities. Overall, results indicated that there were no significant negative differences between what members were hoping to receive and what they did receive from the community (i.e. people achieved all that they hoped to when they joined—and more). Lurkers received fewer gratifications, but they were also seeking less from the community at the outset than their more active counterparts. Furthermore, gratifications achieved explained more variance in engagement than gratifications sought—so what people actually get out of the community, rather than what they intended when they joined, is more impactful in determining engagement. By understanding the difference between gratifications sought and gratifications achieved, the current study helps practitioners to understand not only why people join and participate in these groups, but their level of satisfaction with the community while also adding predictive power to the uses and gratifications theory by utilizing the concept of satisfaction to explain behaviour regarding continued (or discontinued) use of a medium.
Conceptual model of the present research
As artificial intelligence (AI) technology has advanced, it has become crucial to promoting service innovation and evolution. However, whether and when consumers prefer AI-enabled services remains unclear. This study addresses this question by investigating the matching effect of brand personality (sincerity vs. competence) and customer service provision type (human-staffed vs. AI-enabled) on brand attitudes and purchase intentions. Three scenario-based online experiments revealed that consumers prefer AI-enabled customer service when the brand personality is competence and human-staffed service when the brand personality is sincerity. These preferences lead to more positive brand attitudes and higher purchase intentions. We also found that perceived brand authenticity mediates the above relationships. Meanwhile, our investigation of the moderating role of consumer involvement found that the brand personality-service provision alignment’s positive effects emerge for high-involvement consumers but not for low-involvement consumers. These findings contribute to brand personality and authenticity theory and have practical implications for companies’ marketing strategies—elucidating, for example, how the effects of utilizing AI-enabled customer service may influence brand attitudes and purchase intentions regarding brands with different “personalities.”
Conceptual model
Importance–performance map analysis for the four dimensions of CEBs CO  = customer orientation; GE  = good employer; P&SQ  = product and service quality; R&FSC= reliable and financially strong company;S&ER =social and environmental responsibility. = Overall = Product = service
This study explores how customer-based corporate reputation (CBR) influences customer engagement behaviors (CEB). It incorporates customer identification and brand love as mediators between CBR and CEB, and the industry type as a moderator, to investigate the direct and indirect effects of CBR on CEB through a moderated mediation analysis. The hypotheses were tested through PLS-SEM and PROCESS. Results confirmed the mediation effects of customer identification and brand love between CBR and CEB, and the positive direct impact of CBR on CEB. Furthermore, this study found that five aspects of CBR have different impacts on four dimensions of CEB. Lastly, the CBR–customer identification–CEB mechanism is stronger in the service than in the product industry, whereas there is no difference in the mediation mechanism of brand love between the product and service.
This study was designed to provide evidence for the economic sustainability of slow fashion through developing a profitable brand position. To examine which attributes to highlight in order to successfully brand slow fashion in the Asia–Pacific region, this study surveyed consumers in Hong Kong (N = 314) and Korea (N = 326) and investigated the aspects of slow fashion that effectively increased purchase intentions and the willingness to pay a price premium for slow fashion products. The results of confirmatory factor analysis and stepwise regression analysis revealed that unique sets of slow fashion attributes could increase the likelihood of garnering consumers’ support. The results also showed that the key aspects that are most relevant to each group were inconsistent, implying the need for a distinctive promotional approach. By devising branding strategies based on these findings, the profitability of slow fashion through successful branding will ultimately resolve the sustainability issues inherent in the fashion industry.
Research design and main findings
Frequencies of brand extensions’ dimensions (Tauber 1988)
Frequencies of green brand extensions’ dimensions (distilled in Study 1)
Category building based on focus group discussions
Category building based on interviews
We aim for a deeper understanding of how the theory of green brand extension is effectively used in brand management practice. Therefore, we conducted three consecutive studies to unfold corporate activities as well as consumer perceptions. (1) Employing a qualitative content analysis, we explore and explicate characteristics of 37 green brand extensions. (2) We discuss green brand extensions in four focus groups and categorize facets of consumer skepticism. (3) To deepen and triangulate the findings, we conduct 50 interviews with consumers with a wide range of environmental involvement. Our theoretical sampling offers rich insights into perspectives of consumers, however, limited to personal reflections on a subset of brands in the German FMCG market. First, we unveil three characteristics of green brand extensions, based on their benefits and beneficiaries. Moreover, we emphasize that in contrast to the original brand extension theory, the main image transfer is intended to focus on reverse greening effects. Second, we note that consumer responses reflect various categories of skepticism around FMCG giants as originators of such extensions as well as their underlying intentions. In addition, we interpret different effects of ecolabeling linked to its sender. Third, we empirically demonstrate that consumers with a higher environmental involvement can be expected to scrutinize green brand extensions more critically. Moreover, we describe consumer perceptions and evaluations linked to brand loyalty and brand knowledge.
The research model and related hypotheses
Initial PLS algorithm results.
Source: PLS output
This study explores how positive and negative region-of-origin biases influence the consumer tendency to switch brands. Attending the social identity and the cognitive appraisal theories, this study proposes a model that links animosity, negative emotions (target-region bias), and regional identification (home-region bias) to brand switching. It analyses the role of animosity as a potential trigger to negative emotions (anger and sadness) and explores their subsequent behavioural impact. Additionally, it captures the influence of regional identification on the consumer tendency to switch from target-region brands to home-region brands. The proposed model was empirically tested with 591 Spanish (regional) consumers of food and beverage brands, by quota sampling. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling with SmartPLS3. Results show that regional identification significantly motivates consumers to switch brands. Animosity triggers the emotional reactions of anger and sadness, but only anger promotes switching to brands with regional characteristics and mediates the relation between animosity and in-group brands switching. The study provides considerable insight into the dynamics of (positive/negative) region-of-origin bias influences on brand switching. The findings also offer guidance to brand managers to effectively deal with origin obstacles and/or advantages in the business environment touched by animosity and switching behaviour.
Theoretical Model
Effect of hedonic activity factor of gender
Effect of social importance factor on gender
Recent research on co-creation has shown that consumers can be motivated to co-create value based on specific actions. However, existing research does not show how these motivators are impacted by consumers’ gender. To fill this gap, the current research utilizes motivational theories to examine co-creation in the context of gender. The results of three studies show that female and male consumers are motivated differently when it comes to co-creating value with a brand. Specifically, females are more likely to co-create with a brand when they find the activity to be hedonic, while males are more likely to co-create with a brand when they find the activity to be socially important. Both genders will co-create with a brand when the activity aligns with their personal values. The results of this research add to the current understanding of consumer motivation and behavior in the context of value co-creation, and provide brand managers with insights as to how to adapt their strategies to motivate female and male consumers to co-create brands.
Systematic literature review stages
Underdog brand management framework—themes
An underdog brand is a brand with humble resources that competes with passion and determination against competitors that dominate a market. Numerous anecdotal examples and a few research articles of underdog brands exist, yet the understanding of what an underdog brand is and how brands can use the underdog effect is still limited. Considering the relevance of underdog brand management for practice, the purpose of our article is to distill the components of the concepts “underdog brand” and “the underdog effect” and to propose a conceptual framework to guide underdog brand management. To achieve this goal, we undertook a systematic review of the extant literature that resulted in 1) a clear and demarking definition of the term underdog brand, 2) an analysis of the usefulness of the underdog effect, and 3) a reference frame we termed “the underdog brand management framework”. By doing so, we helped to overcome the research gap in the field of underdog brand management. To validate our findings, we tested the framework against a case study of a successful underdog brand. Our analysis resulted in a robust model that could inspire and guide practitioners who are in charge of underdog brands.
Research model
Structural equation model
Respondent's demographic profile
This paper investigates the effects of consumers’ inward negative emotions on outward negative emotions, brand loyalty, and negative WOM. We examine the effects of consumer regret on brand hate felt by consumers while choosing a mobile network operator. The effects of brand loyalty and brand hate on negative WOM are also examined with the proposed model. We conducted an online survey on 414 individuals using a mobile network operator in Turkey. We analyzed data with structural equation modeling. The results show that consumer regret as a negative inward emotion has a positive effect on brand hate that is an outward negative emotion. Consumer regret also negatively affects brand loyalty and positively affects negative WOM. Results also revealed that brand loyalty does not affect negative WOM, while brand hate has a positive effect on consumers’ dissemination of negative information.
Antecedents of managerial corporate brand orientation
Formally introduces, and explicates, the nature, significance, and antecedents, of managerial corporate brand orientation notion. Emphasizes that managerial corporate identification is a key precursor of managerial corporate brand orientation and is an incontrovertible requisite for a strong, and authentic, organisational-wide corporate brand orientation. Because of critically important bi-lateral, and synergistic, corporate brand/corporate identity relationships, managerial corporate brand orientation requires a dual corporate brand/corporate identity managerial identification. Enunciates the importance of social identity theory to managerial identification. Articulates a basic three stage process underpinning managerial corporate brand orientation which entails: managerial comprehension of the corporate brand/corporate identity; managerial perceptions of the corporate brand/corporate identity; and managerial identifications with the corporate brand/corporate identity. Given the on-going custodial and leadership roles of managers in nurturing a corporate brand-based organisational philosophy and culture, the article deliberates on the importance of recruitment, induction, training, acculturation, appraisal/ promotion, in fostering managerial corporate brand orientation.
The study of storytelling and brand love is justified by the need to understand the potential of storytelling as a tool that marketers have available to positively influence the love felt by the consumers toward a particular brand. In this case, we address the jewelry brand PANDORA as a case study. In our empirical research, we intend to understand the role of storytelling in the creation of brand love when it is used as a brand communication technique. In addition, we chose the brand PANDORA because its products are also associated with stories; thus, we also intend to investigate whether this use of storytelling contributes to the creation of brand love. The results demonstrate a positive impact of storytelling in the love felt by the consumers regarding the brand PANDORA. In addition, we conclude that the stories consumers associate with their own PANDORA jewelry make them like the jewelry and the brand itself even more, which shows that product narrative is an important concept to add value to the product and the brand.
Systematic literature review flowchart
Publication amount from 2009 to 2020
Frequency of occurrence of articles by journal types (please see detail journal list in “Appendix A”)
Integrated TCM and ADO frameworks for systematic review of brand loyalty on social media
The antecedents and consequences (outcomes) of brand loyalty
As social media has developed in the past two decades, researchers have been investigating how to build brand loyalty on social media platforms. However, there is a lack of comprehensive review on the findings of studies in this area. The purpose of this study is to identify research gaps and inform future research directions by conducting a field examination on the scholarship of building brand loyalty on social media. The study reviewed a total of 86 papers on building brand loyalty using social media published between 2009 and 2020. The results revealed five clusters of theories applied in this stream of scholarship, namely consumer self-identity and consumption style theories, brand community-related theories, decision-making theories, theories focused on communication medium, and relationship-based theories. Moreover, we identified eight major antecedents and five consequences of brand loyalty in the context of social media communities. Applying Oliver’s (1999) four-phase loyalty framework, we consolidate eleven categories of brand loyalty measurements and propose a framework of loyalty dimensions and its antecedents and consequences. Researchers who intend to conduct a brand loyalty study may find the examples of the measurement items summarized in this study useful for their research.
Proposed conceptual model
Finalized conceptual model
Sample demographic profile
Mediation analysis in PLS-SEM of low-involvement objectified condition
Mediation analysis in PLS-SEM of high-involvement objectified condition
The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of consumers’ personality traits on self-brand connection and communal-brand connection with anthropomorphized versus objectified brands for high- versus low-involvement product categories. This study contributes to the understanding of human interactive personality traits on self-concept and their behavioral outcomes. Additionally, this study expands the elaboration likelihood model by depicting how personality traits can have different effects in high- versus low-involvement contexts. The results of this study show that consumers higher in extraversion and agreeableness exhibit more favorable behavior toward anthropomorphized brands (compared with objectified brands). Additionally, the effect of extraversion on purchase intention is mediated by self-brand connection and communal-brand connection, whereas agreeableness shows a direct effect on purchase intention. These findings benefit marketers by helping them choose the most appropriate product categories when marketing anthropomorphized brands. Moreover, these findings will help marketers choose the appropriate consumer traits in advertising to increase the level of self-brand connection, communal-brand connection, and purchase intention among their target market.
Conceptual model and results of structural equation model
Driving consumer brand engagement is essential for firms. With continual disruptions in traditional consumer brand communications and increased demand upon consumer attention and noise, firms utilize increased engagement to drive brand loyalty and resonance. However, mechanisms by which consumers engage with brands, particularly through social media, are less clear. This study sheds light on customer engagement by proposing a model that tests determinants influencing customers' engagement with a brand page as well as its contribution to future purchases and overall brand evaluation. This research supports that brand page post characteristics and content perceived by customers have positive impacts on attitudes and engagement. This research further validates and applies consumer brand engagement in the context of social media brand pages with multiple brands. I also raise the need for managers to treat attitudes toward the post and attitudes toward the brand differently.
A model of brand as personal narrative (February 2020, pre-Covid, n = 343). Fit parameters: NFI = .931, NNFI = .97, CFI = .974, IFI = .974, RMSEA = .041
A model of brand as personal narrative (Vaccine-present May 2021, n = 447)
This paper reports a three-stage study of user–brand interactions on YouTube. An initial exploration identified unique, previously unknown, constructs active in this context. Grounded hypotheses and scales were tested via two surveys separated by approximately 15 month; first survey taken pre-Covid was followed by a second survey in May 2021 (Covid-vaccine present environment). We report that YouTube usage is significantly shaped by feelings of social dread; users find comfort and fall into a YouTube rabbit hole, which leads them to a self-construal. Rooted in cognitive and emotional processes of self-construal, brands emerge as personal narratives. These narratives help users understand their history and personality; they provide a compelling basis for relating with others. The study produces new implications for future branding theories and practice reflective of the emerging reality of user–brand interactions on YouTube.
Number of characters in responses about corporate brand image by country. Responses with more than 50 characters are summarised
Number of characters in responses about product brand image by country. Responses with more than 50 characters are summarised
Corporate brands convey unique information to consumers and promote their intention to use product brands, as it is possible for product brands to express the characteristics and mission of corporate brands. In this way, they exert a synergistic effect when corporate and product brand images overlap. This study hypothesises that matching these two brand images increases purchase intention in the automobile industry. Propensity score matching was applied to the results of online surveys conducted in four countries—China, Germany, Japan, and the US—and the effects were estimated by inverse probability weighting. The results supported the hypothesis. In particular, the effect on purchase intention was weak when matching brand images related to functional value, but a significant effect was confirmed when matching brand images related to emotional value. Accordingly, when adopting a strategy that aims to match corporate and product brand images, verifying in advance whether the target image will be effective is necessary. This study is the first to clarify the synergistic effect of matching the images of the corporate brand and product brand on consumers’ purchase intention.
Conceptual model
Curvilinear association between brand experience and customer satisfaction
Curvilinear association between brand experience and brand loyalty
This research aims at exploring the nonlinear relationship between brand experience and outcome variables, i.e. consumer satisfaction and brand loyalty. The aim is to demonstrate that increased brand experience does not always lead to positive responses from customers in terms of satisfaction and loyalty drawing from the “too-much-of-a-good-thing” meta-theoretical principle. Data were collected from 274 participants through questionnaires administered randomly in populated areas and further analysed using regressions. The results confirmed that there exists a nonlinear relationship between brand experience, consumer satisfaction, and brand loyalty. In other words, brand experience influences the outcome variables to a point where its effect begins to diminish and becomes negative. This makes it paramount for brand managers, especially in the tourism and hospitality sector to remain aware that delivering a superior experience to their customers does not necessarily increase their level of satisfaction. This study also provides a fresh perspective on the brand experience construct in the service industry. It departs from mainstream brand experience studies by demonstrating that the relationship between brand experience, satisfaction, and loyalty is nonlinear, where increasing brand experience is associated with diminishing returns of satisfaction and loyalty.
Conceptual framework of brand love
Estimated holistic causal model of brand love
Explicating and specifying the origins of brand love, as well as how it affects consumer behavior, establishes vital insights into how brand managers might reap favorable economic consequences from promoting brand love effectively. Therefore, this article presents and validates a holistic, causal model of brand love that accounts for brand stimulus features and the internal, mental processes of consumers, along with the behavioral outcomes of their resulting brand love. Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches, the authors propose and test seven antecedents (including three mediators) and four consequences: Functional and sensory brand uniqueness emerge as indirect antecedents of brand love; brand satisfaction, brand fit with the inner self, and personal experiences are direct antecedents. Contrary to expectations, communicative uniqueness and brand pleasure are not influential factors. This study also verifies four desirable behavioral consequences of brand love: brand loyalty, willingness to pay a price premium, word-of-mouth intentions, and forgiveness of brand mistakes. These findings offer several theoretical and managerial implications.
Construct structural model
This paper aims to investigate the structural impacts of consumer ethnocentric tendencies (CETs) and consumer affinity on attitudes toward a cross-border-acquisition (CBA) event and the spillover effects of attitudes toward a CBA event on post-CBA attitudes toward foreign brands in the industry where the CBA event occurs. Two studies were conducted to examine whether the relationships remain unchanged across different groups based on multi-group structural equation modeling (SEM) for multiple groups measurement invariance and group comparison. The analyses extend the basic SEM framework to accommodate differing parameter values across different groups. The analysis results show that (1) CETs and consumer affinity impact attitudes toward the CBA event in opposite directions, and (2) attitudes toward the CBA event positively impact post-CBA attitudes toward the acquirer’s corporate brand, the target brand, a competing brand from a different foreign country, and a competing brand from the acquirer’s home country. Theoretical and managerial implications, limitations and future research directions are also discussed.
Numbers of International Tourist Arrivals Worldwide
Cumulative incremental brand equity induced by 1% increase of numbers of tourist
This study investigated a new role of tourism as a brand management tool for multinational firms (MNFs) whose country of origin is a tourist destination. Through an increased understanding of the external effect of international tourism at the firm level, important implications for MNF managers can be derived. To this end, we collected secondary historical data from various reliable sources, such as Interbrand,, World Bank, and Bloomberg. We proposed brand equity models for MNFs and employed an Arellano-Bond dynamic panel analysis for the estimation. We found that increased numbers of international tourists in an MNF’s country of origin significantly elevated the brand equity of the firm. This finding is interesting because it indicates a significant effect of international tourism on MNFs’ brand equity, even after other key brand drivers such as advertising, R&D, and the dynamic propensity of brand equity are controlled. The results also showed that international tourism is a highly effective tool for improving firms’ brand equity and that it is 2.5 times more effective than advertising. Furthermore, we found that international tourism can only influence firms’ financial performance (revenue and net income) through brand equity development.
Conceptual model
Measurement of self-page inclusion. Based on Aron, Aron and Smollan (1992), The Inclusion of Other in the Self (IOS) scale
Structural equation model (SEM) analysis
Correlation among variables
Consumer-driven sharing and creation activities are valuable engagement activities as they help spread awareness and interaction for brands on social media. Loyal fans of brand pages are an important audience for brand-related social media engagement, as they are more likely to recommend and advocate for brands. However, little is known about what motivates loyal fans to engage in these valuable activities. This study takes a novel approach by examining self-expansion as a driver that prompts loyal fans to action. When brands offer self-expansive opportunities on their pages, in the form of new knowledge, new perspectives (e.g., awareness on social issues) and exciting experiences, fans may incorporate these in their sense of self (self-page inclusion) and reciprocate by investing their own resources to brand pages. A survey was conducted with 238 millennial users who have a favorite brand page on Instagram. The findings show that the more fans gain opportunities for self-expansion from their favorite pages, the more likely they are to share and create brand-related content. Brand page flow and self-page inclusion are also important drivers. Further, specific page experiences are identified that may enhance the effects of these drivers. Managerial implications are included on how to apply these findings to social media content strategy.
In this article, the purpose is to develop a consumer-focused understanding of authenticity within corporate heritage research. Our research question is as follows: “What makes a corporate heritage brand authentic for consumers?” We employ Peirce’s semiotic concepts of icon, index and symbol to analyse consumers’ perceptions of the Finnish corporate heritage brand Fazer, founded in 1891. Our study shows that childhood memories, consumer experiences and expectations as well as shared social conventions make the corporate heritage brand authentic for consumers. Thus, our research empirically advances the understanding of authenticity as socially constructed. Importantly, our study highlights the temporal dimension of this construction and advances the current knowledge on corporate heritage brands by showing that uniqueness, credibility and consistency over time are key dimensions of corporate heritage brand authenticity assessments. This understanding is fundamental for corporate heritage management practice, especially for developing the strategic positioning of corporate heritage brands in the markets by harnessing the assessments of authenticity.
The rise of social media platforms (SMPs) has increased information exchange, which can influence social consumer fashion brand engagement (SCFBE). Although there is evidence that SMPs increase online purchasing, there is limited understanding regarding how SMPs affect social fashion engagement, fashion brand relevance, and buying decisions. The present study targeted social media users who directly or indirectly engaged with reputed fashion brands in the UK. Findings revealed that social passion, social tendency, individual warmth, and social liking enhance social fashion brand engagement. The study found that equitable fit, bearability, and viability are three important factors of fashion brand relevance. Finally, social ties and trust, credibility, homophily, and discounts are the drivers of purchasing decisions for fashion brands. Based on the results, the study presents a SCFBE model, which is supported by the triangular theory of love and social impact theory. The results of this study can inform marketing managers within fashion brand organizations of the driving forces of SCFBE.
Conceptual model
Empirical model results. Notes: *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01
Over the past three decades, corporate sponsorship has evolved into a key element in the marketing communications mix. More recently, the concept of “sponsorship-linked internal marketing” has attracted interest among scholars who study how sponsorship can build corporate identity and increase employee involvement. However, existing knowledge about the effects of sponsorship on employees is still sparse, despite the prevalent rationale that an employer’s sponsorship activity may influence employees’ perceptions of their employer and their behavior within the organization. This research responds to calls to investigate the strategic application of sponsorship within the firm (Farrelly et al 2012). Grounded in signaling theory and prior sponsorship research, we develop and empirically test a sponsorship effectiveness model among employees of a Swiss retail company. Our findings demonstrate that a high level of sports, cultural, and ecological sponsorship quality, as well as a high level of sports and ecological sponsorship quantity, positively impacts employees’ brand commitment and brand behavior through their perception of the brand image and brand understanding. Furthermore, the effects of sponsorship quality are stronger than sponsorship quantity.
Theoretical framework and research hypotheses
Moderating effects of consumer happiness on the relationships between CBI and behavioral outcomes
The purposes of this study are to integrate organizational social capital theory and consumer happiness in a prior brand identification model and test the antecedents and consequences of consumer-brand identification over time. In the context of professional football, we collected data from 374 panel registrants of an online research service firm throughout a season. The results indicated consumer-brand identification was impacted to a greater extent by two social capital factors: (1) social interaction ties and (2) shared vision, than by brand prestige and brand distinctiveness. Both social interaction ties and consumer-brand identification were also predictive of future behavioral loyalty and purchase frequency. Further, our moderation analysis revealed the impact of consumer-brand identification on behavioral loyalty was contingent on consumer happiness. The proposed framework and results reinforce the importance of consumer-to-consumer social capital and consumer happiness and add new insights into the dynamics of consumer-brand identification, consumer happiness, and enduring consumer loyalty.
Renewed interest in gender-sensitive studies focussing on fashion brands marketing communications across diverse cultures and generational cohorts of consumers has heightened the need for uniqueness when developing marketing strategies for fashion brands in both domestic and international markets. Following that, we surveyed 1,329 Sub-Saharan African female Instagram users to investigate the mediating role of consumer satisfaction concerning the relationships between perceived usefulness, enjoyment and intentions to follow and recommend brands’ Instagram accounts and their invariance across three generations. We tested hypotheses using the Partial-Least-Squares Structural Equation Modelling and conducted emotion and sentiment analyses. We found that satisfaction fully translates the positivity of usefulness and enjoyments into higher intention to follow and recommend amongst the female Instagram users surveyed. Usefulness effects on satisfaction are more intense amongst Generation X. However, Generation Z developed a stronger intention to follow. Generations Y and Z are more likely to recommend than Generation X based on a positive experience. Satisfaction is a stronger transmitter of usefulness indirect effects onto following intentions amongst Generation X than its descendants who express intention to recommend due to indirect enjoyment effects conveyed via satisfaction. Finally, sentiment and emotion analyses of the users’ comments were reported using a natural language-processing method. Graphic abstract
Interaction effect between logo designs and brand concepts on product attitude
Interaction effect between logo designs and brand concepts on purchase intention
Interaction effect between logo designs and brand concepts on brand evaluation
The moderating role of visual information processing on matching effect between logo designs and brand concepts. LLCI, lower level confidence interval; ULCI, upper level confidence interval
It is generally accepted that logo characteristics have significant effects on consumer brand preferences. However, little is known about how logo stability and instability drive consumer attitudes. To address this gap in the logo literature, the authors draw on a new perspective of brand concepts based on human values and explore why and how this logo characteristic exerts influence. Across three studies, the authors show that consumers prefer a stable logo brand when it embodies conservation concepts, while they prefer an unstable logo brand when it embodies openness concepts. The underlying mechanism for this matching effect is processing fluency. Furthermore, the matching effect is attenuated for people who are low (vs. high) in visual information processing. Overall, these findings shed light on when and how marketers should adopt stability/instability in logo design.
Consumer-related effects of large assortments
Results of the CFA for the construct of intra-brand image confusion in the pre-test
Results of the CFA for the construct of intra-brand image confusion in the main survey
SEM visualizing the assumed relationships and effects between the construct of intra-brand image confusion and the single latent and manifest variables
This study investigates the causes and effects of assortment widening and proposes a measurement scale for the concept of intra-brand image confusion in the automotive industry. The concept of an intra-brand image confusion is examined using the example of the automotive industry because this industry sector is one of the most important industry sectors in various Western economies. Consumers use cars to express themselves, and the brands maintain relatively close relationships with their customers. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was used to develop and verify the scale. Structural equation modeling demonstrated the relevance of the intra-brand image confusion construct. The relevance of intra-brand image confusion was quantified, and the presence of such confusion was demonstrated. A reflective method for measuring the construct of intra-brand image confusion is proposed. Validation in other industries, where customers are generally less involved, is needed. Due to the significant drawbacks of assortment widening, practitioners are advised to pay close attention to interdependencies within an assortment. As shown, larger assortments have substantial negative effects on buying-relevant dimensions. The results of this study suggest that expanding assortments is a strategic measure in brand management that clearly has been overdone in the application example of the automotive industry.
Structural models and hypotheses for environmental and social sustainability advertising
The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of sustainability advertising on brand personality, credibility, attitude toward the ad and brand attitude; special attention was given to whether or not environmental and social sustainability advertising have different effects. The results of an online survey revealed that environmental sustainability advertising has a stronger influence than social sustainability advertising. Thus, the findings suggest that a focus on environmental aspects delivers the more impactful advertising content when promoting a brand’s sustainability. This result is consistent with the existing studies on the sub-dimensions of sustainability; although only researched in different contexts, earlier findings also showed that environmental sustainability has a higher impact. Furthermore, an explicit integration of environmental aspects into the measurement of brand personalities offers a new and interesting field of future research. The study is based on data collected from 166 respondents. The impact of sustainability advertising is investigated by an experimental manipulation of the advertising condition. To test the hypotheses, structural equation models are applied, as well as one-way analyses of variance.
Conceptual model
Though ample studies address the cocreation process, scholarly understanding of the outcome of such cocreative processes (i.e. cocreated value) lags behind, particularly with respect to brand-related cocreated value. Based on this gap, we explore S-D logic-informed customer cocreated brand value (CCBV), which reflects a customer’s assessment of the value derived from interactive, joint, or collaborative activities for or with brand-related actors. We also develop a model that identifies the CCBV antecedents of resource integration—which generates resource personalisation and institutionalisation—engagement, and sharing that combine to yield CCBV. In turn, CCBV generates modified tie-strength and modified network cohesion. Drawing on the model, we develop a set of propositions that consolidate CCBV-based insight, followed by an overview of implications that arise from our analyses.
Study 1: Interaction effect, extension evaluation
Study 2A: Interaction effect, extension evaluation
Spillover effects seem to be pervasive in consumers’ decision-making. Yet, research examining spillover effects of competing brands’ associations is scarce, particularly in the context of brand extensions. In this research, we examine the extent to which associations of rival brands are transferred from the parent category to an extension category and how it influences extension evaluations. In two studies, we demonstrate a spillover effect of rivalry associations such that the success (failure) of a prior extension by a rival brand leads to a more (less) favourable brand extension evaluation, this effect being present in a high (vs. low) fit category. In addition, we show that this effect is moderated by relative brand strength of the rival brand. A stronger spillover effect is observed when the extension of a market leader brand is introduced following a prior successful extension by a challenger brand.
Scale development process
In the omnichannel era, retailers have increased opportunities to provide unique brand experiences using a multiplicity of offline and online channels and touchpoints. Although the concept of brand experience is clearly defined, some authors have demanded a revision of the way in which it is measured to capture the complex brand experiences provided by omnichannel retailers. This paper follows a comprehensive process of scale development to suggest a retailer brand experience scale within the omnichannel context, focusing on single-brand retailers as they are able to provide richer shopping experiences. Our validated scale consists of 19 items grouped into eight dimensions: sensory, affective, intellectual, behavioural, lifestyle, pragmatic, relational, and social. This scale widens the existing domain of the brand experience construct by incorporating aspects of experience facilitated by the expanding number of digital media and channels that have augmented the physical channel in the omnichannel retail context. We conclude by proving that omnichannel retailer brand experience has positive impacts on customer satisfaction and loyalty.
Neolocalism has been identified as an important component in the current boom in microbreweries. When constructed actively and consciously, it can also be deployed in marketing as a method of brand-related storytelling. This argument is strengthened here through a case study focusing on Tornio Brewery, a microbrewery located near the southern edge of the Arctic in northern Finland. The qualitative research method used here involves the identification of stories related to neolocalism from the brand narrative composed of media releases, advertisements and other promotional material, in addition to beer names and labels. The themes emerging from this material—history and heritage, Lapland and the Arctic as geographic locations, the use of local ingredients and community involvement, as well as the culture and heritage of northern Finland—are then explored. Neolocalism is shown to provide a rich vein of storytelling that can be used effectively for marketing purposes as a holistic concept. While craft brewers have already explored neolocalism in their marketing efforts, the use of professional assistance in creating all-encompassing and meditated storylines is strongly recommended.
How brand purpose strategy inspires transformation of practices.
Source: Authors
Despite the concept of purpose gaining attention in the business world, academic research on purpose-driven branding is scarce and the cognitive–affective–conative categories used in previous studies are not sufficient to explain how it works. This paper outlines a framework that explains how purpose branding is performed in practice. Such a framework is lacking from the extant scholarship, the key reasons for which can be found in the research limitations in previous studies. We argue that studies on brand purpose should include new theoretical categories: consumer empowerment and transformation of practices. We advance this idea based on the theory of social practices. Using case studies of purpose-branding campaigns, we discuss how brand purpose empowers consumers and fosters transformations of their practices. We present a framework that explains how purpose branding works using the categories suggested.
Top-cited authors
John M.T. Balmer
  • Brunel University London
Hans Ruediger Kaufmann
  • University of Nicosia
Simona Romani
  • LUISS Guido Carli, Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali
Demetris Vrontis
  • University of Nicosia
Sandra Maria Correia Loureiro
  • ISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa