In this paper the theory of micropolar fluids with stretch is used to analyze blood flow in comparatively small arteries, say 100 μ dia. Physically micropolar fluids with stretch can provide a mathematical model to represent blood with its deformable substructure, since not only the independent rotation of red cells but also the flexibility of the cells are taken into account by the stretch or compression of the particles in plasma. No-slip conditions are assumed for the boundary conditions of the velocity, but the vorticity and the stretch of cells are not required to vanish at the boundaries. Exact solutions to the system of governing equations are given in a simple closed form. The explicit expressions of the velocity, microrotation velocity, microstretch are obtained. The results presented graphically are quite encouraging.
A study of two quantities is presented in the article: (1) Force needed to overcome friction, and (2) Coefficients of friction. Different bracket-archwire-angulation combinations are quantified to show relative comparisons for wires and brackets used clinically. Wires studied are 0·014, 0·016, 0·018, 0·020 round and 0·018 × 0·025, 0·021 × 0·025 rectangular. Three widths of brackets are investigated; 0·180, 0·135, 0·100, and four angulations are studied 0, 5, 10, 15 deg. All seventy-two possible combinations are measured both dry and with saliva acting as a lubricant.
The purpose of the present study was to compare the location of the body center of mass (CoM) determined by using a high accuracy reaction board (RB) and two different segment parameter models for motion analysis (Dempster, 1955, DEM and de Leva, 1996 adjusted from Zatsiorsky and Seluyanov, ZAT). The body CoM (expressed as percentage of the total body height) was determined from several subjects including athletes as well as physically active students and sedentary people. Some significant differences were found in the location of the body CoM between the used segment models and the reaction board method for all male subjects (n=58, 57.03±0.79%, 56.20±0.76% and 57.60±0.76% for RB, ZAT and DEM, respectively) and separately for male (n=12, RB 57.02±0.41%, ZAT 56.74±0.62%, DEM 58.19±0.60%) and female (n=12, RB 55.91±0.88%, ZAT 57.24±0.77%) students of physical activity. The ZAT model was a good match with RB for high jumpers (56.26±0.94% and 56.63±0.56%) whereas the DEM model was better for gymnasts (57.38±0.46% and 57.89±0.49%) and throwers (58.19±0.69% and 57.79±0.45%). For ice hockey players (IH) and ski jumpers (SJ) both segment models, ZAT and DEM, differed significantly from the reaction board results. The results of the present study showed that careful attention should be paid while selecting the proper model for motion analysis of different type of athletes.
This paper is an analysis of the motion of the leg and foot in the swing phase of a step. The analysis is based on the hypothesis that the behavior will be such as to minimize the amount of mechanical work done. Results of the analysis are the geometric position of the leg and the equivalent forces in the hip and knee joints as functions of time. Also included is the amount of work done as a function of cadence. Comparison is made with experimental results that are available in the literature.
This paper describes a new non-orthogonal decomposition method to determine effective torques for three-dimensional (3D) joint rotation. A rotation about a joint coordinate axis (e.g. shoulder internal/external rotation) cannot be explained only by the torque about the joint coordinate axis because the joint coordinate axes usually deviate from the principal axes of inertia of the entire kinematic chain distal to the joint. Instead of decomposing torques into three orthogonal joint coordinate axes, our new method decomposes torques into three "non-orthogonal effective axes" that are determined in such a way that a torque about each effective axis produces a joint rotation only about one of the joint coordinate axes. To demonstrate the validity of this new method, a simple internal/external rotation of the upper arm with the elbow flexed at 90 degrees was analyzed by both orthogonal and non-orthogonal decomposition methods. The results showed that only the non-orthogonal decomposition method could explain the cause-effect mechanism whereby three angular accelerations at the shoulder joint are produced by the gravity torque, resultant joint torque, and interaction torque. The proposed method would be helpful for biomechanics and motor control researchers to investigate the manner in which the central nervous system coordinates the gravity torque, resultant joint torque, and interaction torque to control 3D joint rotations.
The take-off phase (approximately 6m) of the jumps of all athletes participating in the individual HS-106m hill ski jumping competition at the Torino Olympics was filmed with two high-speed cameras. The high altitude of the Pragelato ski jumping venue (1600m) and slight tail wind in the final jumping round were expected to affect the results of this competition. The most significant correlation with the length of the jump was found in the in-run velocity (r=0.628, p<0.001, n=50). This was a surprise in Olympic level ski jumping, and suggests that good jumpers simply had smaller friction between their skis and the in-run tracks and/or the aerodynamic quality of their in-run position was better. Angular velocity of the hip joint of the best jumpers was also correlated with jumping distance (r=0.651, p<0.05, n=10). The best jumpers in this competition exhibited very different take-off techniques, but still they jumped approximately the same distance. This certainly improves the interests in ski jumping among athletes and spectators. The comparison between the take-off techniques of the best jumpers showed that even though the more marked upper body movement creates higher air resistance, it does not necessarily result in shorter jumping distance if the exposure time to high air resistance is not too long. A comparison between the first and second round jumps of the same jumpers showed that the final results in this competition were at least partly affected by the wind conditions.
The adaptation of bones to a change in function has been recognised for many centuries, but only recently have mathematical laws been proposed to describe it. One proposed mathematical law is based on the hypothesis that, after a change in load, the strain in the bone microstructure is regulated to a homeostatic equilibrium. Strain-adaptive remodelling has been used successfully to simulate bone adaptation around orthopaedic implants but the predictive capabilities are constrained because many empirical constants are required in the remodelling law (a reference stimulus, a zone of equilibrium stresses or 'lazy zone' and a parameter transducing macroscopic stresses to a tissue level stimulus). An alternative approach has been proposed. It is that bone adapts to attain an optimal strength by regulating the damage generated in its microstructural elements. The question is raised whether or not a mathematical law to predict the time course of bone adaptation can be derived for damage-adaptive remodelling in a similar way to the mathematical laws based on a strain stimulus. In the present study, the hypotheses required to develop damage-adaptive remodelling laws are proposed and a remodelling law to predict the time course of bone adaptation is derived. It is shown that this is an integral remodelling law which accounts naturally for the stress history to which the tissue has been exposed since formation. A simulation of the adaptive response of a bone diaphysis under a change in torsional load shows that the law gives physically reasonable predictions. The initial remodelling prediction is similar to strain-adaptive remodelling. However, in the later stages of remodelling, the predictions differ from strain-adaptive remodelling in that direct convergence to a homeostatic strain is not predicted. Instead, undershoot (in the case of a reduction in load) and overshoot (in the case of an increase in load) are predicted.
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury commonly occurs during single limb landing or stopping from a run, yet the conditions that influence ACL strain are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to develop, test and apply a 3D specimen-specific dynamic simulation model of the knee designed to evaluate the influence of deceleration forces during running to a stop (single-leg landing) on ACL strain. This work tested the conceptual development of the model by simulating a physical experiment that provided direct measurements of ACL strain during vertical impact loading (peak value 1294N) with the leg near full extension. The properties of the soft tissue structures were estimated by simulating previous experiments described in the literature. A key element of the model was obtaining precise anatomy from segmented MR images of the soft tissue structures and articular geometry for the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints of the knee used in the cadaver experiment. The model predictions were correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.889) to the temporal and amplitude characteristic of the experimental strains. The simulation model was then used to test the balance between ACL strain produced by quadriceps contraction and the reductions in ACL strain associated with the posterior braking force. When posterior forces that replicated in vivo conditions were applied, the peak ACL strain was reduced. These results suggest that the typical deceleration force that occurs during running to a single limb landing can substantially reduce the strain in the ACL relative to conditions associated with an isolated single limb landing from a vertical jump.
As a hybrid between a hypodermic needle and transdermal patch, we have used microfabrication technology to make arrays of micron-scale needles that transport drugs and other compounds across the skin without causing pain. However, not all microneedle geometries are able to insert into skin at reasonable forces and without breaking. In this study, we experimentally measured and theoretically modeled two critical mechanical events associated with microneedles: the force required to insert microneedles into living skin and the force needles can withstand before fracturing. Over the range of microneedle geometries investigated, insertion force was found to vary linearly with the interfacial area of the needle tip. Measured insertion forces ranged from approximately 0.1-3N, which is sufficiently low to permit insertion by hand. The force required to fracture microneedles was found to increase with increasing wall thickness, wall angle, and possibly tip radius, in agreement with finite element simulations and a thin shell analytical model. For almost all geometries considered, the margin of safety, or the ratio of fracture force to insertion force, was much greater than one and was found to increase with increasing wall thickness and decreasing tip radius. Together, these results provide the ability to predict insertion and fracture forces, which facilitates rational design of microneedles with robust mechanical properties.
A rheological motor model that satisfies the major mechanical properties of the skeletal muscle is proposed. The model consists of two Maxwell elements and a Voigt element connected in parallel with each other and has a force generator in it. The model well explains the mechanical behavior in quick and slow recovery phases in the isometric contraction of the muscle and achieves a sufficient isotonic shortening speed. The energy liberation of the motor in isotonic contraction is calculated and a mechanism of control is proposed, which operates so as to decrease the dissipated energy by altering the weights of the elastic and viscous constants in Maxwell elements. And thereby it becomes possible for the motor to possess non-linearity in energy liberation and load-velocity relation alike in muscle. The model would be a base model to be utilized for analyzing the kinetics of human macrosystems and/or for modeling the human neuromuscular system of motion control.
Viscoelastic properties of skin samples were measured in three types of mice (tight skin, Tsk, control and Mov-13), that are known to differ with regard to content of type I collagen. The experimental design used uniaxial stretching and measured the creep response and the complex compliance. The creep response was measured directly. The complex compliance was determined using a Wiener-Volterra constitutive model for each sample. The models were calculated from data obtained by applying a stress input having a pseudo-Gaussian waveform and measuring the strain response. The storage compliance of Mov-13 and control skin were similar and were greater than Tsk (p<0.001). The loss compliance of each group was significantly different (p<0.001) from each other group; Tsk had the lowest and control had the highest loss compliance. The phase angle of the Mov-13 and Tsk were similar and were less than the controls (p<0.001). The creep response was fit with a linear viscoelastic model. None of the parameters in the creep model differed between groups. The results indicate that gene-targeted and mutant animals have soft tissue mechanical phenotypes that differ in complex ways. Caution should be exercised when using such animals as models to explore the role of specific constituents on tissue properties.
The purposes of this study were (1) determine if youth peak Achilles tendon (AT) strain, peak AT stress, and AT stiffness, measured during an isometric plantar flexion, differed after six months (mos) of growth, and (2) determine if sex, physical activity level (Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ-C)), and/or growth rate (GR) were related to these properties. AT stress, strain, and stiffness were quantified in 20 boys (13.47±0.81 years) and 22 girls (11.18±0.82 years) at 2 times (0 and 6 mos). GR (change in height in 6 mos) was not significantly different between boys and girls (3.5±1.4 and 3.4±1.1cm/6 mos respectively). Peak AT strain and stiffness (mean 3.8±0.4% and 128.9±153.6N/mm, respectively) did not differ between testing sessions or sex. Peak AT stress (22.1±2.4 and 24.0±2.1MPa at 0 and 6 mos, respectively) did not differ between sex and increased significantly at 6 mos due to a significant decrease in AT cross-sectional area (40.6±1.3 and 38.1±1.6mm(2) at 0 and 6 mos, respectively) with no significant difference in peak AT force (882.3±93.9 and 900.3± 65.5N at 0 and 6 mos, respectively). Peak AT stress was significantly greater in subjects with greater PAQ-C scores (9.1% increase with 1 unit increase in PAQ-C score) and smaller in subjects with faster GRs (13.8% decrease with 1cm/6 mos increase in GR). These results indicate that of the AT mechanical properties quantified, none differed between sex, and only peak AT stress significantly differed after 6 months and was related to GR and physical activity.
With the help of a biomechanical neck model, several normal postures of an F-16 pilot were analysed. Measurements of accelerations and head positions were obtained during four flights, including simulated air combat. With the help of a model, muscle forces and joint reaction forces in the neck were estimated. Although at the present stage of research results of calculations must be interpreted carefully, conclusions can be drawn with respect to sitting posture, head position and helmet devices. The backward inclined back rest of the F-16 chair decrease the lordosis of the cervical spine, resulting in reduced calculated forces in the lower cervical spine. In high load situations, calculated maximal forces are of the same order of magnitude as failure loads of vertebrae and estimations of maximum muscle forces. The calculated neck load is increased substantially by the helmet and helmet-mounted devices. This load can be reduced by lightening the helmet or shifting the centre of mass of the helmet backwards.