Journal of Biomechanics

Published by Elsevier
Online ISSN: 0021-9290
Publications
Article
In this paper the theory of micropolar fluids with stretch is used to analyze blood flow in comparatively small arteries, say 100 μ dia. Physically micropolar fluids with stretch can provide a mathematical model to represent blood with its deformable substructure, since not only the independent rotation of red cells but also the flexibility of the cells are taken into account by the stretch or compression of the particles in plasma. No-slip conditions are assumed for the boundary conditions of the velocity, but the vorticity and the stretch of cells are not required to vanish at the boundaries. Exact solutions to the system of governing equations are given in a simple closed form. The explicit expressions of the velocity, microrotation velocity, microstretch are obtained. The results presented graphically are quite encouraging.
 
Article
A study of two quantities is presented in the article: (1) Force needed to overcome friction, and (2) Coefficients of friction. Different bracket-archwire-angulation combinations are quantified to show relative comparisons for wires and brackets used clinically. Wires studied are 0·014, 0·016, 0·018, 0·020 round and 0·018 × 0·025, 0·021 × 0·025 rectangular. Three widths of brackets are investigated; 0·180, 0·135, 0·100, and four angulations are studied 0, 5, 10, 15 deg. All seventy-two possible combinations are measured both dry and with saliva acting as a lubricant.
 
Article
The purpose of the present study was to compare the location of the body center of mass (CoM) determined by using a high accuracy reaction board (RB) and two different segment parameter models for motion analysis (Dempster, 1955, DEM and de Leva, 1996 adjusted from Zatsiorsky and Seluyanov, ZAT). The body CoM (expressed as percentage of the total body height) was determined from several subjects including athletes as well as physically active students and sedentary people. Some significant differences were found in the location of the body CoM between the used segment models and the reaction board method for all male subjects (n=58, 57.03±0.79%, 56.20±0.76% and 57.60±0.76% for RB, ZAT and DEM, respectively) and separately for male (n=12, RB 57.02±0.41%, ZAT 56.74±0.62%, DEM 58.19±0.60%) and female (n=12, RB 55.91±0.88%, ZAT 57.24±0.77%) students of physical activity. The ZAT model was a good match with RB for high jumpers (56.26±0.94% and 56.63±0.56%) whereas the DEM model was better for gymnasts (57.38±0.46% and 57.89±0.49%) and throwers (58.19±0.69% and 57.79±0.45%). For ice hockey players (IH) and ski jumpers (SJ) both segment models, ZAT and DEM, differed significantly from the reaction board results. The results of the present study showed that careful attention should be paid while selecting the proper model for motion analysis of different type of athletes.
 
Article
This paper is an analysis of the motion of the leg and foot in the swing phase of a step. The analysis is based on the hypothesis that the behavior will be such as to minimize the amount of mechanical work done. Results of the analysis are the geometric position of the leg and the equivalent forces in the hip and knee joints as functions of time. Also included is the amount of work done as a function of cadence. Comparison is made with experimental results that are available in the literature.
 
Article
This paper describes a new non-orthogonal decomposition method to determine effective torques for three-dimensional (3D) joint rotation. A rotation about a joint coordinate axis (e.g. shoulder internal/external rotation) cannot be explained only by the torque about the joint coordinate axis because the joint coordinate axes usually deviate from the principal axes of inertia of the entire kinematic chain distal to the joint. Instead of decomposing torques into three orthogonal joint coordinate axes, our new method decomposes torques into three "non-orthogonal effective axes" that are determined in such a way that a torque about each effective axis produces a joint rotation only about one of the joint coordinate axes. To demonstrate the validity of this new method, a simple internal/external rotation of the upper arm with the elbow flexed at 90 degrees was analyzed by both orthogonal and non-orthogonal decomposition methods. The results showed that only the non-orthogonal decomposition method could explain the cause-effect mechanism whereby three angular accelerations at the shoulder joint are produced by the gravity torque, resultant joint torque, and interaction torque. The proposed method would be helpful for biomechanics and motor control researchers to investigate the manner in which the central nervous system coordinates the gravity torque, resultant joint torque, and interaction torque to control 3D joint rotations.
 
Article
The take-off phase (approximately 6m) of the jumps of all athletes participating in the individual HS-106m hill ski jumping competition at the Torino Olympics was filmed with two high-speed cameras. The high altitude of the Pragelato ski jumping venue (1600m) and slight tail wind in the final jumping round were expected to affect the results of this competition. The most significant correlation with the length of the jump was found in the in-run velocity (r=0.628, p<0.001, n=50). This was a surprise in Olympic level ski jumping, and suggests that good jumpers simply had smaller friction between their skis and the in-run tracks and/or the aerodynamic quality of their in-run position was better. Angular velocity of the hip joint of the best jumpers was also correlated with jumping distance (r=0.651, p<0.05, n=10). The best jumpers in this competition exhibited very different take-off techniques, but still they jumped approximately the same distance. This certainly improves the interests in ski jumping among athletes and spectators. The comparison between the take-off techniques of the best jumpers showed that even though the more marked upper body movement creates higher air resistance, it does not necessarily result in shorter jumping distance if the exposure time to high air resistance is not too long. A comparison between the first and second round jumps of the same jumpers showed that the final results in this competition were at least partly affected by the wind conditions.
 
Article
The adaptation of bones to a change in function has been recognised for many centuries, but only recently have mathematical laws been proposed to describe it. One proposed mathematical law is based on the hypothesis that, after a change in load, the strain in the bone microstructure is regulated to a homeostatic equilibrium. Strain-adaptive remodelling has been used successfully to simulate bone adaptation around orthopaedic implants but the predictive capabilities are constrained because many empirical constants are required in the remodelling law (a reference stimulus, a zone of equilibrium stresses or 'lazy zone' and a parameter transducing macroscopic stresses to a tissue level stimulus). An alternative approach has been proposed. It is that bone adapts to attain an optimal strength by regulating the damage generated in its microstructural elements. The question is raised whether or not a mathematical law to predict the time course of bone adaptation can be derived for damage-adaptive remodelling in a similar way to the mathematical laws based on a strain stimulus. In the present study, the hypotheses required to develop damage-adaptive remodelling laws are proposed and a remodelling law to predict the time course of bone adaptation is derived. It is shown that this is an integral remodelling law which accounts naturally for the stress history to which the tissue has been exposed since formation. A simulation of the adaptive response of a bone diaphysis under a change in torsional load shows that the law gives physically reasonable predictions. The initial remodelling prediction is similar to strain-adaptive remodelling. However, in the later stages of remodelling, the predictions differ from strain-adaptive remodelling in that direct convergence to a homeostatic strain is not predicted. Instead, undershoot (in the case of a reduction in load) and overshoot (in the case of an increase in load) are predicted.
 
Article
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury commonly occurs during single limb landing or stopping from a run, yet the conditions that influence ACL strain are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to develop, test and apply a 3D specimen-specific dynamic simulation model of the knee designed to evaluate the influence of deceleration forces during running to a stop (single-leg landing) on ACL strain. This work tested the conceptual development of the model by simulating a physical experiment that provided direct measurements of ACL strain during vertical impact loading (peak value 1294N) with the leg near full extension. The properties of the soft tissue structures were estimated by simulating previous experiments described in the literature. A key element of the model was obtaining precise anatomy from segmented MR images of the soft tissue structures and articular geometry for the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints of the knee used in the cadaver experiment. The model predictions were correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.889) to the temporal and amplitude characteristic of the experimental strains. The simulation model was then used to test the balance between ACL strain produced by quadriceps contraction and the reductions in ACL strain associated with the posterior braking force. When posterior forces that replicated in vivo conditions were applied, the peak ACL strain was reduced. These results suggest that the typical deceleration force that occurs during running to a single limb landing can substantially reduce the strain in the ACL relative to conditions associated with an isolated single limb landing from a vertical jump.
 
Article
As a hybrid between a hypodermic needle and transdermal patch, we have used microfabrication technology to make arrays of micron-scale needles that transport drugs and other compounds across the skin without causing pain. However, not all microneedle geometries are able to insert into skin at reasonable forces and without breaking. In this study, we experimentally measured and theoretically modeled two critical mechanical events associated with microneedles: the force required to insert microneedles into living skin and the force needles can withstand before fracturing. Over the range of microneedle geometries investigated, insertion force was found to vary linearly with the interfacial area of the needle tip. Measured insertion forces ranged from approximately 0.1-3N, which is sufficiently low to permit insertion by hand. The force required to fracture microneedles was found to increase with increasing wall thickness, wall angle, and possibly tip radius, in agreement with finite element simulations and a thin shell analytical model. For almost all geometries considered, the margin of safety, or the ratio of fracture force to insertion force, was much greater than one and was found to increase with increasing wall thickness and decreasing tip radius. Together, these results provide the ability to predict insertion and fracture forces, which facilitates rational design of microneedles with robust mechanical properties.
 
Article
A rheological motor model that satisfies the major mechanical properties of the skeletal muscle is proposed. The model consists of two Maxwell elements and a Voigt element connected in parallel with each other and has a force generator in it. The model well explains the mechanical behavior in quick and slow recovery phases in the isometric contraction of the muscle and achieves a sufficient isotonic shortening speed. The energy liberation of the motor in isotonic contraction is calculated and a mechanism of control is proposed, which operates so as to decrease the dissipated energy by altering the weights of the elastic and viscous constants in Maxwell elements. And thereby it becomes possible for the motor to possess non-linearity in energy liberation and load-velocity relation alike in muscle. The model would be a base model to be utilized for analyzing the kinetics of human macrosystems and/or for modeling the human neuromuscular system of motion control.
 
Article
Viscoelastic properties of skin samples were measured in three types of mice (tight skin, Tsk, control and Mov-13), that are known to differ with regard to content of type I collagen. The experimental design used uniaxial stretching and measured the creep response and the complex compliance. The creep response was measured directly. The complex compliance was determined using a Wiener-Volterra constitutive model for each sample. The models were calculated from data obtained by applying a stress input having a pseudo-Gaussian waveform and measuring the strain response. The storage compliance of Mov-13 and control skin were similar and were greater than Tsk (p<0.001). The loss compliance of each group was significantly different (p<0.001) from each other group; Tsk had the lowest and control had the highest loss compliance. The phase angle of the Mov-13 and Tsk were similar and were less than the controls (p<0.001). The creep response was fit with a linear viscoelastic model. None of the parameters in the creep model differed between groups. The results indicate that gene-targeted and mutant animals have soft tissue mechanical phenotypes that differ in complex ways. Caution should be exercised when using such animals as models to explore the role of specific constituents on tissue properties.
 
Article
The purposes of this study were (1) determine if youth peak Achilles tendon (AT) strain, peak AT stress, and AT stiffness, measured during an isometric plantar flexion, differed after six months (mos) of growth, and (2) determine if sex, physical activity level (Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ-C)), and/or growth rate (GR) were related to these properties. AT stress, strain, and stiffness were quantified in 20 boys (13.47±0.81 years) and 22 girls (11.18±0.82 years) at 2 times (0 and 6 mos). GR (change in height in 6 mos) was not significantly different between boys and girls (3.5±1.4 and 3.4±1.1cm/6 mos respectively). Peak AT strain and stiffness (mean 3.8±0.4% and 128.9±153.6N/mm, respectively) did not differ between testing sessions or sex. Peak AT stress (22.1±2.4 and 24.0±2.1MPa at 0 and 6 mos, respectively) did not differ between sex and increased significantly at 6 mos due to a significant decrease in AT cross-sectional area (40.6±1.3 and 38.1±1.6mm(2) at 0 and 6 mos, respectively) with no significant difference in peak AT force (882.3±93.9 and 900.3± 65.5N at 0 and 6 mos, respectively). Peak AT stress was significantly greater in subjects with greater PAQ-C scores (9.1% increase with 1 unit increase in PAQ-C score) and smaller in subjects with faster GRs (13.8% decrease with 1cm/6 mos increase in GR). These results indicate that of the AT mechanical properties quantified, none differed between sex, and only peak AT stress significantly differed after 6 months and was related to GR and physical activity.
 
Article
With the help of a biomechanical neck model, several normal postures of an F-16 pilot were analysed. Measurements of accelerations and head positions were obtained during four flights, including simulated air combat. With the help of a model, muscle forces and joint reaction forces in the neck were estimated. Although at the present stage of research results of calculations must be interpreted carefully, conclusions can be drawn with respect to sitting posture, head position and helmet devices. The backward inclined back rest of the F-16 chair decrease the lordosis of the cervical spine, resulting in reduced calculated forces in the lower cervical spine. In high load situations, calculated maximal forces are of the same order of magnitude as failure loads of vertebrae and estimations of maximum muscle forces. The calculated neck load is increased substantially by the helmet and helmet-mounted devices. This load can be reduced by lightening the helmet or shifting the centre of mass of the helmet backwards.
 
Article
Segments of 35 thoracic and 16 abdominal human aortas, including nine pairs, aged 30-78 yr at autopsy, were perfused with 37 degrees C Tyrode's solution at in situ length. Diameter changes due to 20 mmHg pressure steps between 20 and 180 mmHg were measured to 1 micron accuracy at an equivalent noise level of 0.1 micron RMS, using balanced transducers. Aortic creep curves at each pressure level were described individually by a constant plus bi-exponential creep model characterized by two creep fractions (alpha 1 and alpha 2) and two time constants (tau 1 and tau 2). Creep fractions and time constants increased substantially with the pressure level, indicating a significant effect of pressure or distension on aortic viscoelasticity. At 110 mmHg the mean +/- 1 S.D. parameter values were: thoracic aorta: alpha 1 = 0.076 +/- 0.017, alpha 2 = 0.102 +/- 0.028, tau 1 = 0.73 +/- 0.29 s, tau 2 = 14.0 +/- 4.1 s; abdominal aorta: alpha 1 = 0.078 +/- 0.017, alpha 2 = 0.101 +/- 0.025, tau 1 = 0.61 +/- 0.12 s, tau 2 = 12.1 +/- 3.4 s. Nine paired comparisons at each pressure level showed that creep fractions and time constants of thoracic and abdominal segments were not significantly different (p = 0.05).
 
Article
Based on a large-scale anthropometric measurements of 5290 individuals (2435 males and 2855 females) of the Bulgarian population aged between 30 and 40 years, we present 16-segmental 3D geometrical model of the human body of the average Bulgarian male and female and calculate mass, volume, location of the mass center and moments of inertia for all the segments for both genders. This study extends current anthropometrical data pool of Caucasian. Wherever possible, the comparison between our model results and data reported in literature for other Caucasian shows an overall good agreement, thus supporting the validity of the described method.
 
Article
From reading the Elementorum Myologiae Specimen of 1667 by Niels Stensen (Steno), I assert that the text and illustrations contain an observation-based theory on the mechanics of muscle contraction: (1) Based on the study of the structure and motion of several muscles in different animals and in man, Stensen described the contraction of parallel equally long motor fibers formated as uni- or multipennate structures, each forming a parallelepipedon between parallel tendon plates. The parallelepipedon was used as a model allowing Stensen to apply mathematical methods in the argumentation. When the motor fibers contract, the tendons move in parallel planes, the muscle shortens, but the distance between the tendon planes does not change. There will appear a swelling, even if the volume of the model remains the same. Therefore, the swelling observed during contraction, according to Stensen, is no argument for an increase in muscle bulk and no argument against contraction without any change of muscle volume. (2) In the first century after its proposal, different arguments were published against Stensen's theory: in 1680 by Borelli (De Motu Animalium), 1694 by Bernoulli (De Motu Musculorum), 1743 by Boerhaave (Praelectiones), and 1762 by Haller (Elementa Physiologiae). When read today, these arguments are irrelevant, erroneous, or without scientific documentation. However, by the end of the 18th century, Stensen's theory all but disappeared from the science literature. (3) Anatomical and biomechanical studies published after 1980 show that the foundation and applicability of Stensen's theory are still valid. (4) While earlier considered to be perhaps Stensen's weakest work, arguments are presented to reappraise Elementorum as one of Stensen's significant publications and as a significant work in the biomechanical sciences.
 
Article
A quantitative assessment of bone tissue stresses and strains is essential for the understanding of failure mechanisms associated with osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, loosening of implants and cell-mediated adaptive bone-remodeling processes. According to Wolff’s trajectorial hypothesis, the trabecular architecture is such that minimal tissue stresses are paired with minimal weight. This paradigm at least suggests that, normally, stresses and strains should be distributed rather evenly over the trabecular architecture. Although bone stresses at the apparent level were determined with finite element analysis (FEA), by assuming it to be continuous, there is no data available on trabecular tissue stresses or strains of bones in situ under physiological loading conditions. The objectives of this project were to supply reasonable estimates of these quantities for the canine femur, to compare trabecular-tissue to apparent stresses, and to test Wolff’s hypothesis in a quantitative sense. For that purpose, the newly developed method of large-scale micro-FEA was applied in conjunction with micro-CT structural measurements.
 
Article
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies of airflow in a digital reference model of the 17-generation airway (bronchial tree) were accomplished using the FLUENT computational code, based on the anatomical model by Schmidt et al. [2004. A digital reference model of the human bronchial tree. Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics 28, 203-211]. The lung model consists of 6.744 x 10(6) unstructured tetrahedral computational cells. A steady-state airflow rate of 28.3L/min was used to simulate the transient turbulent flow regime using a large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence model. This CFD mesh represents the anatomically realistic asymmetrical branching pattern of the larger airways. It is demonstrated that the nature of the secondary vortical flows, which develop in such asymmetric airways, varies with the specific anatomical characteristics of the branching conduits.
 
Article
Multiple murine models have proven useful in studying the natural history of neovessel development in the tissue engineering of vascular grafts. Nevertheless, to better understand longitudinal changes in the biomechanics of such neovessels, we must first quantify native tissue structure and properties. In this paper, we present the first biaxial mechanical data for, and nonlinear constitutive modeling of, &QJ;the inferior vena cava from two models used in tissue engineering: wild-type C57BL/6 and immunodeficient CB-17 SCID/bg mice. Results show that inferior vena cava from the latter are significantly stiffer in the circumferential direction, both materially (as assessed by a stored energy function) and structurally (as assessed by the compliance), despite a lower intramural content of fibrillar collagen and similar wall thickness. Quantifying the natural history of neovessel development in different hosts could lead to increased insight into the mechanisms by which cells fashion and maintain extracellular matrix in order to match best the host stiffness while ensuring sufficient vascular integrity.
 
Article
We investigated the thermal effects on heart rate, hemodynamics, and response of vitelline arteries of stage-18 chicken embryos. Heart rate was monitored by a high-speed imaging method, while hemodynamic quantities were evaluated using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Experiments were carried out at seven different temperatures (36-42 °C with 1 °C interval) after 1h of incubation to stabilize the heart rate. The heart rate increased in a linear manner (r = 0.992). Due to the increased cardiac output (or heart rate), the hemodynamic quantities such as mean velocity (U(mean)), velocity fluctuation (U(fluc)), and peak velocity (U(peak)) also increased with respect to the Womersley number (Ω) in the manner r = 0.599, 0.693, and 0.725, respectively. This indicates that the mechanical force exerting on the vessel walls increases. However, the active response (or regulation) of the vitelline arteries was not observed in this study.
 
Article
The effect of limb dynamics on trajectory formation is unclear. The natural frequency of a limb is the major factor in its dynamics. It has previously been shown with an indirect measurement method that the natural frequency of body segments is invariant during human growth from the age of 6 to 18. The aim of our study was to determine, using a direct measurement method, whether human growth affects: (1) lower limb dynamics (i.e. the natural frequency of the lower leg) and (2) the maximum velocities of the knee during selected motor tasks. In 20 non-disabled children, 6-18 years of age, measurements were taken of the natural frequency of the lower leg (including the foot), and the maximum velocities of knee flexion and extension during voluntary movement (MVV) and at initial and terminal swing phases of self-paced walking (WAL). The velocities were also estimated using a dynamic model and the results were compared to the measured velocities with a paired t-test. Correlations among the frequencies, velocities, and body height (an indicator of growth) were calculated. The natural frequency of the lower leg (mean+/-standard deviation, omega(0)=6.58+/-0.54s(-1)), maximum velocities of knee extension and flexion during voluntary movement (MVV(e)=10.1+/-1.8rads(-1) and MVV(f)=7.8+/-1.3rads(-1), respectively), and maximum velocities of knee flexion and extension during the swing phase of walking (WAL(f)=5.4+/-0.6rads(-1) and WAL(e)=6.3+/-0.87rads(-1), respectively) were each found to be independent of body height. The MVV measured velocities were 22% larger and WAL(f) measured velocities were 25% smaller than the velocities predicted from the dynamic model (p<0.05). The study found that a segment's dynamic properties, as well as selected kinematics, may be considered invariant with human growth.
 
Article
Few successful treatment modalities exist for surface-wide, full-thickness lesions of articular cartilage. Functional tissue engineering offers a great potential for the clinical management of such lesions. Our long-term hypothesis is that anatomically shaped tissue constructs of entire articular layers can be engineered in vitro on a bony substrate, for subsequent implantation. To determine the feasibility, this study investigated the development of bilayered scaffolds of chondrocyte-seeded agarose on natural trabecular bone. In a series of three experiments, bovine chondrocytes were seeded in (1) cylindrical bilayered constructs of agarose and bovine trabecular bone, 0.53 cm2 in surface area and 3.2 mm thick, and were cultured for up to 6 weeks; (2) chondrocyte-seeded anatomically shaped agarose constructs reproducing the human patellar articular layer (area=11.7 cm2, mean thickness=3.4 mm), cultured for up to 6 weeks; and (3) chondrocyte-seeded anatomically shaped agarose constructs of the patella (same as above) integrated into a corresponding anatomically shaped trabecular bone substrate, cultured for up to 2 weeks. Articular layer geometry, previously acquired from human cadaver joints, was used in conjunction with computer-aided design and manufacturing technology to create these anatomically accurate molds. In all experiments, chondrocytes remained viable over the entire culture period, with the agarose maintaining its shape while remaining firmly attached to the underlying bony substrate (when present). With culture time, the constructs exhibited positive type II collagen staining as well as increased matrix elaboration (Safranin O staining for glycosaminoglycans) and material properties (Young's modulus and aggregate modulus). Despite the use of relatively large agarose constructs partially integrated with trabecular bone, no adverse diffusion limitation effects were observed. Anatomically shaped constructs on a bony substrate may represent a new paradigm in the design of a functional articular cartilage tissue replacement.
 
Article
In this paper the concept of a three-dimensional biomechanical model of the human shoulder is introduced. This model is used to analyze static load sharing between the muscles, the bones and the ligaments. The model consists of all shoulder structures, which means that different positions and different load situations may be analyzed using the same model. Solutions can be found for the complete range of shoulder motion. However, this article focuses only on elevation in the scapular plane and on forces in structures attached to the humerus. The intention is to expand the model in future studies to also involve the forces acting on the other shoulder bones: the scapula and the clavicle. The musculoskeletal forces in the shoulder complex are predicted utilizing the optimization technique with the sum of squared muscle stresses as an objective function. Numerical results predict that among the muscles crossing the glenohumeral joint parts of the deltoideus, the infraspinatus, the supraspinatus, the subscapularis, the pectoralis major, the coracobrachialis and the biceps are the muscles most activated during this sort of abduction. Muscle-force levels reached values of 150 N when the hand load was 1 kg. The results from the model seem to be qualitatively accurate, but it is concluded that in the future development of the model the direction of the contact force in the glenohumeral joint must be constrained.
 
Article
Several modes of mechanical stimulation, including compression, shear, and hydrostatic pressure, have been shown to modulate chondrocyte matrix synthesis, but the effects of mechanical tension have not been widely explored. Since articular cartilage is primarily loaded in compression, tension is not generally viewed as a major contributor to the stress state of healthy tissue. However, injury or attempted repair may cause tension to become more significant. Additionally, fibrocartilaginous tissues experience significant tensile stresses in their normal mechanical environment. In this study we investigated mechanical tension as a means to modulate matrix synthesis and cytoskeletal organization in bovine articular chondrocytes and meniscal fibrochondrocytes (MFCs) in a three-dimensional fibrin construct culture system. Oscillatory tension was applied to constructs at 1.0 Hz and 0-10% displacement variation using a custom device. For nearly all conditions and both cell types, oscillatory tension inhibited matrix synthesis as indicated by 3H-proline and 35S-sulfate incorporation. Additionally, oscillatory tension significantly increased proliferation by chondrocytes but not MFCs. Confocal imaging revealed that all cells initially displayed a rounded morphology, but over time MFCs spontaneously developed a three-dimensional, stellate morphology with numerous projections containing organized cytoskeletal filaments. Interestingly, while unloaded chondrocytes remained rounded, chondrocytes subjected to oscillatory tension developed a similar stellate morphology. Both the biochemical and morphological results of this study have important implications for successfully developing cartilage and fibrocartilage tissue replacements and repair strategies.
 
Adjusted segment center of mass proportions*
Article
One of the most commonly-referenced studies on body segment masses and centers of mass is by Clauser et al. (AMRL Technical Report 69-70, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, 1969). The Clauser et al. data, however, are difficult to use, because the investigators used certain bony landmarks rather than joint centers as reference points for the center of mass proportions. The purpose of this study was to make adjustments to those proportions so that they could be applied directly to segments having joint centers as endpoints. The segments affected by these adjustments were the trunk, upper arm, forearm, thigh, and calf. These new proportions are markedly different than those originally reported by Clauser et al., especially for the trunk segment. Readers are cautioned against using the original proportions when using joint centers as segment endpoints.
 
Article
A set of regression equations was developed to fully utilize the data of Chandler et al. (AMRL Technical Report 74-137, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, 1975) to estimate segmental moments of inertia in living subjects. Using anthropometric measurements as predictors, moments of inertia can be computed about both transverse and longitudinal axes passing through each segment's center of mass. Symmetry about segment long axes is assumed. Because of the small sample size upon which these equations are based, it is suggested that they be used cautiously, especially to avoid extrapolation to subjects having anthropometric measurements outside the range of sample values.
 
Article
A major problem threatening the long-term integrity of total hip replacement is the loss of proximal bone often found around noncemented stems in the long term. It is generally accepted that 'stress shielding' is the cause for this problem: after implantation of the prosthesis the surrounding bone is partially 'shielding' from load carrying and starts to resorb. One of the proposed answers to this problem is the application of press-fitted stems. These smooth-surfaced implants are thought to provoke higher proximal bone loading, and, hence, less stress shielding than bonded implants, because they are wedged into the femur every time when loaded. However, in a two-year experiment in dogs, similar amounts of resorption of the proximal cortex were found around press-fitted and bonded implants. The question arises how similar resorption patterns can develop under completely different stress conditions, and whether this phenomenon can be explained by adaptive bone remodeling theories based on Wolff's law. In the present study an answer was sought for this question. An advanced iterative computer simulation model was used to analyze the remodeling process in the animal experiment. Three-dimensional finite element models were constructed from the animal experimental configuration, in which smooth, press-fitted stems were applied unilaterally in the canine. The FE model was integrated with iterative remodeling procedures, validated in earlier studies. In the model an appropriate non-linear representation of the loose bone-implant interface was realized, also capable of simulating the proximal interface gap that was found around the uncoated implants. The simulation models predicted similar amounts of proximal bone loss and distal bone densification as found in the animal model. Hence, the cortical bone loss could indeed be predicted by the strain-adaptive bone remodeling theory. By unraveling the simulation process, the question stated above could be answered. Densification of the distal bone bed during the initial remodeling process was found to cause reduced axial stem displacement (elastic subsidence), decreasing the wedging effect of the stem and, hence, decreasing the loading of the proximal bone, resulting in proximal bone loss. Hence, whereas in the case of bonded stems the proximal resorption process develops monotonously to a new equilibrium, the process around smooth, press-fitted stems develops nonmonotonously. This is due primarily to the unbonded interface conditions and the development of a proximal fibrous membrane. The remodeling process then gradually causes the stem to be jammed in the distal diaphyses (proximal 'stress bypass').
 
Top-cited authors
Van C Mow
  • Columbia University
Georg Bergmann
  • Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
Peter Cavanagh
  • University of Washington Seattle
Frans CT van der Helm
  • Delft University of Technology
Luca Cristofolini
  • University of Bologna