Journal of Biology and Life Science

Published by Macrothink Institute, Inc.
Online ISSN: 2157-6076
Publications
Journal of Biology and Life Science (JBLS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JBLS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 13, Number 2Bratko Filipic, CIETO, SloveniaBruno Edson-Chaves, USP&UECE, BrazilChandra S Bathula, Louisiana State University, USAGeonyzl Lepiten Alviola, Davao Doctors College, PhlippinesHomyra Tasnim, Louisiana State University, BangladeshNatalia Tkachuk, T.H. Shevchenko National University, UkraineRajaa Ahmed Mahmoud, University of Basrah, Iraq Kelvin LeeEditorial AssistantJournal of Biology and Life Science-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesTel: 1-702-953-1852 ext.510Fax: 1-702-420-2900E-mail 1: jbls@macrothink.orgE-mail 2: jbls@macrothink.comURL: http://jbls.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Biology and Life Science (JBLS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JBLS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 13, Number 1 Bratko Filipic, (CIETO), SloveniaHoe Yin Chen, Tunku Abdul Rahman University College, MalaysiaNatalia Tkachuk, T.H. Shevchenko National University “Chernihiv Colehium”, UkraineRagab A. El-Mergawi, National Research Centre, EgyptRajaa Ahmed Mahmoud, University of Basrah, IraqXiaohuang Cao, Guangdong Ocean University, China Kelvin LeeEditorial AssistantJournal of Biology and Life Science-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesTel: 1-702-953-1852 ext.510Fax: 1-702-420-2900E-mail 1: jbls@macrothink.orgE-mail 2: jbls@macrothink.comURL: http://jbls.macrothink.org
 
Four stereoisomers structures of Paichongding (IPP): (A) 5R,7R-IPP (RR-IPP), (B) 5S,7S-IPP (SS-IPP), (C) 5S,7R-IPP (SR-IPP), and (D) 5R,7S-IPP (RS-IPP) and the chiral centers have been marked R or S
Sphingobacterium sp. G1-14 genome features
Paichongding (IPP) and Imidacloprid (IMI) Chemical Structural Formulas and RR/SS-IPP metabolites (I1, I2, I3 and I4) by Sphingobacterium sp. G1-14.
In this study, we obtained a Paichongding (RR/SS-IPP) degrading Sphingobacterium sp. G1-14 by UV irradiation of the original strain G1-13. This new mutant strain showed excellent RR/SS-IPP degradation performance, and the degradation of ratio was up to 30 per cent after 7 days. Subsequently, we determined the mutant strain G 1-14 as Sphingobacterium based on the phylogenomic analyses. The circular chromosome of Sphingobacterium sp. G1-14 was presented in this paper by Illumina Hiseq platform combined with a third-generation sequencing platform. 5583 protein-coding sequences of the complete genome sequence were obtained, which is beneficial to deduced genes related to RR/SS-IPP degradation.
 
Trichoderma species , isolated from different producer regions of cocoa (Bahia, Brazil), were evaluated as for their capacity of usage in the biocontrol of the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa subgroup 1441, which causes the witches’ broom in cocoa . The isolates of Trichoderma were evaluated through individual indices so called %AP (Antagonistic Potential to Moniliophthora perniciosa subgroup 1441), %PG (Potential Growth in vitro) and %PSPr (Potential of Spore Production on rice) These indices were evaluated together, also they were used for the determination of Biological Control Potential (%BCP) of each antagonistic specie to the evaluated pathogen. Afterwards, the ability of the antagonistic to colonize and to produce spores on sterilized dry brooms was also evaluated. Some of the isolates Trichoderma spp showed a high %AP to the pathogen and high %PG, but did not present a significant %PSPr, turning impossible the spore production for biocontrol at commercial level. Significant differences were found within the individual indices among the species and isolates of the same species of Trichoderma spp, pointing out a great genetic variability among them. Trichoderma harzianum 911 showed to have the best biocontrol potential to the pathogen when compared to the other isolates, presenting a %BCP de 91.86% (mainly by the high %AP of 97,76%) a %PSPr of 99.53%, also producing 22.67 spores x 10 ⁹. mL ⁻¹ by dry broom segment. Trichoderma harzianum 911 showed to be as promising isolate for future researches on biocontrol of cocoa witches’ broom.
 
Composition of experimental diets for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Initial and final mean weight, mean weight gain, SGR, FCR and survival of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Treatments
To evaluate the nutritional quality of the shrimp by-products four approximately isonitrogenous (32 ± 2% crude protein) diets containing different types of shrimp waste meal were fed to duplicate groups of ten fry with an initial mean weight 1.43 ± 0.22g /fish for forty two (42) days. Fishes fed with diet D had the highest mean weight gain (MWG) and specific growth rate (SGR) and those fed with the control diet A had the lowest MWG and SGR. There were no noticeable change in food conversion ratio (FCR) of the fishes fed with diets B, C and D which are significantly different from the FCR of those that fed with control diet A. The survival of fry tilapia ranged from 70 to 100%, being 70% for D, 80% for B, 90% for C and 100% for A. There were no significant differences in body protein content among the fish fed with diets B, C, D and the initial fish. The lowest body protein was obtained in the fish fed with control diet. The tilapia fed with control diet had the highest body lipid content as compared to the initial fish. However, there were no significant differences in body lipid content among the fish fed test diets B, C and D as compared to the initial fish. The variations in body ash content of initial fish and those fed with test diets were significantly different. The initial fish had the highest body ash content.
 
O. niloticus breeding device: floating cages in Toho Lake of Benin
Water quality parameters recorded in male monosex O. niloticus floating cages during the study period (values are expressed as mean ± SE).
Morphometric parameters and body weight of male monosex O. niloticus at stocking and 215 th day of breeding in floating cages (values are expressed as mean ± SE).
This work evaluates the growth and body development of Oreochromis niloticus in floating cages in the Toho Lake of Benin. Thus, 6000 juvenile monosex male with an average initial weight of 8.87 ± 4.89 g and average initial total length of 7.87 ± 1.43 cm were randomly distributed in two floating cages (5 x 5 x 2.5 m3) at the stocking density of 3000 fish/cage. The fish were hand-fed to apparent satiation, three times daily, using 45-32% crude protein commercial pelleted floating feed Skretting®. The physico-chemical parameters of lake water recorded every 72 hours during the experiment were within the suitable ranges for fish culture and were as follows: temperature (27.78 ± 0.41 °C), pH (7.55 ± 0.22), dissolved oxygen (4.03 ± 0.96 mg/l), ammonium (0.31 ± 0.18 mg/l), nitrite (0.29 ± 0.07 mg/l) and nitrate (0.27 ± 0.12 mg/l). The variables studied at the end of the 215 days of rearing were as follows: final mean total length (26.61 ± 2.99 cm), final mean standard length (22.40 ± 2.74 cm), final mean predorsal length (6.93 ± 0.94 cm), final mean head length (3.45 ± 0.58 cm), final mean dorsal fin base length (13.55 ± 2.96 cm), final mean inter-orbital width (2.97 ± 0.37 cm), final mean body height (8.57 ± 1.56 cm) and final mean caudal peduncle height (3.27 ± 0.39 cm). The zootechnical growth parameters evaluated were as follows: survival rate (91.5%), final mean body weight (402.18 ± 137.05 g), average daily weight gain (1.83 ± 0.08 g), specific growth rate (0.77 ± 0.03%/day), feed conversion ratio (1.74 ± 0.09%) and protein efficiency ratio (1.62 ± 0.06). These results compared to the literature indicate interesting growth and body development and it would be important to promote in-cage farming of Oreochromis niloticus.
 
Composition of local test diets A1, A2 and A3 (g/100 0g) used for rearing juvenile Oreochromis niloticus
Values of the water quality parameters of the experimental tanks
Zootechnical parameters in Oreochromis niloticus subjected to five dietary treatments for 90 days
The study is a contribution to the development of a feed for juvenile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, from local raw materials in order to reduce the cost of feeding farmed tilapia in Senegal. Three feeds were formulated from local raw materials. The basic composition of the tested feeds is as follows: A1 (peanut meal, rice bran, millet bran, maize meal and no fish meal); A2 (peanut meal, rice bran, millet bran, maize meal and 10% fish meal) and A3 (peanut meal, rice bran, millet bran, maize meal and 25% fish meal). All feeds contain 31% protein. The trial compared three batches, in 2 replicates, with different diets. The initial weight of the juveniles was 0.37± 0.5g. The daily ration was distributed at 9 am and 4 pm. After 90 days of experiment, the final mean weights were 2.45 ± 0.5g; 2.75±0.5g; and 4.67 ± 0.5g for A1, A2, and A3, respectively. A performance test, of which the objective was to compare growth parameters, was conducted. The results of the growth parameters of juveniles fed A3 were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those fed A1 and A2. The weight growth study shows similar growth during the first month. However, from this date onwards, juveniles fed A3 show a faster growth, which is maintained throughout the experiment. On the other hand, the Protein Efficiency Coefficient and the Survival Rate showed no significant difference. The zootechnical parameters are not significantly different (p > 0.05) between the two tanks for the same feed treatment.
 
This experiment was carried out in order to know the variation of the morphometric relation between the length and the width of the shell of abalone Haliotis tuberculata as well as the evolution of the factor of condition.Haliotis tuberculata used in the study is a gastropod that belongs to the order Vetigastropoda, and the family Haliotidae. 135 abalones with an average weight of 5.55±1.24 g, an average length and shell width of 3.14±0.23 cm and 2.12±0.18 cm were selected for the experiment.These individuals were divided into three different densities (10, 15, 20 individuals) in nine (9) plastic tanks with a base area of 0.15 m2 of 3 tanks per density. The abalones from each tank were fed 70% of their body weight with available macroalgae such as Ulva lactuca and Dictiopeterus sp. Morphometric relationships that include the relationships between length-width and condition factor were determinedAt the end of 12 months of experimentation, changes in length, width, and annual average weight as a function of density indicate that low stocking densities favor a faster increase in these variables (length, width, and weight). The analysis of these relationships indicates a strong correlation between the length and width of the Haliotis tuberculata shell. However, it is noted the correlation between these two variables decreases inversely with density. The average values of the condition factor are 18.89 ± 0.96, 18.72 ± 1.18 and 18.59 ± 1.14 for densities D10, D15 and D20 respectively. Analysis of the results of this study shows that when population density becomes too high, the growth of H. tuberculata is slowed down both in weight and in size. The condition factor analysis also indicates that the best biological performance is obtained at the lowest density (D10) thus inducing better growth.
 
Means, Minimum (min) and maximum (max) length of Tagelus adansonii, sampled in Joal-Fadiouth lagoon, Senegal
Variation of the parameters of the size-weight relationship of T. adansonii according to periods and complexes (N= number of individuals collected, a=constant of the relation, r=Pearson correlation coefficient)
Synthesis of the results of the length-weight relationship for the genus Tagelus
Comparison between average length, average weight and condition index (CI)
Size distribution, length-weight relationship and condition index are some of the many parameters that contribute to the study of the growth, environmental conditions and reproduction of an aquatic species. For Tagelus adansonii, only a few studies were carried out on these parameters. This species is a bivalve of the solecurtidae family only found on the East Atlantic Coast between Mauritania and Angola. The objective of this study was to examine the biometric relationships as well as size and condition index variations, within the perspective of resource management. In this study, the average size obtained (47.78mm) from the monthly sampling in Joal Fadiouth lagoon was smaller compared to sizes obtained in other countries for the same genus and species. The size frequency distribution is unimodal, the most abundant class is 45-50mm. The mean condition index is 18.41±16.47 using the formula by Beninger and Lucas (1984). The values of the condition indices varied throughout the duration of the study. In the period of cold-to-warm transition (June) the maximum values of the condition indices were observed, while in the period of warm-to-cold transition (November to December), the minimum values were registered. The allometry is positive (3.07) in Joal as in most studies on this genus.
 
Mugil curema, known as white mullet, was one of the fish species encountered in the fisheries landings of the Saloum Delta. In this study, the morphometric parameters and the reproductive biology of this species were studied as well as the influence of environmental parameters on its reproduction. Experimental fisheries were carried out monthly in the Saloum Delta. The fish were caught using surface drift nets. The captured individuals were measured and weighed. The gonads were collected to determine the sex and the stages of sexual maturity. Out of a total of 406 individuals sampled in the Saloum Delta, 306 females and 100 males were identified, no individuals of undetermined sex were obtained. The sex ratio was globally in favor of females. Individuals in this study ranged in size from 102 to 385 mm and weight from 34.9 to 395 g. The allometric coefficient b was equal to 2.40 and indicated a negative allometry. The exploitation of the monthly IGS results indicated that reproduction was in April, May and June. The size at first sexual maturity indicated that the males matured at a size of 220 mm, lower than that of the females 226 mm.
 
Location of sampling sites (Ba et al., 2016) 
Monthly variation in sex-ratio of Sardinella aurita
Sex ratio of Sardinella aurita expressed in percentage of female according to various authors
The sizes at first sexual maturity of Sardinella aurita observed in different countries.
Size at 50% sexual maturity for females, males and combined
In this study, a total of 1068 specimens Sardinella aurita of which 553 females and 515 males were examined. The objectif of this study was to determine the reproductive parameters of Sardinella aurita. The sex ratio was significantly in favor of females (55%). The size at first sexual maturity was estimated at 18.9 cm for females and 18.0 cm for males. The monthly variation of sexual maturity stages and gonado-somatic index (GSI) allowed to locate the reproduction periods from February to June and from September to December. The mean absolute fecundity was estimated at 110.794 ± 7582 oocytes whereas relative fecundity was about 422 ± 26 oocytes per gram of female.
 
Nine specimens of the cestode parasites were recovered from the intestine of Clarias batrachus at Amravati, in the month of March, 1984. They were stained in Borax carmine, whole mount and histological slides of the worm were prepared for detail studies. The mature flattened specimens were long, cylindrical and measure 4.805 in length and 0.674-1.484 in breadth. Morphology and anatomy of the worm is fully discussed in this paper.
 
Location of the Aghien Lagoon
Standard length (SL in mm) and length-weight relationship (LWR), parameters for P. leonensis from the Aghien Lagoon
Monthly values of recruitment percentages
P. leonensis length frequency and fitted von Bertalanffy growth curves (L∞ = 126.84 mm SL, K = 0.67 year-1 , t 0 =-0.45 year) for the Aghien Lagoon.
Linearized capture curve of P. leonensis at the Aghien lagoon during the period June 2014 to May 2015
Demographic structure and level of exploitation of Pellonula leonensis in the Aghien lagoon were examined by applying length-weight relationship (LWR), Condition factor, Von Bertalanffy model, Mortality parameters, Exploitation rate, Recruitment pattern and Beverton and Holt analysis. Fish population were sampled monthly during one year between June 2014 and May 2015 from artisanal and experimental captures in the Aghien Lagoon. Except LWR and the condition factor, studied parameters were provided by the FiSAT II package. The negative allometric growth (b = 2.61) was reported for Pellonula leonensis. Mean values of the condition factor (CF) vary significantly from one month to another (Anova, p ˂ 0.05). Concerning growth parameters, results indicated that the asymptotic length (L∞) has been estimated at 126.84 mm SL, growth coefficient (K) was 0.67 year -1 and growth performance index (Φ') was 2.03. Growth modelization revealed 4 cohorts for Pellonula leonensis. The estimates of the total (Z), natural (M) and fishing (F) mortalities were 1.87, 0.92 and 0.95 year -1 respectively. The recruitment pattern was continuous throughout the year with two Gauss curve. The exploitation rate obtained (E = 0.51) was close to E0.1 (E0.1 = 0.55), thus indicating that the P. leonensis stock is in an optimum state of exploitation.
 
Patient's Clinical Features 
Correlation of the patients' serum CRP, IL-1β and IL-6 levels with the age and disease severity in the AKU patients 
Linear regression analysis for disease severity score prediction 
Data regarding the levels of inflammatory mediators in patients suffering of the rare disease Alkaptonuria are limited. C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-1 Beta (IL-1β) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) are acute-phase markers associated with joint inflammation. The aim of the present study is to compare the serum levels of the pro-inflammatory mediators, CRP, IL-1β and IL-6 in alkaptonuria patients (n = 17) with those measured for age-matched healthy controls (n = 17). Moreover, we attempt to determine the association between cytokine levels with the disease severity score and age using the Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression. The results show that the serum concentrations of the IL-1 β, IL-6 and CRP are higher in AKU patients compared with healthy controls, with a significant difference in IL-6 (p = 0.02). Moreover, a positive correlation is found between the patients' serum IL-6 and patients' age and the AKU Severity Score (r o = 0.73 and 0.7, respectively; p < 0.05). Thus, the patients' IL-6 serum levels can predict the disease severity score in alkaptonuria patients (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the IL-6 might play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammation in AKU patients and thus targeting it may be one mode of treatment in future. However, these findings need to be supported by further studies, conducted on a larger sample of patients.
 
Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are an essential tool in the fight against malaria. Physical integrity, durability and bio-effectiveness are key variables in the effectiveness of LLINs. The objective of this study was to identify the main factors affecting the survival of three brands of LLINs with different physical characteristics and to assess their bio-effectiveness. A cohort consisting of 1500 LLINs (500 of each) of the brands: DawaPlus®2.0 (polyester, 150 denier, 40 g/m2 fabric weight), PermaNet®2.0 and Yorkool® (polyester, 75 denier, alternating knit pattern with 85 g/m2 fabric weight) was monitored every 6 months in the communes of Ketou, Dogbo and Djougou (from October 2017 to September 2019) based on attrition and integrity measures and median survival in years. We also determined bio-efficacy using the WHO cone test. The physical presence rate was 26.4%, 21.4% and 48.6% respectively for DawaPlus®2.0, PermaNet®2.0 and Yorkool®. The main cause of loss of the three LLINs was displacement, 43.6% (in rural areas) versus 43.2% (in urban areas) with no significant difference (p ˃ 0.05). The median proportional hole index (pHI) ranged from 578 (IQR: 219-843) at 6 months to 196 (IQR: 46-524.5). After 24 months of use, 86.1% were in good condition (0≤pHI<65), 9% were damaged (65≤pHI<643) and 4.2% were too torn (643≤pHI). A significant decrease in physical survival of LLINs (all brands) was observed at 24 months (37.9%, range 34.7-41.3%) compared to 6 months (90.3%, range 88.7-91.8%) (p<0.001). The 24-hour mortality of the three LLINs met WHO requirements for efficacy. The decline in LLIN survival rates during this study highlights the need to develop and implement new strategies to manage this important vector control tool.
 
PCR amplification of the target gene fragment M: DL 15000 DNA Marker; 1: PDE2A PCR product
SDS-PAGE analysis of solubility of expressed PDE2A
SDS-PAGE analysis of purified PDE2A M: protein Marker; 1: supernate after ultrasonic disruption; 2: flow-through liquid; 3: eluent of Buffer B; 4: eluent of Buffer C; 5: eluent of Buffer D (concentrated 10 times)
SDS-PAGE analysis of PDE2A expression under different conditions (A) 1-3: expression time of 20, 30 and 40 hours; (B) 4-6: culture media of YT, TB and LB; (C) 7-9: final IPTG concentration of 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mM; (D)10-12: expression temperature at 13, 16 and 19 º C.
Depression is associated with changes in cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels. Depression can be improved by increasing the cGMP concentration through the cGMP/PKG pathway with PDE2A inhibitors. This study is aimed to improve the expression of a highly active PDE2A protein with an Escherichia coli vector ST6 for the screening of PDE2A inhibitors. PDE2A gene was obtained through polymerase chain reaction. A recombinant plasmid of ST6-PDE2A was built by seamless cloning and then introduced into E. coli BL21 (DE3). The cultivation conditions were optimized to increase target protein expression. The expressed protein was purified with Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Its purified activity was measured by a PDE-GloTM phosphodiesterase kit. An maximized protein expression was obtained by cultivating E. coli BL21 with ST6-PDE2A in the YT medium at 37 °C till OD600 reached to 0.6-0.8 and then by inducible expressing with 1 mM IPTG at 16 °C for 40 hours. The resultant active protein has an EC50 of 0.1196 mg/ml.
 
Solid sisal waste fractions which included composted sisal boles and sisal leaves decortication residues supplemented with cow dung manure at various rates used singly and/or in combination as substrates were investigated for cultivation of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus HK-37). The effect of the test sisal waste substrates and cow dung manure of various supplementation rates were evaluated by mushroom yield, biological efficiency and mushroom size. Pinheads occurred in all substrates within 3 to 5 weeks of transfer of bags to the cropping room. The overall best results of mushroom production were obtained in a substrate combination of 50 % sisal leaves + 50 % sisal boles (based on 450 g wet weight substrate) supplemented by 30 % cow dung manure with the mushroom yield of 184.64 g fresh mushrooms/kg moist substrate weight and percentage biological efficiency (B.E) of about 63 %. Mushroom size of 6.10 was obtained in sisal boles substrate supplemented by 20 % cow dung manure. Least yield of 26.73 g fresh mushrooms/kg moist substrate weight and lowest B.E of 8.95 % were obtained from non-supplemented substrate of sisal leaves alone. The study concluded that, supplementation using cow dung manure may play an important role on increasing the yield and productivity of Pleurotus HK-37 on solid sisal waste fractions under the conditions investigated.
 
Clinical strains of Yersinia.pseudotuberculosis were screened for 70 Kbp virulence plasmids it was found only 20 % carrying 70Kbp plasmid, when subjected to different concentrations of Naledixin for development of mutant strains , plasmids were lost from one strain Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP3295, which leaded to the modification of L.B medium into human blood (H.B) L.B medium as culture medium for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis .Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP3295 showed 70Kbp virulence plasmid with additional small plasmids which proves the incorporation of plasmids with chromosomal DNA and similarity with Yersinia pestis. All strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis harboring virulence plasmids were detected for FyuA and Irp2 genes of the High pathogenicity island using PCR. And it was found that all plasmid harboring strains contains high Pathogenicity Island.
 
Map showing position of Trans-Amadi and Rumuokoro abattoirs, Rivers State, Nigeria
Parasite infection of Red Sokoto Goats at Trans-Amadi abattoir, Rivers State, Nigeria
Parasite infection of Red Sokoto Goats at Rumuokoro abattoir, Rivers State, Nigeria
Prevalence (P%) of H. contortus and T. ovis in Red Sokoto goats slaughtered at Trans-Amadi and Rumuokoro abattoirs, Rivers State, Nigeria
Helminths are common parasitic fauna of goats. This study was aimed at identifying and quantifying the gastrointestinal helminth parasites of Red Sokoto goats slaughtered at Trans-Amadi and Rumuokoro abattoirs, Rivers State, Nigeria. Fifty intestinal tracts were examined at each location accounting for a total of 100 samples from both locations. Samples were weighed and dissected; direct microscopy was used to examine samples for adult helminths and test-tube floatation technique was used to examine organic matter from samples for parasite eggs. Nematodes were identified using keys and fixed in 70% alcohol. Prevalence and mean intensity of infection were computed; product moment correlation and Student t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Two nematode parasites were identified- Haemonchus contortus and Trichuris ovis. In Trans Amadi, prevalence and mean intensity of infection were 46.0% and 13 parasites/infected host, respectively for H. contortus, and 54.0% and 11 parasites/infected host for T. ovis. In Rumuokoro, prevalence of 38.0% and 52.0% were computed for H. contortus and T. ovis, respectively, while the mean intensity were 6 and 8 parasites/infected host, respectively for H. contortus and T. ovis. Single infection with Trichuris ovis was higher (30% Trans Amadi; 34% Rumuokoro) than either single infection with H. contortus or double infection with both parasites. There was a significant correlation between the parasite burden and intestinal mass at Trans-Amadi (r48=0.33, P0.05=0.279), but not at Rumuokoro (r48=0.10, P0.05=0.279). The total prevalence and prevalence of single and double infection at both locations did not differ significantly (t3=0.93, p=0.21). Agricultural extension and meat inspection services should be carried out regularly to educate farmers on the symptoms, impacts, treatment and management of helminth parasites.
 
Rear view of the infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm in male corpse. AA (abdominal aorta); RRA (right renal artery); LRA (left renal artery); IAAA (infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm); IVC (inferior vena cava). Bar scale = 100 μM
Rear view of both the infrarenal abdominal aortic and the bilateral common iliac artery aneurysms in male corpse. IAAA (infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm); RCIAA (right common iliac artery aneurysm); LCIAA (left common iliac artery aneurysm). Bar scale = 100 μM
The infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm is the most common among arterial aneurysms; it happens when there is an abnormal and irreversible enlargement of the blood vessel. This disease usually compromises other arterial segments and is linked to high mortality rates, mainly due to its rupture. Given its importance, we present a case study of an abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with a common iliac artery aneurysm. During a dissection practice in the Morphofunctional Laboratory at FACERES Medical School, we observed the presence of a mild stenosis in the abdominal aorta below the renal arteries, as well as the formation of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. In addition, we noticed that the infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was associated with a bilateral common iliac artery aneurysm. Morphological analyses carried out in the blood vessels showed a large quantity of atheromatous plaques, which are the probable cause of the pathology. The information herein may broaden the knowledge on the infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysmal disease, thus reducing its complications and mortality rates.
 
Ants' acquisition of single symbolism
Ants' acquisition of multiple symbolisms
Ants' use of learned symbols for making a suggested addition
Ants' learning of a symbol for zero and using of it for adding up
Numerosity ability is an important biological trait. We examined this trait in the ant Myrmica sabuleti over sixteen experimental works. A summary of the first nine works has been already published, and we provide here a summary of the last seven works. During these last-mentioned studies, we successively showed that ants natively possess a number line, acquire the notion of zero through experiences, have their counting ability only slightly affected, depending on the characteristics of the elements to count, can acquire single symbolism, can learn several symbols at the same time, can add up using learned symbols and can learn a symbol for zero and use it to add. Four of these abilities correspond to potential problems of numerical competence in humans. Humans have natively a number line, but rarely, they may suffer from not having it, what then reduces their skills in mathematics. Humans have to acquire the notion of zero in the course of their life, but this notion is not always correctly taught to children. Also, after having been learned to add and subtract using a concrete representation of numbers, human children should learn calculating using different representations, and finally without using any concrete representation. Humans can easily acquire symbolisms, and this ability should be employed without delay over the children’s education. No doubt that more knowledge on animal numerosity ability will be acquired in the future, maybe to be related to human numerical competence.
 
Examining if ants can expect the following number in an increasing or decreasing arithmetic sequence
Examining if ants can expect the size of the following element in a geometric increasing or decreasing sequence
Working on the numerosity ability of the ant Myrmica sabuleti, we have already summarized for the readers’ convenience our previous papers in two successive publications. Since that time, we have produced six more papers on the subject, and we thought it was time to present a summary of them. These studies deal with the ants’ ability in expecting the following element in an arithmetic or a geometric sequence, as well as with the required similarity between visual cues and the maximum horizontal and vertical distance between such cues enabling the ants to mentally add them up. The experimental methods that were used in these studies are here only briefly reported and their most important results are concisely related, as the extended information can be found in these six papers here summarized. We present novel tables and figures for illustrating this synthesis.
 
Rhesus blood group according to gender
Distribution of ABO and Rhesus blood group systems among the students
The objective of this study is to get an information about the distribution of ABO and Rhesus blood group, among the Education students of the University of Education, Winneba. Also it is a need for routine screening for hemolysin among blood group O, if found to be high, as well as to institute donor registry for Rhesus negative blood group, if found to be low. Records of ABO and Rhesus blood grouped results of students were screened in November 2019. Data were analyzed by the use of the software Epi info, version 5.3.4. Descriptive statistics were used to compute percentages and averages. Results are presented in tables and charts, and expressed as percentages/ proportions, and means. One hundred and sixty-six results were obtained, made up of 132 males and 34 females. Among the population studied, blood group O had the highest frequency, 93 (56%), followed by blood group A, 39 (23.5%), then B, 29 (17.5%), while AB had the least frequency, 5 (3%). Most of students were found to be Rhesus positive (92.2%) while Rhesus negative were only 7.8%. Blood group O was found to be highest among the study population followed by A, B and AB in that order. Most of the students were found to be Rhesus positive while only a few were Rhesus negative. Routine screening for hemolysin among blood group O and institution of donor registry is recommended.
 
Germination trials of A. sieberiana seeds  
Proximate constituents of A. sieberiana seed flour in percentages (%)
Elemental analysis of A. sieberiana processed seeds flour.
Concerted efforts in search of alternative sources of protein has grown due to dearth of animal protein in developing countries, as food shortage and poverty become more endemic, people increasingly depend on plants rather than animals for proteins in their diets. This work focuses on untapped indigenous wild savannah tree, Acacia sieberiana (seeds) for its nutritional and economical values. The seeds were collected and processed for proximate compositions, phytochemicals and elemental analysis. The high percentage of crude protein content of 49.7% and absence of toxic elements such as Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (Ar), and very low percentage of Lead (Pb) 0.001ml/g has proven that the Acacia sieberiana seeds are very safe and could serve as an alternative source of protein. The result of the quantitative minerals determination shows the presence of Manganese (3.93mg/g), Calcium (2.02mg/g), and Iron (0.11mg/g). The germination trials of the seeds were also carried out, and the result shows that, soaking, heating the seeds at 60 0 C and even the non treated seeds as well as those planted and mulched gave promising results of the plant’s seeds germination. The statistical package for social science (SPSS) software was used to analysed the significant differences between the treatments at critical value (p≥0.05).
 
Light photomicrograph of liver sections: (A) control group, (C) Aç ai-trated group and (D) Vit.C-treated group; showing normal hepatocytes architecture, central vein, normal blood sinusoids (S) and hepatocytes (H).(B) AlCl 3-treated rats showing disruption of normal archeticture of hepatocytes, distended and hemorrhage in the central and portal vein (red arrow and green arrow), inflammatory infiltrate (red square), degenerated hepatocytes with eosinophillic cytoplasm and pyknotic nuclei (green circle) surrounded with clear haloes and vacuolated cytoplasm (red dotted arrow) .Histological alterations induced after AlCl 3 treatment. (E) Aç ai, Vit.C and AlCl3 treated rats showing hepatocytes architecture similar to the control group. 
The activity of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and ALP) in plasma of rats
Changes in the level of MDA, GSH, SOD, CAT in liver homogenate
Aluminum is associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases. Açai has recently emerged as a natural source of antioxidants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of Açai in combination with vitamin C against the aluminum chloride induced toxicity. Seventy rats were divided into 7 groups:- Group (GP) 1: control group, GP 2: treated with AlCl3, GP 3: treated with Açai, GP 4: treated with vitamin C, GP 5: treated with AlCl3 and Açai , GP 6: treated with AlCl3 and vitamin C, GP 7: treated with AlCl3, Açai and vitamin C. After 4 weeks, blood and liver specimens were collected to evaluate biochemical alterations and hepatic antioxidant and inflammatory parameters. AlCl3 treatment decreased liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase), tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6 while hepatic malondialdehyde was elevated. In contrast, hepatic glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase were decreased. Açai and vitamin C treatment improved the adverse effects induced by AlCl3, while co-administration with vitamin C promoted the action of açai on hepatic damage and antioxidant parameters. Açai showed a protective effect against AlCl3 induced toxicity, particularly in combination with vitamin C.
 
Absorption spectra of AChE in the presence of different concentrations of sodium selenate: 1: 1800, 2: 1300, 3: 870, 4: 390, 5: 0 µM after incubation for 30 min at 4 o C.  
Acetylcholinestrase (AChE EC 3.1.1.7) is one of the most important enzymes in nervous system, which plays a role in Alzheimer’s disease. Selenium is a vital micronutrient and many investigations have been performed about the physiological, biochemical and behavioral effects of this element, such as postponing the Alzheimer's symptoms in the elderly and delaying the initiation signs of skin aging. Recent studies have shown that this element protects various enzymes against the toxicity caused by heavy metals such as; Pb, Al, Cu and Cd. AChE activity is altered under the influence of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF). In this study, the effects of ELF-EMF, with 0.3 mT field intensity and 50, 100, 217 Hz frequencies, were investigated on the AChE, in the presence of different concentrations of sodium selenate, using UV-Visible, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques. The results demonstrated that the enzyme activity declined by increasing the frequency and the amount of sodium selenate. Also, significant structural changes occurred in the secondary and tertiary structures of AChE. Our results showed that with increasing the concentration of sodium selenate transition from α-helix to β-structure was appeared in the presence of ELF-EMF. In conclusion, according to changes observed in the secondary and tertiary structure of enzyme, it is proposed that these fields are able to affect the structure and dynamics of the active site gorge of AChE.
 
Reductive ability for three different concentrations of Achillea reductive ability 
According to WHO, 80% of the medicine in the global market are from plants. The Glycyrrhiza glabra and Achillea mellofolium are very promising plants. Three experiments were done for the plants. The total flavenoids, was higher in G.glabra than Achillea. In the second experiment, reductive ability was very effective in scavenger the free radical specially, in high doses. In the third experiment, the antimicrobial of the three types of bacteria isolated from two sources assess using extracts from plants.
 
The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanistic pathway of the oxidation of L-ascorbic acid by periodate ions in acidic medium reaction. The oxidation of L-ascorbic acid (H2A) by periodate ions in acidic medium has been investigated under pseudo-first order conditions at 27 ± 0oC, [H⁺] = 1.0 x 10⁻³mol dm⁻³, I= 1.0 mol dm⁻³ (NaCl) and λ max 430nm. The stoichiometry of the reaction was observed to be 2:7 in terms of mole ratio of periodate ions and ascorbic acid consumed. The reaction is first order in both reactants and shows dependence on acid concentration.
 
Journal of Biology and Life Science (JBLS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JBLS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 10, Number 1Alireza Heidari, California South University, USAAnirban Chakraborty, USA,Arshia Tabassum, University of Karachi, PakistanBalaji Thas Moorthy, Miller school of Medicine, University of Miami., IndiaGeonyzl Lepiten Alviola, Davao Doctors College, PhlippinesGodswill Ntsomboh Ntsefong, IARD, CameroonHui Xiang, Allergan, Inc., USAJayalaxmi Sastri, VLP Therapeutics, LLC, USAJiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, NepalKhyati Hitesh Shah, Stanford University, USAMirza Hasanuzzaman, Kagawa University, JapanRam Prasad, Amity Institute of Microbial Technology, IndianSridhar Mandali, UCLA, USATiaojiang Xiao, NIH, USA Kelvin LeeEditorial AssistantJournal of Biology and Life Science-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesTel: 1-702-953-1852 ext.510Fax: 1-702-420-2900E-mail: jbls@macrothink.orgURL: http://jbls.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Biology and Life Science (JBLS) would like to thank the following reviewers for reviewing manuscripts from March 1, 2014, to August 1, 2014. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Many authors, regardless of whether JBLS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Macrothink Institute appreciates the following reviewers’ rigorous and conscientious efforts for this journal. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review during this period. Adeline ChiaBharat JagannathanDevaveena DeyFazal ShiraziFernando CardonaGnanaraja RajarethinamGodswill Ntsomboh NtsefongHong ZhaoHongbo PangHossam El-Din Mohamed OmarHui XiangIvo Vaz OliveiraJinhua WuJittima CharoenpanichMuhammad AliPalmiro PoltronieriSarita PrabhakaranSubramanian KrishnanWaldiney MelloZhen Shen
 
Journal of Biology and Life Science (JBLS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JBLS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 11, Number 2 Bratko Filipic, (CIETO), SloveniaChandra S Bathula, Louisiana State University, USADamir Suljevic, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and HerzegovinaDjallel Eddine Gherissi, Souk Ahars University, AlgeriaEric Aian Silva, Federal University of Sergipe, BrazilEwa Moliszewska, Opole University, PolandGeonyzl Lepiten Alviola, Davao Doctors College, PhlippinesHomyra Tasnim, Louisiana State University, BangladeshJarod A Rollins, MDI Biological Laboratory, USAJeriels Matatula, Indonesian Silvicultural Community, IndonesiaJosé Max Barbosa de Oliveira Junior, Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, BrazilKelechi Nkechinyere, Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT), NigeriaKhyati Hitesh Shah, Stanford University, USAMaciej Jarzębski, Poznan University of Life Sciences, PolandMaria Montserrat Rivera del Alamo, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, SpainMeenakshi Agarwal, Florida Agriculture and Mechanical University, USANatalia Tkachuk, T.H. Shevchenko National University “Chernihiv Colehium”, UkraineOluwole Oladele, Federal University of Technology, NigeriaRagab A. El-Mergawi, National Research Centre, EgyptRajaa Ahmed Mahmoud, University of Basrah, IraqSridhar Mandali, UCLA, USATayseer Ibrahim Alnaggar, Ain Shams University & Najran University, EgyptValdeir Lima, Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), BrazilWenlong He, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, ChinaXiaohuang Cao, Guangdong Ocean University, ChinaYuliana, Udayana University, Indonesia Kelvin LeeEditorial AssistantJournal of Biology and Life Science-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesTel: 1-702-953-1852 ext.510Fax: 1-702-420-2900E-mail: jbls@macrothink.orgURL: http://jbls.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Biology and Life Science (JBLS) would like to thank the following reviewers for reviewing manuscripts from February 1, 2018 to August 1, 2018. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Many authors, regardless of whether JBLS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Macrothink Institute appreciates the following reviewers’ rigorous and conscientious efforts for this journal. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review during this period. Anbalagan Jaganathan Anirban MukherjeeBalaji Thas MoorthyGanesh Ambigapathy Hui XiangJayalaxmi SastriMegha WalMELTEM SESLİRam PrasadSreerupa RayTiaojiang XiaoVidisha Bipin RajeZhichao Feng Kelvin LeeEditorial AssistantJournal of Biology and Life Science-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825, Las Vegas, Nevada 89108, United StatesTel: 1-702-953-1852 ext.510Fax: 1-702-420-2900E-mail: jbls@macrothink.orgURL: http://jbls.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Biology and Life Science (JBLS) would like to thank the following reviewers for reviewing manuscripts from August 1, 2017 to February 1, 2018. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Many authors, regardless of whether JBLS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Macrothink Institute appreciates the following reviewers’ rigorous and conscientious efforts for this journal. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review during this period. Anirban MukherjeeGODSWILL NTSOMBOH NTSEFONGSridhar MandaliMELTEM SESLİNayana tara ArunkumarPalmiro PoltronieriMadhusudanarao VudaQi Sun Naimesh Solanki Ghulam Nabi Anbalagan Jaganathan Ganesh Ambigapathy Anirban ChakrabortyBalaji Thas MoorthyVikash Verma Kelvin LeeEditorial AssistantJournal of Biology and Life Science-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825, Las Vegas, Nevada 89108, United StatesTel: 1-702-953-1852 ext.510Fax: 1-702-420-2900E-mail: jbls@macrothink.orgURL: http://jbls.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Biology and Life Science (JBLS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JBLS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 12, Number 1Bonam Srinivasa Reddy, INSERM, FranceBratko Filipic, CIETO, SloveniaBruno Edson-Chaves, USP&UECE, BrazilChandra S Bathula, Louisiana State University, USADamir Suljevic, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and HerzegovinaMaciej Jarzębski, Poznan University of Life Sciences, PolandMeltem Sesli, Turkish Biotechnology, TurkeyNatalia Tkachuk, T.H. Shevchenko National University “Chernihiv Colehium”, UkraineRajaa Ahmed Mahmoud, University of Basrah, IraqSridhar Mandali, UCLA, USATayseer Ibrahim Alnaggar, Ain Shams University & Najran University, EgyptXiaohuang Cao, Guangdong Ocean University, ChinaYuliana, Udayana University, Indonesia Kelvin LeeEditorial AssistantJournal of Biology and Life Science-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesTel: 1-702-953-1852 ext.510Fax: 1-702-420-2900E-mail: jbls@macrothink.orgURL: http://jbls.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Biology and Life Science (JBLS) would like to thank the following reviewers for reviewing manuscripts from February 1, 2015, to August 1, 2015. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Many authors, regardless of whether JBLS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Macrothink Institute appreciates the following reviewers’ rigorous and conscientious efforts for this journal. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review during this period. Abhay Anand ShuklaAdeline ChiaAnirudh SethiAntonio Andrade-TorresDavis JoseGeonyzl Lepiten AlviolaGodswill Ntsomboh NtsefongHossam El-Din Mohamed OmarHui XiangHunain AlamJemimah NaineLakshmi KrishnamoorthyMahesh PadanadMira PatelQi SunRam PrasadSai P ThankamonySoumya KrishnamurthySreerupa RaySubramanian KrishnanSujoy ChatterjeeYamuna Paila
 
Journal of Biology and Life Science (JBLS) would like to thank the following reviewers for reviewing manuscripts from Auguest 1, 2016 to February 1, 2017. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Many authors, regardless of whether JBLS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Macrothink Institute appreciates the following reviewers’ rigorous and conscientious efforts for this journal. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review during this period. Abhay Anand ShuklaGokul Babarao KaleHossam El-Din Mohamed OmarJemimah NaineKhyati Hitesh Shah Mohamed Ahmed El-EsawiPrashanth Chandramani ShivalingappaRajeshwari ValiathanWaldiney Mello
 
Journal of Biology and Life Science (JBLS) would like to thank the following reviewers for reviewing manuscripts from February 1, 2017 to August 1, 2017. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Many authors, regardless of whether JBLS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Macrothink Institute appreciates the following reviewers’ rigorous and conscientious efforts for this journal. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review during this period. Adeline ChiaAnbalagan JaganathanEwa MoliszewskaGanesh Ambigapathy Godswill Ntsomboh Ntsefong Hui Xiang Allergan Inc. Jawed A Siddiqui Jayalaxmi SastriKhyati Hitesh ShahMadhusudanarao VudaMELTEM SESLİRam PrasadVidisha Bipin RajeZhichao Feng Kelvin LeeEditorial AssistantJournal of Biology and Life Science-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825, Las Vegas, Nevada 89108, United StatesTel: 1-702-953-1852 ext.510Fax: 1-702-420-2900E-mail: jbls@macrothink.orgURL: http://jbls.macrothink.org
 
div class="WordSection1"> Journal of Biology and Life Science (JBLS) would like to thank the following reviewers for reviewing manuscripts from February 1, 2016 to August 1, 2016. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Many authors, regardless of whether JBLS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Macrothink Institute appreciates the following reviewers’ rigorous and conscientious efforts for this journal. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review during this period. Abhay Anand Shukla Geonyzl Lepiten Alviola Ghulam Nabi Hossam El-Din Mohamed Omar Khyati hitesh shah Naimesh Solanki Palmiro Poltronieri Qi Sun Rajeshwari Valiathan Shuchi Gupta Waldiney Mello </div
 
Journal of Biology and Life Science (JBLS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JBLS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 11, Number 1Anbalagan Jaganathan, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories, USABalaji Thas Moorthy, University of Miami, IndiaBratko Filipič, (CIETO), SloveniaChandra S Bathula, Louisiana State University, USADamir Suljevic, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and HerzegovinaDjallel Eddine Gherissi, Souk Ahars University, AlgeriaEric Aian Silva, Federal University of Sergipe, BrazilGeonyzl Lepiten Alviola, Davao Doctors College, PhlippinesJarod A Rollins, MDI Biological Laboratory, USAJeriels Matatula, Indonesian Silvicultural Community, IndonesiaJosé Max Barbosa de Oliveira Junior, Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, BrazilKhyati Hitesh Shah, Stanford University, USAMeltem Sesli, Turkish Biotechnology, TurkeyMohsen Kerkeni, University of Monastir, TunisiaRagab A. El-Mergawi, National Research Centre, EgyptRajaa Ahmed Mahmoud, University of Basrah, IraqSridhar Mandali, UCLA, USAYuliana, Udayana University, Indonesia Kelvin LeeEditorial AssistantJournal of Biology and Life Science-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesTel: 1-702-953-1852 ext.510Fax: 1-702-420-2900E-mail: jbls@macrothink.orgURL: http://jbls.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Biology and Life Science (JBLS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JBLS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 12, Number 2Geonyzl Lepiten Alviola, Davao Doctors College, PhlippinesJeriels Matatula, Indonesian Silvicultural Community, IndonesiaJosé Max Barbosa de Oliveira Junior, Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, BrazilRagab A. El-Mergawi, National Research Centre, EgyptRajaa Ahmed Mahmoud, University of Basrah, Iraq Kelvin LeeEditorial AssistantJournal of Biology and Life Science-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesTel: 1-702-953-1852 ext.510Fax: 1-702-420-2900E-mail: jbls@macrothink.orgURL: http://jbls.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Biology and Life Science (JBLS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JBLS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 10, Number 2Adeline Chia, Taylor’s University, MalaysiaAlireza Heidari, California South University, USAAmobi Maduabuchi Inwele, Federal University of Kashere, NigeriaAnbalagan Jaganathan, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories, USAAnirban Chakraborty, Stanford University, USAArshia Tabassum, University of Karachi, PakistanBalaji Thas Moorthy, University of Miami, IndiaBratko Filipič, CIETO, SloveniaChandra S Bathula, Louisiana State University, USADjallel Eddine Gherissi, Souk Ahars University, AlgeriaGeonyzl Lepiten Alviola, Davao Doctors College, PhlippinesGhulam Nabi, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China, PakistanGodswill Ntsomboh Ntsefong, IRAD, CameroonJayalaxmi Sastri, VLP Therapeutics, USAJiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, NepalKelechi Nkechinyere, ESUT, NigeriaKhyati Hitesh Shah, Stanford University, USAMeenakshi Agarwal, Florida Agriculture and Mechanical University, USAMeltem Sesli, Turkish Biotechnology, Turkish RepublicMirza Hasanuzzaman, Kagawa University, JapanMohsen Kerkeni, University of Monastir, TunisiaMustafa Öztop, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, TurkeyP. Joser Atauchi, Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco, PeruRam Prasad, Amity University, IndianSridhar Mandali, UCLA, USASuma Jaini, New York Genome Center, USATiaojiang Xiao, National Institutes of Health, USA Kelvin LeeEditorial AssistantJournal of Biology and Life Science-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesTel: 1-702-953-1852 ext.510Fax: 1-702-420-2900E-mail: jbls@macrothink.orgURL: http://jbls.macrothink.org
 
Dietary data of 13 men during the 24 hour period prior to each test day for supplement or placebo
Subjective ratings of 13 men before and following ingestion of supplement or placebo
Biochemical data of 13 men before and following ingestion of supplement or placebo
Testosterone data (ng•mL-1) of 13 men before and following acute ingestion of
p>Attention has been given recently to herbal dietary supplements proposed to elevate testosterone and nitric oxide. This study evaluated the impact of a supplement containing Spilanthes acmella extract and Orchis latifolia extract on total blood testosterone, cortisol, and nitrate/nitrite in healthy men. Methods: Thirteen men (25.0±1.0 years) were randomly assigned (double-blind, cross-over design) to ingest a supplement (containing Spilanthes acmella extract and Orchis latifolia extract) and a placebo daily for 14 days, with a 14-day washout period between assignments. Fasting blood samples were collected on the mornings of days 1, 4, 8, and 15 and analyzed for testosterone, cortisol, and nitrate/nitrite. On day 15, subjects ingested an acute dose of the supplement or placebo and blood was collected every 30 minutes for three hours, and analyzed for testosterone. Results: No increase of significance was noted for any biochemical variable (p>0.05). However, a mean increase in testosterone from day 1 to day 15 of 29% was observed for the 13 subjects when ingesting the supplement, with a mean increase of 56% noted when only considering the 8 subjects who “responded” to treatment. Cortisol was increased approximately 19% when subjects ingested the supplement, compared to only 9% with the placebo. Conclusion: Two weeks of supplementation with an herbal preparation containing Spilanthes acmella extract and Orchis latifolia extract can increase testosterone in selected young men. The supplement also results in a moderate increase in cortisol. Larger scale studies are needed to further evaluate the impact of this herbal combination on testosterone in men.</p
 
Map of the sampling localities in the North West region of Cameroon
Acrididae species abundance in the North West Region of Cameroon from November 2016 to September 2017 A check list of the Acrididae species collected in the North West Region of Cameroon is shown in Table 1. The information in this table includes the Classification of the species (subfamily, species), the number and sexes of individuals collected per species, reference(s) for previous report on the species in Cameroon, the sizes (large, medium or small) of individuals collected; the ease with which the insects were found at collection sites (habits) and their distribution in Africa.
Summary of information on seventeen (17) Acrididae grasshoppers collected in the North West Region of Cameroon
This article is a pioneer checklist of Acrididae species in the North West Region of Cameroon. This study was prompted by the absence of information on Orthoptera fauna that are found in this region. From November 2016 to September 2017, grasshoppers were collected by hand picking and the help of sweep nets from fields, lawns, farms and vegetation surrounding farms in the capital towns of the seven divisions that make up the region. Seventeen (17) species were captured and identified. These included: Acrida turrita, Coryphosima stenoptera product, Gymnobothrus temporalis, Odontomelus kamerunensis, Roduniella insipida (Acridinae), Catantops melanostrictus, Catantopsilus elongatus, Oxycatantops spissus, (Catantopinae), Cyrtacanthacris aeruginosa, Ornithacris pictula (Cytacanthacridinae), Eyprepocnemis plorans (Eyprepocnemidinae), Acrotylus patruelis, Gastrimargus africanus, Heteropternis thoracica, Trilophidia conturbata, Morphacris fasciata (Oedipodinae) and Afroxyrrhepes obscuripes (Tropidopolinae). Acridinae and Oedipodinae were the most abundant subfamilies with 5 species each. The seventeen (17) species identified in this study were recorded for the first time from the North West Region of Cameroon with one of them Ornithacris pictula magnifica recorded for the first time in Cameroon.
 
The effect of inhibitors and activators of phosphofructokinase on the absorption of oxygen by the roots of wheat seedlings was studied under normal and salinity conditions. It was revealed that in the control version the absorption of О 2 by seedling roots was significantly increased and the effect of acceptor ADP was appeared after introduction of 10 -3 М АМР and 4·10 -4 М of inorganic phosphate into the system. However, under salinity conditions the acceptor effect of ADP did not occur, and the absorption of oxygen was somewhat reduced.
 
Two sympatric species of fiddler crabs viz. Uca lactea annulipes and Uca triangularis bengali belonging to order decapoda, family ocypodidae have been taken into consideration in respect of their habitat preference, sex ratio, fecundity and role of bioturbatory activities in sustaining the coastal-estuarine-ecosystem dynamics at an ecotone (Talsari) located in the Midnapore (East) coastal belt of West Bengal, India. A distinct segregation of habitats of these two species was evident from this field study. In general, monthly sex ratios were a clearly male biased for both species. Reproductive potential and intensity of the studied fiddler crabs have been measured by quantifying the relative frequency of ovigerous females and their fecundities. These two crabs have been to be as excellent bioturbator mediators and their bioturbatory activities were found to alter geochemistry of sediments by way of making semidomes (only male of U. lactea annulipes) and mudballs (both sexes of U. triangularis bengali). These bioturbatory structures used to play some role in the social as well sexual interactions of both species.
 
The binding mode of Troxerutin in complex with DPPI (PDB code 1K3B) (a). Molcad surface H-acceptor/donor density (b). Interactions between Troxerutin and residues (c)The 2D diagram of comple (d) 3.3.2 Discovery Studio Analysis of Effective Components of Cortex Dictamni for Chymase As shown in table 2, chymase was docked with 99 compounds in the Cortex Dictamni, and then three of the compounds had a good interaction with chymase and scored over 130.the solo active compound, Dictamnoside M is the one with the highest score (154.316) for the chymase binding. It can be seen from the Figure 4a, the active pocket of Dictamnoside M with chymase showed a compact binding pattern. Dictamnoside M has formed a hydrogen bond with amino acid ALA190, HIS57, SER218, ARG217, SER189, SER214 and a strong hydrophobic interaction with GLY193 of chymase, which are to seen from Figure 4b/c/d.All of these interactions allows Dictamnoside M to form a stable complex with target protein chymase.
the binding mode of dictamnoside M in complex with Chymase (PDB code 5YJP) (a). Molcad surface H-acceptor/donor density (b). Interactions between dictamnoside M and residues (c)The 2D diagram of complex (d)
Dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI) and chymase, the granulo-proteases produced and released by mast cells, are important targets of anti-inflammatory drug research and development. Cortex Dictamni is a definite nature drug with anti-inflammatory activity, but the mechanism is unclear and effects of Cortex Dictamni on DPPI and chymase are unknown. This study focuses on effects of Cortex Dictamni aqueous extract (CDAE) on DPPI and chymase activities using cell model, bio-molecular interactions and the Molecular docking study by Discovery Studio (DS) analysis. The results showed that CDAE could significantly inhibit DPPI and chymase activities in vitro and in living rat spleen lymphocytes. Molecular docking simulation demonstrated that Troxerutin, the one of the active compounds of Cortex Dictamni, formed a hydrogen bond with amino acid ILE429 and a strong hydrophobic interaction with TYR64 CYS234 PRO279 ALA382 of DPPI. These interactions allow Troxerutin to form a stable complex with the DPPI, implicating that Troxerutin might be a potential natural inhibitor of DPPI. Dictamnoside M, another active compound of Cortex Dictamni formed hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions within the binding pocket of chymase domain and form a stable complex with the chymase. Dictamnoside M maybe a potential natural inhibitor of chymase. This study suggested a new nature inhibitor Cortex Dictamni and its active components with the anti-inflammatory effects.
 
Phytochemical screening carried out on the stem and leave extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla (Euphorbieacea) confirmed the presence of Carbohydrates, gycosides, reducing sugar, saponins, taninns, phlobatanins, cardiac glycosides, steroids, triterpenes, and flavonoid. cytotoxicity test using brine shrimp lethality assay gave the LC 50 value (µg/cm 3 ) are 20.67, 25.07, 158.56,and 176.55 for n-Hexane fraction, Ethyl Acetate fraction, Butanol fraction and Aqueous fraction of the stem while 23.50, 30.20, 164.10 and 179.80 for n-hexane fraction, Ethyl Acetate fraction, Butanol fraction and Aqueous fraction of the leave extracts. The results of antioxidant properties of the stem and leaves extracts showed that the extracts exhibited strong activity as a radical scavenger in the experiment using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl radical (DPPH) indicating that the plant has strong ability to donate hydrogen when compared with the standard butyrate hydroxyl anisole (BHA). The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was carried out against Staphylococcus aureus , E.coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Streptococcus pneumonia , and Candida albicans , the results showed moderate to low activity for the test organisms.
 
Effect of different extraction solvents on the antioxidants activities from GA determined by DPPH radical-scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolic contents 
The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activities of dietary Gum Arabic supplemented in male rat model. In this study, the Sprague Dawley rats were separated into two groups as follows: the normal control group (NC) and Gum Arabic group (GA). At the end of eight weeks of treatment, the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) , 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) levels, and the total phenol content of the GA extracts, plasma and liver tissue were evaluated. The results showed an increased of plasma and liver antioxidant activates in the GA groups as compared to the NC group. Administration of dietary GA reduced the FRAP and TPC concentration in the plasma and in the liver the GA group. Based on these results, it can be concluded that GA supplemented is the natural antioxidants, especially phenolic compounds, which may act both by reducing the content of toxic compounds in foods and by supplying the human body with exogenous antioxidant.
 
Grouper belongs to one of cultivated commodities whose high selling price gives bright prospects.Grouper belongs to one of cultivated commodities whose high selling price gives bright prospects. However, the greatest faced obstacle in this aquaculture industry lies in disease strike brought by bacterium. Synthetic antibiotic use made from chemical compounds gives long-term negative effect and accumulates the chemical compounds into body tissues. Natural material use as an antibacterial is highly recommended to reduce side effect of medicinal effect. The use of antibacterial extract made from A. acuminata tree bark will give new discourse in handling mischievously bacterial strike problem. The study aims to find out chemical compounds made from A. acuminata and to find out solvent and the best dose of A. acuminata inhibition activity as antibacterial against Vibrio harveyi bacterium. Based on research findings, it is known that A. acuminata extract with methanol solvent has the highest inhibition activity compared to ethyl acetate and n-hexane solvent. Then, a concentration of 100% has the highest inhibition activity compared to concentration of 15%, 25%, 50% and 75%. Phytochemistry test result shows that A. acuminata tree bark contains compounds of alkaloid, phenol, flavonoid, steroid, and terpenoids. Based on the findings, it is concluded that A. acuminata contains phenol compound which is able to increase inhibition activity against V. harveyi bacterium.
 
Tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) was very susceptible to the poor environment and therefore, weak against infection. A solution to this problem was by using immune response of fish body. The objective of research was to understand the ability Alstonia acuminata in improving immune system for the control of Vibrio harveyi disease and to acknowledge the effective dose to increase the survival rate of grouper. Parameters that were observed included macrophage, phagocytosis activity, leukocyte total, and grouper survival rate in the observation at day-1, day-3, day-5, and day-7. Result of research indicated that macrophage cells were increased at day-1 to day-5, but decreased at day-7. The dose of 200 ppm had the highest macrophage at day-5, precisely 15.5 x 10⁵ cells/mL, and then, it decreased at day-7 to 15.2 x 10⁵ cells/mL. The highest increase of phagocytosis was found at day-5 for 73.67%, and observed in the dose of 200 ppm, but it decreased at day-7 for 71%. The control fish had lowest means of leukocyte, precisely ranging from 24,433 cells/mL to 25,283 cells/mL. The highest leukocyte was obtained at day-5, precisely 72,666 cells/mL. Result of research concluded that A. acuminata extract could increase the non-specific immune system (number of macrophage cell, phagocytosis activity, and leukocyte) against V. harveyi bacteria. The highest survival rate was 94.4 %, which was obtained from dose 200 ppm.
 
Top-cited authors
Malick Diouf
  • faculté des sciences /UCAD-Institut de pêche et d'aquaculture
Jean Fall
  • Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar
Ghulam Nabi
  • Universiteti Europian i Tiranës
Alassane Sarr
  • Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar
Diegane Ndong
  • Walden University