Journal of Biology and Life Science (JBLS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JBLS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 13, Number 1 Bratko Filipic, (CIETO), SloveniaHoe Yin Chen, Tunku Abdul Rahman University College, MalaysiaNatalia Tkachuk, T.H. Shevchenko National University “Chernihiv Colehium”, UkraineRagab A. El-Mergawi, National Research Centre, EgyptRajaa Ahmed Mahmoud, University of Basrah, IraqXiaohuang Cao, Guangdong Ocean University, China Kelvin LeeEditorial AssistantJournal of Biology and Life Science-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesTel: 1-702-953-1852 ext.510Fax: 1-702-420-2900E-mail 1: firstname.lastname@example.orgE-mail 2: email@example.comURL: http://jbls.macrothink.org
Journal of Biology and Life Science (JBLS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JBLS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 13, Number 2Bratko Filipic, CIETO, SloveniaBruno Edson-Chaves, USP&UECE, BrazilChandra S Bathula, Louisiana State University, USAGeonyzl Lepiten Alviola, Davao Doctors College, PhlippinesHomyra Tasnim, Louisiana State University, BangladeshNatalia Tkachuk, T.H. Shevchenko National University, UkraineRajaa Ahmed Mahmoud, University of Basrah, Iraq Kelvin LeeEditorial AssistantJournal of Biology and Life Science-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesTel: 1-702-953-1852 ext.510Fax: 1-702-420-2900E-mail 1: firstname.lastname@example.orgE-mail 2: email@example.comURL: http://jbls.macrothink.org
Journal of Biology and Life Science (JBLS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JBLS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 14, Number 1Arshia Tabassum, University of Karachi, PakistanBratko Filipic, (CIETO), SloveniaHoe Yin Chen, Tunku Abdul Rahman University College, MalaysiaHomyra Tasnim, Louisiana State University, BangladeshMemoona Ramzan, University of Miami, USANatalia Tkachuk, T.H. Shevchenko National University “Chernihiv Colehium”, UkraineRagab A. El-Mergawi, National Research Centre, EgyptRajaa Ahmed Mahmoud, University of Basrah, IraqSridhar Mandali, UCLA, USAXiaohuang Cao, Guangdong Ocean University, China Kelvin LeeEditorial AssistantJournal of Biology and Life Science-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesTel: 1-702-953-1852 ext.510Fax: 1-702-420-2900E-mail 1: firstname.lastname@example.orgE-mail 2: email@example.comURL: http://jbls.macrothink.org
In this study, we obtained a Paichongding (RR/SS-IPP) degrading Sphingobacterium sp. G1-14 by UV irradiation of the original strain G1-13. This new mutant strain showed excellent RR/SS-IPP degradation performance, and the degradation of ratio was up to 30 per cent after 7 days. Subsequently, we determined the mutant strain G 1-14 as Sphingobacterium based on the phylogenomic analyses. The circular chromosome of Sphingobacterium sp. G1-14 was presented in this paper by Illumina Hiseq platform combined with a third-generation sequencing platform. 5583 protein-coding sequences of the complete genome sequence were obtained, which is beneficial to deduced genes related to RR/SS-IPP degradation.
Journal of Biology and Life Science (JBLS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JBLS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 14, Number 2Bratko Filipic, CIETO, SloveniaHoe Yin Chen, Tunku Abdul Rahman University College, MalaysiaHomyra Tasnim, Louisiana State University, BangladeshHui Xiang, Allergan, Inc., USAMemoona Ramzan, University of Miami, USAMohammad Tavakkoli Yaraki, National University of Singapore, SingaporeNatalia Tkachuk, T.H. Shevchenko National University “Chernihiv Colehium”, UkraineRajaa Ahmed Mahmoud, University of Basrah, Iraq Kelvin LeeEditorial AssistantJournal of Biology and Life Science-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesTel: 1-702-953-1852 ext.510Fax: 1-702-420-2900E-mail 1: firstname.lastname@example.orgE-mail 2: email@example.comURL: http://jbls.macrothink.org
Trichoderma species , isolated from different producer regions of cocoa (Bahia, Brazil), were evaluated as for their capacity of usage in the biocontrol of the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa subgroup 1441, which causes the witches’ broom in cocoa . The isolates of Trichoderma were evaluated through individual indices so called %AP (Antagonistic Potential to Moniliophthora perniciosa subgroup 1441), %PG (Potential Growth in vitro) and %PSPr (Potential of Spore Production on rice) These indices were evaluated together, also they were used for the determination of Biological Control Potential (%BCP) of each antagonistic specie to the evaluated pathogen. Afterwards, the ability of the antagonistic to colonize and to produce spores on sterilized dry brooms was also evaluated. Some of the isolates Trichoderma spp showed a high %AP to the pathogen and high %PG, but did not present a significant %PSPr, turning impossible the spore production for biocontrol at commercial level. Significant differences were found within the individual indices among the species and isolates of the same species of Trichoderma spp, pointing out a great genetic variability among them. Trichoderma harzianum 911 showed to have the best biocontrol potential to the pathogen when compared to the other isolates, presenting a %BCP de 91.86% (mainly by the high %AP of 97,76%) a %PSPr of 99.53%, also producing 22.67 spores x 10 ⁹. mL ⁻¹ by dry broom segment. Trichoderma harzianum 911 showed to be as promising isolate for future researches on biocontrol of cocoa witches’ broom.
To evaluate the nutritional quality of the shrimp by-products four approximately isonitrogenous (32 ± 2% crude protein) diets containing different types of shrimp waste meal were fed to duplicate groups of ten fry with an initial mean weight 1.43 ± 0.22g /fish for forty two (42) days. Fishes fed with diet D had the highest mean weight gain (MWG) and specific growth rate (SGR) and those fed with the control diet A had the lowest MWG and SGR. There were no noticeable change in food conversion ratio (FCR) of the fishes fed with diets B, C and D which are significantly different from the FCR of those that fed with control diet A. The survival of fry tilapia ranged from 70 to 100%, being 70% for D, 80% for B, 90% for C and 100% for A. There were no significant differences in body protein content among the fish fed with diets B, C, D and the initial fish. The lowest body protein was obtained in the fish fed with control diet. The tilapia fed with control diet had the highest body lipid content as compared to the initial fish. However, there were no significant differences in body lipid content among the fish fed test diets B, C and D as compared to the initial fish. The variations in body ash content of initial fish and those fed with test diets were significantly different. The initial fish had the highest body ash content.
This work evaluates the growth and body development of Oreochromis niloticus in floating cages in the Toho Lake of Benin. Thus, 6000 juvenile monosex male with an average initial weight of 8.87 ± 4.89 g and average initial total length of 7.87 ± 1.43 cm were randomly distributed in two floating cages (5 x 5 x 2.5 m3) at the stocking density of 3000 fish/cage. The fish were hand-fed to apparent satiation, three times daily, using 45-32% crude protein commercial pelleted floating feed Skretting®. The physico-chemical parameters of lake water recorded every 72 hours during the experiment were within the suitable ranges for fish culture and were as follows: temperature (27.78 ± 0.41 °C), pH (7.55 ± 0.22), dissolved oxygen (4.03 ± 0.96 mg/l), ammonium (0.31 ± 0.18 mg/l), nitrite (0.29 ± 0.07 mg/l) and nitrate (0.27 ± 0.12 mg/l). The variables studied at the end of the 215 days of rearing were as follows: final mean total length (26.61 ± 2.99 cm), final mean standard length (22.40 ± 2.74 cm), final mean predorsal length (6.93 ± 0.94 cm), final mean head length (3.45 ± 0.58 cm), final mean dorsal fin base length (13.55 ± 2.96 cm), final mean inter-orbital width (2.97 ± 0.37 cm), final mean body height (8.57 ± 1.56 cm) and final mean caudal peduncle height (3.27 ± 0.39 cm). The zootechnical growth parameters evaluated were as follows: survival rate (91.5%), final mean body weight (402.18 ± 137.05 g), average daily weight gain (1.83 ± 0.08 g), specific growth rate (0.77 ± 0.03%/day), feed conversion ratio (1.74 ± 0.09%) and protein efficiency ratio (1.62 ± 0.06). These results compared to the literature indicate interesting growth and body development and it would be important to promote in-cage farming of Oreochromis niloticus.
The study is a contribution to the development of a feed for juvenile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, from local raw materials in order to reduce the cost of feeding farmed tilapia in Senegal. Three feeds were formulated from local raw materials. The basic composition of the tested feeds is as follows: A1 (peanut meal, rice bran, millet bran, maize meal and no fish meal); A2 (peanut meal, rice bran, millet bran, maize meal and 10% fish meal) and A3 (peanut meal, rice bran, millet bran, maize meal and 25% fish meal). All feeds contain 31% protein. The trial compared three batches, in 2 replicates, with different diets. The initial weight of the juveniles was 0.37± 0.5g. The daily ration was distributed at 9 am and 4 pm. After 90 days of experiment, the final mean weights were 2.45 ± 0.5g; 2.75±0.5g; and 4.67 ± 0.5g for A1, A2, and A3, respectively. A performance test, of which the objective was to compare growth parameters, was conducted. The results of the growth parameters of juveniles fed A3 were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those fed A1 and A2. The weight growth study shows similar growth during the first month. However, from this date onwards, juveniles fed A3 show a faster growth, which is maintained throughout the experiment. On the other hand, the Protein Efficiency Coefficient and the Survival Rate showed no significant difference. The zootechnical parameters are not significantly different (p > 0.05) between the two tanks for the same feed treatment.
This experiment was carried out in order to know the variation of the morphometric relation between the length and the width of the shell of abalone Haliotis tuberculata as well as the evolution of the factor of condition.Haliotis tuberculata used in the study is a gastropod that belongs to the order Vetigastropoda, and the family Haliotidae. 135 abalones with an average weight of 5.55±1.24 g, an average length and shell width of 3.14±0.23 cm and 2.12±0.18 cm were selected for the experiment.These individuals were divided into three different densities (10, 15, 20 individuals) in nine (9) plastic tanks with a base area of 0.15 m2 of 3 tanks per density. The abalones from each tank were fed 70% of their body weight with available macroalgae such as Ulva lactuca and Dictiopeterus sp. Morphometric relationships that include the relationships between length-width and condition factor were determinedAt the end of 12 months of experimentation, changes in length, width, and annual average weight as a function of density indicate that low stocking densities favor a faster increase in these variables (length, width, and weight). The analysis of these relationships indicates a strong correlation between the length and width of the Haliotis tuberculata shell. However, it is noted the correlation between these two variables decreases inversely with density. The average values of the condition factor are 18.89 ± 0.96, 18.72 ± 1.18 and 18.59 ± 1.14 for densities D10, D15 and D20 respectively. Analysis of the results of this study shows that when population density becomes too high, the growth of H. tuberculata is slowed down both in weight and in size. The condition factor analysis also indicates that the best biological performance is obtained at the lowest density (D10) thus inducing better growth.
Size distribution, length-weight relationship and condition index are some of the many parameters that contribute to the study of the growth, environmental conditions and reproduction of an aquatic species. For Tagelus adansonii, only a few studies were carried out on these parameters. This species is a bivalve of the solecurtidae family only found on the East Atlantic Coast between Mauritania and Angola. The objective of this study was to examine the biometric relationships as well as size and condition index variations, within the perspective of resource management. In this study, the average size obtained (47.78mm) from the monthly sampling in Joal Fadiouth lagoon was smaller compared to sizes obtained in other countries for the same genus and species. The size frequency distribution is unimodal, the most abundant class is 45-50mm. The mean condition index is 18.41±16.47 using the formula by Beninger and Lucas (1984). The values of the condition indices varied throughout the duration of the study. In the period of cold-to-warm transition (June) the maximum values of the condition indices were observed, while in the period of warm-to-cold transition (November to December), the minimum values were registered. The allometry is positive (3.07) in Joal as in most studies on this genus.
The mangrove oyster Crassostrea tulipa (syn. Crassostrea gasar) has been subjected to strong anthropic pressure. As in several West African countries, Senegal in particular in the Saloum delta, the oyster resource was severely strained. This situation had led to disturbances in the renewal of stocks and their productivity. The objective of this study was to determine the size frequency distribution, the size-weight relationship and the condition index in order to provide scientific arguments for sustainable management of C. tulipa. Monthly sampling from January 2021 to January 2022 at the Akat, Baobab Rasta, Falia 1, Falia 2 and Fandiongue stations revealed that the individual sizes of the oysters collected ranged from 0.63 mm to 93.19 mm, with an average height of 34.63 ± 16.12 mm. The size frequency distribution is unimodal with a modal class of 30 - 40 mm and the allometry coefficient is minorizing (2.57). The correlation coefficient is 0.86. However, from one site to another the differences are not significant. The monthly monitoring of the oyster condition index showed several variations in values throughout the year, with an overall average of 11.47±2.89% for the 5 stations. The maximum value (12.97±2.60) was observed in March while the minimum value (9.85±2.22) was recorded in November. This study suggests that C. tulipa is overexploited in the commune of Dionewar and that the best time to collect the oyster is around March.
Mugil curema, known as white mullet, was one of the fish species encountered in the fisheries landings of the Saloum Delta. In this study, the morphometric parameters and the reproductive biology of this species were studied as well as the influence of environmental parameters on its reproduction. Experimental fisheries were carried out monthly in the Saloum Delta. The fish were caught using surface drift nets. The captured individuals were measured and weighed. The gonads were collected to determine the sex and the stages of sexual maturity. Out of a total of 406 individuals sampled in the Saloum Delta, 306 females and 100 males were identified, no individuals of undetermined sex were obtained. The sex ratio was globally in favor of females. Individuals in this study ranged in size from 102 to 385 mm and weight from 34.9 to 395 g. The allometric coefficient b was equal to 2.40 and indicated a negative allometry. The exploitation of the monthly IGS results indicated that reproduction was in April, May and June. The size at first sexual maturity indicated that the males matured at a size of 220 mm, lower than that of the females 226 mm.
In this study, a total of 1068 specimens Sardinella aurita of which 553 females and 515 males were examined. The objectif of this study was to determine the reproductive parameters of Sardinella aurita. The sex ratio was significantly in favor of females (55%). The size at first sexual maturity was estimated at 18.9 cm for females and 18.0 cm for males. The monthly variation of sexual maturity stages and gonado-somatic index (GSI) allowed to locate the reproduction periods from February to June and from September to December. The mean absolute fecundity was estimated at 110.794 ± 7582 oocytes whereas relative fecundity was about 422 ± 26 oocytes per gram of female.
Nine specimens of the cestode parasites were recovered from the intestine of Clarias batrachus at Amravati, in the month of March, 1984. They were stained in Borax carmine, whole mount and histological slides of the worm were prepared for detail studies. The mature flattened specimens were long, cylindrical and measure 4.805 in length and 0.674-1.484 in breadth. Morphology and anatomy of the worm is fully discussed in this paper.
Humanity is currently living in one of its worst pandemics due to Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Measures to control this pandemic are affected by the people’s misinformation. This study aims to evaluate the global knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of the Arab population regarding COVID-19. Establish any connections between demographic information and the KAP of individuals. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted for a period of 4 months from September to December 2021. A 24-question survey was randomly distributed in 16 different countries. Most of the participants (45.1%) were unsure whether the COVID-19 virus was man-made and released for political purposes. Only 39.6% of the participants believed the vaccine was safe (38.5% responded unsure, and 21.9% responded no). Reassuringly, most of the participants displayed a positive attitude towards the precautionary measures. Most of the study participants had high academic qualifications. Although most of the participants utilized reliable knowledge sources-certified governmental sources (41%) and the WHO and international scientific institutions (23.1%)-, there seems to be a sense of mistrust and uncertainty regarding the origin of the COVID-19 virus. This study identified major gaps in the knowledge of the Arabs which has negatively affected their attitude and practices when it comes to vaccination. More is to be done by authorities to reach the public to assure a proper source of knowledge.
This study aimed to identify the determinants that led to the hesitancy of taking the corona vaccine. In order to achieve the objective of the study, a questionnaire was distributed to residents in Irbid city. The study sample amounted to (519) residents selected according to a simple random sampling technique. The crosstab analysis and one sample T. test and regression analysis were used in order to test hypotheses of the study. The study reached many results, most notably: There is a statistically significant relationship between the hesitancy of taking the Corona vaccine and both ages, marital status, infection with the virus, taking the vaccine, and sources of information about the Corona virus. The combined determinants (beliefs and fears) explained (28.4%) of the hesitation in taking the Corona vaccine, and the remaining percentage that was not explained in this model is attributed to other independent variables that were not addressed in this study. The study recommended community members not to rely on social media sources as a source for obtaining information related to COVID-19 vaccine, especially as it is tainted by many rumours and errors.
Demographic structure and level of exploitation of Pellonula leonensis in the Aghien lagoon were examined by applying length-weight relationship (LWR), Condition factor, Von Bertalanffy model, Mortality parameters, Exploitation rate, Recruitment pattern and Beverton and Holt analysis. Fish population were sampled monthly during one year between June 2014 and May 2015 from artisanal and experimental captures in the Aghien Lagoon. Except LWR and the condition factor, studied parameters were provided by the FiSAT II package. The negative allometric growth (b = 2.61) was reported for Pellonula leonensis. Mean values of the condition factor (CF) vary significantly from one month to another (Anova, p ˂ 0.05). Concerning growth parameters, results indicated that the asymptotic length (L∞) has been estimated at 126.84 mm SL, growth coefficient (K) was 0.67 year -1 and growth performance index (Φ') was 2.03. Growth modelization revealed 4 cohorts for Pellonula leonensis. The estimates of the total (Z), natural (M) and fishing (F) mortalities were 1.87, 0.92 and 0.95 year -1 respectively. The recruitment pattern was continuous throughout the year with two Gauss curve. The exploitation rate obtained (E = 0.51) was close to E0.1 (E0.1 = 0.55), thus indicating that the P. leonensis stock is in an optimum state of exploitation.
Data regarding the levels of inflammatory mediators in patients suffering of the rare disease Alkaptonuria are limited. C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-1 Beta (IL-1β) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) are acute-phase markers associated with joint inflammation. The aim of the present study is to compare the serum levels of the pro-inflammatory mediators, CRP, IL-1β and IL-6 in alkaptonuria patients (n = 17) with those measured for age-matched healthy controls (n = 17). Moreover, we attempt to determine the association between cytokine levels with the disease severity score and age using the Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression. The results show that the serum concentrations of the IL-1 β, IL-6 and CRP are higher in AKU patients compared with healthy controls, with a significant difference in IL-6 (p = 0.02). Moreover, a positive correlation is found between the patients' serum IL-6 and patients' age and the AKU Severity Score (r o = 0.73 and 0.7, respectively; p < 0.05). Thus, the patients' IL-6 serum levels can predict the disease severity score in alkaptonuria patients (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the IL-6 might play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammation in AKU patients and thus targeting it may be one mode of treatment in future. However, these findings need to be supported by further studies, conducted on a larger sample of patients.
Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are an essential tool in the fight against malaria. Physical integrity, durability and bio-effectiveness are key variables in the effectiveness of LLINs. The objective of this study was to identify the main factors affecting the survival of three brands of LLINs with different physical characteristics and to assess their bio-effectiveness. A cohort consisting of 1500 LLINs (500 of each) of the brands: DawaPlus®2.0 (polyester, 150 denier, 40 g/m2 fabric weight), PermaNet®2.0 and Yorkool® (polyester, 75 denier, alternating knit pattern with 85 g/m2 fabric weight) was monitored every 6 months in the communes of Ketou, Dogbo and Djougou (from October 2017 to September 2019) based on attrition and integrity measures and median survival in years. We also determined bio-efficacy using the WHO cone test. The physical presence rate was 26.4%, 21.4% and 48.6% respectively for DawaPlus®2.0, PermaNet®2.0 and Yorkool®. The main cause of loss of the three LLINs was displacement, 43.6% (in rural areas) versus 43.2% (in urban areas) with no significant difference (p ˃ 0.05). The median proportional hole index (pHI) ranged from 578 (IQR: 219-843) at 6 months to 196 (IQR: 46-524.5). After 24 months of use, 86.1% were in good condition (0≤pHI<65), 9% were damaged (65≤pHI<643) and 4.2% were too torn (643≤pHI). A significant decrease in physical survival of LLINs (all brands) was observed at 24 months (37.9%, range 34.7-41.3%) compared to 6 months (90.3%, range 88.7-91.8%) (p<0.001). The 24-hour mortality of the three LLINs met WHO requirements for efficacy. The decline in LLIN survival rates during this study highlights the need to develop and implement new strategies to manage this important vector control tool.
Depression is associated with changes in cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels. Depression can be improved by increasing the cGMP concentration through the cGMP/PKG pathway with PDE2A inhibitors. This study is aimed to improve the expression of a highly active PDE2A protein with an Escherichia coli vector ST6 for the screening of PDE2A inhibitors. PDE2A gene was obtained through polymerase chain reaction. A recombinant plasmid of ST6-PDE2A was built by seamless cloning and then introduced into E. coli BL21 (DE3). The cultivation conditions were optimized to increase target protein expression. The expressed protein was purified with Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Its purified activity was measured by a PDE-GloTM phosphodiesterase kit. An maximized protein expression was obtained by cultivating E. coli BL21 with ST6-PDE2A in the YT medium at 37 °C till OD600 reached to 0.6-0.8 and then by inducible expressing with 1 mM IPTG at 16 °C for 40 hours. The resultant active protein has an EC50 of 0.1196 mg/ml.
Solid sisal waste fractions which included composted sisal boles and sisal leaves decortication residues supplemented with cow dung manure at various rates used singly and/or in combination as substrates were investigated for cultivation of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus HK-37). The effect of the test sisal waste substrates and cow dung manure of various supplementation rates were evaluated by mushroom yield, biological efficiency and mushroom size. Pinheads occurred in all substrates within 3 to 5 weeks of transfer of bags to the cropping room. The overall best results of mushroom production were obtained in a substrate combination of 50 % sisal leaves + 50 % sisal boles (based on 450 g wet weight substrate) supplemented by 30 % cow dung manure with the mushroom yield of 184.64 g fresh mushrooms/kg moist substrate weight and percentage biological efficiency (B.E) of about 63 %. Mushroom size of 6.10 was obtained in sisal boles substrate supplemented by 20 % cow dung manure. Least yield of 26.73 g fresh mushrooms/kg moist substrate weight and lowest B.E of 8.95 % were obtained from non-supplemented substrate of sisal leaves alone. The study concluded that, supplementation using cow dung manure may play an important role on increasing the yield and productivity of Pleurotus HK-37 on solid sisal waste fractions under the conditions investigated.
Clinical strains of Yersinia.pseudotuberculosis were screened for 70 Kbp virulence plasmids it was found only 20 % carrying 70Kbp plasmid, when subjected to different concentrations of Naledixin for development of mutant strains , plasmids were lost from one strain Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP3295, which leaded to the modification of L.B medium into human blood (H.B) L.B medium as culture medium for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis .Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP3295 showed 70Kbp virulence plasmid with additional small plasmids which proves the incorporation of plasmids with chromosomal DNA and similarity with Yersinia pestis. All strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis harboring virulence plasmids were detected for FyuA and Irp2 genes of the High pathogenicity island using PCR. And it was found that all plasmid harboring strains contains high Pathogenicity Island.
Helminths are common parasitic fauna of goats. This study was aimed at identifying and quantifying the gastrointestinal helminth parasites of Red Sokoto goats slaughtered at Trans-Amadi and Rumuokoro abattoirs, Rivers State, Nigeria. Fifty intestinal tracts were examined at each location accounting for a total of 100 samples from both locations. Samples were weighed and dissected; direct microscopy was used to examine samples for adult helminths and test-tube floatation technique was used to examine organic matter from samples for parasite eggs. Nematodes were identified using keys and fixed in 70% alcohol. Prevalence and mean intensity of infection were computed; product moment correlation and Student t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Two nematode parasites were identified- Haemonchus contortus and Trichuris ovis. In Trans Amadi, prevalence and mean intensity of infection were 46.0% and 13 parasites/infected host, respectively for H. contortus, and 54.0% and 11 parasites/infected host for T. ovis. In Rumuokoro, prevalence of 38.0% and 52.0% were computed for H. contortus and T. ovis, respectively, while the mean intensity were 6 and 8 parasites/infected host, respectively for H. contortus and T. ovis. Single infection with Trichuris ovis was higher (30% Trans Amadi; 34% Rumuokoro) than either single infection with H. contortus or double infection with both parasites. There was a significant correlation between the parasite burden and intestinal mass at Trans-Amadi (r48=0.33, P0.05=0.279), but not at Rumuokoro (r48=0.10, P0.05=0.279). The total prevalence and prevalence of single and double infection at both locations did not differ significantly (t3=0.93, p=0.21). Agricultural extension and meat inspection services should be carried out regularly to educate farmers on the symptoms, impacts, treatment and management of helminth parasites.
The infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm is the most common among arterial aneurysms; it happens when there is an abnormal and irreversible enlargement of the blood vessel. This disease usually compromises other arterial segments and is linked to high mortality rates, mainly due to its rupture. Given its importance, we present a case study of an abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with a common iliac artery aneurysm. During a dissection practice in the Morphofunctional Laboratory at FACERES Medical School, we observed the presence of a mild stenosis in the abdominal aorta below the renal arteries, as well as the formation of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. In addition, we noticed that the infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was associated with a bilateral common iliac artery aneurysm. Morphological analyses carried out in the blood vessels showed a large quantity of atheromatous plaques, which are the probable cause of the pathology. The information herein may broaden the knowledge on the infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysmal disease, thus reducing its complications and mortality rates.