Journal of Behavioral Education

Published by Springer Nature
Online ISSN: 1573-3513
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Percent of caregiver coach coaching steps implemented correctly among participants coaching confederate caregiver to implement DTT. Asterisks denote reduction in caregiver coaching errors
Percent of caregiver coach coaching steps implemented correctly among participants coaching confederate caregiver to conduct an MSWO preference assessment. Asterisks denote reduction in caregiver coaching errors
The top graph displays the percent of participant errors made across all sessions (473 total errors). The middle graph displays the percent of participant errors made across baseline sessions (346 baseline errors). The bottom graph displays the percent of participant errors made across intervention sessions (127 intervention errors)
The supervision of field experiences is an indispensable component of Board-Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA®) training. During the supervised field experience, supervisors regularly provide performance feedback to trainees for the purpose of improving fidelity of implementation of various assessments and interventions. Emerging evidence supports the efficacy of using telehealth to train teachers and parents to implement interventions, but no study has evaluated the effectiveness of the remote delayed performance feedback among individuals completing BCBA® training. We used videoconference equipment and software to deliver remote delayed performance feedback to seven participants enrolled in a graduate program and completing supervised field experience. Remote delayed performance feedback was provided regarding participants’ implementation of caregiver coaching. The results indicate that delayed performance feedback provided remotely increased the correct implementation of caregiver coaching. These preliminary results indicate the efficacy of remote supervision and delayed performance feedback.
A visual representation of the AB:BA design. Note: All initial white boxes represent unassigned participants. Subsequent gray and white boxes indicate randomized and then grouped participants
The overall accuracy of participants’ accuracy under operational definition and pinpoint conditions
A column graph showing each individual participants’ performance under operational definition and pinpoint conditions
Operational definitions have a significant history in applied behavior analysis. The practice's importance stems from the role operational definitions play in detecting an event, human thought, or action. While operationalizing target behaviors has enjoyed widespread practice, some concerns have recently arisen with translation validity and detection accuracy. Additionally, a review of the literature produces few articles assessing the validity of operational definitions. Pinpoints represent an alternative for describing target behaviors. A pinpoint has a formula for construction that includes using an action verb, an object, or event that receives the action, and a comprehensibly defined context where the observation of the action verb + object or event occurs. Pinpoints also have few empirical studies demonstrating their validity. The following experiment compared the detection accuracy of an operational definition for self-injurious behavior and a corresponding pinpoint across professionals who worked in a school that served clients with autism spectrum disorder. The results indicate lower accuracy scores for the operational definition when compared to the pinpoint. Additionally, the consistency of scores varied more for the operational definition than the pinpoint.
Flow diagram
Forest plot
Traditional funnel plot showing standardized mean difference effect sizes plotted against their standard errors
Contour-enhanced funnel plot showing contours of statistical significance overlaid on the funnel plot
The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the overall effects of automaticity training of fundamental literacy component skills (i.e., letter names/sounds, individual words) on reading fluency and comprehension. Another purpose was to assess if the effects of automaticity training varied for reading fluency and comprehension. We identified 11 research studies involving students in Grades 1–6 that met the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. A total of 83 effect sizes (Hedges g, corrected for sample size bias) were extracted from these studies. These studies were double-coded for specific features (e.g., student age, student grade, type of automaticity training). We meta-analyzed the effect sizes using a multi-level meta-analytic model and examined whether the outcome measure type (comprehension or fluency) moderated the effects of automaticity training. We also analyzed for publication bias. The overall effect size for automaticity training of fundamental literacy component skills on reading fluency and comprehension was 0.28, although it was not statistically significant. Shifting units of analysis approach indicated there was a statistically significant effect found for reading fluency outcomes [g = 0.48 (CI = .23, .72)] but not for reading comprehension (ES = 0.17 ns). Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Results of pre-service teachers’ quiz performance, Note. Closed circles denote interdependent contingency condition, Closed triangles denote independent contingency baseline; BL = baseline; INT = intervention
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of interdependent and independent group contingencies on pre-service teachers’ performance on class quizzes that reflected their knowledge of evidence-based practices for students with extensive support needs. In the interdependent condition, the course instructor awarded extra credit points to groups of pre-service teachers who performed at 80% or higher on class quizzes. In the independent condition, the course instructor awarded extra credit points to individual pre-service teachers who met the same performance criterion. Quizzes were based on content from weekly course topics in a special education teacher preparation course focusing on evidence-based practices for students with extensive support needs. Group performance improved across all groups with overall higher performance scores in the interdependent contingency. Pre-service teachers reported both contingencies to be effective and valuable. Implications for practice, limitations, and future research are discussed.
Incremental rehearsal (IR)a sequence, a shuffle incremental rehearsal (ShIR) followed the same sequence as IR above except known facts were shuffled in between each sequence, UF = unknown fact, KF = known fact.
Cumulative multiplication fact retention for Cami, Ciera, and Carly, Main = maintenance; Indigo intervention 1 = IR, intervention 2 = ShIR; Lucy intervention 1 = ShIR, intervention 2 = IR; Macy intervention 1 = ShIR, intervention 2 = IR
Cumulative multiplication fact retention for Indigo, Lucy, and Macy, Main = maintenance; Indigo intervention 1 = IR, intervention 2 = ShIR; Lucy intervention 1 = ShfIR, intervention 2 = IR; Macy intervention 1 = ShIR, intervention 2 = IR
Cumulative intervention session errors for Cami, Ciera, and Carly
Cumulative intervention session errors for Indigo, Lucy, and Macy
Incremental rehearsal (IR) has consistently been shown to improve students’ math fact retention and fluency (Maki et al., Journal of Behavioral Education 30:534–558, 2021). However, less is known about how intervention modifications may support longer-term skill maintenance. The purpose of this study was to compare traditional IR with a modified IR (shuffle IR; ShIR) in which known multiplication facts were shuffled between sequences using a cumulative acquisition design with six fourth- and fifth-grade students. All participants retained and maintained more facts in IR and ShIR compared to a control condition. However, IR or ShIR did not consistently result in greater retention than the other, with three students demonstrating greater retention in the IR condition and three students demonstrating greater retention in the ShIR condition. Most participants demonstrated greater fact maintenance in the ShIR condition than in the IR condition. All participants made fewer intervention session errors in the condition in which they retained more multiplication facts.
Caregiver Implementation of DTI Steps and Child Responding. Note Caregiver’s percentage of DTI steps implemented correctly by Cora, Ana, Tara, and Ken are denoted by filled squares and open triangles. Filled squares indicate sessions conducted with a confederate therapist. Open triangles represent sessions conducted with the actual child. The percentage of correct responses by child participants (Avery, Eli, and Saul) are depicted by asterisks. Maintenance sessions are denoted by M1 and M2. Training extensions 1, 2, and 3 are denoted by T1, T2, and T3
Caregiver Accuracy with Implementing DTI Component Skills. Note Accuracy of individual component skills (as defined in Table 2) is depicted across sessions for Cora, Ana, Tara, and Ken. Maintenance sessions are denoted by M1 and M2. Training extensions 1, 2, and 3 are denoted by T1, T2, and T3
Mounting empirical support for early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) has increased demand for early intervention services for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which may include a variety of components such as discrete-trial instruction (DTI) or natural environment teaching (NET). Many caregivers are now learning EIBI techniques and becoming active agents in their child’s ASD treatment. Behavioral skills training (BST) has been frequently used to teach individuals to correctly perform a variety of skills, including DTI (Lafasakis & Sturmey, Lafasakis and Sturmey, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 40:685–689, 2007). In this study, caregivers were trained to conduct a DTI procedure with a single-component BST method (i.e., real-time feedback). A concurrent, multiple baseline across caregivers design was used to evaluate the efficacy of real-time feedback on the caregivers’ implementation of the DTI procedure with confederates. Results showed that real-time feedback yielded short caregiver training times and few sessions to meet the mastery criterion. In addition, caregivers expressed high satisfaction with the real-time feedback training method, and they were able to implement the procedures with their children with high integrity during treatment extension probes.
Average inappropriate behaviors
Average desired behaviors
In response to the demand for adopting a social justice system to manage students’ challenging behaviors, many countries are implementing positive behavior support (PBS) programs at the school level. However, the use of PBS in Saudi Arabian schools is still a goal rather than reality. It is strongly evident that school-wide PBS can be applicable to different educational contexts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a virtual school-wide positive behavior support program for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Saudi Arabia. Teaching and reinforcement procedures were implemented to help the students replace interfering classroom behaviors with alternative, appropriate behaviors. Observations were conducted to collect data on the students’ classroom behaviors. The results of the study showed that there was an immediate and major improvement in the students’ behaviors upon the introduction of the program. The results support the conclusion that school-wide positive behavior support can be successfully applied to different educational settings and suggest several implications for special and general education schools.
Flowchart following PRISMA guidelines (Moher et al., 2009)
Prompt-fading procedures are ubiquitous in instructional interventions. Two prompt-fading procedures, prompt delay and simultaneous prompting, are consistently shown to be efficacious, although few studies have directly compared the two procedures. These comparisons are warranted as the training procedures in simultaneous prompting are procedurally identical to the conditions initially arranged in prompt delay procedures (i.e., 0-s prompt delay). Therefore, efficiency may be directly related to the number of 0-s prompts presented in prompt delay procedures. Past research has emphasized the necessity of fading prompts to avoid prompt dependence, yet prompt dependence is rarely described in the simultaneous prompting literature. The current systematic review synthesizes the findings of 11 articles comparing simultaneous and prompt delay procedures across seven behavior analytic and educational journals. Overall, the findings suggest that simultaneous prompting and prompt delay procedures are similarly efficient, although the former was associated with fewer errors to mastery in over 70% of instructional comparisons. Additional research is needed to better describe the conditions in which traditional prompt delay or prompt fading procedures are necessary to produce transfer of stimulus control.
Total behavior-specific praise and reprimands delivered by teacher and average class academic engagement across baseline, visual performance feedback (VPF), disaggregated visual performance feedback (VPF + DIS), and maintenance (Maint.) phases. * Is trimester change, wherein class rosters changed slightly but all classes remained within inclusion criteria
Mr. Brown’s disaggregated data across phases. BSP is behavior-specific praise; SOC is student of color; VPF is visual performance feedback; VPD + DIS is disaggregated visual performance feedback. Y-axis scales shift across graphs
Ms. Ball’s disaggregated data across phases. BSP is behavior-specific praise; SOC is student of color; VPF is visual performance feedback
Mr. Cox’s disaggregated data across phases. BSP is behavior-specific praise; SOC is student of color; VPF is visual performance feedback; VPD + DIS is disaggregated visual performance feedback
Mrs. Cobb’s disaggregated data across phases. BSP is behavior-specific praise; SOC is student of color; VPF is visual performance feedback; VPD + DIS is disaggregated visual performance feedback. Y-axis scales shift across graphs
Behavior-specific praise (BSP) is one of the simplest classroom management strategies to implement and considered an evidence-based practice. Unfortunately, teachers underuse BSP and deliver more reprimands to students in their classrooms. Secondary students receive the highest rates of reprimands and exclusionary discipline (i.e., office discipline referral [ODR], suspension, expulsion) with students of color receiving disproportionate rates compared to their White peers. Performance feedback is a commonly used strategy to change teacher practices however, little is known about the impact of performance feedback on the equitable delivery of BSP and reprimands to students by race and sex. The purpose of this multiple baseline design study was to examine the effects of a visual performance feedback (VPF) intervention with secondary teachers on their equitable delivery of BSP and reprimands and the collateral impacts on student outcomes. In the first phase of intervention, teachers received VPF on their total BSP and reprimands. In the second phase, teachers received disaggregated VPF on their rates of BSP and reprimands delivered to students by race and sex. Results indicate a functional relation between VPF and total BSP and an overall reduction in total reprimands. Mixed results were found between VPF and the equitable delivery of BSP and reprimands rates delivered to students by race and sex. Student outcomes indicated an increase in average class-wide academic engagement and no impact on ODRs as no teacher delivered a single ODR. Key findings, limitations, and future research are discussed.
Preference assessment results
Reinforcer assessment results
Effective training programs for individuals with disabilities often involve the use of positive reinforcement. Social interactions have many benefits over other forms of reinforcement, but more research is needed to determine how to identify social interactions that serve as reinforcers. In the first experiment, we evaluated the use of two procedures to assess preference for social interactions: a video-presentation and a picture-presentation paired-choice preference assessment among five boys diagnosed with a developmental disability. In the second experiment, we conducted concurrent operant reinforcer assessments to validate the results of the preference assessments among three of the five participants in which at least one assessment indicated differentiated preferences. The video-presentation and picture-presentation preference assessments resulted in the identification of the same high-preferred social interactions for two of the three participants, and subsequent reinforcer assessments indicated these social interactions served as reinforcers. The results of the video- and picture-presentation preference assessments differed for the final participant. The results of a concurrent operant reinforcer assessment indicated the social interaction identified as highest preferred in the video-presentation assessment served as a relatively more effective reinforcer. Results of this study indicate that video- and picture-presentation preference assessment results in differentiate responding for some participants, but not others; however, reasons for these results remain unknown. Moreover, a video-presentation preference assessments may be more effective in identifying social reinforcers, but evidence should be considered; preliminary and future research is warranted.
The classwide average percentage change in pretest to posttest scores across in-person and online recorded lecture conditions
The individual average percentage change in pretest to posttest scores across in-person and online recorded lecture conditions
The total number of posttest scores at or above 80% in each module
Expanding the field of behavior analysis allows empirically validated practices to be more accessible for children impacted by autism, developmental disabilities, and behavioral challenges. However, even with the global advancement of applied behavior analysis (ABA) getting the science into the area where children spend most of their time, schools, can be a challenge. Professional development for teachers in the area of ABA has been previously investigated. However, incorporating ABA coursework into pre-service teacher training does not have a strong research base. Looking specifically at teaching ABA coursework in English to a group of speakers of English as a second language is even more novel. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to use an alternating treatments design in an undergraduate pre-service teacher ABA elective course to evaluate the effectiveness and social validity of information delivery in two different formats: in-person lecture and online recorded lecture. The findings of the study did not show a difference in student course performance based on delivery method, but did show variations in preferences. Overall, the blended model of instruction proved effective in disseminating ABA to pre-service teachers in their nonnative language with promising reports for future usage.
Number of correct independent responses in successive sessions, for four participants with three prompt delays, progressive prompt delay (PPD, black squares), 2-s constant prompt delay (CPD 2-s, black triangles), 5-s constant prompt delay (5-s CPD. black circles), or control (open diamonds) conditions. When mastery criterion was met, a posttest (PT) was conducted. For Cahil, 3-stimuli instruction was changed to 2-stimuli instruction, and maintenance probes (MP) were conducted several weeks (WK) after final PT
Mean number of training trials and percentage of errors (y-axis) to mastery criterion for four participants across three instructional conditions and a control (x-axis)
Mean instructional duration (y-axis) to mastery criterion across four participants for three instructional conditions (x-axis)
Prompt levels for each instructional condition, progressive prompt delay (PPD) or constant prompt delay (CPD), and a control condition
Variations in prompt delay procedures are used in discrete-trial training to reduce the occurrence of errors before task mastery. However, the variations are seldom compared systematically. Using an adapted alternating treatments design, the present study compared progressive prompt delay with 2-s or 5-s constant prompt delay, on the acquisition of an expressive labeling task in four participants with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. While all three prompt delay methods led to mastery of the tasks, albeit only when the tasks were simplified for one participant, progressive prompt delay generally proved the most efficient method on several measures, including lower error rates. This is consistent with the nature of the progressive prompt delay procedure which allows less time for errors to occur early in training. It is provisionally concluded that selection of progressive prompt delay is supported as a wise first choice option for clinicians, as a history of high error rates may impair later learning.
Young students who are struggling with reading need a strong foundation in decoding skills. The need for strong decoding skills is particularly true for students facing multiple risk factors. A robust research base exists for interventions that improve decoding skills, but that research base extends minimally to students facing several risk factors. We used a multiple-probe across behaviors design to evaluate the impact of a multi-component reading intervention on the decoding skills of four first grade students. During the multi-component intervention, students received several opportunities to construct, deconstruct, write, and read target words from different word families. Results were indicative of a functional relation between the intervention and improvements in word reading. This effect was replicated across all four study participants. Participants reported the intervention had high acceptability. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
FA results for all participants. Asterisks indicates change to 10-min sessions
Results from the interventions for all participants. FCT was implemented for four participants and DRO was implemented for one (Jasper). Dashed line indicates additional baseline sessions for Jamaal. Asterisks indicates change to 10-min sessions
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of an intervention selection model on the outcomes of function-based interventions for escape-maintained problem behavior. The study included five children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and was conducted in a school setting. We conducted functional analyses to determine the function of problem behavior. BCBAs and special educators then independently used the intervention selection model to select an indicated intervention for each participant, with agreement as to the selected intervention in four of five cases. We then implemented identified function-based interventions resulting in reductions in problem behavior and acquisition of an appropriate replacement behavior for all participants. This study has implications for practitioners seeking to reduce problem behavior of students with ASD in school settings.
Percentage of FCT components implemented correctly across sessions and conditions (top panels) and boxes showing the percentage of trials with correct responses for each component of FCT within four ranges (bottom panels) for each participant. An “X” indicates the participant had no opportunity to implement that component
Training teachers to select and implement appropriate function-based interventions may reduce their reliance on behavior specialists and other support staff to help manage their students’ problem behavior in the classroom. Most prior studies on this type of training evaluated outcomes by measuring teachers’ verbal report rather than their implementation of interventions. The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend prior research by training teachers to identify the putative function of problem behavior via assessment of descriptive data, to select the appropriate procedural variation of functional communication training (FCT), and to implement FCT accurately in role play. Five special education teachers participated. Results suggested that behavioral skills training (BST) was highly effective for all participants. These findings have important implications for disseminating behavior-analytic interventions into settings with limited resources.
Academic responding (AR) and disruptive behavior (DB) during the instructional period across experimental phases
Accurate responding for across experimental phases
This study compared the effects of high-tech (clickers) and low-tech (response cards and hand raising) active student responding modalities on student classroom behavior during whole-group English language arts instruction in two 1st-grade classrooms serving students with and without disabilities. The authors combined an ABAB reversal design with an alternating treatments design to compare the impact of using high-tech and low-tech modalities on academic responding, disruptive behavior, and accuracy of responding across four teacher-nominated students in two classrooms. The results of the study indicate that both clickers and response cards were equally effective in increasing student academic responding and decreasing disruptive behavior. Additionally, accuracy of responding was similar during the response cards and clickers conditions for all participants.
Results for all three participants. Closed circles represent the individualized communicative responses. Open squares represent the academic targets
Embedded instruction offers a potentially effective, non-disruptive, and socially acceptable intervention approach for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in general education settings. However, the literature using embedded instruction has not frequently provided data on embedded instruction targets and targets within the ongoing lessons or maintenance of the acquired skills. This study evaluated the effectiveness of embedded instruction to teach three individuals diagnosed with ASD communication skills during the course of existing lessons. Data were collected on embedded instruction targets, academic targets (i.e., targets within existing lessons), and maintenance of mastered targets. The results of a non-concurrent multiple baseline design indicated embedded instruction was effective for all three participants and the acquired skills maintained. The results are discussed with respect to future research and clinical application of the methods evaluated.
Total number of words read correctly during baseline, SIR intervention, and the maintenance check for Amanda, David, and Jennifer
The Strategic Incremental Rehearsal (SIR) intervention, a modified version of Incremental Rehearsal, is an efficient flashcard procedure that has demonstrated effectiveness on sight word acquisition for children who exhibit reading difficulties. However, to date, the procedure has not been evaluated with children identified with a reading disability who have a history of receiving special education services. This study uses a multiple baseline design across participants to examine the effects of SIR with a modified criterion for removal on sight word reading with three third-grade participants receiving special education services for a specific learning disability in reading. Results indicated sight word reading increased for all 3 participants at the onset of intervention compared to baseline. The total intervention time for each participant ranged from 16 to 48 min. All 3 participants correctly read a minimum of 21 out of 25 targeted words at a 5-week maintenance check. The results indicated that SIR with a modified criterion of removal is a potentially effective and efficient intervention for sight word reading for participants with specific learning disabilities in reading.
In recent years, small-scale studies have suggested that we may be able to substantially strengthen children's general cognitive abilities and intelligence quotient (IQ) scores using a relational operant skills training program (SMART). Only one of these studies to date has included an active Control Condition, and that study reported the smallest mean IQ rise. The present study is a larger stratified active-controlled trial to independently test the utility of SMART training for raising NVIQ and processing speed. We measured personality traits, NVIQs, and processing speeds of a cohort of school pupils (aged 12-15). Participants were allocated to either a SMART intervention group or a Scratch computer coding control group, for a period of three months. We reassessed pupils’ NVIQs and processing speeds after the three-month intervention. We observed a significant mean increase in the SMART training group’s (final nexp = 43) Non-Verbal IQs of 5.98 points, while there was a non-significant increase of 1.85 points in the Scratch active-control group (final ncont = 27). We also observed an increase in processing speed across both conditions (final nexp = 70; ncont = 55) over Time. Our results suggest that relational skills training may be useful for improving performance on matrices tasks, and perhaps in future, accelerating children’s progression towards developmental milestones.
of Branching Logic for Hypothesis Testing Decision Tool. Path A represents the decision factors for 8 teams (Teams 01, 02, 05, 06, 07, 10, 11 12); path B for 1 team (Team 08); path C for 1 team (Team 03); path D for 2 teams (Teams 04, 09)
Graphed Results of Functional and Antecedent Analyses. TB = target behavior; FA = functional analysis; AA = antecedent analysis; IOA = interobserver agreement; PF = procedural fidelity. Underlined test condition(s) were confirmed during the assessment
For students with severe or complex challenging behavior, incorporating hypothesis testing as a component of functional behavior assessment (FBA) is often warranted. Several hypothesis testing strategies (i.e., functional analysis, antecedent analysis, concurrent operant analysis) can confirm whether and how features of a student’s environment impact their behavior to then inform effective intervention. Yet practitioners have limited guidance on how to select and individualize best-fit strategies for a given student and context. We developed a decision tool for behavior specialists and classroom teachers to collaboratively plan and implement individualized hypothesis testing strategies for students whose initial FBA was inconclusive. We piloted this tool with 12 practitioner teams and students, aiming to (a) identify which assessment strategies were indicated based on practitioner responses; (b) evaluate whether indicated assessments produced conclusive results; and (c) explore practitioner perceptions of the individualized assessment process. The most commonly indicated hypothesis testing strategy was functional analysis. Across teams, one or more hypothesis was successfully confirmed on the first or second assessment iteration. The assessment process was perceived positively by practitioners. Yet they reported feeling ill-equipped to complete the process independently, highlighting important next steps for training and technical assistance work.
Effects of BST training for TBFA via Telehealth. The dotted line on participant three’s graph represents the addition of the tangible condition to the TBFA sessions
Results of the TBFA for each client. Since Nova only had three sessions with the inclusion of the tangible condition, they only had six opportunities to respond in trial type
Previous studies have supported the use of trial-based functional analysis performed by teachers in classroom settings. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of training technicians to conduct trial-based functional analyses via telehealth. Telehealth-based training was effective for producing high-integrity implementation by technicians. Using Trial-Based Functional Analyses in classrooms resulted in an efficient means of conducting functional analysis in areas with limited resources.
Effects of a taped-letter intervention on the number of letter identified during assessments. Note. Maintenance probes were conducted 2 weeks after intervention
Independent and echoic responses during taped-letter intervention sessions for Earnest. Note. Correct responses before the audio was presented are represented by a square and correctly echoed responses once audio was presented are represented by a circle
Independent and echoic responses during taped-letter intervention sessions for Ray. Note. Correct responses before the audio was presented are represented by a square and correctly echoed responses once audio was presented are represented by a circle
Independent and echoic responses during taped-letter intervention sessions for Kurt. Note. Correct responses before the audio was presented are represented by a square and correctly echoed responses once audio was presented are represented by a circle
Letter names are some of the many preschool accomplishments that are of particular relevance to later academic challenges. However, many children enter school without having fluent letter name knowledge. The current study evaluated the effects of a taped-letter (TL) intervention delivered through PowerPoint on the accuracy of letter identification in three young children using a multiple probe across participants design. The participants were trained to say the letter name when the PowerPoint provided a printed letter on the screen and to echo the computer model of the correct response. Each training was followed by an assessment in which the participant was tested on letter identification accuracy. The TL intervention was successful in increasing letter identification to at least 23 letters for all participants within 8–11 intervention sessions. These results extend and add to the findings of previous studies demonstrating the effectiveness of taped interventions in teaching academic skills and demonstrate that similar taped interventions can be easily developed to teach early academic skills using a computerized platform.
Top graph displays the percentage of single-case research publications across years within the analytical sample; middle graph displays the number of single-case research publications across years within the analytical sample; bottom graph displays the total number of all publications across years within the analytical sample
Top graph displays estimated effects of a journal’s focus and impact factor on the percentage of single-case research publications within a journal in the year 2017 (values calculated using average coefficient estimates reported in Model 4 from Table 3); bottom graph displays estimated effects of a journal’s focus on the percentage of single-case research publications within a journal over time (values calculated using average coefficient estimates reported in Model 5 from Supplemental Table S6)
To provide context surrounding the history of single-case research and to act as a benchmark for which future changes across the felds and disciplines that use single-case methods may be compared, we conducted this study to serve as an update and extension on the trends and prevalence of single-case research in the peer-reviewed literature. Our analytical sample was derived from 20 peer-reviewed journals over a 40-year timespan. Results indicate that since 1978, approximately one in six publications within our examined body of research employed a single-case research design. Exploratory moderator analyses revealed that a journal’s focus on behavior analytic research, and a journal’s impact factor moderated the prevalence of single-case publications within a journal. We discuss our fndings in relation to prior studies examining the prevalence and trends of single-case research and future directions for single-case researchers to improve the quality, value, and understanding of single-case methodology (
Teachers' rate of behavior specific praise per minute
Although behavior-specific praise (BSP) is a recommended practice for early childhood populations, early childhood educators often deliver variable rates of BSP. To support educators, face-to-face, school-based consultation may be provided; however, this may not always be feasible. To address this, emerging research is beginning to investigate the effectiveness, feasibility, and social validity of emailed supports to overcome barriers to feasibility. Using a multiple baselines across participants design, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and social validity of an emailed prompt package for increasing three early childhood educators’ rates of BSP in target and generalization classroom activities in a university-based child development center. Results indicated that all three early childhood educators’ rates of BSP increased and maintained in both target and generalization settings. Limitations and implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Percentage of students with webcam on across treatment conditions
During the COVID-19 pandemic, in-person classroom instruction was placed on hold and university courses transitioned to online instruction. This transition resulted in novel challenges for instructors, including reduced professor-student interactions due to limited student webcam usage. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a reinforcement contingency on students’ use of webcams during synchronous online instruction. An alternating treatments design was used to assess the impact of a reinforcement contingency consisting of 0.5 points contingent on daily webcam usage. We also assessed the results based on how the contingency was communicated to the students (a verbal statement on the daily quiz plus a reminder on lecture slides versus a statement on the lecture slide only). The reinforcement contingency reliably increased webcam usage, but there was not a significant difference in results as a function of how the presence of the reinforcement contingency was communicated. These findings suggest that the behavior of using webcams can change with a simple reinforcement contingency.
PRISMA chart of publication selection and review
Self-advocacy is an effective means of attaining required accommodations and services for adults with developmental disabilities. Previous reviews exist on related topics but have not been comprehensive or specific to the act of teaching self-advocacy skills. The purpose of this review is to begin to fill this gap by identifying studies that have taught self-advocacy skills to this and similar populations through the deployment of a PRISMA-style literature review. A total of 67 publications were identified and coded for several variables including participant age and diagnoses, training methods, setting, duration, target behaviors, reports of generalization, maintenance, and social validity, and research design and quality. The results are summarized with suggestions for future research on this important topic.
This article provides preliminary practice recommendations for telehealth direct applied behavior analysis (ABA) services for children with autism. In the face of COVID-19, there is an immediate need for discussion on how to implement various ABA procedures via telehealth for ABA practitioners. Alongside emerging scientific evidence on the effectiveness of telehealth direct service as well as various service-related guidelines, we provide preliminary practice recommendations that are based on the existing literature on in-person and telehealth ABA procedures. We also discuss these recommendations with case studies of two boys with autism. Social validity measures indicated that families were satisfied with telehealth direct services. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic has resolved itself, telehealth direct ABA service will still be a valuable option for remote and international locations where direct ABA service is limited, and thus, practice recommendations continue to be relevant for all practitioners that use telehealth direct service.
Interventionist 1 with four children’s data is depicted. Open circles are % target vocabularies identified correctly. Closed diamonds are % story comprehension questions answered correctly. Open triangles are % words read correctly in 1 min
Interventionist 2 with four children’s data is depicted
English language development is a critical component for young children’s school readiness. In this study, we examined the effect of Read it again-Pre-K! (Justice and McGinty in Read it again!-Prek: a preschool curriculum supplement to promote language and literacy foundations, Crane Center for Early Childhood Research and Policy, Columbus, 2013), a literacy curriculum designed to prepare young children’s school readiness on the English literacy skills of Korean dual language learners in general education. Using a multiple probe design, eight 4- to 5-year-old Korean dual language learners (1 female, 7 males) received 1:1 online synchronous daily instruction over 2 months during the summer before entering their kindergarten programs. Through the intervention, all eight children demonstrated increases in the use of English vocabulary, story comprehension, and oral fluency. Post-intervention data on vocabulary and reading fluency through three standardized tests, Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and Expressive Vocabulary Test, showed improvement over baseline for most children. Discussion and implications for future research were provided.
PRISMA steps taken to identify and exclude studies
The purpose of this review was to summarize the behavior-analytic literature on the emergence of untrained second language skills and to provide recommendations for future research focused on second language acquisition. Seventeen distinct studies were included in the review. These studies implemented a variety of teaching methods (e.g., tact, intraverbal, mand, and echoic training) and tested for the emergence of untaught verbal operant relations. Results suggest that tact training is an effective approach to evoke untrained responses in a second language, and intraverbal training is effective for training rudimentary second language skills and the emergence of untaught responses. Implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed.
TBFA results
FCT results for challenging behavior (top panel) and independent mands (bottom panel) for Scarlett. Note, TT = teaching trials
FCT results for challenging behavior (top panel) and independent mands (bottom panel) for Porter. Note, TT = teaching trials
FCT results for challenging behavior (top panel) and independent mands (bottom panel) for Amos. The dashed phase line within the first intervention phase represents when the mand was modified to better accommodates the needs associated with Amos’s visual impairment. Note, TT = teaching trials
The trial-based functional analysis (TBFA) offers several advantages in natural settings, such as time efficiency and ecological validity. Previous studies have successfully trained or coached a variety of professionals and parents to conduct a TBFA utilizing in-person training procedures; however, no study has evaluated the effectiveness of telehealth coach or train others to implement a TBFA. Utilizing telehealth coaching, we coached three mothers of children with autism to conduct a TBFA in their home. The TBFA identified consequences maintaining challenging behavior for all three participants. Based on the results of the TBFA, we developed a functional communication training (FCT) intervention. Experimenters coached the mothers to implement the FCT intervention in their home. All interventions resulted in decreased challenging behavior and increased communication. The results suggest parents are capable of conducting a valid TBFA with telehealth coaching and support.
Walking Speed in feet per second across conditions
Scatterplot of duration and distance across conditions. Note: Dotted line represents the trend line for baseline transitions and the solid line represents the trend line for group contingency transitions
Groups of children often transition between activity spaces in both academic and recreational settings. In schools, children may be asked to walk as a group between the classroom and spaces such as a cafeteria and playground whereas summer camps similarly use different spaces for separate activities throughout a scheduled day. Interdependent group contingencies have previously addressed school-based transitions (e.g., timely transitions game); however, limited research has applied similar interventions to recreational settings such as summer camps. An ABAB design was used to evaluate an interdependent group contingency with visual feedback to increase walking speed between activities across one group of seven 10- to 11-year-old boys at a residential summer camp. The results showed that the intervention was effective to increase the average speed walking, in feet per second, for the group of boys. Further, there were high rates of intervention fidelity, and acceptability among camp counselors.
Forest plot and effect size statistics for traditional lecture (TL)—interteaching (IT) comparisons. The diamond-shaped data point at the bottom of the plot represents the summary effect size across all studies
Forest plot and effect size statistics for all interteaching-to-interteaching comparisons. The diamond-shaped data point at the bottom of the plot represents the summary effect size across all studies
Forest plot and effect size statistics for interteaching-to-interteaching comparisons featuring various types of discussions. The diamond-shaped data point at the bottom of the plot represents the summary effect size across all studies
Funnel plot depicting the distribution of all eligible studies (open circles)
Interteaching is a behavioral teaching method that departs from the traditional lecture format (Boyce & Hineline in BA 25:215-226, 2002). We updated and expanded previous interteaching reviews and conducted a meta-analysis on its effectiveness. Systematic searches identified 38 relevant studies spanning the years 2005-2018. The majority of these studies were conducted in undergraduate face-to-face courses. The most common independent variables were manipulations of the configuration of interteaching or comparisons to traditional-lecture format. The most common dependent variables were quiz or examination scores. Only 24% of all studies implemented at least five of the seven components of interteaching. Prep guides, discussions, record sheets, and frequent assessments were the most commonly implemented. Meta-analyses indicated that interteaching is more effective than traditional lecture or other control conditions, with an overall large effect size. Furthermore, variations in the configuration of the interteaching components do not seem to substantially limit its effectiveness, as long as the discussion component is included. Future research informed by the present review includes: (a) investigating the efficacy of interteaching in additional academic areas, online environments, workplace training, and continuing education, (b) testing alternative outcome measures, generalization, and procedural integrity, (c) conducting systematic component analyses, and (d) measuring social validity from the instructor's perspective. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10864-021-09452-3.
PRISMA Flow Diagram Outlining Search and Screening Procedures
SCARF Scatterplots for Baseline Comparisons (Top Panel) and Escape Extinction Comparisons (Bottom Panel). Note: Scatterplot of scores for SCARF quality/rigor (continuous scale: 0 to 4) and visual analysis outcomes (categorical scale: − 1 to 4) for baseline comparisons (top panel) and escape extinction comparisons (bottom panel). Scores of − 1 indicate that comparison conditions (i.e., baseline, escape extinction) that were more effective than escape-based interventions
Forest Plots for Baseline Comparisons Measuring Challenging Behavior (Top Panel) and Alternative Behavior (Bottom Panel). Note: For analyses of log response ratio (LRR) decreasing (top panel), negative effect size indicates a therapeutic effect. For analyses of LRR increasing (bottom panel), positive effect size indicates a therapeutic effect. Designs are organized by intervention type. DRE = differential reinforcement with escape; PSA = pre-session access to preferred stimuli; IM = instructional modifications; DRNE = differential reinforcement with no escape; NCA = non-contingent access to preferred stimuli; DB = diaphragmatic breathing; FCT = functional communication training; EE = equal escape
Individuals with disabilities may engage in challenging behavior to escape aversive stimuli, like academic tasks or non-preferred foods. Interventions to reduce these behaviors often employ escape extinction; that is, the implementer withholds escape following challenging behavior. Escape extinction can increase risk of injury, restrict autonomy, and worsen the learner–implementer relationship. To mitigate collateral effects, interventions can use strategies without escape extinction (i.e., escape-based); that is, implementers can provide escape contingent on challenging behavior during intervention, in conjunction with other intervention components. However, no comprehensive syntheses of these interventions have been conducted. We identified 39 articles that included escape-based interventions, which contained 273 single-case designs. Escape-based interventions were associated with lower levels of challenging behavior and higher levels of adaptive behavior than baseline conditions. Most comparisons between escape-based and escape extinction interventions showed no functional relation, indicating that escape extinction may not add substantial benefit to intervention efficacy.
Cumulative Graph of Included Articles Per Decade
Students identified with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) display deficits across academic content areas, most notably in mathematics. We reviewed research on student-mediated math interventions for students with EBD. A total of 19 studies published between 1968 and 2019 met inclusion criteria, with 24 of 32 cases meeting the What Works Clearinghouse Pilot Single-Case Design Standards (version 4.0) with or without reservations. Participants included 51 students identified with EBD, ages 8 to 16 years old. Results from visual analysis revealed 0 cases demonstrated strong evidence, 11 cases demonstrated moderate evidence, and 21 cases demonstrated weak evidence of intervention effects. The omnibus Tau-U was 74.35% (CI95 = 64.2% to 84.4%), representing data from 17 studies including 46 students. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Identification and screening procedures
School discipline disproportionality has long been documented in educational research, primarily impacting Black/African American and non-White Hispanic/Latinx students. In response, federal policymakers have encouraged educators to change their disciplinary practice, emphasizing that more proactive support is critical to promoting students’ social and behavioral outcomes in school. Results from a literature review conducted nearly a decade ago indicated that there was, at that point, a paucity of empirical research related to considering students’ culture (e.g., race, ethnicity) and supporting school behavior. The purpose of this study is to replicate and expand the previous review to summarize the characteristics of the most recent school-based quantitative research addressing interventions to promote social and behavioral outcomes for racially and ethnically minoritized youth. We screened 1687 articles for inclusion in the review. Upon coding 32 eligible research studies, we found that intervention and implementer characteristics within these studies varied, but noted strong intervention effects in studies that included established evidence-based practices, adapted interventions, as well as new practices piloted with student participants. Results inform recommendations to continue to study interventions that promote positive social and behavioral outcomes for racially and ethnically minoritized students to disrupt a long history of subjection to exclusionary discipline disproportionately.
Search method and data collection process
Restricted or repetitive behavior (RRB) is common for individuals with visual impairment (VI), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and intellectual disability. Previous reviews have suggested that VI may moderate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions to decrease RRB. A search of the single case literature resulted in 30 studies and 40 experiments involving participants with VI to test behavioral interventions to reduce RRBs. Nearly all participants had significant intellectual disability, half were deafblind, and only two had an ASD diagnosis. Success rates were higher for participants with low vision (88.9%) than for participants with blindness (68.4%) and to reduce non-self-injurious behavior (81%) than for self-injurious behavior (68.4%). Although most interventions in this review involved punishment and more research on reinforcement-based interventions is needed, multi-component interventions combining differential reinforcement with brief restraint or specific response contingent on RRB appear to hold the most promise for reducing RRBs for individuals with VI.
Article identification process
Observation research can shed light on the degree to which students have access to research based instruction and intervention. In this systematic review of reading observation research for students with and at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders, we sought to identify trends in the settings and student populations investigated and research methods used, as well as to determine the degree to which this student population has access to research based reading instruction. Eleven studies meeting selection criteria were identified and coded to extract information that was salient to research questions. Although the extant observation research is limited, findings suggest that concerns raised by Vaughn and colleagues (2002) approximately 18 years ago remain. Study limitations, implications for school practice, and areas for future research are discussed.
Problem behavior in the classroom leads to challenges for teachers who often feel ill equipped to address such behavior. Behavior analytic interventions have been shown to be effective for reducing problem behavior in the classroom. Less is known about the impact of these interventions when implemented using digital technology. The purpose of the current systematic review was to synthesize and evaluate the quality of the literature. We identified 19 studies which demonstrated the effectiveness of these interventions in both general education and special education classrooms. Across these studies, touch-screen devices and computers were the most frequently used form of digital technology. Implications for practice and future research will be discussed.
Flow diagram of the literature search process
This paper presents a systematic review of the literature that assessed the effectiveness of frequency building and precision teaching with school-aged children. The authors evaluated studies in accordance with the What Works Clearinghouse standards and the council for exceptional children standards for evidence-based practices in special education. A total of 11 studies examining the effectiveness of frequency building and precision teaching for 170 participants were included in this review. Additionally, effect sizes were calculated for eligible studies. Small to large effects were found for all included variables. Overall, results indicated that the combination of frequency building and precision teaching is an effective method for increasing a variety of academic skills with school-aged children. Limitations, recommendations for future research, and implications for practitioners are discussed.
Methods that students are taught to use to estimate data features. Black bars represent methods involving calculation (e.g., calculate mean, calculate split-middle line), white bars represent methods involving visualization, and gray bars represent other methods (e.g., social validity)
Visual analysis is the predominant method of analysis in single-case research (SCR). However, most research suggests that agreement between visual analysts is poor, which may be due to a lack of clear guidelines and criteria for visual analysis, as well as variability in how individuals are trained. We developed a survey containing questions about the content and methods used to teach visual and statistical analysis of SCR data in verified course sequences (VCS) and distributed it via the VCS Coordinator Listserv. Thirty-seven instructors completed the survey. Results suggest that there is variability across instructors in some fundamental aspects of data analysis (e.g., number of effects required for a functional relation) but a great deal of consistency in others (e.g., emphasizing visual over statistical analysis). We discuss our results along with their implications both for teaching students to analyze SCR data and for conducting additional research on behavior-analytic training programs.
Flowchart of Study Selection Process
The Funnel Plot of The Standardized Mean Differences and Standard Error. Note. Based on the Egger’s regression intercept test, no publication bias was found
Forest Plot Showing Effect Sizes and 95% CIs for Individual Studies. Note. The effect sizes are denoted by the squares and the CIs by the horizontal lines. The diamond shape at the bottom of the forest plot is the overall effect size (− 0.25) for all comparisons
This study synthesized 14 published and unpublished group design and single-case design studies on bullying interventions for individuals with disabilities. The specific objectives were to examine the general characteristics and design qualities of the studies, quantify the magnitude of the intervention effects, and identify potential moderating variables. Four studies were excluded from the meta-analysis due to being outliers or having insufficient data. The design qualities of the 14 studies were assessed before conducting the meta-analysis. Analysis of the study characteristics revealed that approximately one-third of the studies included participants with a singular diagnosis, many of the participants were elementary or secondary high school age, researcher was the most common implementer, schools were the most common setting, and interventions targeted bully victims more than bullies themselves. The results indicated that six studies (43%) met the What Works Clearinghouse Design Standards, with or without reservations. The overall effect size for bullying intervention with individuals with disabilities was small, and effect size of individual studies was small to large. Interventions implemented by teachers had the largest effect size; however, no statistical significance was found across implementers. Implications for practice and future research are discussed in the following areas: implementer, dose of intervention, and implementation supports.
This graph depicts the percentage of intervals with interfering behavior and frequency of FCRs for Joe
The top panel depicts the percentage of intervals with interfering behavior and frequency of FCRs for Lucas. The bottom panel represents the percent of task analysis steps completed independently by Lucas
The top panel represents percentage of intervals of challenging behavior and frequency of FCRs for Henry. The bottom panel represents the seconds that Henry kept the tooth brush in his mouth
Children and adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are more likely to engage in challenging and interfering behavior than their typically developing peers, which has been linked to many negative outcomes. The most effective interventions to address challenging and interfering behavior incorporate function-based assessments, which are used to develop individualized behavior interventions. Functional communication training (FCT) is an evidence-based practice to decrease challenging and interfering behavior that can be taught to parents using behavioral parent training (BPT); however, there are limited skilled professionals who can develop interventions and train parents. Telehealth can enable greater access to these professionals. This study used withdrawal designs to determine whether high parent treatment fidelity resulted in decreased challenging and interfering behavior and increased appropriate replacement behavior. Three participants (8–17 years) were included in the study, and their parents served as interventionists during mealtime, toothbrushing, and room cleaning. Data were analyzed using visual analysis. Each parent achieved high treatment fidelity with one session of BPT and bug-in-ear coaching. All participants had a decrease in challenging and interfering behavior and an increase in functional communication responses (FCRs) upon the introduction of the intervention with reliable reversals. All parents reported high social validity. Results and implications for practice and future research are discussed.
A traditional tootling procedure was implemented along with a public posting component to determine the effects on academically engaged, disruptive, and passive off-task behaviors in four general education high school classrooms. Students in the traditional tootling phase were instructed to report on their peers’ positive, prosocial behaviors. At the end of the class period, the teacher read through the tootles and added the total toward the group goal. When the class achieved their goal, they were rewarded, and the goal was reset. During the tooting with public posting phase, the teacher or primary researcher posted the tootles on a designated bulletin board. The results indicated that increases in academically engaged behaviors were maintained in both phases, whereas disruptive and passive off-task behaviors decreased. The differences between phases were minimal, suggesting little additive effect. Social validity measures indicated that intervention was acceptable in terms of effectiveness and utility. This study suggests the benefits of implementing tootling in a high school setting, demonstrating increases in classwide academically engaged behaviors.
Trial-Based Functional Analysis Results for Pierre, JJ, Damon
Teacher Intervention Implementation and Target Student Behavior. Note: * = coaching session
Procedures of the Function-based Interventions
Early childhood special education teachers require training and support in implementing function-based intervention for challenging behavior. Yet, teacher professional development practices are not universally effective,and teachers may benefit from differentiated supports. The purpose of this study was to pilot and evaluate a multilevel approach to teacher professional development for function-based intervention. The multilevel approach included behavioral skills training, practice-based coaching, and teacher self-monitoring and was evaluated using a multiple baseline across participants single-case research design. Results demonstrated that while all teachers benefited from the professional development, teachers required different levels of support within the multilevel approach. These findings support a growing body of work suggesting that teachers may require varying levels of support to implement evidence-based practices.
PRISMA chart of search procedures
Forest plot of the participation increase in the response-card condition. Note The outcome statistic is the absolute difference in mean percentages between conditions. Positive values of the percentage quiz-score increase favor response cards over hand-raising. Studies are sorted by effect-size magnitude. RE = random effects
Forest plot of the quiz score increase in the response-card condition. Note The outcome statistic is the absolute difference in mean percentages between conditions. Positive values of the absolute mean quiz-score increase favor response cards over hand-raising. Studies are sorted by effect-size magnitude. RE = random effects
Forest plot of the off-task behavior score decrease in the response-card condition. Note The outcome statistic is the absolute difference in mean percentages between conditions. Negative values of off-task behavior favor response cards over hand-raising. Studies are sorted by effect-size magnitude. RE = random effects
Main effects of response cards versus hand-raising as absolute percentage change
In 2007, Randolph conducted a meta-analysis of response-card articles to determine the effect of response cards on test achievement, quiz achievement, class participation, and off-task behavior. This meta-analysis is an update of that analysis, including new studies conducted in the last 12 years. A total of 15 studies published between 2005 and 2019 were analyzed along with the previous 14 used in the Randolph study. The results indicate evidence to support the use of response cards. When utilizing response cards, both students in special education and students in general education displayed increases in test and quiz achievement and levels of participation and decreases in off-task behavior. These results indicate that response cards remain a simple and cost-effective strategy for improving student’s academic and behavioral outcomes.
Teacher percent of BST steps implemented during the recess transition. Triangles represent the session following BST training where teachers conducted the complete BST sequence with their students. Circles represent sessions where only the praise and feedback sequence was implemented. *Denotes sessions below the 90% accuracy criterion where researchers provided corrective feedback to teachers
Student duration of transitions from the playground to the classroom
Elementary school teachers transition their students from recess to the classroom multiple times a day. When students do not line up quickly or are disruptive in line, teachers can spend valuable instructional time trying to manage students’ inappropriate behaviors. The result is a loss of instructional time that could lead to a decrease in student performance. This study examined how teachers could use behavioral skills training with their students as a way to reduce the length of the recess-to-classroom transition with second–fourth graders. After teachers were trained, they provided their students with training, which included instruction, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback. The result in each teacher’s classroom was that students began to line up more quickly and use their hands and feet appropriately for the duration of the transition. Appropriate behavior and reduced transition times maintained at a 2-week follow-up.
Acquisition data (cumulative targets mastered) for children for whom CTD was more efficient (Abby, Brody, Camila, Dakota, Eloise). Note: BL, baseline. CTD, SLP, and control trials were intermixed in the context of single baseline sessions; all other data points represent individual sessions
Acquisition data (cumulative targets mastered) for children for whom SLP was more efficient (Franklin, Griffin, Henry) or for whom neither condition was more efficient (Izzy, Jasper). Note: BL, baseline; Inst. Instruction; Mod., modification; Maint., maintenance. CTD, SLP, and control trials were intermixed in the context of single baseline sessions; all other data points represent individual sessions
Average sessions-to-mastery for targets in the first and second halves of instruction
Preference data for children for whom CTD was more efficient (Abby, Brody, Camila, Dakota, Eloise)
Preference data for children for whom SLP was more efficient (Franklin, Griffin, Henry) or for whom neither condition was more efficient (Izzy, Jasper)
Prompting procedures are effective for teaching skills, but limited comparative data exist to guide practitioners to select the best procedures for individuals. This study compared efficiency of two prompting procedures-constant time delay (CTD) and system of least prompts (SLP)-to teach expressive identification of 32 targets to 10 preschoolers with and without disabilities. To assess efficiency differences between conditions and analyze changes in learning over time, we used adapted alternating treatments designs in the measurement context of cumulative records. CTD was more efficient for five children, SLP was more efficient for three children, and results were inconclusive for two children. We measured children's choices between procedures via simultaneous treatments designs, to assess child preference and whether preferences and efficiency aligned. Preference outcomes were mixed and did not consistently align with efficiency. We used exploratory analyses to assess whether child characteristics moderated outcomes. Children for whom CTD was more efficient had significantly fewer sessions to mastery, non-significantly fewer errors, and non-significantly higher developmental assessment scores, compared to children for whom SLP was more efficient.
The PT group’s performance on See-Writes single and double-digit addition facts with a sum ≤ 20
Participants’ first and last performance on the composite skill
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a precision teaching (PT) framework on the mathematical ability of students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. We also examined if students of moderate mathematical ability could perform as well as their peers with fewer difficulties with their math skills. Sixteen students participated and were divided into three groups. One group engaged in PT, and the other two groups functioned as comparisons. The PT group practiced six skills introduced linearly. An A-B design was used for the five component skills, and a multiple baseline across participants design was used for the composite skill (addition). The intervention led to a significant improvement in all skills, including addition, and this was associated with a large effect size; student performance met or exceeded that of their peers. Overall, the findings suggest that PT is an efficient and effective approach for teaching students with IDDs.
Percentage of correct responses across high-integrity, low-integrity, and control conditions for Amanda (top panel), Monica (middle panel), and Thomas (bottom panel)
Percentage of trials implemented with programmed integrity errors with orientation toward the experimenter, materials, and elsewhere immediately before instruction across low-integrity conditions for Amanda (top panel), Monica (middle panel), and Thomas (bottom panel)
Researchers widely assert that requiring eye contact from students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) before instruction is highly important to the outcome of teaching (Greer and Ross in Verbal behavior analysis, Pearson Education, New York, 2008; Lovaas in J Consult Clin Psychol 55(1):3–9, 1977. However, to our knowledge, no research to date has evaluated the effects of this component of instruction on skill acquisition. In this current study, we evaluated the effect of requiring student eye contact from participants with ASD prior to giving an instruction on the rate of skill acquisition. Using an adapted alternating treatments design, this study compared the skill acquisition of three participants diagnosed with ASD during discrete-trial instruction (DTI) for expressive identification of novel items. Requiring eye contact was manipulated as a treatment integrity error during DTI in high-integrity, low-integrity, and control conditions. The experimenter established eye contact with the participants prior to giving an instruction during 100% of trials in the high-integrity condition, whereas eye contact was only established prior to the instruction in 67% of trials in the low-integrity condition. Results indicate that all three participants acquired expressive labels for items in fewer sessions in the high-integrity condition as compared to the low-integrity condition. Implications for the impact of eye contact on skill acquisition are discussed.
Intervention probe number for DCPM by student
Inverse probe number of DCPM by student
There is a dearth of research comparing the effects of iPad technology and paper-and-pencil-delivered interventions on student mathematics outcomes. Nine studies have compared intervention modalities such as computer-mediated instruction and teacher-mediated instruction to examine differences in student performance, but only two of these have used iPad technology to do so and neither examined student fact fluency as the outcome. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an iPad-based versus a paper-and-pencil-based flashcard intervention on the basic fact fluency of four second-grade boys within a Midwestern US charter school. Using an adapted alternating treatments design, three conditions were compared: iPad-delivered flashcards, paper-and-pencil-based flashcards, and a control condition. The results suggest that for three of four students, there was no difference in gains between treatment conditions, and both were more successful than the no-treatment control. Descriptive data on the acceptability and number of opportunities to respond between intervention modalities are described.
Top-cited authors
Leslie Neely
  • University of Texas at San Antonio
Mandy Rispoli
  • Purdue University
Mary Catherine Scheeler
  • Pennsylvania State University
David L. Lee
  • Pennsylvania State University
Ee Rea Hong
  • University of Tsukuba