Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine

Published by Medknow Publications
Online ISSN: 0975-9476
Publications
Article
Functional constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal symptoms across the globe. Its high prevalence rate, economic burden, and adverse implications on the quality of life make constipation a major public health issue. Though various treatment options are available for the management of constipation, evidence for their efficacy and safety are limited. An open-label, prospective, interventional, and exploratory clinical trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of "TLPL/AY/01/2008" in 34 patients suffering from functional constipation. "TLPL/AY/01/2008" is an Ayurvedic proprietary polyherbal formulation in powder form, containing Isabgol husk, Senna extract, and Triphala extract. Administration of "TLPL/AY/01/2008" for 14 days showed a significant increase in mean weekly bowel movements from 10.19 ± 05.64 to 18.29 ± 05.72 (P<0.05). The mean average time spent on toilet for bowel evacuation reduced significantly from 11.02 ± 05.43 minutes (baseline value) to 08.70 ± 04.72 minutes on day 14 (P<0.05). Mean stool form score assessed on Bristol stool form scale was improved from 02.97 ± 00.48 (baseline value) to 04.61 ± 00.84 (P<0.05) on day 14. A significant improvement (P<0.05) was also noted in straining during defecation, sensation of incomplete evacuation, sensation of anorectal blockage, and other associated symptoms of functional constipation. The significant improvement in most of the above symptoms was endured for a post-treatment observatory period of one week. All the study patients showed an excellent tolerability to the study drug. These findings suggest that "TLPL/AY/01/2008" is an effective, safe, and non-habit-forming herbal laxative formulation for the management of constipation. Comparative clinical studies with larger sample size would be able to confirm the above findings.
 
Effect of Arogyavardhini vati on atherogenic index level in rats. Values are expressed as mean ± SEM, n = 6, P < 0.001, a when compared with normal control; b when compared with Triton-treated group, c when compared with fenofibrate-treated group
Effect of Arogyavardhini vati on serum lipid profiles and C-reactive protein in the rats
Effect of Arogyavardhini vati on liver oxidative stress marker (MDA and reduced glutathione levels) in the rats
Article
Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor of coronary heart disease. Currently available hypolipidemic drugs have been associated with number of side effects. Arogyavardhini vati, an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation has been used for liver disorders. Therefore, present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Arogyavardhini vati in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity evaluation of Arogyavardhini vati against Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Overnight fasted male Wistar rats (150-200 g) were randomly divided into normal control group [4% Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), i.p.], positive control group (Triton WR-1339 in 4% DMSO, 400 mg/kg, i.p.), standard drug treated (fenofibrate 65 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days after inducing hyperlipidemia) and Arogyavardhini vati treated (50, 100, 200 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days after inducing hyperlipidemia). Rat doses were calculated by extrapolating the equivalent human dose (therapeutic dose, sub-maximum, and maximum dose). Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein HDL, liver malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) levels were estimated at end of experiments. Arogyavardhini vati significantly decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and C-reactive protein (CRP) and significantly increased serum HDL in a dose-dependent manner. Decreased MDA and increased GSH levels in liver were observed at all doses of Arogyavardhini vati (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) and fenofibrate-treated groups when compared with Triton-treated group. Atherogenic Index (AI) level was significantly decreased in fenofibrate and Arogyavardhini vati (200 mg/kg) treated rats when compared with normal control. Arogyavardhini vati, a traditionally used Ayurvedic medicine may be a useful therapy for hypercholesterolemia through reducing oxidative stress (decreasing MDA and increasing GSH) and lipid levels.
 
Article
The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India's health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India's Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40-70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21(st) century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India's public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of "integrative healthcare" because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own.
 
Effect of AEPP and AESP on liver antioxidant enzymes in STZ-induced diabetic rats
Blood glucose lowering effect of AEPP and AESP in diabetic rats. All data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 6).aP < 0.001, the diabetic control compared with the normal control. bP < 0.001, AEPP 100 and 200 mg/kg, AESP 100 and 200 mg/kg and glibenclamide 5 mg/ kg compared to the diabetic control
Effect of AEPP and AESP on liver antioxidant enzymes in STZ-induced diabetic rats
Effect of AEPP and AESP on kidney antioxidant enzymes in STZ-induced diabetic rats
Effect of AEPP and AESP on pancreas antioxidant enzymes in STZ-induced diabetic rats
Article
Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. fruit is a commonly consumed vegetable in many countries due to its rich medicinal value. However, till date, in vivo antioxidant property of A. esculentus has not been scientifically documented in animal models. The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the in vivo antioxidant property of A. esculentus (L.) Moench. peel and seed powder (AEPP and AESP) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In rats, acute toxicity assessment of AEPP and AESP at 2 g/kg did not show any toxicity. Diabetes was induced by STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) injection and diabetic rats received AEPP (100 and 200 mg/kg) as well as AESP (100 and 200 mg/ kg) orally up to 28 days. At the end of the 28 day, diabetic rats were killed and liver, kidney and pancreas were collected to determine superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation level. In diabetic rats, significant (P < 0.001) reduction of liver, kidney and pancreas SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH levels and increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were observed as compared to normal control rats. Administration of both doses of AEPP and AESP significantly (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01) increased liver, kidney and pancreas SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH levels and decreased TBARS (P < 0.001) levels in diabetic rats compared to diabetic control rats. Our findings confirmed that A. esculentus peel and seed powder has significant in vivo antioxidant property in diabetic rats.
 
Body weight of BR treated mice compared to control groups. The groups of mice were either treated with BR or with the regular feed at indicated proportions as mentioned in materials and methods. Animals were weighed weekly and recorded. Duration of treatment was for two months
Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations observed after treatment of Brahma rasayana in mouse bone marrow cells
Percentage of sperm abnormalities observed after treatment of mice with BR in mice
Sperm counts in BR treated and control mice
Mitotic index in mouse bone marrow cells of the control and rasayana treated mice
Article
Ayurveda, the Indian holistic healthcare system encompasses traditional medicines with a principle of creating harmony and maintaining balance within the natural rhythms of the body. Rasayana is one of the branches of Ayurveda frequently used as rejuvenant therapy to overcome many discomforts and prevent diseases. It has been reported that rasayanas have immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the genotoxic potential of many rasayanas remains to be evaluated. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of Brahma rasayana(BR) on genotoxicity in vivo in a mouse test system. The older mice (9 months) were orally fed with rasayana for 8 weeks. The treated groups showed no signs of dose-dependent toxicity at the dosage levels tested. The body weight loss/gain and feed consumption were unaffected at tested doses. Furthermore, sperm abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations were insignificant in the treatment group when compared to controls. However, there was a marginal increase in sperm count in the BR treated animals. These findings clearly indicate that there are no observed adverse genotoxic effects elicited by BR in experimental animals such as mice.
 
Article
In the absence of a desired first choice medicinal herb, classical Ayurveda recommends use of a functionally similar substitute. Post 16th century Ayurvedic texts and lexicons give specific examples of possible substitutes. Here we report a preliminary study of one such Ayurvedic substitution pair: Musta (Cyperus rotundus L., Cyperaceae), a common weed, for the rare Himalayan species, Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle; Ranunculaceae). The study's strategy was to use modern phytochemical and pharmacological methods to test the two herbs for biochemical and metabolic similarities and differences, and literary studies to compare their Ayurvedic properties, a novel trans-disciplinary approach. No previous scientific paper has compared the two herbs' bioactivities or chemical profiles. Despite being taxonomically unrelated, the first choice, but relatively unavailable (Abhava) plant, A. heterophyllum, and its substitute (Pratinidhi) C. rotundus, are not only similar in Ayurvedic pharmacology (Dravyaguna) profile, but also in phytochemical and anti-diarrheal properties. These observations indicate that Ayurveda may attach more importance to pharmacological properties of raw drugs than to their botanical classification. Further research into the nature of raw drugs named could open up new areas of medicinal plant classification, linking chemistry and bioactivity. Understanding the logic behind the Ayurvedic concept of Abhava Pratinidhi Dravya (drug substitution) could lead to new methods of identifying legitimate drug alternatives, and help solve industry's problems of crude drug shortage.
 
Article
Background: Abrus precatorius seeds traditionally used for the treatment of sciatica and alopecia contains the toxic protein, abrin, a Type II Ribosome Inactivating Protein. Ayurveda recommends the use of Abrus seeds after the Shodhana process (detoxification). Objective: The current study was aimed at performing the Shodhana process, swedana (boiling) of Abrus precatorius seeds using water as a medium and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of seed extract post detoxification. Materials and methods: Non-detoxified and detoxified extracts were prepared and subsequently subjected to various in vitro and in vivo assays. In hemagglutination assay, the non-detoxified extract shows higher agglutination of RBCs than detoxified extract indicating riddance of toxic hemagglutinating proteins by Shodhana. This was confirmed by the SDSPAGE analysis of detoxified extract revealing the absence of abrin band in detoxified extract when compared to non-detoxified extract. Results: The cytotoxicity assay in HeLa cell line expresses a higher reduction in growth percentage of the cells with non-detoxified extract as compared to detoxified extract indicating successful detoxification. Brine shrimp lethality test indicated the reduction in toxicity index of detoxified extract as compared to non-detoxified extract. Further, the whole body apoptosis assay in zebrafish revealed that percentage of viable cells were greater for detoxified extract than non-detoxified extract. The anti-inflammatory studies using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats was carried out on the extracts with doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, per oral, where the detoxified extract exhibited significant inhibition of rat paw edema at both the doses comparable to that of Diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Absence of toxicity and the retention of the anti-inflammatory activity of detoxified Abrus seed extract confirmed that the Swedana process is effective in carrying out the detoxification without affecting its therapeutic potential.
 
Article
Ayurveda, which is one of the traditional systems of medicine of India, reports the seeds of Abrus precatorius (family: Fabaceae) can be used therapeutically after shodhana process, which removes the toxin. The main objective was to scientifically study the shodhana process by evaluating the safety and efficacy of A. precatorius seeds. Aqueous extract (A1) and detoxified extract (A2) of the seeds were prepared by a process described in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) method was developed for the two extracts using different solvent systems. Identical spots were obtained in A1 with reference values (Rf) 0.27, 0.47, and 0.79, whereas A2 showed the absence of spot having Rf value 0.47, which could possibly be the toxin found in the intact seed. A1 and A2 were evaluated for their safety and efficacy. The acute toxicity studies for A1 and A2 revealed that A1 was toxic, whereas A2 was safe at the dose of 2 g/kg. Absence of toxicity in the detoxified extract suggests removal of toxic material in processed seeds. The results obtained for hair growth activity of both the extracts were comparable to that of the standard. However, A2 showed better results in comparison to A1. Thus, the shodhana process described in Ayurveda helps in removing the toxin, while retaining the efficacy at the same time. The statistical analysis was done using one-way analysis of variance.
 
Image of the Jatropha curcas stem, fruit (dried), and seed with and without pericarp
Summary of the cases
Summary of cases of Jatropha poisoning in literature
Article
There are very few case reports in literature of J. curcas poisoning. Previously grown as an ornamental plant; it is presently being cultivated on a large scale for its seed oil, which is used as biodiesel. This has brought this plant in close vicinity to the human population, exposing them to the chance ingestion. We are presenting clinical and biochemical profile of eight children with J. curcas poisoning. The plant is commonly known to be a purgative and gastrointestinal irritant but the most conspicuous feature in our patients was absence of diarrhea. Lethargy, severe abdominal pain, inability to ingest anything, and intense thirst were the most prominent complaints in all children. The symptoms in all the patients were significant enough to merit admission and intravenous fluid therapy. Hematological and biochemical workup revealed neutrophilia and raised serum alkaline phosphatase in all patients while leukocytosis was observed in 5 of them. Electrocardiography was normal in all the patients.
 
Specific strategies of WHO for promotion of TRM
Article
Amongst the mandates of United Nations, health of mankind is the thrust area of UN through World Health Organization (WHO). Planning and execution of policies for mainstreaming of traditional medicines (TRM) of respective countries along with conventional system of medicine (allopathy), first in the country of origin followed by the international arena, is the priority agenda of operations of WHO. Within Indian context, WHO accorded prime focus to Ayurveda in its activities related to TRM.Sponsorship and encouragement of studies substantiating parameters of standardization, safety and efficacy of herbal medicines of Ayurveda are under chief consideration of WHO. In this review, several guidelines of WHO are summarized. Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Central Council of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha and numerous other collaborative centers of WHO in India are assigned with several Appraisal Project Work (APW) and Direct Financial Cooperation (DFC) projects that will strengthen Ayurveda as evidence-based medicine for its global acceptance. Implementation of pharmacovigilance program in Ayurveda, publication of documents for rational use and initiatives to prepare consumer guidelines for appropriate use of Ayurvedic medicines are some other contributions of WHO toward advancement of Ayurveda at national as well as global level. Here, we suggest further exploration, interaction and interpretation of traditional knowledge in the light of contemporary core sciences and biomedical sciences that can pave the way for accreditation of Ayurveda worldwide as an established system of medicine.
 
Ayurvedic management of achalasia patient 
Article
Achalasia is an esophageal motor disorder characterized by sustained lower esophageal sphincter contraction and reduced esophageal peristalsis. This pathology eventually results in symptoms like dysphagia, regurgitation and occasional chest pain related to food intake. This is an uncommon disorder of unexplained etiology; however viral, autoimmune and neurodegenerative causes are often afflicted to its manifestation. As per the current state of knowledge, achalasia is considered to be a chronic incurable condition. The treatment options offered here primarily aim at reducing the tone of lower esophageal sphincter by pharmacologic, endoscopic or surgical means. We are presenting here a case of achalasia with two years of symptomatic history of food regurgitation, dysphagia and heart burn without any noticeable response from allopathic medicines. The patient was subsequently kept under ayurvedic therapy considering the symptoms caused by vata impairment and hence requiring vatanulomana and reduction in esophageal muscle tone as the primary management. The patient was kept under suggested Ayurvedic therapy and followed-up for 3 months. A symptom-free follow-up in this case was noticed after completion of 1 month of Ayurvedic therapy.
 
Cook's system of acne grading 
Article
Acne vulgaris is the most common disorder treated by dermatologists. Acne is a disease of pilosebaceous units characterized by the formation of the open and closed comedones, papules, pustules, nodules and cysts. A preliminary trial was conducted in the department of Medicine, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore, India, to assess the safety and efficacy of a Polyherbal Unani Formulation (PHUF) in the management of Acne Vulgaris on scientific parameters. Twenty five patients, diagnosed with acne, were included in the study after obtaining their informed consents. All the patients were clinically assessed and diagnosed on the basis of thorough history and dermatological examination. Then, PHUF was administered locally once at night for a period of 45 days. The severity of acne and efficacy of treatment was assessed by Cook's acne grading scale. The results showed significant reduction in the Cook's acne grading scores of post-treatment group (P<0.01) as compared to pre-treatment scores. Further, PHUF was found safe and fairly well accepted by the patients. It was therefore, concluded that PHUF can be used safely and effectively for the treatment of acne vulgaris.
 
Effects of ACE (200, 400 or 800 mg/kg) or 150 mg/kg aspirin on rectal temperature of rats. * and # denoted P<0.05 when compared to the control at the same time point and basal T R , respectively  
Analgesic effect of ACE. Mice were fed with water (control), 800 mg/kg ACE or 150 mg/kg aspirin. * and # denoted P<0.05 when compared to the control and aspirin-treated group at the same time point, respectively  
Carrageenan-induced paw edema test. Rats were fed with water (control), 800 mg/kg ACE or 300 mg/kg aspirin. *P<0.05 when compared to the control at the same time point  
Article
In Thailand, the leaves of Aquilaria crassna have been used traditionally for the treatments of various disorders, but without any scientific analysis. In this study, the antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of A. crassna leaves extract were investigated at a wide dose range in rodents. Experimental animals were treated orally with an aqueous extract of Aquilaria crassna leaves (ACE). They were tested for antipyretic (Baker's yeast-induced fever in rats), analgesic (hot plate test in mice) and anti-inflammatory (carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats) activities. An anti-oxidative effect of ACE was evaluated by using the DPPH anti-oxidant assay. The results showed that, after 5 hours of yeast injection, 400 and 800 mg/kg ACE significantly reduced the rectal temperature of rats. Mice were found significantly less sensitive to heat at an oral dose of 800 mg/kg ACE, after 60 and 90 min. No anti-inflammatory activity of ACE at an 800 mg/kg dose could be observed in the rat paw assay. An anti-oxidative activity of ACE was observed with an IC (50)value of 47.18 μg/ ml. No behavioral or movement change could be observed in mice after oral administration of ACE (800 or 8,000 mg/kg) for seven consecutive days. Interestingly, from the second day of treatment, animals had a significant lower body weight at the 8,000 mg/kg dose of ACE compared to the control. No toxicity was identified and the results of this study state clearly that Aquilaria crassna leaves extracts possess antipyretic, analgesic and anti-oxidative properties without anti-inflammatory activity.
 
Effect AECPL on biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats
Effect of AECPL on blood glucose level in alloxan (120 mg/kg. i.p.) induced diabetes rats
Effect AECPL on biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats
Article
India is considered as the diabetic capital of the world. The study of plants having antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities may give a new approach in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The study was intended to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Carica papaya Linn. (AECPL) in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.). Rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 animals each. First group served as non-diabetic control, second group as diabetic control, third group as standard and was treated with 0.1 mg/kg/day of glibenclamide. Group 4, 5, and 6 received 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight of AECPL. Blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose on day 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and lipid profile on day 21. The AECPL showed significant reduction (P<0.01) in blood glucose level and serum lipid profile levels with 400 mg/kg body weight in alloxan-induced diabetic rats as compared with the control. It is concluded that AECPL is effective in controlling blood glucose levels and in improving lipid profile in diabetic rats.
 
Antifungal activity of essential oil of Alpinia calcarata rhizome
Article
Antioxidant and antifungal activity were determined for the essential oil of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) rhizomes. Its antioxidant properties were investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and vitamin E served as positive controls. Antifungal activities were investigated against crop pathogens Curvularia spp. and Colletorichum spp. using the agar plate method. Fifty percent effective concentration (EC(50)) and % antioxidant index of the essential oil were 45 ± 0.4 and 16.1 ± 0.2 for DPPH and TBARS assays, respectively. The degree of, the essential oil's inhibition of the growth of crop pathogens Curvularia spp. and Colletorichum spp. varied with time period its effects were higher than greater than for the positive control, daconil. In conclusion, the essential oil of A. calcarata rhizomes possess moderate antioxidant property and promising antifungal activity.
 
Article
A 41-years-old woman diagnosed of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) in 2006 came to our hospital - outpatient department with the complaint of severe pain and swelling over multiple joints associated with disturbed sleep/sleeplessness and poor quality of life since seven years. She received acupuncture (20 minutes) and massage (20 minutes) daily for the period of 30 days with 7 days of rest period in between after first 15 days. After intervention we observed reduction of pain in Visual Analog Scale score; improvement in day time sleepiness, and quality of sleep in Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, respectively; improvement in health related quality of life in Short Form-36 version 2 (SF-36v2) Health Survey. These results showed that acupuncture and massage can be considered as an integrative approach for symptomatic management of SLE.
 
Article
A 47 year old diabetic male patient was diagnosed and treated for high risk AML-M3 at Tata Memorial Hospital (BJ 17572), Mumbai in September 1995. His bone marrow aspiration cytology indicated 96% promyelocytes with abnormal forms, absence of lymphocytic series and myeloperoxide test 100% positive. Initially treated with ATRA, he achieved hematological remission on day 60, but cytogenetically the disease persisted. The patient received induction and consolidated chemotherapy with Daunorubicin and Cytarabine combination from 12.01.96 to 14.05.96, following which he achieved remission. However, his disease relapsed in February 97. The patient was given two cycles of chemotherapy with Idarubicine and Etoposide, after which he achieved remission. His disease again relapsed in December 97. The patient then refused more chemotherapy and volunteered for a pilot Ayurvedic study conducted by the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, New Delhi. The patient was treated with a proprietary Ayurvedic medicine Navajeevan, Kamadudha Rasa and Keharuba Pisti for one year. For the subsequent 5 years the patient received three months of intermittent Ayurvedic treatment every year. The patient achieved complete disease remission with the alternative treatment without any adverse side effects. The patient has so far completed 13 years of survival after the start of Ayurvedic therapy.
 
Inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema of rats by AJM. All results are expressed as mean±SEM, n=6. Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnett's test. **P<0.01 and ***P<0.0001 as compared to carrageenan control
Effect of AJM on the infiltration of leukocytes in the carrageenan-induced air pouch infl ammation in rats. Percentage leukocyte count with respect to normal control was calculated. Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnett's test. *P<0.05 as compared to carrageenan control
Effect of AJM on the infiltration of granulocytes in the carrageenan-induced air pouch inflammation in rats. Percentage leukocyte count with respect to normal control was calculated. Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnett's test. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, and ***P<0.0001, compared to controls
Ingredients of Ajmodadi churna
Article
Ayurvedic polyherbal formulations are widely prescribed for a wide range of inflammatory conditions, yet, despite widespread use, there has been no systematic documentation of their safety and efficacy. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts of Ajmodadi churna (AJM) in rats. Carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and air pouch inflammation models were used for the study. The extracts showed significant antiinflammatory activity, reducing paw edema volume by 0.417 ± 0.097 and 0.379 ± 0.049, respectively. In the carrageenan-induced air pouch model, AJM reduced total leukocyte count by 73.09 ± 7.13 and 62.17 ± 10.53, granulocyte count by 69.48 ± 5.44 and 63.33 ± 4.13, and myeloperoxidase activity by 14.84 ± 0.91 and 18.44 ± 3.18, respectively, compared to controls. AJM significantly reduced paw edema, during the second phase of edema development. In the carrageenan-induced air pouch model, AJM inhibited cellular infiltration into the air pouch fluid. We conclude that AJM is an effective candidate for prevention or treatment of acute inflammation.
 
Article
The pastes prepared from roots of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and barks of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. are widely used by traditional healers for the treatment of arthritis in rural northern Karnataka. The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the safety and efficacy of traditionally used formulations in experimental animals. The study, approved by IAEC was carried out in male Wistar rats and dermal toxicity in rabbits. Carrageenan model was used to assess effect on acute inflammation. Paw volume were measured at 1, 2, 4, and 6(th) hour postchallenge. Chronic inflammation was developed by using Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). Paw volume, ankle joint circumference, and body weight were assessed on 1(st), 4(th), 8(th), 14(th), 17(th), and 21(st) day. Paste was applied once every day to the inflamed area of the paw of respective groups of animals, continuously for 14 days. The data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. The formulations did not show any dermal toxicity and found to be safe. Both the pastes significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed, carrageenan-induced paw edema at 6(th) hour and Holoptelea integrifolia appears to be more effective than Plumbago zeylanica. Significant reduction was observed in paw volume, ankle joint circumference and animal body weight gained. The tested formulations (P. zeylanica root and H. integrifolia bark pastes) showed significant antiinflammatory activity. The present findings therefore support its utility in arthritic pain, inflammation and the claim of traditional practitioners.
 
Article
Brahmi(Bacopa monnieri), an Ayurvedic herb has primarily been used to enhance cognitive ability, memory and learning skills. We present a case study of schizophrenia in which add-on Brahmi extracts 500 mg/day for a period of one month resulted in reduction in psychopathology without any treatment-emergent adverse effect. Although preliminary, our case study suggests therapeutic efficacy of add-on Brahmi in schizophrenia, thus opening up a new dimension of its role in alternative medicines.
 
Article
Background: Recent studies have shown the association of disproportionate body size measurements with noncommunicable diseases like diabetes. This concept is described in Ayurveda (1500 BC), which uses Anguli Parimana (the breadth of one's own finger as 1 unit) to measure the body proportions. Excessive tallness or shortness (deviation from the reference value of Anguli Parimana) indicated deranged meda dhaatu (mainly adipose tissue). Deranged meda dhatu was associated with Prameha (diabetes). Objectives: To find association of Anguli Parimana with modern parameters of adiposity and diabetes. Materials and methods: We studied 192 village residents representing the whole population (94 men and 98 women) to measure height, arm span, facial structures and limbs and expressed them in Anguli pariman (ratio of each measure as: Length or height of the body part [cm]/anguli, i.e. average finger breadth [cm]). The Anguli measurements were associated with body mass index, body fat percentage by DEXA, glucose and fasting insulin levels. Results: The volunteers were adults between 20 and 40 years age. Their mean fasting and 2 h plasma glucose concentrations were 91.6 mg% and 102.8 mg%, respectively. Of all, only 6 subjects had impaired glucose tolerance, while 3 were diabetic (WHO 1999). When compared with reference Anguli measurements mentioned by Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita, the participants had smaller height, facial structures, and lower limbs. Those, who had proportionately smaller facial, neck and limb structures, had higher obesity, adiposity, plasma glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment [HOMA]-R) indicating higher metabolic risk. In contrast, those who had proportionately larger forehead and face had higher beta cell function measured as HOMA-B indicating lower risk for diabetes (r = 0.20 both P < 0.05 all, adjusted for age and gender). Conclusion: Compared with ancient Indian Anguli reference, our subjects were proportionately smaller in most of the measurements except fingers and upper arm. Relative smallness of body parts was predictive of increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
 
Article
Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is an age old disease described in Vedic Medicine as 'Yakshma'. Later on, in Ayurveda it earned a prefix and found way into mythology as 'Rajayakshma'. After the discovery of streptomycin, the therapeutic management of PTB received a major breakthrough. The treatment module changed remarkably with the formulation of newer anti-tubercular drugs (ATD) with appreciable success. Recent resurgence of PTB in developed countries like United States posed a threat to the medical community due to resistant strains. Consequently, WHO looked toward traditional medicine. Literature reveals that Ayurvedic treatment of PTB was in vogue in India before the introduction of ATD with limited success. Records show that 2766 patients of PTB were treated with Ayurvedic drugs in a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata in the year 1933-1947. To evaluate the toxicity reduction and early restoration by adjunct therapy of Ayurvedic drugs by increasing the bio-availability of ATDs. In the present study, treatment response of 99 patients treated with ATD as an adjunct with Aswagandha (Withania somnifera) and a multi-herbal formulation described in Chikitsa-sthana of Charaka samhita i.e. Chyawanprash were investigated. Hematological profile, sputum bacterial load count, immunoglobulin IgA and IgM, blood sugar, liver function test, serum creatinine were the assessed parameters besides blood isoniazid and pyrazinamide, repeated after 28 days of treatment. The symptoms abated, body weight showed improvement, ESR values were normal, there was appreciable change in IgA and IgM patterns and significantly increased bioavailability of isoniazid and pyrazinamide were recorded. This innovative clinical study coupled with empowered research may turn out to be promising in finding a solution for the treatment of PTB.
 
Article
Basti is one of the five procedures of panchakarma in Ayurveda. Classically, it is advocated in the diseases of vata. It is mainly of two types viz. asthapana and anuvasana. According to the classical texts basti administration is done with the help of animal bladder (bastiputaka) and specially prepared metal/wooden nozzle/catheter (bastinetra), the whole assembly is called as bastiyantra. Nowadays, except in some of the Vaidya traditions in Kerala, basti administration is often done using enema-can or douche-set. In the aforesaid classical procedure active pressure is expected to be given on the bastiputaka whereas, in conventionally used enema-can only passive or gravitational force plays a role. This is important in the context of 'basti danakala or pidanakala i.e. time for basti administration'.
 
Article
In Iranian traditional medicine, gum obtained from Astragalus gummifer and some other species of Astragalus was used as analgesic agent. In this study, we investigated the antinociceptive effect of several concentrations (125, 250, and 500 μg/kg body weight) of Astragalus gummifer gum (AGG) on thermal and acetic acid induced pain in mice. AGG was dissolved in distillated water and injected i.p to male mice 15 minute before the onset of experiment. Writhing and hot-plate tests were applied to study the analgesic effect of AGG and compared with that of diclofenac sodium (30 mg/kg, i.p.) or morphine (8 mg/kg, i.p). To investigate the mechanisms involved in antinociception, yohimbine, naloxone, glibenclamide, and theophylline were used in writhing test. These drugs were injected intraperitoneally 15 min before the administration of AGG. The number of writhes were counted in 30 minutes and analyzed. AGG exhibited a significant antinociceptive effect and the most effective dose of AGG was 500 μg/kg. The most maximum possible effect (%MPE) was observed (117.4%) 15 min after drug administration. The %inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing in AGG 125, 250 and 500 was 47%, 50% and 54% vs %15 of control and 66.3% of diclofenac sodium group. The antinociceptive effect induced by this gum in the writhing test was reversed by the systemic administration of yohimbine (α2-adrenergic antagonist), but naloxone, glibenclamide, and theophylline did not reverse this effect. The findings of this study indicated that AGG induced its antinociceptive through the adrenergic system.
 
Percentage protection against increase in paw volume
Body weight (grams)
Liver function tests after treatment
Article
Costus speciosus Koen. (Keu, Crape ginger), an ornamental plant, widely distributed in India is traditionally used as astringent, aphrodisiac, purgative, anthelmintic, depurative, febrifuge and expectorant. The plant is also used in rheumatism, dropsy, urinary diseases and jaundice. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Costus speciosus (CS) in experimental animal models. The powdered drug was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity to obtain the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant. CS was evaluated for anti-arthritic action by Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis test in adult Albino rats (150-200 gm). Rats were injected 0.1 ml of complete Freund's adjuvant into the planter region of the left hind paw. Statistical analysis was performed using One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferonni test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The methanolic extract of CS in doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg showed 75.50% and 68.33% protection against increase in paw edema, respectively. CS showed dose-dependent action in all the experimental models. The present study indicates that CS has significant anti-arthritic properties.
 
Mean of weekly feed intake (gms)
Average testosterone levels in blood (ng/ml)
Average of haematological parameters
Article
Reverse pharmacology for drug development has been highly productive and cost-effective in recent past as it is based on the documented therapeutic effects of plants in ancient texts. Afrodet Plus(®) is formulated for the treatment of male infertility, which contains ancient herbo-minerals. Its efficacy and safety are validated through this animal study in reverse pharmacology mode. This study was undertaken to evaluate efficacy and safety of an Ayurvedic formulation Afrodet Plus(®) in adult male rats. Twelve male rats (Holtzman) between 8 and 10 weeks of age were randomly selected and animals were assigned to a control and two treatment groups. Dosing was performed daily. Various parameters such as weekly body weight, hematology, serum testosterone levels, epididymal sperm count, and efficiency of Daily Sperm Production (DSP) were evaluated. It was found that epididymal sperm count had significantly increased in both low-dose (+27.39%) and high-dose (+40.5%) groups as compared to control group. The DSP also showed an increase of 43.7% at high dose of 180 mg/kg body weight as compared to the control group. An increase in sperm motility and especially progressive motility was observed when evaluated by Computer Assisted Semen Analyzer. Histological evaluation of testicular tissue for spermatogenic index revealed that the index had increased in treatment group as compared to control group. This study revealed that oral administration of Afrodet Plus(®) resulted in significant increase in DSP in the testis along with increase in epididymal sperm count and progressive motility as compared to control group without producing any treatment-related adverse effects. These findings provide the documentary evidence that the use of Afrodet Plus(®) at 90 and 180 mg/kg body weight is effective and safe for the treatment of male infertility especially to improve sperm count and progressive motility.
 
Article
The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda: Vayasthapana (age defying), Varnya (brighten skin-glow), Sandhaniya (cell regeneration), Vranaropana (healing), Tvachya (nurturing), Shothahara (anti-inflammatory), Tvachagnivardhani (strengthening skin metabolism) and Tvagrasayana (retarding aging). Many rasayana plants such as Emblica officinalis (Amla) and Centella asiatica (Gotukola) are extensively used.
 
Procedure of Agnikarma
Post- Agnikarma
Article
Tennis elbow is a painful condition and causes restricted movement of forearm which requires treatment for long period. Till date only symptomatic treatments are available like use of anti-inflammatory analgesic drugs, steroids injection, physiotherapy, exercise etc. But none of these provide satisfactory result. Long term use of anti-inflammatory, analgesic drugs and steroids injection is also not free from the adverse effects. Usually, 'wait-and-see policy' of treatment guideline is recommended in most of medical texts. According to Ayurveda, snayugata vata can be correlated with the condition of tennis elbow. Sushruta has advised Agnikarma for disorders of snayu (ligaments and tendons), asthi (bone), siddhi (joints) etc. Hence, in this study a case of tennis elbow (snayugata vata) was treated by Agnikarma, along with administration of powder of Ashwagandha and Navajivana Rasa orally, for a period of 03 weeks. This combination therapy provided considerable relief in pain and movement of the elbow joint.
 
Formulation composition of Shirishavaleha
Effect on body weight
Effect on antibody formation
Effect on immunological paw edema
Article
The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth), i.e., Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity.
 
Article
The combined hepatoprotective effect of Bi-herbal ethanolic extract (BHEE) was evaluated against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats. Liver function tests and biochemical parameters were estimated using standard kits. Livers were quickly removed and fixed in 10% formalin and subjected to histopathological studies. Ethanolic extract from the leaves of Aerva lanata and leaves of Achyranthes aspera at a dose level of 200 mg/kg, 400mg/kg body weight was administered orally once for 3 days. Substantially elevated serum marker enzymes such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, due to paracetamol treatment were restored towards normal. Biochemical parameters like total protein, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea were also restored towards normal levels. In addition, BHEE significantly decreased the liver weight of paracetamol intoxicated rats. Silymarin at a dose level of 25 mg/kg used as a standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. The results of this study strongly indicate that BHEE has got a potent hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats.
 
Article
Azadirachta indica has been reported to correct altered glycaemia in diabetes. The aqueous extract of A. indica leaf and bark has been evaluated for its effect on antioxidant status of alloxan diabetic rats and compared with insulin treatment. The oral effective dose of A. indica leaf (500 mg/kg body weight) and A. indica bark (100 mg/kg body weight) were given once daily for 21 days to separate groups of diabetic rats. At the end of the experimental period blood glucose level and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), and membrane lipid peroxidation were determined in different fractions of liver and kidney tissues. Diabetic rats showed high blood glucose (P<0.01), increased level of malondialdehyde (P<0.05) and a significant decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Treatment with insulin, A. indica leaf extract (AILE), and A. indica bark extract (AIBE) restored the above altered parameters close to the control ones. Both AILE and AIBE were found significantly effective in reducing hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. The findings suggest further investigations for the possible use of A. indica as alternative medicine to prevent long-term complications of diabetes.
 
Effect oral administration of aloe vera gel formulation (1 ml/45 days) on oral glucose tolerance test profile of letrozole induced PCOS rats, n=4-6. The values are represented as mean ± SEM a P<0.0001, b P<0.005, c P<0.0002, d P<0.01, as compared to control group.***P<0.0001, **P<0.01, P<0.05, c**P<0.001, e*P<0.02 as compared to letrozole (PCOS) model.
Effect oral administration of aloe vera gel formulation (1 ml/45 days) on follicular growth of ovary in letrozole induced PCOS rats (a) CMC control rat showing normal follicular development (H and E ×10) b: Section of ovary from letrozole treated showing small cysts in the follicle (x10) c: Section of ovary from aloe treated group showing normal follicle growth (x10) d: Section of ovary from metformin treated group showing normal primary follicle growth (x10)
Effect oral administration of aloe vera gel (1 ml /45 days) on steroid dehydrogenase enzyme activity in letrozole induced PCOS rats, n=4-6, The values are represented as mean ± SEM, *P<0.05, ***P<0.001, as compared to Control Group, @P <0.05 aP<0.001, #P<0.02, bP<0.01, $P<0.002, cP<0.01 as compared to PCOS Group
“In vitro” effect of aloe vera gel formulation on ovarian steroidogenic enzyme activity on letrozole induced rats model, n=4-6. The values are represented as mean ± SEM, *P<0.001, ***P<0.003 as compared to Control Group, aP <0.05, @P<0.02, bP<0.004, #P<0.003, $P<0.002 as compared to PCOS Group.
Article
This is a preliminary study that explores the efficacy of Aloe vera gel formulation as a possible therapeutic agent in the prevention and management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is recognized as the most common endocrinopathy of women. Increased androgen synthesis, disrupted folliculogenesis, and insulin resistance lie at the patho-physiological core of PCOS. Current therapy for such a syndrome is use of insulin sensitizers. Large randomized clinical trials of metformin as the insulin-sensitizing drug, however, suggested that it produces many side effects after prolonged usage. For this reason, an alternate therapy would be to use herbs with hypoglycemic potential. Aloe barbadensis Mill. (Liliaceae) popularly known as Aloe vera is a well-known plant with such properties. The present study evaluated the efficacy of Aloe vera gel formulation in a PCOS rat model. Five month old Charles Foster female rats were orally fed with letrozole, a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor, to induce PCOS. The rats were then treated orally with the Aloe vera gel formulation (1 ml dose daily for 45 days). This restored their estrus cyclicity, glucose sensitivity, and steroidogenic activity. Co-treatment of the inductive agent (letrozole) with the Aloe vera gel prevented the development of the PCO phenotype. Aloe vera gel formulation exerts a protective effect in against the PCOS phenotype by restoring the ovarian steroid status, and altering key steroidogenic activity. This can be attributed to phyto-components present in the extract.
 
Article
With an increase in the number of dependent elderly, there is a need to introduce few natural products for denture cleansing, which are easily and economically available. Hence the aim of this study was to compare the anticandidal efficacy of denture cleansing tablet (sodium bicarbonate and sodium perborate monohydrate), Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica fruits powders in equal proportion), cashew leaf, Aloe vera and water (control) on complete dentures of institutionalized elderly. Study population consisted of 50 institutionalized elderly of Mangalore, Karnataka, with 10 in each group. Swabs were collected from the dentures before and after the use of denture cleansing tablet, Triphala, cashew leaf, Aloe vera, and water (control). Thereafter, the swabs were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and the total candida counts were determined. Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna showed a statistically significant reduction in Candida counts (P < 0.05). Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna were found to be more effective.
 
Top-cited authors
Sanjeev Rastogi
  • University of Lucknow
Pooja Gupta
  • Royal Diagnostic Centre
Deep Narayan Pandey
  • Government of Rajasthan
Virendra Bahadur
  • Banaras Hindu University
Ragini Srivastava
  • Banaras Hindu University