Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology

Published by Elsevier
Online ISSN: 1226-8615
Publications
Article
Permethrin resistance has been reported worldwide and clinical failures to commercial pediculicides containing permethrin have likewise occurred. Permethrin resistance in head lice populations from the U.S. is widespread but is not yet uniform and the level of resistance is relatively low (~4-8 fold). Permethrin-resistant lice are cross-resistant to pyrethrins, PBO-synergized pyrethrins and to DDT. Nix((R)), when applied to human hair tufts following manufacture's instructions, did not provide 100% control when assessed by the hair tuft bioassay in conjunction with the in vitro rearing system. Resistance to permethrin is due to knockdown resistance (kdr), which is the result of three point mutations within the alpha-subunit gene of the voltage-gated sodium channel that causes amino acid substitutions, leading to nerve insensitivity.A three-tiered resistance monitoring system has been established based on molecular resistance detection techniques. Quantitative sequencing (QS) has been developed to predict the kdr allele frequency in head lice at a population level. The speed, simplicity and accuracy of QS made it an ideal candidate for a routine primary resistance monitoring tool to screen a large number of louse populations as an alternative to conventional bioassay. As a secondary monitoring method, real-time PASA (rtPASA) has been devised for a more precise determination of low resistance allele frequencies. To obtain more detailed information on resistance allele zygosity, as well as allele frequency, serial invasive signal amplification reaction (SISAR) has been developed as an individual genotyping method. Our approach of using three tiers of molecular resistance detection should facilitate large-scale routine resistance monitoring of permethrin resistance in head lice using field-collected samples.
 
Article
Polydnavirus is a group of animal DNA virus mutually associated with some ichneumonoid wasp. Its relatively large size of genome has been considered as a major source of the parasitoid function to manipulate developmental and immunological processes of target parasitized insects. Cotesia plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) is a polydnavirus derived from C. plutellae, which parasitizes the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Parasitized P. xylostella exhibits altered physiological symptoms in development and immune reactions. Though several other parasitic factors such as ovarian proteins, venom, and teratocytes are identified, CpBV has been more focused on elucidating various host physiological alterations occurring due to the parasitism, which has driven the CpBV genome project. CpBV attains a typical bracovirus structure by its single unit membrane envelope, in which multiple nucleocapsids are enclosed. Its genome DNAs are segmented and located on the genome of C. plutellae. Its replication begins at adult tissue development during pupal stage. An apparent genome size is 471 kb estimated from 27 segments separated on 5% agarose gel. A current work on the genome has been completely sequenced 24 genomic segments and analyzed their genomic structure. The aggregated genome size is 351, 299 bp long and exhibits an average GC content of approximately 34.6%. Average coding density is about 32.3% and 125 putative open reading frames are predicted. Though more than half (52.5%) of predicted genes are annotated as hypothetical, the annotated CpBV genes share amino acid sequence homologies with those of other bracoviral genomes. The annotated genes are classified into the known bracoviral families, in which a family of protein tyrosine phosphatase is the largest including 36 ORFs, suggesting a significant role during parasitization. In addition, 8 and 7 ORFs encode Iκβ-like and EP1-like, respectively. Some predicted genes are known only in Cotesia-associated bracoviral genomes. Finally, two homologous genes, CpBV15α/β, are unique in CpBV genome, which are not matched to any other known polydnaviral genes. Their homology with malarian circumsporozoite toxin and eukaryotic translation inhibition factors suggests their function in host translation inhibitory factor. This review discusses CpBV genes on their putative physiological functions based on the molecular interactions between the host-parasite.
 
Article
Relative toxicity of some commonly used insecticides to honey bee, Apis mellifera L., is reported. The results revealed that endosulfan and carbaryl were the least toxic, that chlorpyripos, neem oil, quinalphos, and malathion were moderately toxic, and that dimethoate was highly toxic and fenvalerate was extremely toxic.
 
Article
We conducted laboratory and field studies to gain new understanding of biology and biocontrol potential of Campoletis chlorideae Uchida on Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). Development time, adult longevity and fecundity of parasitoid were studied at 28±2°C and 70±10% RH. It was revealed that the parasitoid laid on an average 13.40±3.02 and 42.00±2.21 eggs after single mating and throughout its life span, respectively. The egg-larval and pupal period was 13.5±0.45 and 7.0±0.44 days, respectively. The emergence rate varied from 78.3 to 85.2%. The sex ratio of male: female in mated progeny was 1: 3.15±0.62. Adult longevity increased when provided with food source. Field release of 1-2 day old parasitoid with 15000 adults/ha (sex ratio 1:3) in chickpea showed encouraging results, wherein significant reduction in pest population and pod damage and increase in yield was obtained. The significant increase in parasitism after 7 and 14 days of parasitoid release was also recorded. However, the level of parasitism obtained in field was lower and therefore certain habitat manipulation like crop diversification and kairomonal interventions could be possibly explored. Furthermore, sustained efforts for evolving superior strains that can perform well in given set of environmental conditions are also required.
 
Article
Most subterranean termites forage for food by creating tunnel galleries underground. These tunnel networks reflect a compromise between foraging efficiency and other environmental constraints, such as soil hardness and moisture content. Thus, understanding tunnel networks is important for understanding foraging behavior. Due to the difficulties in direct observation of tunneling patterns in the field, we used a theoretical approach for this analysis. We first constructed a lattice model to simulate the tunnel networks of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) on the basis of the experimental data provided by Su et al. (Su, N.-Y., Stith, B.M., Puche, H., Bardunias, P., 2004. Characterization of tunneling geometry of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) by computer simulation. Sociobiology 44 (3), 471–483.). Using this model and two of its modified versions, we explored the relationship between the food encounter rate and food distributions and analyzed how this relationship is influenced by changes in the tunnel characteristic constituents, such as the branching tunnel length and frequency. Additionally, we investigated the effects of landscape heterogeneity on the foraging efficiency. In the discussion, we briefly introduced our novel individual-based model comprising individual termites and their surroundings, and we addressed the necessity of this model in the functioning of the network and the formation of the network in relation to foraging behavior.
 
Article
The infestation levels of O. rhinoceros were investigated in the oil palm trunk heaps in three replanting blocks (Blocks A, B and C) at Sepang, Selangor, Malaysia. These blocks had different densities of pheromone trapping: high (11 traps per ha, Block B), normal (1 trap per 2 ha, Block C), while no pheromone trapping was conducted in (Block A. Without pheromone trapping, the infestation levels of O. rhinoceros can reach a maximum density of between 25 to 50 individuals per m2 (IPMS). The O. rhinoceros population was still detected in the heaps up to more than two years (at 26 months after replanting). With high density trapping, infestation levels were maintained below 10 IPMS and was not detected in the heaps after a period of 16 months of replanting. In the normal trapping density, the population was also maintained below 10 IPMS but had sustained itself in the heaps for up to 24 months. The mortality factors associated with the larval stages sampled within these replanting blocks was determined by visual symptoms with subsequent verification with microbial analysis. The analysis was narrowed down to detect only bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis and B. popillae), virus (Oryctes virus) and fungus (Metarhizium). In Block A, the population of O. rhinoceros in the trunks was reduced drastically at 14 months after replanting (MAR), which could be due to the high mortality (88%) of the third instar larvae, 3 months earlier. In Block B, the percentage mortality for the larval stage was always highest at the third instars (between 21–82%). In Block C however, the mortality of the third instars was low, never exceeding 35%. In these sampling blocks, the infection of Metarhizium seem to be less dominant compared to virus or bacteria The k factor analysis indicates density dependence among the third instar larvae had contributed to the change in its population density in Block A. Therefore, with proper manipulation of pheromone traps and targeted application of disease agents (i.e virus, fungus and bacteria), the population of O. rhinoceros can be managed more effectively in an oil palm replanting.
 
Article
A field colony of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) resistant to dicofol was selected with dicofol successively for 20 generations to produce the DR-20 strain. Resistance and multiple resistance levels of the DR-20 strain to 15 acaricides were determined using a spray bioassay. The DR-20 strain was extremely resistant to dicofol [resistance ratio (RR), 465]. The strain showed extremely strong resistance to acrinathrin (RR, 373) and benzoximate (RR, 197) and strong resistance to bromopropylate (RR, 136), fenbutatin oxide (RR, 65), fenpropathrin (RR, 70), fenpyroximate (RR, 68), and pyridaben (RR, 63). A RR of 11–29 was observed with abamectin, fenazaquin, milbemectin, propagite, and tebufenpyrad. The DR-20 strain exhibited low levels of resistance (RR<3) to azocyclotin and chlorfenapyr. In comparative assays with detoxifying enzymes, the DR-20 strain showed 4.7-fold higher activity in p-nitroanisole-O-demethylation and 1.6-fold higher activities in both α- and β-naphthyl acetate hydrolysis. Synergist experiments with different metabolic inhibitors revealed that piperonyl butoxide, iprobenfos, triphenyl phosphate, and 4, 4-dichloro-α-methyl benzhydrol had little or no synergistic activity in the susceptible and DR-20 strains. These results suggest that employment of certain acaricides with little multiple resistance will be useful for the management of dicofol resistance in the field.
 
Article
To develop a less technique-dependent bioassay technique that can be conveniently used by practitioners or farmers in the field for the monitoring of acaricide resistance of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, a residual contact vial (RCV) method was established using a 5-ml glass vial coated with acaricides. The RCV bioassay procedures were optimized by using abamectin and tebufenpyrad, two widely used acaricides. The diagnostic concentrations causing 100% mortality within 8 h post-treatment in a susceptible strain of T. urticae was set at 30 and 60 ppm for abamectin and tebufenpyrad, respectively. The vial-coated pesticides were stable at least one year when stored at − 20 °C as determined by HPLC. There was no significant difference in the bioassay results in repeated RCV bioassay by three different experimenters, indicating its high reproducibility and reliability. RCV-based resistance monitoring of 15 field populations of mites revealed that abamectin resistance begins to spread but tebufenpyrad resistance is already prevalent in Korea. The RCV diagnostic kit, when used by practitioners or farmers on site, should provide crucial information for the selection of most suitable acaricides for different field populations of T. urticae.
 
Article
Presenilins are one of two types of critical genetic factors in familial Alzheimer's disease, and they regulate various cellular functions such as intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, apoptosis, and synaptic transmission. We utilized Drosophila presenilin (psn) mutants as a model for studying the role of this gene in regulating acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) and synaptic plasticity. Several lines of biochemical evidence indicated that AChE activity in a functionally null psn mutant (psnB3) was significantly reduced. In addition, we also found that psnB3 mutant neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) had smaller synaptic boutons and altered localization of Discs large, a synaptic scaffolding protein at the synaptic terminals compared to wild-type controls. These phenotypic defects were completely rescued in transgenic lines expressing the long form of wild-type Psn under an endogenous psn promoter cassette (PEPC-PsnWT;psnB3 lines). Taken together, these results indicate that Psn is important for regulating AChE activity, the size of synaptic boutons, and the localization of DLG at synaptic terminals.
 
Article
To investigate the usefulness of early-expressed promoters from Cotesia plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) in improvement of insecticidal activities of baculovirus, recombinant AcNPVs, Ac3003ProAaIT, Ac3004ProAaIT, Ac3005ProAaIT and Ac3006ProAaIT expressing scorpion neurotoxin, AaIT, under the control of ORF3003, ORF3004, ORF3005 and ORF3006 promoter, respectively were constructed. Among these recombinant viruses, Ac3006ProAaIT showed highest insecticidal activity against 3rd instar larvae of Spodoptera exigua. These results suggested that early promoters from CpBV could be successfully applied to improve pathogenicity of baculoviruses.
 
Article
We investigated the potential of disrupting pheromone-mediated mating communication in European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner). The female sex pheromone, a blend of (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate and (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate in a ratio of ∼97 : 3 was released from two dispenser types and in two deployment patterns, a Shin-Etsu rope formulation spaced 2 m apart and a widely-spaced (35 m) pattern using a controlled release system called the Metered Semiochemical Timed Release System (MSTRSTM). Both dispensers were situated in grassy sites that constitute aggregation areas for O. nubilalis mating activity within and around cornfields at three different locations in Iowa. Pheromone-emission rate (after 7 days in the field) from the MSTRSTM (6.09 μg/min) was ca. 26 times greater than from the rope formulation (0.23 μg/min). Both dispensers during both first and second flights achieved a significant level of disruption of pheromone-source location (averaging 97%). More importantly, a significant level of mating disruption was achieved, as measured by the frequency of mating by free-flying feral females. The mean number of matings, as measured by spermatophores, per first generation female was 1.33 in the MSTRSTM plots and 1.58 in the rope plots, compared with 1.88 in untreated check plots. During the second flight, the number of matings per female averaged 1.63 in the MSTRSTM plots, 1.56 in the rope plots and 2.17 in untreated check plots. There was also a significant reduction in the proportion of females that mated at least once during both flights in MSTRSTM plots. During the first flight, 17 and 10% fewer females mated in the MSTRSTM-treated and rope-treated fields, respectively. A similar level of disruption was also achieved during the second flight.
 
Article
A solitary endoparsitoid, Cotesia plutellae, has been regarded as a major biological regulator to manipulate field population of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella. It parasitizes DBM and alters its physiology into a favorable condition for the parasitoid development. This research has been focused on the physiological changes in terms of internal morphology and biochemical changes of the parasitized DBM. The parasitized DBM exhibited significantly hypotrophied structures in Malpighian tubules, fat body, and testes, while it did not show apparent change in the digestive organ structure. The parasitoid represented almost 70% of total body weight of the parasitized DBM. This estimate was well corresponded to the measurements of the major nutrient amounts in the parasitized DBM. This study clearly indicates that the major nutrients obtained by the parasitoid DBM are exploited by the koinobiont parasitoid for its own development.
 
Article
The nematicidal activity and poisoning symptoms of 88 plant essential oils against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus were examined by an immersion bioassay. Results were compared with those of three trunk-injection nematicides: fenitrithion, levamisol hydrochloride, and morantel tartrate. As judged by 24 h LC50 values, cinnamon bark oil (0.12 mg/ml) was the most effective nematicide, followed by coriander herb oil (0.14 mg/ml). Potent nematicidal activity was also observed with lemongrass, oregano, thyme red, and clove bud oils (LC50, 0.57-0.88 mg/ml). Fenitrothion was ineffective (LC50, > 10 mg/ml). In typical poisoning symptoms in B. xylophilus, these essential oils exerted rapid nematicidal action and the nematodes killed usually showed an extended shape, whereas levamisole hydrochloride and morantel tartrate usually exhibited semicircular and coiling shapes, respectively. The essential oils described merit further study as botanical nematicides for the control of pine wilt disease caused by B. xylophilus.
 
Article
Arrowhead scale, Unaspis yanonensis (Kuwana), feeds on the foliage, stems, and fruits of citrus trees, and causes tree dieback when heavy infestations occur. The objective of this study was to collect basic data to establish seasonal management strategies for U. yanonensis. The abundances of male nymphs and female adults were monitored in unsprayed citrus orchards. The overwintered females started to produce their progenies (1st gen.) from mid-May. The populations of the 1st nymphs in the 1st generation showed a bimodal occurrence pattern, with a 1st larger peak between late May and early June, and a 2nd smaller peak in June. The nymphs in the 2nd generation, which were laid from newly developed females, were observed from late July, and the 1st peak occurred in mid-August, followed by an obscure later peak (the 2nd peak) around late September. The numbers of live females for the overwintered populations began to decrease gradually from early June by the impact of the predacious Chilocorus kuwanae, as well as by natural mortality factors, and dropped to a low level in mid-July. When there were abundant predator attacks, the U. yanonensis female populations sharply decreased from early June and were almost nonexistent in July. New female adults (1st generation adults) appeared from late June and peaked in mid-July. The 2nd generation female adults, consequently, the overwintering generation, occurred from mid- September, and gradually increased to late October. Overall, these results will be useful in terms of management strategies for U. yanonensis in citrus orchards.
 
Article
Age effect on and diel periodicity in sex pheromone production, electroantennographic (EAG) assay for sex pheromone components and field bioassays were carried out to define the best blend of sex pheromone components in the Asian corn borer moth, Ostrinia furnacalis, in South Korea. Hexane extract of female abdominal tips contained three major compounds identified as tetradecanl acetate (14Ac), (E)-12-tetradecenyl acetate (E12–14Ac) and (Z)-12-tetradecenyl acetate (Z12–14Ac). E12–14Ac, Z12–14Ac and their 1 : 1 blend evoked strong EAG response on male antennae, but 14Ac did not. The amount of those three compounds in virgin females increased remarkably from the 2nd day after emergence to peak at the 3rd day and then decreased to the level of 1st day from the 4th day on. The mean ratios of 14Ac : E12–14Ac : Z12–14Ac were 0.91 : 1 : 1.38 and 0.74 : 1 : 1.36 in 2-day- and 3-day-old females, respectively, in the case of the individual washes and 0.7 : 1: 1.51 in the case of the combined washes of 2-day- and 3-day-old females. Sex pheromone titers first detected at 2nd hour during the scotophase (16L/8D) and then gradually increased to reach the maximum level at the end of the scotophase. At corn-field trappings, the 1: 2 blend was usually the most effective in attracting males among 12 blends (16: 1, 5 : 1, 3 : 1, 2 : 1, 1.5 : 1, 1 : 1, 1 : 1.3, 1 : 1.5, 1 : 2, 1 : 3, 1 : 5 and O : 1) tested between E12–14Ac and Z12–14Ac, and the attractiveness of those blends generally increased as the content of Z12–14Ac increased to the level of the blend 1:2, then slowly decreased as the content of Z12–14Ac was more than twice over that of E12–14Ac. But the best blend in attracting males was 5 : 1 between E12–14Ac and Z12–14Ac at a ginger field, which should be further studied.
 
Article
Eicosanoids mediate insect immune responses, especially against bacterial infection. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) catalyzes the committed step of the eicosanoid biosynthesis pathway. Three PLA2 inhibitors have been identified from metabolites of an entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila: benzylideneacetone (BZA), Pro-Tyr (PY), and acetylated Phe-Gly-Val (Ac-FGV). Interestingly, they share benzenepropane as a core chemical structure. We analyzed the functional significance of the core structure using structural derivatives. Removing a phenyl ring from PY resulted in significant loss of the PLA2 inhibitory activity, as seen in a Pro-Ala derivative. Though the p-hydroxyl group was not critical in PY as seen in Pro-Phe derivative, its addition to BZA resulted in significant loss of inhibitory activity. Some alterations of structures other than the core structure increased PLA2-inhibitory activity in some derivatives, including Ala-Tyr (AY) and Phe-Gly-Val (FGV) derivatives. Using these selected derivatives, we further analyzed synergistic effects on pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) against the second instar larvae of Plutella xylostella. These two derivatives significantly enhanced the Bt pathogenicity. This study introduces two novel compounds that inhibit PLA2 and suggests their application in combination with Bt to control P. xylostella.
 
Article
As a result of natural enemy survey against the Japanese pine sawyer (Monochamus alternates (Hope 1842)), the major vector of pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Buhrer 1934)), many samples of the ectoparasitic wasp, Sclerodermas harmandi (Buysson 1903) were collected nationwide in Korea from June to October in 2005. It is redescribed with the figures and biométrie data of apterous and alate females. © 2006 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society.
 
Article
Cotesia plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) is a polydnavirus symbiotic to an endoparasitoid, C. plutellae. Despite rich information on CpBV genome, there has been little known on its viral replication mode from proviral to episomal form. This study illustrates fine structures of the epithelial cells producing CpBV with a reference to non-producing ovarian epithelial cells. The ovarian epithelial cells of teneral females (within 12 h after emergence) were characterized by large nucleus and rich rough endoplasmic reticulum. CpBV particles were present only at the calyx region, in which follicle epithelial cells exhibited virogenic structures. Though a matured CpBV particle found in the calyx lumen was encapsidated in a single envelop containing multiple nucleocapsids, numerous free nucleocapsids were observed in the calyx epithelial cells and appeared to undergo assembly step to a final multiple capsid form. The multiple capsid forms appeared to be released into the oviduct lumen. The epithelial cells bordering the oviduct lumen showed phagocytosis presumably due to clearing cellular debris. At the calyx area close to the common oviduct, the epithelial cells appeared to maintain protein synthetic activity due to highly developed rough endoplasmic reticulum, but showed a marked decrease in the viral production.
 
Article
The objective of the current study was to determine the chemical constituents and fumigant toxicity of an essential oil that was isolated via hydrodistillation from dry leaves of Vitex pseudo-negundo (Hausskn.) Hand.-Mzz. The chemical composition of the essential oil was assessed via GC and GC-MS. 1, 8-Cineol (18.23%), α-Pinene (16.20%) and Sabinene (5.67%) were determined to be the major constituents of the oil. The fumigant toxicity of the essential oil was tested against 1–7 day-old adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) at 27 ± 1 °C and 60 ± 5% r.h. in darkness. The mortality of adults was tested at different concentrations ranging from 37.0 to 925.9 μL/L air and different exposure times (1–30 h). The results demonstrated that the mortality increased with increases in concentration and exposure time. At concentrations higher than 185.2 μL/L air, the mortality was recorded at more than 50% after 10 h, and reached 100% after 12–16 h. Data probit analysis demonstrated that S. oryzae (LC50 = 31.96 μL/L air) was more susceptible than T. castaneum (LC50 = 47.27 μL/L air). These results showed that the essential oil from V. pseudo-negundo could be applicable to the management of populations of stored-product insects.
 
Article
The fruit fly Drosophila has been utilized as a powerful biological system to address fundamental questions concerning neurological disorders in humans, since the related basic molecular components and signal transduction pathways in humans are mostly conserved in Drosophila. In addition, Drosophila offers great experimental advantages in genetics, behavioral analysis and cell and molecular biology. Pathogenesis and etiologies underlying several monogenic neurological disorders including familial Parkinson disease, Alzheimer's disease, or ataxia have been faithfully replicated in Drosophila system when causative mutations of those disorders were transgenically introduced or loss of function mutations of endogenous homologues were made. However, more than 90% of reported cases of neurological disorders are complex forms whose inheritance patterns do not follow a monogenic inheritance. Nevertheless, complex disorders are more often observed among the families or relatives of affected patients, strongly suggesting that they are most likely to be caused by interaction of multiple genetic mutations or combinations of genetic and environmental risk factors. Complex neurological disorders are include sporadic forms of Parkinson disease, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), dystonia, epilepsy, and mental retardation, etc. Our understanding of the genetic defects and environmental risk factors involved in the onset and progression of complex neurological disorders are, however, still rudimentary. Thus identifying unknown factors involved in the onset and progression of complex neurological disorders in humans is one of the major challenges in medical sciences.
 
Article
The mating behavior of the pine sawyer, Monochamus saltuarius, is composed of two phases. The first phase is the female approach to pheromone-releasing males. When bioassayed by T-tube olfactometer, the female was moved toward the male and hexane extract of the male. The second phase is the male mounted the female to copulate after perceiving the contact pheromone being on the female body surface. When the hexane extract of the female body surface was applied onto a glass rod (dummy), the male showed the mating behavior to the dummy. The component of female body surface extract fractionated using a silicic acid column elicited mating behaviors of the males, and the other component by ether fraction was showed a high copulatory attempt. This study was discussed two-step functions of the pheromones in the beetle mating behavior.
 
Article
Acetylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities of four strains of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) larvae were examined. The three strains of VOS49, VOSF, and VOSCM were resistant to malathion, fenitrothion, and chlorpyrifos-methyl, respectively, while VOS48 was a susceptible strain. Cross-resistance to all three organophosphate insecticides tested was confirmed in larvae of the three resistant strains. Acetylcholinesterase activity was not correlated to organophosphate resistance in those resistant strains. VOS49, VOSF and VOSCM showed enhanced levels of carboxylesterase activity based on p-nitrophenyl acetate, α-naphthyl acetate, or β-naphthyl acetate substrates. However, these activities were significantly lower than those of O. surinamensis adults. PAGE zymograms showed major differences in carboxylesterase band pattern among strains. VOS49 carboxylesterase banding pattern was significantly different from other two resistant strains. Interestingly, these larval esterase band patterns were very similar to those of O. surinamensis adults. Therefore, carboxylesterase activity of O. surinamensis plays important role in resistance to organophosphate insecticide from larval stage.
 
Article
While monitoring for the seasonal occurrence of the tea tortrix moth, Homona magnanima Diakonoff (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a number of Neocalyptis angustilineata (Walsingham) were attracted to traps baited with H. magnanima attractant, a 9:1 blend of (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14Ac) and (Z)-9-dodecenyl acetate (Z9-12Ac). We evaluated a 1:1 blend (1 mg) and a 9:1 blend (1 mg) of Z11-14Ac and Z9-12Ac for their attractiveness to the two moth species. H. magnanima was attracted only to the 9:1 blend. However, N. angustilineata was equally attracted to both blends. Thus, we report the 9:1 blend as a co-attractant for N. angustilineata and H. magnanima. This blend is the first finding for the attractant for N. angustilineata.
 
Article
Geometric morphometry was used to characterize 73 Apis dorsata colonies collected from 31 different localities in five major geographic regions of mainland Thailand. We measured 19 easily identified landmarks from the digitized images of the right forewing of 10 worker bees from each colony (730 bees in total); thus, avoiding the confounding variation from haploid or diploid males. After plotting the factor scores, A. dorsata from (mainland) Thailand were found to belong to a single group, which was further supported by a hierarchical cluster analysis-generated dendrogram. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA, α = 0.05) demonstrated no significant differences among the five geographic groups of A. dorsata in Thailand, producing a low degree of accuracy (31.2%) in the identification of the geographic region from which any individual bee originated. Additionally, when the bee samples were classified into two groups, those north and south of the Isthmus of Kra were not significantly different (MANOVA, α = 0.05), and a low rate of correct classification in a cross-validation test (65% correct) was found. Therefore, this geometric morphometric based analysis of worker bee wing venation pattern suggests that A. dorsata populations in mainland Thailand are panmictic.
 
Article
The green bottle blow fly Lucilia sericata is recognized as being among the first wave of the faunal succession on human cadavers. Thus, it is used to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI). The nutritional intake of larvae is likely to vary subject to the part of a corpse on which they are feeding. A study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect for the type of food substrate on larval growth in this species. Larvae were reared on cow liver, brain, heart, lung, kidney, intestine or minced meat. Results showed significant differences in the duration of the feeding, postfeeding larval, and pupal stages from different substrata (F = 42.43; 74.71 and 655.71; P < 0.0001, respectively). Larval growth measured as length varied significantly between different tissues (F = 3.56; P < 0.05). Larvae that were reared on heart were smaller than those reared on other tissues. Also, there was a significant effect for the type of tissue on the adult size of males (F = 2.41, P < 0.05) and females (F = 2.85, P < 0.05). These results may have important implications for forensic entomologists, since initial infestations commonly occur in wounds or in the cranial area. Therefore, the position at which larvae have been feeding on a body will be a crucial observation at a crime scene and is very important in PMI estimation.
 
Article
A new species of the genus Perigrapha Lederer, 1857, Perigrapha. nanshana sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) is described from Quinghai, China. The adults and male and female genitalia of the new species and its close relatives are illustrated.
 
Article
Naratettix rubrovittatus (Matsumura, 1920) is recognized for the first time in Korea on Rhododendron indicum Rhododendron mucronulatum, Rhododendron yedoense var. poukhanense, and Viburnum opulus var. calvescens. The male specimen is redescribed, illustrated, and measured. To date, three Naratettix species have been recorded on the Korean Peninsula. A key to species of the genus Naratettix from the Korean Peninsula is provided. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society.
 
Article
Pomponia bullata Schmidt, 1924 stat. rev. from Java is resurrected from junior synonymy with Pomponia picta (Walker, 1870) from Sumatra and redescribed. The only male specimen out of three syntypes is designated as the lectotype.
 
Article
Araneus rotundicornis, which has been known as a species endemic to Japan, was caught in Mt. Weolaksan in Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea. And it is described and illustrated in this report.
 
Article
The genus Cyphagogus Parry in the family Brentidae is newly recorded from Korea, based on a newly designated allotype, C. iwatensis Morimoto male, which was described based on just two female types from Japan. Diagnosis and illustrations of detailed diagnostic characters, including line drawings of male genitalia are provided with a key for identifying East Asian species of the bipunctatus-group.
 
Article
Diapause of Paratlanticus ussuriensis eggs can be prolonged to more than 1 year depending on environmental conditions. Eggs can enter an initial facultative diapause in the early embryonic stage and then enter a final obligatory diapause in the fully developed embryo stage. Initial diapause is temperature-dependent; it is initiated at 20 °C and inhibited at 30 °C. To determine the effects of temperature on the mechanism of initial diapause of P. ussuriensis eggs, we compared weight and DNA and RNA contents of eggs that were incubated at either 20 °C or 30 °C for 60 days after oviposition. Weight and total DNA of eggs were constant when incubated at 20 °C but gradually increased when incubated at 30 °C. Total RNA content increased over 15 days then remained at a high level when eggs were incubated at 30 °C whereas RNA content was at a constant low level when eggs were incubated at 20 °C. In addition, we cloned the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene from P. ussuriensis and determined its expression levels at different temperatures. Hsp70 was not detectable until 20 days after oviposition. Its level increased at 50 and 60 days when incubated at 30 °C, but increased only slightly when incubated at 20 °C. Our results suggest that high temperature inhibits the initial diapause and induces overall transcription activity in the eggs. Upregulation of hsp70 expression at high temperatures may be associated with further embryonic development of the eggs.
 
Comparison of deduced amino acid sequences of GRP78 from P. interpunctella and other species. Three HSP70 family motif sequences (I – III) are indicated on the top of the straight- line boxes. A putative ATP-GTP binding site (A), non-organellar consensus motif (B), putative bipartite nuclear localization signal involved in selective translocation of HSP70 into the nucleus (C), and cytoplasmic HSP70 C-terminal region (D) are indicated with dot-line boxes. The 20-amino acid signal peptide was top lined at the N-terminus. Dotted lines denote identity to the top sequence. Dashes correspond to a gap in the sequences. The symbols ‘ * ’ , ‘ : ’ , and ‘ . ’ below the alignment indicate same residue, strong positive residue, and weaker positive residue, respectively. The last residue in each line is assigned a number. DDBJ/GenBank/EMBL accession numbers are listed in Fig. 2. 
PCR primers used for the cloning of P. interpunctella grp78.
Article
Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is a member of the HSP70 family of proteins and is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) within cells. GRP78 and its gene has been identified in only a few species of insects, and its role is not clear. Here, we identified full-length grp78 cDNA from the Indian meal moth, Plodia intetpunctella, and demonstrated the role of grp78 in developmental and physiological processes of the insect. The deduced amino acid sequence of GRP78 contained highly conserved functional motifs of the HSP70 family and the C-terminal motif of KDEL, which is characteristic of ER-localized HSP70. It also showed high identity (93-94%) with GRP78 and related HSP70 proteins of lepidopteran species. Gene expression analysis showed that grp78 mRNA levels were high in the egg, feeding larval, and adult stages, but low in the molting, wandering larval, and pupal stages of development. In a tissue comparison of fifth instar P. interpunctella, grp78 level was higher in the gut than in the integument or fat bodies. Grp78 level decreased greatly when fifth-instar larvae were starved for 48 h, but recovered within 3-6 h after re-feeding. Our data suggest that gip 78 is highly associated with dietary energy conditions during development and may play an important role in the nutritional physiology of insects.
 
Article
Bumblebee venom contains serine proteases and serine protease inhibitors. In this study, we characterized whether the bumblebee (Bombus ignitus) venom serine protease inhibitor (Bi-KTI) inhibits B. ignitus venom serine protease (Bi-VSP) or phospholipase A2 (Bi-PLA2). Bi-KTI did not inhibit Bi-VSP activity at pH 5.4 or 7.4, whereas Bi-KTI slightly inhibited Bi-VSP activity at pH 7.4 after a 30 min preincubation. The Bi-VSP activity that converts prothrombin into thrombin and fibrin into fibrin degradation products was not significantly affected by Bi-KTI. Additionally, Bi-KTI or Bi-VSP did not inhibit Bi-PLA2 activity. These findings indicate that each bee venom component appears to a play a toxic role via a unique function.
 
Article
The diurnal flight pattern of Platypus koryoensis (Murayama) was examined using sticky traps attached to the trunks of oak trees in central Korea in 2010 and 2011. The flight activities of the beetle were estimated on the basis of 3-h intervals for trap catches from 11:00 to 14:00 on the next day, on June 25-26 and July 1-2, 2010, and on the basis of 2-h intervals for trap catches from 5:00 to 17:00, between June Band July 21, 2011 (the peak flight period of the beetle). Over 77% of the beetles were caught from 9:00 to 13:00, with the daily variations in the facing slope. The beetles began to be caught when the air temperature reached around 16 degrees C, and were the most active when the temperature ranged from 20 to 27 degrees C. No beetles were caught during rainfall, suggesting that rainfall is one of the factors that hinder beetle flight. The beetles were caught by traps in the east-facing plot earlier than those in the south- and west-facing plots suggesting that the flight behavior of the beetle can be affected by the light. Direction of the beetle flight during the peak of daily flight (from 09:00 to 13:00) was downward along the slope.
 
Article
Insect growth-blocking peptides (GBPs) exhibit growth-blocking and paralytic activity. Low concentrations of GBP stimulate larval growth, whereas high concentrations of GBP significantly retard larval growth. Here, we show that morphological abnormalities and lethality were induced in silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae by high concentrations of GBP. Active B. mori GBP (BmGBP) was produced by treating recombinant proBmGBP (expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells) with bovine factor Xa. When silkworm larvae on day 1 of the fifth-instar stage were injected between the seventh and eight abdominal segments with BmGBP (100 or 500 ng/larva), the larval–pupal and pupal–adult transformations of these silkworms were delayed in a dose-dependent manner. However, a high concentration (2000 ng/larva) of BmGBP or Spodoptera exigua GBP (SeGBP) acutely induced morphological abnormalities and death in silkworm larvae. In silkworm larvae treated with high concentrations of GBPs, the ingested food excessively accumulated in the foregut, which caused extreme swelling in both the thorax and the foregut and resulted in larval death. Therefore, these results not only provide insight into the effect of insect GBPs on gut physiology but also reveal a novel function of insect GBPs.
 
Article
Long-term fumigation with pure phosphine at low-temperature injures lettuce and the injury is likely caused by a potential accumulation of CO2. In this study, iceberg and romaine lettuce were stored hermetically in fumigation chambers with and without absorbents for CO2 and ethylene for 3 days at 2 degrees C as a simulation of long-term fumigation to determine the effects of the absorbents on accumulations of CO2 and ethylene and postharvest quality of lettuce. In the absence of absorbents, CO2 level increased from 0.08% at the start to 3.36% at the end of the 3-day hermetic storage. No accumulation of ethylene was detected. Hermetic storage resulted in significant CO2 injuries to both iceberg and romaine lettuce and quality degradation as compared with the controls at 14 days after treatment. In the storage with absorbents, the CO2 level remained low throughout the storage and ethylene was undetectable, and the CO2 injury level was the same or lower than the control. Lettuce quality scores were either the same or better than lettuce in the control. Our findings suggest that the accumulation of CO2 alone caused injuries associated with long-term phosphine fumigation and CO2 absorbent has the potential to prevent such injuries. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society.
 
Beta value of 14 taxa in regression models using litter depth as independent variable. Signi fi cance of regression models (i.e., beta value of regression model is not zero) are represented as follows; * P b 0.01, ** P b 0.05, and *** P b 0.01. The main feeding guilds for the arthropod groups are as follows: dark bar, predator; hatched bar, herbivore; open bar, detritivore. 
MDS ordination of arthropod communities. Two axes explain 92% of total variation. The ordination was rotated by an angle of − 40° for visualization of arthropod communities according to disturbance degree (DD). Circle: unburned site in pine forest (DD = 0), open triangle: site in pine forest burned by surface fi re (DD = 1), dark triangle: site burned by crown fi re (DD = 2), and reversed dark triangle: site burned by strong fi re and reforested afterward (DD = 3). 
Article
Forest fires are one of the most frequent and important causes of forest disturbances, the occurrence of which is globally increasing due to the effects of climate change. This study aimed to determine the impacts of fire and human activity on arthropod communities in affected forests. Twelve study sites in three burned areas were selected for this study. Intensities of disturbance in the study sites were characterized as follows: Disturbance Degree (DD) 0 (no fire), DD 1 (surface fire), DD 2 (crown fire), and DD 3 (crown fire followed by reforestation). Arthropods were collected using pitfall traps. Fourteen arthropod taxa (families, orders or classes), which are relatively homogeneous in their feeding habits and abundant, were analyzed. Depth of litter layer was selected as an environmental indicator for disturbance intensity, as it decreases linearly as the degree of disturbance increased. Changes of arthropod abundance in response to disturbance differed among functional guilds. As disturbance intensity increased, the abundance of detritivores decreased, but the abundance of herbivores increased. However, the abundance of predators varied between taxa. Formicidae and Araneae increased in disturbed sites, whereas Carabidae and Staphylinidae did not change. The abundance of Thysanura and Diptera was highly correlated with disturbance intensity, and may be suitable as a bioindicator for forest disturbance. Arthropod communities were more heterogeneous in forests of intermediate disturbance.
 
Article
Tribe Anthocoptini (Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) from Korea was reviewed. A total of eight species in the tribe were presented, among them, four species, Abacarus hystrix (Nalepa), Aculus fockeui (Nalepa and Trouessart), Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa) and Tegolophus zizyphagus (Keifer) were newly recorded to the fauna. All the Korean species of the tribe were redescribed and illustrated. Keys to the Korean species of the tribe and distributions were also presented with the biological information such as host plants and damage symptoms.
 
Article
Eriophyoid mites inhabit Yushan canes at elevations from 1650 to 3400 m in Taiwan. A total of 1491 eriophyoid mite specimens collected between 2001 and 2008 from 18 sites in Taiwan belonging to 10 genera and 15 species were examined and recorded to evaluate the relationships between species composition and environmental factors. The environmental factors assessed consisted of climate data, cane leaf length, and vegetation type. Among the 15 species, Abacarus panatics Kefier, 1977 and Tetra yushania Huang, K.W., 2001. Eriophyoid mites of Taiwan: description of eighty-six species from the Tengchih area. Bull. Natl. Mus. Nat. Sci. 14, 1–84 occur at all 18 survey sites. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to analyze the relationships among sites, eriophyoid mite occurrences, and environmental variables. Eriophyoid mite species composition and plant community types were analyzed using non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS). Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that temperature and leaf length were major factors that influenced changes in eriophyoid mite assemblages. MDS results showed that eriophyoid mite species composition is unrelated to plant community types. The distribution patterns of the 15 eriophyoid mites is hypothesized to be randomized by forest fires initially and subsequently influenced by temperature and leaf length.
 
Article
We compared population suppression of the phytophagous mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor), on papaya by second instar larvae of the green lacewing, Mallada basalis (Walker), at various predator:prey release ratios in the laboratory. Initially, we presented M. basalis with mixed age classes of each mite species separately at a density of approximately 30 mites per seedling. After 3 days, predator:prey ratios of 1:30, 1:15, and 1:10 resulted in reductions of T. kanzawai of 66.8%, 82.6%, and 83.3%, respectively, and reductions of P. citri of 41.8%, 75.5%, and 77.2%, respectively. Predation on individual age classes was approximately equal in both species, reinforcing previous findings that this predator does not show a preference among age classes. We next presented M. basalis with mixed populations of the two mite species in which there were equal numbers of each species and the density was as in the single species tests. Total mite reduction with both mite species present was 48.5%, 71.9%, and 74.5% at ratios of 1:30, 1:15, and 1:10, respectively; T. kanzawai was reduced by 50.5%, 77.4%, and 79.5%, respectively, and P. citri was reduced by 44.1%, 60.3%, and 63.2%, respectively. This study suggests that M. basalis has the potential for substantially suppressing populations of both T. kanzawai and P. citri on papaya at a predator:prey ratio of 1:15 or greater. However, evaluation under realistic agricultural settings is needed before specific recommendations about predator release rates can be made.
 
Article
Tetranychus piercei McGregor and Tetranychus truncatus Ehara are major pests of many crops in Bangladesh, while Tetranychus bambusae Wang and Ma is found only on plants in the family Bambusaceae. We compared the development, survivorship, and life table parameters of T. piercei and T. truncatus on bean leaves and of T. bambusae on bamboo leaves at 25 °C, 60–70% RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 h (light:dark). The development times of T. piercei and T. truncatus from eggs to adult females were 10.2 and 8.8 days, respectively, when fed on bean leaves, while it took 9.5 days for T. bambusae feeding on Bambusa sp. leaves to develop from eggs to adult females. Mated T. piercei, T. truncatus, and T. bambusae females laid 186.9, 132.5, and 46.3 eggs on average over oviposition periods averaging 22.3, 13.5, and 20.2 days, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.275 for T. piercei, 0.301 for T. truncatus, and 0.182 for T. bambusae; meanwhile the net reproductive rate (R0) was 114.5/female for T. piercei, 101.9/female for T. truncatus, and 25.4/female for T. bambusae. The doubling time (tD) was lowest in T. truncatus (2.3 days) compare to T. piercei (2.5 days) and T. bambusae (3.8 days). The two polyphagous Tetranychus mites collected in Bangladesh were found to share similar life table parameters with Tetranychus mites from various other regions irrespective of food sources. This is the first report of the life table parameters of T. bambusae reared on bamboo leaves.
 
Article
Amphitetranychus quercivorus (Ehara and Gotoh, 1990) was first identified in Mongolian oak tree Quercus mongolica in Daegu, Korea. In comparison to A. viennensis (Zacher), A. quercivorus was much shorter in the distal, dorsally directed portion of the male aedeagus, as well as smaller and less folded in the distal anastomosed portion of the female peritreme. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of ITS2 and COI revealed 90% and 89% similarities, respectively, between the two species. In addition, species-specific primer sets for each species were designed using unique ITS2 sequences and then used to diagnose these two species under plant quarantine. We report the Korean name of this species as “Sin-gal-na-mu-eung-ae”.
 
Article
Two new species of Sennertia Oudemans, 1905, Sennertia punctatus sp. nov. and Sennertia xylocopi sp. nov. which are phoretic on Carpenter bees collected from West Bengal for the first time are illustrated and described.
 
Article
Two new species, Podapolipus husbandi and Podapolipoides channabasavannai, collected on Oxya sp. from West Bengal, India are described and illustrated.
 
Article
This study was carried out to develop temperature-driven models for immature development and oviposition of the pink citrus rust mite Aculops pelekassi (Keifer). A. pelekassi egg development times decreased as the temperature increased, ranging from 6.6 d at 16 °C to 1.9 d at 35 °C. Total nymph development times decreased from 8.2 d at 16 °C to 3.3 d at 35 °C. The egg-to-adult development durations were 14.8, 11.6, 9.7, 8.0, 7.3, 6.1, and 5.2 d at 16, 20, 24, 26, 28, 32, and 35 °C, respectively. The lower developmental threshold temperatures for eggs, nymphs, and total egg-to-adult development were calculated as 9.3, 4.3, and 6.9 °C, respectively. The thermal constants were 54.0, 101.8, and 153.8 degree days for each of the above stages. The non-linear biophysical model fitted well for the relationship between the development rate and temperature for all stages. The Weibull function provided a good fit for the distribution of development times of each stage. Temperature affected the longevity and fecundity of A. pelekassi. Adult longevity decreased as the temperature increased and ranged from 24.2 d at 16 °C to 14.6 d at 35.0 °C. A. pelekassi had a maximum fecundity of 33.1 eggs per female at 28 °C, which declined to 18.8 eggs per female at 16 °C. In addition, three temperature-dependent components for an oviposition model of A. pelekassi were developed with sub-models estimated: total fecundity, age-specific cumulative oviposition rate, and age-specific survival rate. The oviposition model, coupled with the stage emergence model, should be useful to construct a population model for A. pelekassi in the future.
 
Article
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Scolothrips longicornis Priesner (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) as a biocontrol agent of Schizotetranychus smirnovi Wainstein (Acari: Tetranychidae), a key pest of almond trees in the southwest of Iran. To achieve a strategy for the control of this pest, it is important to understand foraging behavior (Functional response, switching, and prey-stage preference) of S. longicornis. The predator exhibited a type III functional response when it was offered S. smirnovi protonymphs at seven densities (2, 4, 8, 16, 32 .64 and 128). Based on the random predator equation, the estimated attack rate (a), handling time (Th), and maximum rate of predation were 0.0048 h−1, 0.4816 h, and 49.84 per day, respectively. Using the Murdoch's model, switching behavior was observed in S. longicornis. The predator switched from one stage when it becomes rare to another more abundant stage. S. longicornis fed on all stages but preferred S. smirnovi larvae and protonymphs. The results of this study revealed that S. longicornis could be used in the integrated management of S. smirnovi. However, further field studies are needed to verify this hypothesis.
 
Top-cited authors
Chuleui Jung
  • Andong National University
Yonggyun Kim
  • Andong National University
Sampat Ghosh
  • Andong National University
Seunghwan Lee
  • Seoul National University
Victor Benno Meyer-Rochow
  • Andong National University