Journal of Architectural and Planning Research

Online ISSN: 0738-0895
Publications
Article
"Migration from Mexico to the United States is viewed very differently by those two nations. The United States perspective is that of illegal immigrants invading their nation, especially during times of national unemployment. From the Mexican perspective, people migrate across the border in response to quite predictable labor supply and demand pressures. The fact that for many years the United States held undocumented labor to be punishable for the worker but not for the employer suggests a tacit recognition of the labor supply/demand factor, but a recognition tainted by discrimination."
 
Article
The settlement of the northern border regions of Mexico over the past three centuries is described. The author notes that land use has changed over time from the use of vacant lands to urbanization and industrialization, and that these changes are closely linked to economic conditions in the southwestern United States.
 
Article
A substantial body of research generated in the design/behavior fields identifies an association between the design of the physical work environment and worker behavior outcomes. However, this association and its managerial implications have seldom been explored in the management literature. This paper asks whether this limited attention can be explained by the content of research produced in the design/behavior stream--that is, whether the variables and analytic techniques differ from those of interest in the management stream. The extent of research interest overlap is identified by comparing articles on corporate office environments that have appeared over the past 20 years in top design/behavior and management journals. Findings suggest that research interests are not mutually exclusive. While some differences were found, there are several similarities in terms of content emphasis within each dimension considered. This paper opens a new area of research in the fields of management and design/behavior and is the first empirical study on work environment research trends. Important contributions include the framework for categorizing workplace research, the unification of 20 years of fragmented research on corporate workplace environments into a data set available for further study, the identification of areas of research content overlap and divergence flags areas that have tended to be overlooked within each research stream, and suggestions for both potential areas of immediate scholarly cross fertilization and future directions for scholars seeking to establish bridges between these two research communities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Design as a social practice has defining characteristics which, when understood, have implications for design education. Case study material and field work in architectural offices provide evidence that design decision making is, in part, a social art. Designers and design students must learn to work creatively within this context of human interaction. The author lays out the principal characteristics of design problems in practice: design in the balance, countless voices, professional uncertainty, perpetual discovery, surprise endings, and matters of consequence. These characteristics are compared to those of design problems in school, demonstrating the significant differences between academic and office problems. Preliminary recommendations are given for bringing education and practice into greater correspondence with regard to the social art of design. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The reactions of 6 facilities managers and 151 office workers to underfloor task ventilation (TVN) were measured in 2 studies via self-report questionnaires. Facilities managers were very satisfied with the TVN system and said that they received fewer complaints about thermal and ventilation problems than with their previous overhead systems. Office workers also reported high levels of satisfaction with the TVN system. Two-thirds of workers said that the underfloor TVN system provided better temperature and ventilation conditions compared with the overhead system. A majority of workers also said that these conditions better supported their productivity and helped to maintain alertness at work. Underfloor TVN may improve thermal comfort, perceived air quality, and environmental satisfaction in offices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Using data from two large population based panel studies, The Longitudinal Study on Aging (LSOA) and the Survey of Asset and Health Dynamics of the Oldest Old (AHEAD), we describe the disability, housing features, and sociodemographic characteristics of Americans 70 years of age and older. These data clarify the specific physical functioning losses that occur in the older population, as well as some of the features of dwellings occupied by persons over 70 living in the community. The combination of information is used to suggest that special housing features would permit individuals to remain in their homes and promote their sense of independence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Developed a method to integrate the perceptions of the community and the perceptions of the architect with regard to the meaning and importance of the built environment. Members of the Oley, Pennsylvania, community were interviewed concerning the architectural characteristics they considered to be typical for historic stone farmhouses of the area. Results indicate that public perceptions of vernacular architecture focus on the architectural details that have particular local meaning; specific elements may be more or less representative of the cultural image of a building in a particular region. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents a mathematical rule which helps to achieve visual coherence by linking the small scale to the large scale. This work develops the results of C. Alexander (1998), derived from theoretical physics and biology. A scaling hierarchy is proposed based on natural objects having scale differentiations of factors about 2.7 from the largest down to the very small. Buildings satisfying this rule are subconsciously perceived as sharing essential qualities with natural and biological forms. As a consequence, they appear more comfortable psychologically. Scaling coherence is a feature of traditional and vernacular architectures, but is largely absent from contemporary architecture. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Postmodern thought had a dissolving and decomposing effect on the foundationalist theories of architecture and set practice free in the choice of function-form, form-meaning relations. During the last four decades some dissident narratives have enthralled many supporters. Contingent with these major transformations in architectural philosophy and practice, architectural education in general and design studios in particular have been affected. Some believe that in the face of such indeterminacy, non-predictability, and tolerated individualism, studio masters have lost their credibility and studio criticism has turned into a debate between the student and the master. It is quite clear that the nature of the critique has changed to a certain extent, but this drastic transforming and transferring of ideas and values has no impact on the content of architectural critique. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Processes of designing as monitored in reality are not necessarily congruent with what so-called rational design methods may lead one to expect. Design tasks are interpreted in dissimilar manners by different designers who are presented with identical materials. The materials of a given program define a solution space within which a designer detects relevant issues that are transformed into problems to be solved. Personal solution domains vary in their proximity to what might be called the core of a solution space; when they drift to the periphery, either irrelevant designs or unusually innovative ones emerge. Case examples illustrate such concepts as moral commitment, assigning priorities, and extraneous inputs. In educational settings the freedom of interpretation and criteria for validity of designs hinge on understanding and clarifying such questions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Fig. . Still: Marnie: the working-class mother in her house. Mark (Sean Connery) confronts Mrs Edgar (Louise Latham) over what happened to Marnie (Tippi Hedren, on the stairs) when she was a little girl. In the background, the dog and puppy painting.
Fig. . Still: To Catch a Thief: the (seemingly) haughty Hitchcock blonde and her scheming mother. As Francie (Grace Kelly) affects indifference to Robie (Cary Grant), Jessie Stevens (Jessie Royce Landis) eyes him appreciatively. Hughson (John Williams) on the right.
Article
Examines ways in which the designing of urban environments and surrounding communities has created new social ecologies (i.e., physical settings, social arrangements) that are susceptible to crime. It has been shown that criminals are extremely responsive to environmental cues. The spatial arrangement of building and people determines the nature of the opportunities for criminals to commit crime. Locational factors involved with criminals' selection of potential targets are described. A study by B. B. Brown (unpublished thesis) that investigated the characteristics of burglarized and nonburglarized homes in 4 areas—street signs, fences/barriers, physical traces, and visual access—is reviewed. Other studies have shown that architectural manipulations can alter a community's sense of social cohesion as well as establish physical impediments to criminal activity. Target hardening and social surveillance approaches to preventing crime are discussed in terms of their differential effects on younger vs more experienced criminals. Strategies for community building and for creating zones (e.g., single-family housing zones) where crime would be more infrequent are considered. It is noted that overzealous efforts could lead to negative and repressive social engineering practices that suppress individual freedoms while a community defends itself against crime. Trends in planning and land use in modern and postmodern urban environments are outlined. (41 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses research into the meaning of the home and its relationship to the physical form of housing in Britain, focusing on the ways in which the physical form of housing mediates and structures gender relations. This focus is illuminated by elements of the historical development of housing in Britain and an explanation of its relationship to changing ideologies and architectural norms. Typically, house design symbolizes accepted notions of the appropriate function of the home and preferred familial relations. These notions are in themselves important in structuring gender relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Much of the history of Tucson's landscape style relates more to the imported values and lifestyles of its immigrants than to any effective adaptational response to a desert environment. Until the 1950's, ideas of homes backset in green-lawned lots predominated, at least among the non-Hispanic population. In the 50's, the grass lawn tradition first began to be seriously challenged and desert landscaping became gradually but increasing accepted. However, it has not been until quite recently that the Tucson public has become aware of the water restrictions inherent in their desert environment. If the Tucson landscape is to continue toward adaptation to regional arid conditions, local residents will have to make concerted efforts to educate newcomers who have yet to learn to be desert-wise in their living. -Author
 
Article
24 Ss spent 20 minutes in a room that was painted half red and half blue, under each of 4 visual field (VF) conditions: completely red, completely blue, left red-right blue, and left blue-right red. During this time, EEG and EKG recordings were made. After the experiment, Ss' introspections were noted, and time estimation and galvanic skin response measures were obtained. Findings suggest no significant differences in the experience of a red and blue space at the level of the central nervous system (CNS). Unexpectedly, there was more alpha and theta activity in the red VF than in the blue VF. Chromatic strength (saturation), and not hue, appeared to be the key dimension affecting how exciting or calming a color was perceived to be. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined the structure of imagery utilization through identification and categorization of the sources of mental imagery, the types of images commonly used, and the anatomy of utilization. Possible relationships that may exist between source, type, and use of mental imagery in architectural design are presented. 16 architectural design graduate students and 13 professional architects were used to test for similarities and differences in conceptualization of relationships between source, type, and use of place and event imagery as applied to design inquiry. Place and event imagery had a powerful impact on the design process of practitioners. The design process of students differed from that of practitioners in that it reflected more abstract ideas and formal architectural principles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Assessed the market potential of transit villages using visual simulation techniques. The hypothesis was tested that people will accept higher densities in return for more amenities in a transit village setting. Photoslide images were created to simulate a walk through 4 neighborhoods with different density and amenity mixes. Based on the survey responses of over 170 residents of the Bay Area in San Francisco, California, the lowest density neighborhood was the most preferred. However, far more Ss liked the simulated transit village designed at 36 dwellings per acre with nicer amenities than liked the village designed at 24 dwellings per acre but with fewer community services. The use of tightly-controlled simulations allowed the authors to test and confirm the hypothesis that people are willing to trade off higher densities for more neighborhood amenities, up to a limit. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Explored whether and how demographic characteristics, gender orientation, and behaviors are related to spatial preferences in residential kitchens. 36 married couples in various life stages were interviewed in a protocol with 4 3-D scale models that simulated various residential kitchen, dining, and living spaces. Results provide support for a connection between physical space, indicated by kitchen openness, and social patterns, indicated by gender behaviors. Findings suggest a correspondence between gender behaviors and preference for multipurpose kitchen spaces, rather than between beliefs about gender and spatial preferences. Since housing trends are beginning to change, and since gender behaviors are undergoing change, house form and gender issues may become increasingly linked. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Explicated 2 phenomena, found occurring in organizations, "socio-physical congregation" and "socio-physical distancing." Data were collected through a 15-mo on-site naturalistic ethnographic study of an organization in the US. The members of the organization were divided into (1) "Techies," upper and lower (officers) and (2) "Admins," upper and lower. Based on these case studies, the understanding of the 2 concepts, their nature, their occurrence, the physical and social mechanism they employ, and their effects on the members of the organization were studied. The physical dimension of these 2 concepts, which was viewed as an integral part of these phenomena and of management of social relationships, was stressed. It is noted that physical and psychophysical distance were equally important if nor more so. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Conducted telephone interviews with 1,088 adult residents (aged 16 yrs and older) of west-central Los Angeles, California, and observed activity at 3 particularly dangerous bus stops to estimate the amount of bus crime and its impact on residents. The study was conducted by the Institute for Social Science Research at the University of California at Los Angeles. Ss were administered a questionnaire concerning bus usage, experience with crime, and attitudes toward bus crime prevention. The unique nature of the bus stop environment with regard to crime is discussed, and the importance of locational and environmental information when planning the development of bus stops is emphasized. Suggestions for future research on environmental correlates of public crime are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Compared 30 medical patients in a progressive care hospital unit with 30 similarly diagnosed patients in a traditional unit in the same hospital by use of behavioral observations and interviews, to determine if the progressive care unit affected perceptions of confinement, depression or anxiety, boredom, and pleasantness. The progressive care unit treated Ss, who were nonacutely ill, in a less hospitallike environment that contained daybeds, a dining room, patient pantry, and lounges. The comparison unit admitted the normal range of acutely and nonacutely ill surgical Ss into a traditional hospital environment lacking the amenities present in the progressive care unit. The results show that the Ss in the progressive care unit, in comparison with the Ss on the traditional floor, felt less confined, rated their environment as more pleasant and cheerful, were more positive, and used more noninstitutional associations in describing their environment; they felt that the hospital environment affected them in a more positive way. Progressive care Ss also exhibited more mobile, more social, and less passive behaviors than the comparison group. No significant differences were found in Ss' ratings of their nursing care, perceptions of boredom, slow passage of time, and depression originating from exposure to acutely ill neighbors. The positive impact of the unit on patient behaviors and perceptions is attributed to the increased behavioral choice provided by the deinstitutional spaces in the unit and the energizing effect which these spaces had on patient activity levels. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
changes in work patterns of knowledge-based organizations induce questions about how their workspaces should be planned in order to bechance work process efficiency. Contemporary workspace research indicates that the effects of space planning on interactive work are critical for work process outcomes in such organizations. while extensive research into the effects of space planning on encounters exits in various work settings, space planning in university research centers, where information consumption consultations among scientists is crucial for innovation, remains unquestioned. This paper reports the effects of space planning on information consumption through various modes of consultations in a university research center. spatial configuration, visibility, walking distance, perceived environmental quality, and space-use attractors, such as amenities, are shown to be significantly related to unprogrammed face-to-face consultations among scientists. Findings indicate that face-to-face consultations are not only predominant over those through electronic media but are also the highest priority information resources for scientists. It is in turn reported that overall spatial effects on scientists' consultations are over and above those of scientists' individual roles. This paper concludes with the suggestion that space planning is a potential precursor of innovation and its effects on information consumption need to be considered for facilitating innovation through space planning in university research centers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
A representative sample of Swedish women (aged 45–54 yrs) completed a questionnaire about distance to, contacts with, and care for parents, parents-in-law, adult children, and grandchildren. Most Ss had frequent contact with close relatives (i.e., those within the family circle). Even when generations lived apart, their most frequent ties were with the family circle, to whom Ss also turned for help and in times of crisis. Care was especially provided by middle-aged women, who looked after their grandchildren and helped elderly relatives with household chores. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Describes, justifies, and illustrates a conceptual framework that draws attention to the importance of rhetoric in planning. Defining rhetoric as persuasive discourse within and between interpretive communities, the author suggests that practicing planners are embedded in a complex rhetorical situation created by the interaction of 3 broad communities (politicians, lay advocates, and scientists) and that planners can and should actively mediate the discourse between those 3 communities. This framework is illustrated with the description of an effort to restructure the electric power industry in the Chicago area. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated 100 married men's and 100 married women's (aged 23–80 yrs) spatial preferences for 6 kitchen models. Half of the kitchens were open to the dining and family areas and could support many functions with 2 workers present, while half were more enclosed and multiuse areas were more limited. Connections among the social characteristics of Ss and the reported influence of the kitchen design features on their choice of 3-dimensional kitchen models were analyzed. Both married men and women more frequently chose models of open than of enclosed kitchens. Employed women chose open and multiuse kitchens more frequently than did nonemployed women. The numerous significant differences in the spatial preferences of men and women suggest that gender and other lifestyle indicators were predictors for kitchen spatial preferences as well as predictors for design features of kitchen space. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the plight of US cities from economic and architectural viewpoints. The need for national leadership to solve the problems of urban areas is examined. (7 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated the selective outmigration (OM) of residents of large new housing estates (NHEs) constructed in the former Federal Republic of Germany in the 1960s and 1970s. Data especially from surveys in Hamburg document the problems and help to assess the measures implemented. OM differed significantly from the social composition of the estate by income and years of schooling, confirming that predominantly middle-class residents left the estate. Moves out of large NHEs were selective, increases in the households' income fostered the propensity for such moves, and evaluations of the NHE changed toward more criticism and negative attitude. Leakage of the NHEs could only be reduced if applicants from lower status groups were no longer directed toward these estates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Suggests that postoccupancy evaluations (PEs) of designed environments have 2 explicit purposes: The generation of knowledge and the promotion of action intended to improve the quality of life. Most PEs favor one of these purposes because the processes and attitudes required for excellence in one purpose are in conflict with the other. The success of PEs in both areas rests with the ability of all participants to collaborate. The conditions necessary for the achievement of the 2nd purpose are discussed. Using literature on the sociology of knowledge, philosophy, and management science, it is argued that true collaboration requires risking professional biases for the purpose of developing a shared perspective between designers and clients. This involves questioning of the assumptions underlying professional competence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses use of color to add richness to the visual experience in urban areas. Color uses at scales ranging from the regional, city, and district to the building-group and the detail are considered. Color use in cities indicates that color can be employed for functional, relational, metaphorical, and emotional purposes; color photographs and associated descriptions illustrate this theme. Problems with the implementation of color schemes within the urban environment are addressed and the impact of modern architecture on use of color is discussed. Suggestions concerning the use by designers of color vocabularies in urban areas are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Compared sociobehavioral patterns in a large multipurpose center with those in a typical shopping center by observing personal characteristics and behavior of sedentary individuals at specified points and times and by recording the sequence of behavior on individual benches. Five age groups were observed and personal interviews were conducted with 54 elderly Ss. Both centers were found to perform a community role in that people, especially elderly people, were attracted to the centers for recreational purposes. Social activity was evident in both centers, although the intensity of use throughout the week and the characteristics of the sedentary population varied between the centers. Design considerations (i.e., central focus, sitting at key entrances, personal choice in sitting arrangements) are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated the effectiveness of planning principles designed to generate a sense of community in a medium-density planned neighborhood that invoked some specific social-mix targets for the residential population and that was developed in accordance with the principles of C. Alexander et al (1975). A postoccupancy evaluation of residents' status, attitudes, and behaviors suggests that the design of a successful environment for a socioeconomic population mix involves a delicate balance between privacy and community, which requires more careful design and subtle innovation than used in planning this neighborhood. (11 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Proposes an information-processing model of spatial orientation and way-finding in the designed environment. The model identifies a number of basic cognitive processes such as recognition of parts of an environment (e.g., landmarks); localization of reference points; and recall, selection, and sequencing of destinations (choices, decisions, and planning). A system for classifying environments is suggested as a heuristic in predicting the extent of spatial orientation and wayfinding problems. Specific and general methodological suggestions for postoccupancy evaluation are offered, such as evaluating types of environments rather than particular environments. (52 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated impacts of physical environment on local sentiments (e.g., fear of crime and neighborhood confidence) by conducting an average of 24.6 interviews in each of 66 Baltimore (Maryland) neighborhoods. 808 of all occupied street blocks in the neighborhood were assessed by trained teams of raters. The items assessed had high levels of interrater reliability and produced 2 independent physical dimensions: physical decay and nonresidential vs residential land use. Zero-order correlations of the decay parameter with perception of physical problems, fear, and confidence were high. Physical decay was not linked to attachment. When socioeconomic characteristics of the full set of neighborhoods were partialled, the links between physical environment and local sentiment were weakened considerably. In moderate-income neighborhoods, controlling for social class, physical decay was clearly tied to local sentiments. Results disconfirm some broad-gauged theories about neighborhood-level physical impacts that have been proposed, but they suggest that physical impacts are conditional (i.e., dependent on overall neighborhood context and how residents explain the causes of surrounding physical conditions). (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Analyzes the interrelations between housing and social policy concerning the mentally impaired. The State of Massachusetts attempted to develop collaborative programs between agencies with little assurance of adequate continuing support from the population and no policy or federal financial support. A model program to integrate housing production with mental health services was mounted that also guaranteed institutional beds for the chronic and most severely disabled. Since the virtual absence of accessible and affordable housing contributes to the plight of the deinstitutionalized mentally ill in the US, only a well orchestrated national social housing policy will enable deinstitutionalization to be fully operationalized. This may give priority to community housing for vulnerable families with children while reinstitutionalizing the disabled chronically ill. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined the advantages of providing a hand-held sketch map to supplement the existing signs in a hospital. The map was drawn using a microcomputer so that it could be easily modified and updated. Ease of navigation was assessed by monitoring the performance of 2 groups of volunteers (24 women) as they found 13 destinations on 2 floors of an outpatient's department. One group used only the existing wall signs and the other group used these in addition to the map. Although people without the map were faster, they retraced their steps more often to check that they were going in the right direction. Those using the map felt that planning their route was time well spent. During the debriefing, all who used the map said they found it helpful and half the group without the map thought it would have been useful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
[Read Online free: http://www.jstor.org/stable/43029026?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents] Reviews the literature on the meaning of "home" published between 1974 and 1989 in disciplines investigating person–environment relationships. The meaning of home has been defined mostly for traditional households living in single-family detached houses, although there is growing concern among recent studies about nontraditional populations and settings. The role of material aspects of housing and of societal forces in the production and reproduction of the meaning of home has been neglected in the literature. Exemplary studies from other areas of housing research that emphasize these macrosocietal forces are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied the importance of the nearby natural environment in the context of multiple-family housing by surveying 268 residents at 9 sites with a questionnaire about the kinds of natural areas near their home and the perceived adequacy of these facilities. Findings suggest that the availability and adequacy of nearby natural elements is of far greater significance than a characterization of "amenity" implies. The most important factors in neighborhood satisfaction were the availability of nearby trees, well-landscaped grounds, and places for taking walks. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews current research on home-based computer work and discusses implications for the planning and design of homes and neighborhoods. It is argued that the futurist vision of a home-based (i.e., "electronic") society is simplistic and that the experience of working at home varies according to such characteristics as gender, economic class, and employment status. Results are presented from a survey of 45 home workers and 9 office workers who use telecommunications and information technologies in the course of their work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
ANOVAtests for income and density with potential confounding variables.
Mean social interaction and space enclosure components for the whole sample. 
Correlation between space enclosure components and social interaction components.a
Article
The development of social contacts among neighbors is an important concern for many residents. Recent evidence suggests that social interactions occur relatively infrequently in contemporary urban neighborhoods. One intriguing hypothesis is that the frequency of social interaction in single-family neighborhoods is partially associated with the perception of a well-defined space in the front of the house. In order to evaluate this hypothesis, a quasi-experimental design was utilized and face-to-face structured interviews were conducted with residents in 110 single-family households in College Station, Texas. The results pointed to a small set of attributes of space enclosure components of single-family homes as potential moderators of patterns of social interaction. In particular, territorial markers, as a space enclosure component, predicted social interaction variables, while personal support was associated with almost all space enclosure components. The results of this study suggest that the traditional separation of house and yard design is artificial and that residents tend to view their house and yard as components of home. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Compared 137 staff and 100 inpatient responses to windows, views, and associated factors in hospitals. Data were gathered through the use of drawings, photographs, behavioral observation, and a 2-phase questionnaire. Patients were more negatively affected by poorly windowed rooms compared to staff. Paralyzed, immobile, visually impaired patients, and non-White patients were susceptible, particularly with respect to being more than 10 ft from a window for relatively long periods each day, as were those in rooms with screens obstructing part or all of the view. Staff persons who worked more than 40 hrs/wk, those who worked in occupational and physical therapy, or who commuted to work were associated with lessened well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined the desired spatial separation/connection between domestic and occupational activities at the scales of the neighborhood, housing layout, and the phenomenological meaning of home using 104 home workers. Ss expressed concern about the home becoming a total refuge or "prison." Neighborhood ambient qualities, such as quiet places to walk, and work-related services located close to the home provide opportunities to distance oneself from the home regularly during the day. Within the dwelling, the workspace should be a separate room, but not a detached structure. Architects, planners, and researchers need to reinterpret the concepts of public and private space, and the manifestation of those concepts, in light of new lifestyles and domestic/work arrangements. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Used case-study examinations of 14 passive solar and woodburning households to develop design guidelines and pattern language for passive solar homes. Questions that influence design criteria include the following: whether open-plan designs decrease privacy and increase conflict among family members; whether significant differences in thermal comfort cause space/time displacements of individual and family activities; how effectively woodburning systems are integrated with passive solar systems; and whether there are significant advantages and disadvantages among direct gain, greenhouse, and trombe wall systems. Implications for accommodation of household and individual behavior are discussed. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Since differences among the 3 major ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malays, and Indians) can never be eliminated, the government maintains multiculturalism as a national policy. Potential racial conflicts are partially preempted by avoiding the formation of minority enclaves in the public housing estates (PHEs). The first-come-first-served allocation rule acts to randomly distribute members of the 3 major races at all income levels. However, it does not prevent minority groups from applying for housing in areas in which they were traditionally concentrated. This led to the imposition of a 20% quota on Malays for new flats in every PHE. During resale the Malays could exceed their quota through purchasing old flats in selective new towns, leading to further restrictions on the race-mix at the apartment block level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Selected data on 1,332 employees' self-reported health problems are reported from 4 user surveys conducted in conventional, enclosed offices; non-air-conditioned open-plan offices; and air-conditioned open-plan offices. Results show a significantly higher incidence of reported headaches among staff working in open-plan offices compared with those in conventional offices. In the 2 air-conditioned open-plan offices studied, more women than men suffered from frequent headaches, eye problems, and upper respiratory-tract complaints. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined "public" space and "private" space with respect to women in Muslim societies. Specifically, the authors are interested in Islamic conceptualizations of society, people, and space as they affect notions of public and private spaces. Drawing on examples from Iran and India the authors delineate the intricacies of how the Islamic conceptualization affects the understanding and use of these 2 kinds of spaces, and how males and females experience differential levels of inclusion and exclusion in domestic "private" space and extra-domestic "public" space. It is argued that religion both limits the mobility of women in "male" public space and simultaneously provides the context, pretext, and opportunity for women to convene in "female" public space. In conclusion a call is made for renewed focus on religion as a way to facilitate a better conceptualization of women's interaction with public space in some non-western societies. A new model is presented for understanding and depicting the relationship between spaces that are "public" and "private" and "female" and "male". (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Explores what features of the physical environment contribute to a safe and welcoming elementary school environment, and whether these physical features have the same impact for students, teachers, and parents. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires from 34 staff persons, 131 parents, and 96 students in Grades 4 through 6. Focus group discussions held later clarified survey responses. Results show that the children, teachers, and parents all agreed that a clean, well-maintained building, student work displayed, the walls painted suitable colors, and an easily identifiable main office contributed to a welcoming environment in their school. Students, however, were more likely to disagree with the adults about the cleanliness of the school building, the particular color for the walls, and the amount of student work displayed. For example, students were more likely to indicate that the toilets and classroom were dirty, and therefore the school was not clean, while the teachers and adults focused on the cleanliness of the public areas. The majority of all users considered their school to be safe, but the teachers and students were more likely than the parents to mention that locked outside doors contributed to a sense of safety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Soundscape is defined as the overall sonic environment of an area. The soundscape of the South Fairfield urban neighborhood (Victoria, British Columbia, Canada) was investigated and regionalized objectively (by machine recording and analysis and expert listening) and subjectively (by means of a survey of 62 residents). Traffic was the most ubiquitous ground sound, had the strongest positive relationship with sound pressure level, occasionally masked figure or keynote sounds, and was usually negatively perceived. Natural sounds were most preferred. Results suggest that urban residents have low levels of awareness of soundscape and that the experience of modern urban life involves a high degree of sensory privation. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Urban planning is often thought of as a conscious collection of governmental choices made as to the shape and social structure of the city. Thoughtful and forward looking public policies are viewed as mapping out the future. Overlooked or understated in this estimation are the less purposeful influences on the urban morphology and city sociology. This paper examines one such influence, land tenure, by taking a comparative look at the residential development of Birmingham, England, and Baltimore, Maryland, between 1700 and 1900. Birmingham and Baltimore both housed their working class populations in densely-packed dwellings with shared party walls. And both produced and conveyed these dwellings as ninety-nine year leaseholds subject to ground rents. This paper will look at the influence of long-term leasehold tenure on the land, houses, investments and politics of Birmingham and Baltimore. We will see that the two cities share a shape distinctive to leasehold towns, and we will see that a different social attitude toward entailment in the two cities gave ninety-nine year leasehold tenure a different destiny.
 
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Previous research has revealed important differences in architectural evaluation between design professionals and the lay public, with such differences commonly assumed to be the result of professional education. However, few attempts have been made to determine the actual source of such differences, and there is little evidence that these are actually the result of training or education. This paper summarizes the findings of a study which set out to investigate these issues, specifically focusing on differences in architectural interpretation between the lay public, planning students, and practicing planning professionals, a group often neglected in studies of environmental aesthetics. These interpretations were examined utilizing multiple sorting and ranking procedures, with the respondents asked to son fifteen examples of contemporary architecture according to criteria of their own choice. The results revealed both commonalities and differences in evaluation between the various groups, with the differences particularly pronounced between planners and the public. The results lend support to the view that education is a key factor in the acquisition of aesthetic values and also suggest that training encourages homogeneity of aesthetic tastes. This study thus corroborates and expands the findings of studies by other researchers by suggesting that there are significant relationships between expertise, attitude, and interpretation which may have important implications for planning practice.
 
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The focus of this article is upon the cognitive sources of knowledge that can be used in the architectural decision-making process, and upon the ethical positions that can be taken to justify their use. The educational implications of the relationship between these two spheres is examined in a study of the reported design behavior and attitudes of architecture students. The results indicate that the students relied predominantly on their own experiences, feelings and ideas. This suggests that the education process should (a) strengthen the ability to use external, objective information; (b) consciously promulgate a teleological ethical approach to design that requires that the justification decisions be the value of their results for the users.
 
Top-cited authors
Carole Despres
  • Laval University
Ralph B. Taylor
  • Temple University
Peter Somerville
  • University of Lincoln
Maria Vittoria Giuliani
  • Italian National Research Council
Tommy Gärling
  • University of Gothenburg