Journal of Applied Psychology

Published by American Psychological Association
Online ISSN: 1939-1854
Print ISSN: 0021-9010
Much has been stated in the popular press about the effects of the events of 9/11/01 on employee attitudes about work. This study examined a large sample (N = 70,671) of employees of a multinational manufacturer whose annual employee survey data collection was interrupted by the events. After demonstrating measurement equivalence across time and countries, changes in attitudes pre- and post-9/11 were examined. Only negligible differences were found in Job Satisfaction, Supervisor Evaluation, Stress, and Organizational Commitment to Diversity for U.S. employees or for employees worldwide. Demographic differences in response to events were not found. Implications for understanding effects of stressful external events on employee perceptions of work are discussed.
Reports an error in "Why does service with a smile make employees happy? A social interaction model" by Eugene Kim and David J. Yoon (Journal of Applied Psychology, 2012[Sep], Vol 97[5], 1059-1067). The M value for the 5th variable in Table 1 is incorrect. The correct M value is provided in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2012-18367-001.) Drawing on the social interaction model, we examine the mediating role that the customer's display of positive emotions plays on the relationship between the employee's display of positive emotions and the employee's positive mood. We also examine the moderating role that the customer's personality traits-agreeableness, extraversion, and emotional stability-play on the relationship between the employee's display of positive emotions and the customer's display of positive emotions. The results show that the customer's display of positive emotions mediates the relationship between the employee's display of positive emotions and the employee's positive mood. In addition, the customer's personality traits moderate the relationship between the employee's display of positive emotions and the customer's display of positive emotions. The customer's display of positive emotions depends less on the employee's display of positive emotions when the customer has high levels of agreeableness and emotional stability than when the customer has low levels of agreeableness and emotional stability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
In many ways, leadership is a phenomenon that is ideally suited for new and inventive research methods. For researchers who seek to reliably study and systematically compare linguistically based elements of the leadership relationship, computerized content analysis has the potential to supplement, extend, and qualify existing leadership theory and practice. Through an examination of President Bush's rhetoric and the media coverage before and after the crisis of 9/11. the authors explore how elements of the President's speeches changed in response to the post-crisis environment. Using this example, the authors illustrate the process of computerized content analysis and many of its strengths and limitations, with the hope of facilitating future leadership research that uses this approach to explore important contextual and symbolic elements of the leadership relationship.
This study focuses on factors that contribute to abusive supervision, one form of nonphysical aggression, and the results of such abuse on subordinates and their family members. Using a "kick the dog" metaphor (As Marcus-Newhall, Pedersen, Carlson, and Miller (2000) state, this is a "commonly used anecdote to illustrate displaced aggression. . .a man is berated by his boss but does not retaliate because he fears losing his job. Hours later, when he arrives home to the greeting barks of his dog he responds by kicking it," p. 670), the authors investigated whether abusive supervision may be the result of a supervisor's displeasure with his or her organization. Using a sample of 210 supervisors, their subordinates, and the subordinates' family members or partners, the authors hypothesized that supervisors' reports of psychological contract violations, moderated by hostile attribution bias, would be associated with subordinates' perceptions of abusive supervision. In turn, the authors hypothesized that abused subordinates' family members would report sustained negative affect and negative evaluations directed toward them in the home. The hypotheses were supported.
The Conservation of Resources (COR) model of burnout (Hobfoll & Freedy, 1993) suggests that resources are differentially related to burnout dimensions. In this paper, I provide a meta-analysis of the social support and burnout literature, finding that social support, as a resource, did not yield different relationships across the 3 burnout dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment), challenging the COR model. However, when considering the source of the social support (work vs. nonwork) as a moderator, I found that work-related sources of social support, because of their more direct relationship to work demands, were more closely associated with exhaustion than depersonalization or personal accomplishment; the opposite pattern was found with nonwork sources of support. I discuss the implications of this finding in relation to the COR model and suggest future research directions to clarify the relationship between resources and burnout dimensions.
Descriptive Statistics of Study Variables in 2000 (SJT Administered in Video-Based Format) 
In this study, the authors examined whether video-based situational judgment tests (SJTs) have higher predictive validity than written SJTs (keeping verbal content constant). The samples consisted of 1,159 students who completed a video-based version of an SJT and 1,750 students who completed the same SJT in a written format. The study was conducted in a high stakes testing context. The video-based version of an interpersonally oriented SJT had a lower correlation with cognitive ability than did the written version. It also had higher predictive and incremental validity for predicting interpersonally oriented criteria than did the written version. In this high stakes context, applicants also reacted relatively favorably to the SJTs, although there was no significant difference in face validity between the formats. These findings suggest that SJT format changes be made with caution and that validation evidence is needed when changes are proposed.
Surface acting and deep acting with customers are strategies for service performance, but evidence for their effectiveness is limited and mixed. We propose that deep acting is an effective strategy for most employees, whereas surface acting's effect on performance effectiveness depends on employee extraversion. In Study 1, restaurant servers who tended to use deep acting exceeded their customers' expectations and had greater financial gains (i.e., tips) regardless of extraversion, whereas surface acting improved tips only for extraverts, not for introverts. In Study 2, a call center simulation, deep acting improved emotional performance and increased the likelihood of extrarole service behavior beyond the direct and interactive effects of extraversion and other Big Five traits. In contrast, surface acting reduced emotional performance for introverts and not extraverts, but only during the extrarole interaction. We discuss implications for incorporating traits into emotional labor research and practice.
The concept of dispositional resistance to change has been introduced in a series of exploratory and confirmatory analyses through which the validity of the Resistance to Change (RTC) Scale has been established (S. Oreg, 2003). However, the vast majority of participants with whom the scale was validated were from the United States. The purpose of the present work was to examine the meaningfulness of the construct and the validity of the scale across nations. Measurement equivalence analyses of data from 17 countries, representing 13 languages and 4 continents, confirmed the cross-national validity of the scale. Equivalent patterns of relationships between personal values and RTC across samples extend the nomological net of the construct and provide further evidence that dispositional resistance to change holds equivalent meanings across nations.
At the direction of the Inter-Society Color Council, a problem committee undertook the development of a test which would indicate the degree of color aptitude and color blindness in determining the suitability of workers for fields which require color matching. To deal with color aptitude and color blindness in the same test, two reds were chosen (a bluish red, Munsell 6 RP/5, and a yellowish red, Munsell 5 R/5.4). From both of these, a 40-step saturation series (from each to neutral grey) was constructed. Final tests consisted of duplicate sets of 40 chips each, one of which was permanently mounted and the other (loose series) was presented in haphazard arrangement for matching with the first. Thirty minutes was set as a time limit; the score per match and the score per minute could thus be calculated. The authors conclude that the test affords a set of individual scores which are sufficiently well distributed to establish "color matching aptitude" ratings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
(continued ) 
The authors conducted a content analysis of all articles published in the Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology from January 1963 to May 2007 (N = 5,780) to identify the relative attention devoted to each of 15 broad topical areas and 50 more specific subareas in the field of industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology. Results revealed that (a) some areas have become more (or less) popular over time, whereas others have not changed much, and (b) there are some lagged relationships between important societal issues that involve people and work settings (i.e., human-capital trends) and I-O psychology research that addresses them. Also, much I-O psychology research does not address human-capital trends. Extrapolating results from the past 45 years to the next decade suggests that the field of I-O psychology is not likely to become more visible or more relevant to society at large or to achieve the lofty goals it has set for itself unless researchers, practitioners, universities, and professional organizations implement significant changes. In the aggregate, the changes address the broad challenge of how to narrow the academic-practitioner divide.
B. Weiner's (1985) attribution model of achievement motivation and emotion was used as a theoretical foundation to examine the mediating processes between involuntary job loss and employment status. Seventy-nine manufacturing employees were surveyed 1 month prior to permanent displacement, and finding another job was assessed 18 months later. Covariance structure analysis was used to evaluate goodness of fit and to compare the model to alternative measurement and structural representations. Discriminant validity analyses indicated that the causal dimensions underlying the model were not independent. Model predictions were supported in that internal and stable attributions for job loss negatively influenced finding another job through expectations for re-employment. These predictions held up even after controlling for influential unmeasured variables. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
This study examined P. L. Ackerman's (1988) model of skill acquisition within an applied setting. Differences were examined between jobs on the basis of task consistency: changes in performance variability across experience, learning curves, and stability of ability-performance correlations across experience. Results showed the degree of task consistency influenced the shape of learning curves, with jobs composed of primarily consistent tasks improving more rapidly and reaching asymptote sooner. In addition, trends in ability-performance correlations were moderated by the degree of task consistency within ajob. Specifically, forjobs with primarily consistent tasks, general cognitive ability best predicted early performance whereas psychomotor ability best predicted later performance. In contrast, general cognitive ability was the strongest predictor across experience for jobs with primarily inconsistent tasks.
In an article in the Journal of Applied Psychology, Vecchio (1990) purported to test cognitive resource theory (Fiedler, 1986; Fiedler & Garcia, 1987). We present evidence that Vecchio's article seriously misrepresented previous work on cognitive resource theory and also contained several flaws in methodology that call into question his conclusions regarding the validity of cognitive resource theory.
Sampling distributions of r for N 30 as a function of (population correlation). 
This study documents how the use of A. I. Huffcutt & W. A. Arthur's (1995) sample adjusted meta-analytic deviancy (SAMD) statistic for identifying outliers in correlational meta-analyses results in inaccuracies in mean r. Monte Carlo simulations found that use of the SAMD resulted in the overidentification of small relative to large correlations as outliers. Furthermore, this tendency to overidentify small correlations was found to increase as the magnitude of the population correlation increased and resulted in mean rs that overestimated the population correlation. The implications for meta-analysts are discussed, and 2 possible solutions are offered.
Voluntary attendance at an interview coaching session was positively related to situational interview performance, controlling for job knowledge, motivation to do well, race, and sex of 213 candidates applying for promotion into several police and fire department jobs in a large city. Discrete preparation strategies (e.g., participation in study groups, participation in role-playing) were related to participation in coaching and also were related to interview performance beyond what could be accounted for by coaching participation, shedding some light on the potential efficacy of specific preparation strategies for enhancing success in situational interviews. Most notably, coaching attendance and preparation by interviewees were positively associated with a tendency to use strategies in the interview that enhanced the organization of interviewees' answers, and this organization was positively associated with performance in the interview.
A group of 47 male and 48 female judges rated 2824 personality statements for social desirability using a 9-point rating scale. Another group of 110 male and 111 female Ss described themselves in terms of the same set of 2824 statements by answering each "true" or "false." The correlation between probability of a "true" response and social desirability scale value for the combined sex groups was .892. The distribution of the social desirability scale values of the 2824 statements was distinctly bimodal. These results are in accord with another large-scale study in which 1647 personality statements were investigated. In view of the large number of personality statements involved in these 2 studies, it is suggested that a correlation of .90 between probability of endorsement and social desirability scale value and a bimodal distribution of the scale values of personality statements may be characteristic of the population.
Comments on the original article "The impact of chief executive officer personality on top management team dynamics: One mechanism by which leadership affects organizational performance", by R. S. Peterson et al.. This comment illustrates how small sample sizes, when combined with many statistical tests, can generate unstable parameter estimates and invalid inferences. Although statistical power for 1 test in a small-sample context is too low, the experimentwise power is often high when many tests are conducted, thus leading to Type I errors that will not replicate when retested. This comment's results show how radically the specific conclusions and inferences in R. S. Peterson, D. B. Smith, P. V. Martorana, and P. D. Owens's (2003) study changed with the inclusion or exclusion of 1 data point. When a more appropriate experimentwise statistical test was applied, the instability in the inferences was eliminated, but all the inferences become nonsignificant, thus changing the positive conclusions.
J. B. Miner and N. S. Raju (2004) contended that there are additional studies that compare the risk propensity of entrepreneurs and managers, which, when added to the data from W. H. Stewart and P. L. Roth (2001) and meta-analyzed, produce relationships between risk propensity and entrepreneurial status that are substantially weaker than previously believed. This conclusion was evaluated by identifying and examining methodological problems associated with their inclusion of effect sizes (i.e., ds) from studies with variables not relevant to research questions, dependent samples, extraneous variance in outcome variables, and confusion of constructs. When these methodological issues were addressed, a new meta-analysis indicated an overall conclusion consistent with that of Stewart and Roth, but the results varied according to instrumentation, particularly objective instrumentation (observed d = 0.31) versus the Miner Sentence Completion Scale-Form T (observed d = -0.35).
B. M. Meglino and M. A. Korsgaard (2004). argued that rational self-interest varies across individuals and negatively relates to other orientation (OO). OO moderates effects of job characteristics on attitudes, motivation, and helping. Viewing organizations as social dilemmas in which employees face a mixture of competitive and cooperative incentives, the author argues in this article that strength of self-interest links to self-concern (SC), which should be distinguished from OO. SC and OO are orthogonal and unipolar. Implications are that some propositions by Meglino and Korsgaard need to be rewritten in terms of SC or OO, and that SC is predicted to moderate effects of self-related variables (e.g., job characteristics), whereas OO might moderate effects of social variables (e.g., team climate) on satisfaction, motivation, and helping. This also implies that when both SC and OO are strong (weak), individual- and group-level constructs are both (in)valid predictors of satisfaction, motivation, and helping.
The authors respond to C. K. W. De Dreu's (2006) critique of their article (B. M. Meglino & M. A. Korsgaard, 2004) published in the special section on Theoretical Models and Conceptual Analyses of the Journal of Applied Psychology. They maintain that De Dreu misinterprets their definitions and the psychological processes they addressed and thus raises a number of issues that are not relevant to their model. Meglino and Korsgaard's model focuses on the distinction between rational self-interest and other orientation, whereas the approach taken by De Dreu focuses on the distinction between rational self-interest and collective rationality. In this response, the authors clarify this distinction, address discrepancies between these two approaches, consider the effect of goals and rationality on other orientated behavior, and suggest directions for future research.
Reports an error in "Conscientiousness and reactions to psychological contract breach: A longitudinal field study" by Karin A. Orvis, Nicole M. Dudley and Jose M. Cortina (Journal of Applied Psychology, 2008[Sep], Vol 93[5], 1183-1193). Six correlations in Table 1 on page 1187 are incorrectly reported. A corrected table is presented in the erratum, with corrected values in bold. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2008-12803-015.) The authors examined the role of employee conscientiousness as a moderator of the relationships between psychological contract breach and employee behavioral and attitudinal reactions to the breach. They collected data from 106 newly hired employees within the 1st month of employment (Time 1), 3 months later (Time 2), and 8 months after Time 1 (Time 3) to observe the progression through contract development, breach, and reaction. Results suggest that conscientiousness is a significant moderator for 4 of the 5 contract breach-employee reaction relationships examined (turnover intentions, organizational loyalty, job satisfaction, and 1 of 2 facets of job performance). Specifically, employees who were lower in conscientiousness had more negative reactions to perceived breach with respect to turnover intentions, organizational loyalty, and job satisfaction. In contrast, employees who were higher in conscientiousness reduced their job performance to a greater degree in response to contract breach. Future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
We respond to H. Blanton et al.'s critique of J. C. Ziegert & P. J. Hanges and illustrate that their criticisms regarding our study are based on very weak evidence. In this rebuttal, we highlight the appropriateness of our manipulation as well as present reanalyses that illustrate the predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test. In particular, we illustrate that the Implicit Association Test is related to discriminatory behavior (a) after one eliminates potential outliers using appropriate multivariate methods, (b) across conditions after one controls for the manipulation, (c) when one just examines Black applicants, and (d) after one controls for explicit attitudes. Thus, in this rebuttal, we not only reaffirm the original findings of J. C. Ziegert and P. J. Hanges (2005) but we extend them to illustrate the broader contexts in which the Implicit Association Test is related to discriminatory behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
We respond to a critique by H. Blanton et al., challenging our previous work demonstrating that an Implicit Association Test designed to assess implicit prejudice reliably predicts intergroup discrimination. We outline 3 flawed aspects of the critique. First, we note that claims that an outlier should be eliminated from the original data set are unfounded, and even with the elimination of this outlier, the conclusions of our original work are still strongly supported by the data. Second, we explain that concerns about interjudge reliability are specious and that considerable data support the validity of the judges' observations reported in our original study. Third, we note that claims of a disconnect between Implicit Association Test scores (argued to show negative bias against Blacks) and behavioral measures (argued to show pro-Black bias) are inappropriate because they neglect the relativistic nature of the key measures. Implications for the relation between implicit attitudes and behavior, for the law, and for future work on implicit attitudes are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
The rebuttals offered by the authors whose data we reanalyzed -A. R. McConnell & J. M. Leibold; J. C. Ziegert & P. J. Hanges-address secondary issues that do not alter our primary message: The evidence for the predictive validity of the race Implicit Association Test is too fragile to support the strong claims that have been made about the pervasiveness of prejudice and the linkages between Implicit Association Test scores and discriminatory behavior. Greater caution in both the legal and scientific communities is warranted. Most importantly, scientific research on implicit bias needs greater transparency and willingness to open raw data to critical scrutiny, not greater trust and deference among researchers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
Reports an error in "Retesting after initial failure, coaching rumors, and warnings against faking in online personality measures for selection" by Richard N. Landers, Paul R. Sackett and Kathy A. Tuzinski (Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 96, No. 1, pp. 201-210). Some of the wording in the (b) and (c) descriptions of the caption to Figure 1 was printed incorrectly. The corrected caption is provided in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2010-16978-001.) A large sample (N = 32,311) of applicants for managerial positions at a nationwide retailer completed a personality test online over the course of several years. A new type of faking was observed in their responses: the use of only extreme responses (all 1s and 5s), which is labeled blatant extreme responding (BER). An increase in BER over time was observed for internal but not for external applicants, suggesting the presence of a coaching rumor. A subsample of internal applicants chose to retake the test after initial failure. These individuals showed substantial increases in both test scores and rate of BER, with higher prevalence of faking at retest than the main sample. To reduce faking, an interactive warning was implemented one year after the initial administration. Differing patterns of faking were observed before and after warnings, allowing for an examination of warning effectiveness in the presence of a coaching rumor. Results suggest that faking increases over time as the coaching rumor spreads but that warnings deter this spread. Evidence suggests that faking is indeed a problem in real-world selection settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Reports an error in "Self-gain or self-regulation impairment? Tests of competing explanations of the supervisor abuse and employee deviance relationship through perceptions of distributive justice" by Stefan Thau and Marie S. Mitchell (Journal of Applied Psychology, , , np). The note to Table 10 on p. 1024 inadvertently referred to PYM as the path from ego depletion to deviant employee behaviors. The note instead should have referred to PYM as the path from intrusive thoughts to deviant employee behaviors. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2010-16976-001.) Two competing explanations for deviant employee responses to supervisor abuse are tested. A self-gain view is compared with a self-regulation impairment view. The self-gain view suggests that distributive justice (DJ) will weaken the abusive supervision-employee deviance relationship, as perceptions of fair rewards offset costs of abuse. Conversely, the self-regulation impairment view suggests that DJ will strengthen the relationship, as experiencing abuse drains self-resources needed to maintain appropriate behavior, and this effect intensifies when employees receive inconsistent information about their organizational membership (fair outcomes). Three field studies using different samples, measures, and designs support the self-regulation impairment view. Two studies found that the Abusive Supervision × DJ interaction was mediated by self-regulation impairment variables (ego depletion and intrusive thoughts). Implications for theory and research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Means, Standard Deviations, and Standardized Differences (d) of Study Variables by Subgroup 
Mean FYGPA by subgroup at each predictor scale score. GPA grade-point average; M-F male-female; W-B White-Black; W-H White-Hispanic. 
Research on the predictive bias of cognitive tests has generally shown (a) no slope effects and (b) small intercept effects, typically favoring the minority group. Aguinis, Culpepper, and Pierce (2010) simulated data and demonstrated that statistical artifacts may have led to a lack of power to detect slope differences and an overestimate of the size of the intercept effect. In response to Aguinis et al.'s (2010) call for a revival of predictive bias research, we used data on over 475,000 students entering college between 2006 and 2008 to estimate slope and intercept differences in the college admissions context. Corrections for statistical artifacts were applied. Furthermore, plotting of regression lines supplemented traditional analyses of predictive bias to offer additional evidence of the form and extent to which predictive bias exists. Congruent with previous research on bias of cognitive tests, using SAT scores in conjunction with high school grade-point average to predict first-year grade-point average revealed minimal differential prediction (ΔRintercept2 ranged from .004 to .032 and ΔRslope2 ranged from .001 to .013 depending on the corrections applied and comparison groups examined). We found, on the basis of regression plots, that college grades were consistently overpredicted for Black and Hispanic students and underpredicted for female students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Reports an error in "A taxonomy of effect size measures for the differential functioning of items and scales" by Adam W. Meade (Journal of Applied Psychology, 2010[Jul], Vol 95[4], 728-743). There was an error in Formula 6 on page 731 for the pooled standard deviation of the ESSD index. The correct formula is given in the erratum. Related to this, in Table 8 on page 739, the ETSSD statistic should have been .094 for the cross cultural comparison and .001 for the Administration Format example. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2010-13313-009.) Much progress has been made in the past 2 decades with respect to methods of identifying measurement invariance or a lack thereof. Until now, the focus of these efforts has been to establish criteria for statistical significance in items and scales that function differently across samples. The power associated with tests of differential functioning, as with all significance tests, is affected by sample size and other considerations. Additionally, statistical significance need not imply practical importance. There is a strong need as such for meaningful effect size indicators to describe the extent to which items and scales function differently. Recently developed effect size measures show promise for providing a metric to describe the amount of differential functioning present between groups. Expanding upon recent developments, this article presents a taxonomy of potential differential functioning effect sizes; several new indices of item and scale differential functioning effect size are proposed and illustrated with 2 data samples. Software created for computing these indices and graphing item- and scale-level differential functioning is described. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Correlations of Model Characteristics With RMSEA-P 
Reports an error in "Decomposing model fit: Measurement vs. theory in organizational research using latent variables" by Ernest H. O'Boyle Jr. and Larry J. Williams (Journal of Applied Psychology, 2011[Jan], Vol 96[1], 1-12). In this article the sample size of Study 18 in Table 1 (p. 6) is incorrect. The sample size for Study 18 should have been 173, not 161. This changes the RMSEA-P and confidence interval from what were originally reported as .083 [.000, .124] to .079 [.000, .119]. Thus, Study 18 should have been denoted with a superscript a, indicating that it met the .08 threshold of path model fit. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2010-17085-001.) Goodness-of-fit indices have an important role in structural equation model evaluation. However, some studies (e.g., McDonald & Ho, 2002; Mulaik et al., 1989) have raised concerns that overall fit values primarily reflect the fit of the measurement model, and this allows significant misspecification among the latent variables to be masked. Using an approach analogous to Anderson and Gerbing's (1988) 2-step approach that isolates the measurement component of a composite model, we present the rationale and evidence for the root mean square error of approximation of the path component (RMSEA-P), a relatively new fit index that isolates the path component. We reviewed 5 of the top organizational behavior/human resources journals from 2001 to 2008 and identified 43 studies using structural equation modeling in which the overall composite model could be decomposed into its measurement and path components. The RMSEA-P for these studies generally showed unfavorable results, with many values failing to meet commonly accepted standards. Incorporating the RMSEA-P and its confidence interval into James, Mulaik, and Brett's (1982) framework for model testing, we provide evidence that many of the conclusions based upon the goodness of fit of the overall model may be inaccurate. We conclude with recommendations for how researchers can focus more attention on path models and latent variable relations and improve their model evaluation process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
Reports an error in "Want a tip? Service performance as a function of emotion regulation and extraversion" by Nai-Wen Chi, Alicia A. Grandey, Jennifer A. Diamond and Kathleen Royer Krimmel (Journal of Applied Psychology, 2011[Nov], Vol 96[6], 1337-1346). In this article the affiliation of Nai-Wen Chi was listed incorrectly in the author note. The correct affiliation is Institute of Human Resource Management, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Taiwan. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2011-07063-001.) Surface acting and deep acting with customers are strategies for service performance, but evidence for their effectiveness is limited and mixed. We propose that deep acting is an effective strategy for most employees, whereas surface acting's effect on performance effectiveness depends on employee extraversion. In Study 1, restaurant servers who tended to use deep acting exceeded their customers' expectations and had greater financial gains (i.e., tips) regardless of extraversion, whereas surface acting improved tips only for extraverts, not for introverts. In Study 2, a call center simulation, deep acting improved emotional performance and increased the likelihood of extrarole service behavior beyond the direct and interactive effects of extraversion and other Big Five traits. In contrast, surface acting reduced emotional performance for introverts and not extraverts, but only during the extrarole interaction. We discuss implications for incorporating traits into emotional labor research and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Reports an error in "Unlocking the black box: Exploring the link between high-performance work systems and performance" by Jake G. Messersmith, Pankaj C. Patel and David P. Lepak (Journal of Applied Psychology, 2011[Nov], Vol 96[6], 1105-1118). In this article some information concerning the data collection process was omitted from the original published version. All online versions have now been corrected. The corrected version of the article is available here: (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2011-15906-001.) With a growing body of literature linking systems of high-performance work practices to organizational performance outcomes, recent research has pushed for examinations of the underlying mechanisms that enable this connection. In this study, based on a large sample of Welsh public-sector employees, we explored the role of several individual-level attitudinal factors-job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and psychological empowerment-as well as organizational citizenship behaviors that have the potential to provide insights into how human resource systems influence the performance of organizational units. The results support a unit-level path model, such that department-level, high-performance work system utilization is associated with enhanced levels of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and psychological empowerment. In turn, these attitudinal variables were found to be positively linked to enhanced organizational citizenship behaviors, which are further related to a second-order construct measuring departmental performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Reports an error in "Understanding and Estimating the Power to Detect Cross-Level Interaction Effects in Multilevel Modeling" by John E. Mathieu, Herman Aguinis, Steven A. Culpepper and Gilad Chen (Journal of Applied Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, May 14, 2012, np). The article contained production-related errors in a number of the statistical symbols presented in Table 1, the Power in Multilevel Designs section, the Simulation Study section, and the Appendix. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2012-12670-001.) Cross-level interaction effects lie at the heart of multilevel contingency and interactionism theories. Researchers have often lamented the difficulty of finding hypothesized cross-level interactions, and to date there has been no means by which the statistical power of such tests can be evaluated. We develop such a method and report results of a large-scale simulation study, verify its accuracy, and provide evidence regarding the relative importance of factors that affect the power to detect cross-level interactions. Our results indicate that the statistical power to detect cross-level interactions is determined primarily by the magnitude of the cross-level interaction, the standard deviation of lower level slopes, and the lower and upper level sample sizes. We provide a Monte Carlo tool that enables researchers to a priori design more efficient multilevel studies and provides a means by which they can better interpret potential explanations for nonsignificant results. We conclude with recommendations for how scholars might design future multilevel studies that will lead to more accurate inferences regarding the presence of cross-level interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Examination of the Van Iddekinge, Roth, Raymark, and Odle-Dusseau (2012) meta-analysis reveals a number of problems. They meta-analyzed a partial database of integrity test validities. An examination of their coded database revealed that measures coded as integrity tests and meta-analyzed as such often included scales that are not in fact integrity tests. In addition, there were important deficiencies in their analytic approach relating to application of range restriction corrections and identification of moderators. We found the absence of fully hierarchical moderator analyses to be a serious weakness. We also explain why empirical comparisons between test publishers versus non-publishers cannot unambiguously lead to inferences of bias, as alternate explanations are possible, even likely. In light of the problems identified, it appears that the conclusions about integrity test validity drawn by Van Iddekinge et al. cannot be considered accurate or reliable.
Reports an error in "Beyond shared perceptions of trust and monitoring in teams: Implications of asymmetry and dissensus" by Bart A. De Jong and Kurt T. Dirks (Journal of Applied Psychology, 2012[Mar], Vol 97[2], 391-406). The subscript under Table 7 should have stated that the significance tests were one-tailed, just like the tests summarized in Table 6. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2011-29366-001.) Past research has implicitly assumed that only mean levels of trust and monitoring in teams are critical for explaining their interrelations and their relationships with team performance. In this article, the authors argue that it is equally important to consider the dispersion in trust and monitoring that exists within teams. The authors introduce "trust asymmetry" and "monitoring dissensus" as critical dispersion properties of trust and monitoring and hypothesize that these moderate the relationships between mean monitoring, mean trust, and team performance. Data from a cross-lagged panel study and a partially lagged study support the hypotheses. The first study also offered support for an integrative model that includes mean and dispersion levels of both trust and monitoring. Overall, the studies provide a comprehensive and clear picture of how trust and monitoring emerge and function at the team level via mean and dispersion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Reports an error in "Impact of high-performance work systems on individual- and branch-level performance: Test of a multilevel model of intermediate linkages" by Samuel Aryee, Fred O. Walumbwa, Emmanuel Y. M. Seidu and Lilian E. Otaye (Journal of Applied Psychology, 2012[Mar], Vol 97[2], 287-300). The bootstrapping confidence intervals (p. 295) are incorrect. The correct bootstrapping confidence intervals are provided in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2011-22469-001.) We proposed and tested a multilevel model, underpinned by empowerment theory, that examines the processes linking high-performance work systems (HPWS) and performance outcomes at the individual and organizational levels of analyses. Data were obtained from 37 branches of 2 banking institutions in Ghana. Results of hierarchical regression analysis revealed that branch-level HPWS relates to empowerment climate. Additionally, results of hierarchical linear modeling that examined the hypothesized cross-level relationships revealed 3 salient findings. First, experienced HPWS and empowerment climate partially mediate the influence of branch-level HPWS on psychological empowerment. Second, psychological empowerment partially mediates the influence of empowerment climate and experienced HPWS on service performance. Third, service orientation moderates the psychological empowerment-service performance relationship such that the relationship is stronger for those high rather than low in service orientation. Last, ordinary least squares regression results revealed that branch-level HPWS influences branch-level market performance through cross-level and individual-level influences on service performance that emerges at the branch level as aggregated service performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
We clear up a number of misconceptions from the critiques of our meta-analysis (Van Iddekinge, Roth, Raymark, & Odle-Dusseau, 2012). We reiterate that our research question focused on the criterion-related validity of integrity tests for predicting individual work behavior and that our inclusion criteria flowed from this question. We also reviewed the primary studies we could access from Ones, Viswesvaran, and Schmidt's (1993) meta-analysis of integrity tests and found that only about 30% of the studies met our inclusion criteria. Further, analyses of some of the types of studies we had to exclude revealed potentially inflated validity estimates (e.g., corrected validities as high as .80 for polygraph studies). We also discuss our experience trying to obtain primary studies and other information from authors of Harris et al. (2012) and Ones, Viswesvaran, and Schmidt (2012). In addition, we address concerns raised about certain decisions we made and values we used, and we demonstrate how such concerns would have little or no effect on our results or conclusions. Finally, we discuss some other misconceptions about our meta-analysis, as well as some divergent views about the integrity test literature in general. Overall, we stand by our research question, methods, and results, which suggest that the validity of integrity tests for criteria such as job performance and counterproductive work behavior is weaker than the authors of the critiques appear to believe.
Reports an error in "Just the Two of Us: Misalignment of Theory and Methods in Examining Dyadic Phenomena" by Dina V. Krasikova and James M. LeBreton (Journal of Applied Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Apr 9, 2012, np). In the article, the numbers from the left side of the Figure 4 are missing. The correct version is provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2012-09126-001.) Many organizational phenomena such as leader-member exchange, mentoring, coaching, interpersonal conflict and cooperation, negotiation, performance appraisal, and the employment interview involve inherently dyadic relationships and interactions. Even when theories explicitly acknowledge the dyadic nature of such phenomena, it is not uncommon to observe a disconnection or misalignment between the level of theory and method. Our purpose in the current paper is to discuss how organizational scholars might better align these components of their research endeavors. We discuss how recent developments involving the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) and reciprocal one-with-many (OWM) models are applicable to studying dyadic phenomena in organizations. The emphasis is on preanalytic considerations associated with collecting and organizing reciprocal dyadic data, types of research questions that APIM and reciprocal OWM models can help answer, and specific analytic techniques involved in testing dyadic hypotheses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Van Iddekinge, Roth, Raymark, and Odle-Dusseau's (2012) meta-analysis of pre-employment integrity test results confirmed that such tests are meaningfully related to counterproductive work behavior. The article also offered some cautionary conclusions, which appear to stem from the limited scope of the authors' focus and the specific research procedures used. Issues discussed in this commentary include the following: (a) test publishers' provision of studies for meta-analytic consideration; (b) errors and questions in the coding of statistics from past studies; (c) debatable corrections for unreliable criterion measures; (d) exclusion of laboratory, contrasted-groups, unit-level, and time-series studies of counterproductive behavior; (e) under-emphasis on the prediction of counterproductive workplace behaviors compared with job performance, training outcomes, and turnover; (f) overlooking the industry practice of deploying integrity scales with other valid predictors of employee outcomes; (g) implication that integrity test publishers produce biased research results; (h) incomplete presentation of integrity tests' resistance to faking; and (i) omission of data indicating applicants' favorable response to integrity tests, the tests' lack of adverse impact, and the positive business impact of integrity testing. This commentary, therefore, offers an alternate perspective, addresses omissions and apparent inaccuracies, and urges a return to the use of diverse methodologies to evaluate the validity of integrity tests and other psychometric instruments.
Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations and (b) the contribution of the level of congruence between societal cultural practices and the characteristics of organizational PA practices to absenteeism and turnover. The results, based on a large data set across multiple countries and over 2 time periods, support the hypothesized effects of societal (national) cultural practices on particular PA practices and the interactive effects of societal cultural practices and PA practices on absenteeism and turnover. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our findings.
Interpretation of observed relations between job stressors and job strains in cross-sectional surveys is often ambiguous because of possible 3rd variables (both stable background factors, such as personality, and transitory occasion factors, such as mood). In this longitudinal study, negative affectivity (NA) and strains were assessed both in college and later on the job. Stressors were assessed only on the job. Evidence was found that some background factors affected measures of job stressors and job strains in that college measures were significantly related to subsequent measures on the job. Relations between job stressors and job strains, however, were in most cases not affected significantly when prior strains and NA were controlled for. Furthermore, the results suggested that NA measures are subject to occasion factors.
A sample of 1,803 minority students from low-income homes was classified into 3 groups on the basis of grades, test scores, and persistence from grade 8 through Grade 12; the classifications were academically successfully school completers ("resilient" students), school completers with poorer academic performance (nonresilient completers), and noncompleters (dropouts). Groups were compared in terms of psychological characteristics and measures of "school engagement." Large, significant differences were found among groups on engagement behaviors, even after background and psychological characteristics were controlled statistically. The findings support the hypothesis that student engagement is an important component of academic resilience. Furthermore, they provide information for designing interventions to improve the educational prognoses of students at risk.
This study extends leader-member exchange (LMX) research by meta-analyzing the role of national culture in moderating relationships between LMX and its correlates. Results based on 282 independent samples (N = 68,587) from 23 countries and controlling for extreme response style differences indicate that (a) relationships of LMX with organizational citizenship behavior, justice perceptions, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and leader trust are stronger in horizontal-individualistic (e.g., Western) contexts than in vertical-collectivistic (e.g., Asian) contexts; and (b) national culture does not affect relationships of LMX with task performance, organizational commitment, and transformational leadership. These findings highlight that although members are universally sensitive to how their leaders treat them, members' responses in Asian contexts may also be influenced by collective interests and role-based obligations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Attempts to explore some of the interrelationships among 84 variables pertaining to company and formal organization characteristics, management attributes, incentive conditions, worker characteristics, personnel performance, and organizational functions in a sample of 234 manufacturing firms. The data were obtained by an 84-item multiple-choice questionnaire sent to a representative sample of 2938 manufacturing firms located throughout the U.S. The correlations among the 84 variables were factor analyzed and the factors rotated to a simple structure. 14 dimensions of organizational attributes and behavior were isolated and interpreted. Among the significant findings was the relatively high independence of organizational attributes and behavior as evidenced by their being defined by separate sets of factors.
The cognitive interview (CI) was modified for use in an epidemiological study in which respondents were asked to recall their daily physical activities from the distant past (35 years ago). In comparison to a traditional epidemiological interview, the CI elicited many more responses and also more precise responses. Several practical costs, however, were incurred by the CI: additional time to train interviewers and to conduct interviews and difficulties in coding the responses. The costs and benefits of conducting the CI are addressed, along with conceptual and methodological challenges. The article ends with an existential question: Is the CI a singular technique if it can be modified so radically for different settings?
Twenty-four students from a diving school undertook a hyperbaric chamber dive to a pressure equal to 36 m of seawater. Tests of cognitive function and manual dexterity, performed in the chamber during the 35-min bottom time and before, or after, the dive included immediate and delayed free recall of words presented as 7 lists of 15 each, recognition of previously presented words, number identification, and a forceps pickup of ball bearings. Delayed free recall and immediate free recall (primacy region) were significantly impaired, whereas manual dexterity and recognition memory were not. These are in keeping with previously reported findings but indicate that significant impairment of memory may occur in experienced divers at operational depths for air diving. Lack of effect on recognition memory suggests that cueing strategies might be useful for debriefing divers.
This study examined how 360 degree feedback ratings and self-other rating discrepancies related to reactions to feedback, perceptions of feedback accuracy, perceived usefulness of the feedback, and recipients' receptivity to development. The results indicated that less favorable ratings were related to beliefs that feedback was less accurate and to negative reactions. Negative reactions and perceptions that feedback was less accurate were related to beliefs that the feedback was less useful. Those who found feedback less useful were perceived by a facilitator as less development-focused. Goal orientation did not moderate the relationship between ratings and perceptions of accuracy or reactions to feedback. Goal orientation was related to perceptions of usefulness of the process several weeks after receipt of feedback. The results question widely held assumptions about 360 degree feedback that negative and discrepant feedback motivates positive change.
Means, Standard Deviations, Reliabilities, and Correlations Between Study Variables 
This study investigated the usefulness of the five-factor model (FFM) of personality in predicting two aspects of managerial performance (task vs. contextual) assessed by utilizing the 360 degree performance rating system. The authors speculated that one reason for the low validity of the FFM might be the failure of single-source (e.g., supervisor) ratings to comprehensively capture the construct of managerial performance. The operational validity of personality was found to increase substantially (50%-74%) across all of the FFM personality traits when both peer and subordinate ratings were added to supervisor ratings according to the multitrait-multimethod approach. Furthermore, the authors responded to the recent calls to validate tests via a multivariate (e.g., multitrait-multimethod) approach by decomposing overall managerial performance into task and contextual performance criteria and by using multiple rating perspectives (sources). Overall, this study contributes to the evidence that personality may be even more useful in predicting managerial performance if the performance criteria are less deficient.
Top-cited authors
Bruce Louis Rich
  • University of Florida
Eean Crawford
  • University of Iowa
Jennifer A. Chatman
  • University of California, Berkeley
Charles A O'Reilly
  • Stanford University
Jessica Rodell
  • University of Georgia