The effects of 0.25% formalin on wound healing were investigated and compared to commonly used 10% povidone iodine and 0.9% sodium chloride treatment. Three full-thickness skin defects, 3,14 cm in diameter, were created ON dorsal aspects of 12 rabbits. Wound surfaces were macroscopically examinated from the points of exudation, beginning of the contraction, granulation tissue and epithelization during the postoperative period. Biopsy specimens which were collected on the 4th, 8th, 12th and 16th Postoperative Days (POD) were evaluated for histopathological changes. Specimens were evaluated according to several histopathologic parameters, such as the thickness of scar tissue, the density of vascular proliferation and the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration. SPSS 11.0 for windows was used for statistical analyses. Thickness of scar tissue was significantly changed between the treatments of 0.25% formalin and 0.9% sodium chloride (p0.05). The density of vascular proliferation between study groups was significantly different only on POD 4 and 16 (p0.05), but a significant difference between the 10% povidone iodine and 0.9% sodium chloride treatments on PODs 12 as an exception (p<0.05). In conclusion, daily topical 0.25% formalin application to full-thickness skin defects in rabbit accelerated wound healing. Other adventages of formalin are ease of application and the low cost.
Condensed tannins (CT) extracted from sulla (Hedysarum coronarium) were incubated with total soluble leaf protein extracted from white clover (Trifolium repens) and rumen fluid in order to determine the effects on the degradation of the large subunit (LSU) and small subunit (SSU) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). In the absence of CT, incubation with rumen fluid resulted in a rapid degradation of the LSU and SSU, although degradation of the LSU tended to be faster than that of the SSU and the degradation rate was significantly (P<0.001) higher than that in the incubations without rumen fluid. Addition of 150, 300 and 600 μg per ml of CT from sulla to the incubations decreased (P<0.05-0.001) the rate of degradation of both LSU and SSU of Rubisco. At all concentrations of CT, addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) eliminated the inhibition attributable to CT. The effect of CT extracted from sulla on the viability of the infective third-stage (L3) larvae of three gastrointestinal nematodes (Haemonchus contortus, Ostertagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis) was tested by a larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay in vitro. The LMI assay measures the ability of the test material to immobilise the larvae and inhibit their passage through 20 μm nylon mesh sieves. Extracts of CT from sulla were added to rumen and abomasal fluids (collected from sheep fed lucerne chaff) to provide concentrations similar to these observed in the abomasal digesta of sheep when CT-containing forages were fed (50-1000 μg/ml). Incubation of L3 larvae in these fluids containing sulla CT reduced the viability, relative to the larvae in the control incubations (no CT added). This study showed that the larvae of T. colubriformis were more resistant (P < 0.001) to the inhibitory effect of CT from sulla than were the larvae of the other nematodes. When the larvae of these nematodes were incubated in rumen fluid containing 1000 μg CT/ml, fewer larvae of T. colubriformis (37%) failed (P < 0.001) to pass through the sieves than those of O. circumcincta (59%) and H. contortus (72%). Addition of 2 μg PEG/ μg CT to the incubations eliminated the inhibitory effect of CT on larval viability through inactivation of CT, particularly in the rumen fluid.
A biofilm can be defined as a sessile bacterial community of cells that live attached to each other and to surfaces. Attachment and biofilm formation by food-borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms on food contact surfaces in processing plants are a public health and cross-contamination concern. Biofilms are found ubiquitously in virtually all natural, medical and industrial settings where bacteria exist. Biofilm formation by Escherichia coli O111 on commonly used plastic surfaces was studied. For this study 12 plastic chips were used. E.coli strain was added to the beakers with TSB and the samples. Escherichia coli O111 formed biofilm with a mean cell density of 7.69±0.19 log CFU/cm2 on plastic surface. Based on the results, it can be concluded that Escherichia coli O111 can survive on plastic surfaces. This is the first report, as far as we are aware, of biofilm formation by Escherichia coli O111 on plastic surfaces. We were unable to find reports in our search of the literature.
Three breeds of local chickens, Dwarf (DW), Frizzled Chicken (FZ) and Long Legged (LL) were purchased from the chicken market at Sabon Gari, Zaria and environs. Ten birds of each breed were bought making a total of 30 chickens. The birds were housed in the same pen to simulate local husbandry method. At three days after purchase the birds were bled to determine their Newcastle disease antibodies and then subsequently the birds were challenged with a local strain of Newcastle virus (Kudu 113). The birds were monitored for clinical signs and mortality. The mortality rates were: 60, 80 and 90% for DW, FZ and LL, respectively. The morbidity rate was 100% in all the breeds. The mean HI antibody titres before challenge were : 0.2, 1.4 and 2.0 for LL, DW and FZ, respectively. At 5 weeks post challenge the mean HI antibody titres were : 1024 for both DW and FZ and it was 32 for LL. The clinical signs seen in all the breeds were similar to those seen in the velogenic viscerotropic form of Newcastle Disease ( ND ). The post mortem lesions seen in all the breeds were similar to those seen in the velogenic viscerotropic form of ND. The study showed that all the breeds were equally susceptible to ND. Unlike the belief of the Hausas that the FZ is resistant to ND. It was concluded that there is no breed difference among the local chicken in susceptibility to ND and that there is the need for further studies on the claim that the local chicken is resistant to ND viral infection.
In the present study, effects of ovsynch-CIDR protocol was compared with the conventional method of 2 consecutive injections of PGF2 14 days apart, on some reproductive indices and concentrations of E2 and P4 on day 1, day 5 and 21 after insemination. All the cows assigned into the study were in their second parity onward and had no history of peri-parturient diseases including: retained placenta, dystocia, lameness, clinical mastitis and metritis. In the nPG group (n = 27), on day 40±5 postpartum, 2 doses of PG were injected 14 days apart and if after the 2nd injection, cow was inseminated upon showing signs of estrus. In the OC group (n = 25), Ovsynch-CIDR protocol along with timed AI was applied. Milk and blood samples were obtained from all the cows on day1, day 5 and 21 post AI. E2 and P4 of the plasma and P4 of the milk samples were measured by ELISA and reproductive indices were calculated. In case of return to estrus, the program was repeated for up to 3 times. Conception Rate (CR) was lower in the nPG than OC but the difference was not significant (p>0.05). In the 2nd and 3rd AI, CR was higher in OC than nPG (71.42 and 85.71% Vs 23.8 and 61.9% in the OC and nPG, respectively, p<0.05). Number of AI/conception and overall CR were 3.13, 40.3, 2.23 and 55.71% for nPG and OC, respectively (p<0.05). Days Open (DO) and predicted calving intervals were 138 and 418 and 106 and 387 for nPG and OC, respectively (p<0.05). Milk P4 was higher on day 5 and 21 in the OC and plasma E2 was lower in OC on day 5 than nPG (p<0.05). Results show that, ovulation synchronization by Ovsynch-CIDR, as compared with 2 consecutive PG injections reduced DO, increased CR in the 2nd and 3rd inseminations, increased overall CR and reduced number of inseminations per conception. It can not be claimed that results of this experiment might be similar in all the cows of the same herd or other herds because, cows assigned into this study were selected.
Human infections caused by Enterococcus species are increasing; they are the third most common cause of nosocomial infections. E. faecium, though a relatively rare Enterococcal nosocomial infection, is very commonly resistant to multiple antibiotics. Quinupristin/Dalfopristin, a Streptogramin, is an antibiotic of "last resort" for treating multi-antibiotic-resistant E. faecium. However, E. faecium isolates are now becoming resistant to Quinupristin/Dalfopristin. The source of Streptogramin-resistant E. Faecium is controversial. Although medical environments are a potential source, Streptogramin-resistant Enterocci are present in livestock fed Streptogramin growth-promoters. However, E. faecium subspecies are suggested to be predominantly host-species specific and thus livestock may not be a reservoir for Streptogramin-resistant E. faecium that infect humans. To resolve this issue, sensitive methods to quantify Streptogramin-resistant E. faecium relatedness are essential. We designed a rapid sensitive, specific, molecular diagnostic technique, targeting one E. faecium 16S/23S intergenic spacer region to distinguish between E. faecium at the nucleotide level. This region has no obvious evolutionary-conservation pressure and has been used to quantify relatedness in other bacteria. We analyzed streptogramin-resistant E. faecium from chickens from one grower house, on one farm, to quantify nucleotide polymorphism between isolates that would be expected to be closely related. We detected single nucleotide polymorphisms in four out of ten Streptogramin-resistant E. faecium isolated from this single source. The chicken-derived E. faecium sequences were more similar to each other than they were to the reference human E. faecium strain. Our method will be useful for studies of E. faecium ecology, pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance.
The effect of development, stage of the estrous cycle and estradiol on adipocyte leptin, ER and ER gene expression was examined. Blood was collected twice weekly from 24 gilts before and after 1st estrus and analyzed for serum leptin by RIA. Serum concentrations of leptin increased (p = 0.02) to puberty. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was collected from 12 prepubertal (PP) gilts (121 ± 1.2 d of age, 50.4 ± 1.5 kg) and 12 Pubertal (PE) gilts (235 ± 2.6 d of age, 137 ± 3.3 kg) at first estrus (D 0) and during their mid-luteal (ML; D 8) stage of the respective estrous cycle for tissue mRNA analyses and cell culture. Isolated adipocytes were cultured for 18 h with 17 -estradiol (0, 10-11, 10-10, 10-9, 10-8, 10-7 M; n=3 wells/dose/pig). Leptin, ER , ER and cyclophilin mRNA were analyzed using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Leptin mRNA was found to be in greater abundance (p = 0.05) in adipose tissue from PE than PP or ML gilts. Estrogen receptor subtype gene expression was similar in adipose tissue from PP and PE gilts; however, ER tended (pIn vitro studies revealed that 17 -estradiol had no effect on leptin gene expression in PP, PE, or ML adipocytes. Estrogen receptor gene expression decreased (pin vitro estradiol-treated PP and ML adipocytes; however, ER only decreased in estradiol-treated adipocytes from ML gilts. Estradiol did not appear to affect leptin, ER , or ER gene expression in PE adipocytes. Although the synthesis and secretion of leptin increased as puberty approached and appeared to change during the estrous cycle, these data do not attribute the developmental and / or reproductive cycle changes in leptin synthesis and secretion to a direct effect of estradiol.
Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) fry were immersed in water containing 17- Methyltestosterone (MT) at the doses of 10, 25, 50, 125, 250 μg L 1 water for 30 days. The effects of MT on growth and survival were investigated at an interval of 10 days. Survival of all MT treated groups was significantly lower than control at 20 and 30 th day of the experiment period (p1water were significantly higher than the control (p<0.05). However, enhanced growth rate observed in the present study did not compensate the high mortality in practical usage. Anabolic effects of sex steroid on survival and growth of different fish species were also discussed.
This study was carried out in Yumurtalik Marine Research Station, University of Cukurova in Turkey. In this study was aimed to determine the effects of different levels of soybean oil and fish oil on growth and body fatty acid composition of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Initial mean body weights of test subjects were 4.80±0.25 g. The fish were housed within experimental, 210 l of experimental fiberglass tanks (20 fish/tank). Fish of all groups were fed on five different levels feed a 105 day period. The fish group fed with Diet 1 (12% Fish Oil = FO) followed by Diet 5 (12% Soybean Oil = SBO) showed the highest growth performance. In this study saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid changes in all groups were significant (p>0.05). On the basis of these results it can be concluded that soybean oil could be used as a partial dietary substitute for fish oil within compound feeds for sea bass.
This study was carried out to determine some biological parameters of carp populations introduced to the Kockopru Dam Lake on the Zilan River in Lake Van Basin and conducted between December 1999 and August 2001. Sampling was carried out monthly using hand nets and trammel nets. It was determined that carp become a sustainable population and is caught by fishermen. The maximum age was determined as VII; fork length as 61.7 cm and weight as 6002.6 g. Length-weight relationship was estimated as log W = -1.402+2.847 log L and age-length relationship was determined as Lt = 84.070 (1-e-0.126(t+0.801)). It was also determined that male female ratio was 1:0.94 and maturity size was determined as more than 45 cm for female. Reproduction period was observed in June. It was also observed that commercial fishing could be a big threat for the future of the Kockopru Dam Lake population because of undersized catch.
In this study, as well as giving data of parasite fauna related to Leuciscus cephalus, inhabiting in Turkish waters, monthly distribution of Ligula intestinalis infections, detected in the studies that were carried out in Çamkoru Lake, parasitic situations according to ages and sexes, average body length and the number of individuals are provided.
In this study the anatomy of the larynx of a male, 18 year old tiger that died in a local zoo is described. Topographically, the larynx of the tiger was situated over the median plane, in the cranial half of the neck. It had a length of 10.0 cm when measured from its ventral side. The cartilages that formed it were the classic five cartilages found in the domestic animals. The thyroid cartilage had a caudal notch well demarcated, closed in part by the cricothyroid muscle and by the cricothyroid ligament. The hyoepiglottic muscle was double. The cavity of the larynx had a dorso-ventral diameter measuring 3.5 cm in the glottis and a side to side diameter of 3.0 cm. The anatomy of the larynx in this animal was different from that of the cat.
In this study, concentrating upon the population of Philometra ovata (Zeder,1803) observed in chub (Leuciscus cephalus L., 1758) living in Camkoru Lake (Camlidere –Ankara), it was found that the number of individuals infected by P. ovata was 17 and totally 39 P. ovata were observed. It constitutes 4. 62 % of the population of L. cephalus. P. ovata infection in L. cephalus population was found just in III and IV age classes. While the infection was observed generally in male individuals, P. ovata was not encountered in other periods except May-June-July. In July, the infection of P. ovata was observed as 20%. It was found that fork length of L. cephalus, in which infection was observed, was between 15, 3 and 21 cm, as for the average length of P. ovata it was 55. 9 mm.
In this study, the age, growth and reproduction of chub (L. cephalus) population, living in Karasu Stream, was determined. Total 404 chub have sampled and investigated between April 2005 and October 2006. The ages, lengths and weights of individuals varied from 1-7 year, 7.3-40.5 cm and 4.8-1002.5 g, respectively. Length-weight relationship and Von Bertalanffy Growth Equations were calculated as W = 0.00844xL3.1558; as Lt = 60.75x(1-e-0.088(t+0.333)) and as Wt = 3588.04x(1-e-0.088(t+0.333))3.1558, respectively. The mean condition factor was defined as 1.297±0.010. It was established that females and males attained sexual maturity when they reached to 13 and 14 cm in length and third age, respectively and spawning was observed between May and July. The male:female ratio was calculated as 1.45:1. In the population, minimum catching size should be applied as IV age, 18 cm fork length and 70 g total weight.
This study was carried out in Zernek Dam Lake, Van, Turkey. In this study, 586 individuals have sampled and investigated between June 2006 and October 2007. The ages, lengths and weights of individuals varied from 1-7 years, 4.0-41.0 cm and 0.7-1060.4 g, respectively. Age-length and length-weight relationships were calculated as Lt = 48.927x(1–e-0.2038רt+0.2028)), as W 0.0137xL2.992, respectively. The mean condition factor was defined as 1.339±0.005. The male: female ratio was estimated as 1:1.72. It was established that females and males attained sexual maturity when they reached to 23 and 15 cm in length, 180 and 60 g and 4th and 2nd age, respectively, spawning was observed between beginning of June and 2nd week of July. It may be suggested that fishing should be forbidden between 1 May and 1 August and minimum catching size must be 5th age, 26 cm fork length and 220 g total weight.
Age and growth of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, were studied in the Izmir Bay (Aegean Sea). A total of 520 specimens were collected during the period November 1997 to October 1998 from purse-seine boats operating in the Izmir Bay. Fork lengths ranged between 12.5 and 27.2 cm. Overall female: Male ratio was 1:1.13. Age distribution of the samples ranged from I to IV years (otolith readings). Chub mackerel grew positive allometrically (b = 3.40?0.05 at 95% confidence level). Growth parameters of the population were: L = 27.15 cm, K = 0.20 year 1, t0 = -0.48 years for females; L8 = 29.64 cm, K = 0.23 year 1, t0 = -0.39 years for males and L8 = 29.87 cm, K = 0.20 year 1, t0 = -0.36 years for both sexes. Growth index ( `) was calculated as 2.29, 2.31 and 2.25, respectively for females, males and sexes combined.
The objective of this study was to investigate annual changes of sperm quality parameters in young rainbow trouts during spawning season. Experiment was performed using 10 rainbow trout males reared in Ataturk damlake in Turkey. Sperm samples were collected and evaluated at approximately 15-day intervals from 9 January to 10 April 2003. In collected milt; volume of milt, sperm motility percentage, the duration of forward motility, sperm concentration and sperm pH were evaluated. On 9 January 2003; 20 % of the males were spermiating, increasing to 100 % in early February and dropping to 40 % by early April. Sperm motility percentage showed a significant improvement during the spawning season (P<0.05). Sperm concentration was significantly (P<0.01) improved in milt collected from late of January to early of March. The pH in sperm was significantly (P<0.001) higher in February than at any other time of the spawning season. Milt volume and the duration of forward motility showed no obvious differences. In conclusion, the results show that season has a significant influence on semen quality in young rainbow trouts corresponding to spawning season in hot arid. Sperm of good quality was especially collected in february and in March
The effect of ovarian fluid in activating solution on per cent motility and motility duration was examined, using Rainbow trouts Oncorhynchus mykiss W., 1792. Proportion of motile sperm decreased in ovarian fluid concentrations increased from 1.8 to 2.6 %. Motility duration generally decreased as the concentration of ovarian fluid increased from 0.2 to 2.6. Thus, the motility duration was related to the ovarian fluid concentration in activating solution. These results indicates that the presence of ovarian fluid in activating solution decreased the motility duration and the presence of a high concentration of ovarian fluid in activating solution, ovarian fluid is considered important for decreasing motility in Rainbow trout sperm.
The age, length-weight relationship and diet composition of Arnoglossus laterna from the Izmir Bay were examined in specimens caught on a seasonal basis from January 2002 to March 2003. The ratio of male to female of 1081 scaldfish captured by trawl netting was 1:1.62 and their total lengths varied from 5.6-15.7 cm and total weights from 1.2-31.51 g. The length-weight relationships were estimated as W = 0.0035 L3.301; W = 0.0066 L3.043; W = 0.0073 L3.011 for females, for males and for all individuals, respectively. Based on the otolith readings, the age distribution of the samples varied from I to V years. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were calculated to be L = 16.87 cm, k = 0.236 year 1, t0 = -0.887 year. Stomach contents of A. laterna were filled with preys of 5 major taxonomical groups: Polychaeta, Crustacea, Mollusca, Chaetognatha and Teleostei. A total of 11 prey groups were identified in the diets of scaldfish, with most abundant crustaceans. According to a Bray-Curtis similarity index in relation to ages, two groups are formed based on index percentage of relative importance of food item; I-II age groups constituted the first similarity and III-IV-V the second one.
In the spawning season, semen was collected by abdominal massage from 11 young male rainbow trout from the late of January to the late of February. In collected milts; colour, volume, motility, motility duration, concentration and pH were determined. Futhermore, body weight and total length were measured and correlations between spermatological characteristics and these parameters were investigated. In the young rainbow trouts` semen, milt volume (ml), motility (%), motility duration (s), concentration (x 109 /ml), total spermatozoa (per ejeculate) and pH values were found 1.59, 82.2, 93.0, 7.9, 12.3 and 8.3, respectively. It was found that there were positive correlations between body weigth and total length, milt volume and total spermatozoa, spermatozoa motility and motility duration (P<0.05). In contrast, there were negative correlations between milt volume and spermatozoa motility, milt volume and motility duration, pH value and total spermatozoa (P<0.05). These results suggested that young male rainbow trouts could be used for breeding, in spawning season, considering their spermatological properties but not their total weight and total length.
The objectives of this study were to assess the suitability of spermatocrit as arapid estimator of sperm density in Rainbow trout with 1 year old. At the end of the spawning season, semen was collected without anesthesia by abdominal massage from 11 Rainbow trout. Sperm concentrations were assessed for milt samples taken from males using a haemocytometer and spermatocrit. In these fish, spermatocrit and haemocytometer averaged 46.09 % and 2.5 x 109 /ml, respectively, for 33 milt samples collected from males. There were significant correlation between spermatocrit readings and sperm concentration. Regression analysis showed a significant positive linear relationship between body weight and total lenght. It was determined that sperm concentration measured by spermatocrit as as a rapid estimator of sperm concentration in Rainbow trout.
Artificial spawning was induced in female African giant catfish, Heterobranchus bidorsalis by single intramuscular hormone injections of carp pituitary suspensions (CPS) at 4 mg/kg body weight (bw), 1.5ml of homoplastic pituitary suspension (HPS) per fish or human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) at 2000 IU/kg bw, over three months of rainy season (June to August) in Nigeria. At ambient temperature (27±1°C), ovulation occurred within 14-18 h post injection. Egg hydration gave 16-20% increase in egg diameter. Hatching rates were high (>84%) and similar for all hormone-treated fish (P>0.05). The percentage normal larvae hatched ranged from 81.6% to 86%. They were reared in 500-l circular tanks and fed initially on zooplankton, followed by brine shrimp nauplii and finally weaned onto commercial fish fry diet. During the larval rearing trials for 30 days, survival rates >82% were achieved. Although the four hormones tested were effective inducers, the use of HPS would save operational costs in fish hatchery management.
The efficacy of maize gluten meal supplemented with crystalline L-lysine as a potential source of protein to enhance productivity rate of the African clariid catfish, Clarias gariepinus in a partially substituted fish meal diets was investigated in a trial that lasted seven weeks. Six isonitogenous and isocaloric diets containing 36% crude protein and 13% oil were formulated. Diet 1 containing 100% high grade fish meal protein source (Norwegian, LT-94) served as the control. Maize gluten meal in diets 2 to 6, were improved upon incrementally with crystalline L-lysine supplementation at 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.5 and 1.8% respectively in which fish meal inclusion in the diets were reduced by 75%. Hatchery bred C. gariepinus juveniles weighing 5.2 ± 1.3g (weight) were randomly distributed into fiber glass tanks at 34 fish per tank in a triplicate treatments and fed twice daily in a well aerated recirculation system. Biological evaluation of the fish was based on growth performance and nutrient utilization efficiencies. The results showed that the productivity indexes, mean Body Weight Gain (BWG), Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Food Conversion Ratio (FCR), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and Apparent Net Protein Utilization (ANPU) of the fish were good in all the diets with SGR values exceeding 3% day-1 and FCR below the value of 1 (for as fed basis ). However, fish fed on fish meal based diets (control) had the best overall performance and significantly (p 0.05) different from other groups of fish fed maize gluten supplemented with L-lysine. There was, however, an improvement in the performance indexes of the fish with increasing levels of L-lysine supplementation in maize gluten based diets. However, growth performance and nutrient utilization efficiencies did not attain a plateau at 1.8% lysine supplementation of maize gluten in African catfish diets.
This study was undertaken to evaluate the quantitative requirement of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation in the diet of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, using growth performance, nutrient utilization. Clarias gariepinus fingerlings weighing 6.02±0.4 g were randomly distributed into glass tanks of 60x45x45 cm3 dimension at ten fish per tank in a triplicate treatment. Five isonitrogenous and isocalorific diets containing 40% crude protein was formulated. Ascorbic Acid (AA) was supplemented in the diets as ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate. Each treatment had varying levels of Ascorbic Acid (AA) supplementation, at 0 (Control) 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg AA kg-1, in Treatment 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Fish were fed practical diets twice daily at 900 and 1600 h. Weekly weighing of fish was done and the data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. Biological evaluation of the fish was based on growth performance and nutrient utilization efficiencies. At the end of week 4, fish fed scorbutic diets (diets without Ascorbic acid supplementation) had significantly lower weight than fish fed AA supplemented diets (p-1 gave the best growth performance and nutrient utilization efficiencies, while treatment 3 fed 100 mg AA kg-1 showed the minimum dietary AA supplementation that prevented growth reduction in this study.
The narrow-clawed crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus for its natural characteristics has a strong ecological impact in Manyas Lake. The record of ectocommensalism between Epistylis sp. and A. leptodactylus has been observed in Turkey. The narrow-clawed crayfish in the gill-chamber and on the gill filaments, carapace, abdomen, walking legs, uropod, telson, antennae, antennulae and eggs are present a ciliate protozoa peritrich as Epistylis sp. The total of 1018 specimens was examined, 512 were involved in ectocommensalism as being 50,29%. The presence of the ectocommersal Epistylis sp. has been determined in a new locality from Manyas Lake in Turkey. The correlation between the ciliata and the crayfish, and the water quality are shown monthly.
The specific objectives, in the present study, were to compare the reproductive performance such as egg diameter, number of peleopod egg and relative physiological conditions of female white river crayfish in different habitats. Fecundity of adult female Procambarus acutus acutus were examined in simulated burrows and excavated pond burrow for three months. Pleopod egg numbers per female increased linearly with crayfish TL. Pleopod egg numbers varied from 106 to 556 for 81 and 127 mm Total Length (TL) female in simulated burrow and from 32 to 330 eggs for 65 mm and 125 TL female in excavated pond burrows, respectively. Similar sized female crayfish in simulated burrow oviposited significantly more eggs than the crayfish species in excavated pond burrows. The slopes and intercept of the TL regression for pleopod eggs for female were significantly different between those individuals held in simulated burrows and excavated pond burrows (p<0.05). HM content of P.a. acutus held in simulated burrow (47.1%) was less than that of the excavated pond burrows (62.2%) (p<0.05). The diameters extruded eggs for the two burrow types were similar during the study period.
In this study, the effect of temperature on growth and some reproductive parameters of guppy Poecilia reticulata were investigated. And 19, 21, 22.5, 26, 29, 32 and 35°C water temperature treatments were used on newly hatched fry and gravid females for 11 days after parturitions and several days starting from the 16th day after first parturition until second parturition, respectively. Survival rates of heat treated fry were lower in the high temperature groups of 29°C and over than the low temperature groups of 22.5°C and lower. Same trend was observed for gravid female which all died in the temperature groups of 29°C and over. Guppy fry grown better at temperature between 22.5-26°C and the gravid female guppy produced high number of fry at temperature between 21-26°C may support the hypothesis that an ontogenetic reduction in temperature optima with increasing size for growth and the optimum temperature for growth broadness as body increases. However, size and sex dependent optimum temperature range for optimum growth and reproduction of guppy could be in question.
Sexual dimorphism is an important subject in biosystematic and evolutionary studies of the animal kingdom. In this survey, 4 geographical stations have chosen from the Urmia Lake (west Azerbaijan, Iran). Males and females of Artemia urmiana were examined in order to study sexual dimorphism. The t-Test was used to find out significant differences between means. For classified the male and female samples in each station, Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Function Analysis (DA) were used. PCA analysis let us to separate male and female groups in each station. Also by using DA we can find out that %100 of original groups were correctly classified. This research shows that A. urmiana in each four different station is a sexually dimorphism. Also size difference between male and female can be interpreted as mating advantage; according to Artemia breeding mechanism, female carry male during copulation process then large size of female is necessary for this breeding system and can prove mating process.
The aim of this study was to summarize the information related to the development of the scientific knowledge about the ram effect. Articles covering the topic were searched in several scientific databases and the origin of the authors, the year of publication, the journal in which the article was published, the number of authors and the sheep breed used was registered. Overall, 154 articles were obtained, most of which (43%) were published by Australian and New Zealand authors. The trend of the articles published outside Australia and New Zealand parallels the changes in the total number of sheep. Merino, Romney and Corriedale sheep were used in more than 50% of the articles. The general overview is that while in Australia and New Zealand the research has been developed during the eighties independently of the conjunctural needs, in the rest of the world depended more on market conditions.
The objective of this study was to examine the erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes of the sand lizard (Leiolepsis belliana rubritaeniata Mertens 1961) by light and electron (SEM and TEM) microscopy. Smears were prepared from blood from the heart of ten healthy adult sand lizards (five males and five females). Electron microscopy was also performed on all samples. The results revealed the following information: light microscopy finding; erythrocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte, heterophil, basophil, eosinophil and thrombocyte presented district morphology. Erythrocytes, mononuclear cells, granulocytes and thrombocytes of the sand lizard were nearly similar to those of chickens, snakes, tortoises, turtles and other lizards. SEM finding, the lymphocyte showed tiny round cells. The monocyte was larger than the lymphocyte and had a round cell shape and rough membrane. The heterophil was a round or elongated cell with a rough membrane. The basophil was tiny and round with a rough membrane surface. The Eosinophil was a round cell with many spherical spines protruded from their membrane surface. The thrombocyte was a tiny cell with an irregular membrane. TEM finding, the nucleus of the lymphocyte was large and round with heterochromatin. The nucleus of the monocyte was mononuclear, kidney shaped with heterochromatin. The nucleus of the heterophil was lobuled with heterochromatin, dense cytoplasm and contained spindle, drum-bell or long shape granules. The nucleus of the basophil was lobuled with heterochromatin and the cytoplasm contained large amount of strip granules. The nucleus of the eosinophil was round and had a dense cytoplasm and contained large bowling pin and round-shape liked granules. The nucleus of thrombocyte was dense with clear cytoplasm and no organelle appearance.
Data on Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS) mortalities and climatological conditions (rainfall and temperature) were collected from 1993 to 2003 and subjected to a time series seasonal decomposition analysis. The 12-month Centered Moving Averages (CMA), Seasonal Indices (SI), Trends (T) and Cyclic patterns (C) were computed. A total of 1,489 mortalities of HS were recorded in Peninsular Malaysia with 62.9% of mortalities recorded during the last five years of the study period (1999-2003). The higher number of HS mortalities appeared to occur in the 1st and 4th quarters of the year. Seasonal index showed the greatest values during the months of 1st and 4th quarters of the year and the lowest indices were observed in 2nd and 3rd quarter of the year. The existence of 2-3-year cyclical fluctuations was observed with major peaks occurring in December 1998 to May 2000 and minor peaks observed in the year 1994-1996, 1997-1999, 2000-2001 and 2002-2003. Vaccination coverage over the study period was very low. The maximum coverage was 13.6% of the total cattle and buffalo population in year 1995. Difficulty in gaining access to the animals, inadequate facilities and the reluctance of owners to bring their animals for vaccination in the absence of disease might be the explanation for the observed epidemiological patterns of the disease. The rainfall seasonality combined with movement of carrier or susceptible animals appeared to be plausible explanations for the seasonal variations of HS. Furthermore, these findings suggested that since higher number of HS outbreaks appeared to occur during the 1st and followed by 4th quarter of the year, an appropriate control strategy may be to vaccinate animals before the 4th quarter of the year.
Wild-caught juvenile pikeperch (Sander lucioperca (6.21?0.38 g and 7.80?0.24 cm) were offered different types of food and tested for their transition to dry feed. Totally 8 Groups (including Control) were fed according to the experimental feeding regime during 28 days. Group A (control) was fed with live Gambusia affinis fries alone. As initial feeding (the first 7 days of the experiment) before transition to dry feed, Groups B, C and D were offered live food, Groups E and F were offered moist feed (minced bait shrimp meat and minced fish meat, respectively). Group G and H were offered semi moist feed (a mixture of fish meat + dry feed and a mixture of bait shrimp meat + dry feed, respectively). To determine their preferences and acceptance of different feeds, some growth parameters were calculated for each group. The study showed that pikeperch in this size consumed all experimental diets and direct transition to dry feed could be achieved successfully after 7 days initial feeding with live food. The best weight gain was in Group A fed with live food alone (5.26?0.11g) (p<0.05), followed by Group B fed first with live and then dry feed (4.43?0.28g). Survival rates varied between 56 and 96%.
Goats in Khartoum State are frequently raised as small backyard flocks to provide milk for personal consumption. Rumen foreign body is a major threat to goats in Khartoum. Omdurman Province is one of Khartoum State Provinces. The percentage of the foreign body in goats` rumen was high in the year 1999 (47.8%) and then declined to 33.3 and 39.1% during years 2000 and 2002 respectively. and Foreign body surgical operations (rumenotomy) percentage reached up to 44.4% compared to other surgical operations performed in goats in Omdurman Province. The present study aimed to compare the prevalence of foreign body in goats` rumen in Omdurman Province and the seasonality evidence and to provide recommendations for prevention and control.
This is first report isolation of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype (H5N1) from natural outbreaks in Sudan in 2006. From 2003 to 2005,1000 samples(organs, tracheal and cloacl swabs) were collected from different locations in Sudan, Central (AlGazeera and Khartoum), Westeran( Nyala) and Eastern Sudan (Kassala and AlGadarif) all samples were negative by Virus Isolation (VI) in egg embryo. In early 2006 an outbreak of HPAI was occurred in AlGazeera and Khartoum samples were tested by VI in department of virology the result is positive for type A Avian Influenza (AI), allantoic fluids were sent to) OIE, FAO and National Reference Laboratory for Newcastle Disease andAvian Influenza, Padua, Italy for advance confirmation Isolates were analyses using RT-PCR, VI and Sequencing positive to subtype H5N1.
The relationship between plasma free cortisol and the free cortisol index (FCI, the ratio of cortisol to CBG) was evaluated in eight 8-wk old pigs over a 24 h period and in response to administration of saline or ACTH. A high (p<0.001) correlation was found between actual free cortisol and the FCI in both saline (r = 0.73) and ACTH (r = 0.85) treated pigs. A diurnal rhythm was apparent for total cortisol, free cortisol, percent free cortisol, pCBG and the FCI. Total cortisol (p<0.05), free cortisol (p<0.05) and the FCI (p<0.01) were elevated during the first four h following administration of ACTH. Concentrations of pCBG differed (p<0.001) over time and were higher (p<0.01) for ACTH treated pigs over the 24 h period. The results from this study affirm the contention that FCI is a suitable estimate of free cortisol in swine.
Blood samples from 184 adult indigenous Nigerian chickens were collected at three locations in Ibadan, Nigeria. The serum from each sample was evaluated for Avian Leukosis Virus (ALV) P-27 antigen by the Antigen-ELISA method. An overall prevalence of 70.7% was obtained as it ranges between 63.3-90% in the three locations used. Fifty-six samples (21.9%) with ELISA units (EUs) less than 10 were regarded as negative. Out of the 128 positive sera, 24 were strongly positive, 70 were moderately positive while 34 were weakly positive. The overall mean EUs value was 52.8±24.4. These chickens had no history of vaccination against any poultry virus including ALV and ALV has not been previously reported in indigenous chicken in Nigeria, making this the first evidence of the infection.
The present experiment was carried out to determine the effects of ascorbic acid and high levels folic acid added to layer hen diets on live weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, egg production and egg quality. A total of 270 Lohmann LSL type white layer hens at 28th weeks of age were used in the experiment. Experiment was conducted with a control and 5 experimental groups each containing 45 hens. The layers were fed basal diet, supplemented as follows; 200 mg kg-1 ascorbic acid (AsA), 5 mg kg-1 folic acid (FA1), 10 mg kg-1 folic acid (FA2), ascorbic acid + 5 mg kg-1 folic acid (AsA+FA1) and ascorbic acid+ 10 mg kg-1 folic acid (AsA+FA2). The groups, which had AsA+FA1 in diet, had higher body weight compared to the other groups at the end of the experiments (p<0.01). Feed intake was improved by addition of AsA+FA2 (p<0.05), but feed conversion was not effected in the group supplemented folic acid and/or ascorbic acid. Mean egg production was highest in the group including AsA and lowest in FA1 group (p<0.01). The average weights of eggs and egg mass were effected in the AsA+FA combination (p<0.05). Different levels of folic acid with or without ascorbic acid supplementation to basal diet did not produce statistically important effects on some egg quality or egg shell weight. Addition AsA+FA2 to layer diet caused a statistical increased on means shell thickness (p<0.001). As a result of this study, supplementation of ascorbic acid and high levels folic acid to diet positively affected live weight, feed intake and shell thickness during the early laying period.
Test day milk yield records of 68956 first-parity Holstein cows were used to estimate genetic parameters for milk yield. Comparison of breeding value of two evaluation method include test day and classical model (305 days) indicated that the EBVs for TD milk yields are closely correlated with EBVs for 305 days milk yields. Genetic correlations between individual test days and 305 days were high. Results suggested that test day milk yields, mainly in mid-lactation, can be used of 305 days milk yield in genetic evaluation. the heritability estimate of milk yield under the TD model is lower than the corresponding estimate for 305-days milk yield.
Probiotics are microbial cells that develop a beneficial effect on the host`s health while passing through the gastrointestinal tract. Their survival rate and persistence in the hosts are important factors when selected to be used like food supplements in animal farms. In the present study, the Lactobacillus casei DSPV 318T capacity to colonize and remain in the mouse gastrointestinal tract was studied. The inoculum was made of Lactobacillus casei DSPV 318T, L. salivarius DSPV 315T and Pediococcus acidilactici DSPV 006T, 3 lactic acid bacteria from bovine origin. The inoculum, with the 3 microorganisms suspended in a NaCl 0.15M solution, was orally administered to an experimental group of mice, by gavages in a 0.1 mL total volume, with a 109 CFU final concentration. One control group only received NaCl solution as placebo. Lactobacillus casei DSPV 318T showed a capacity to remain in a complex ecological niche, such as the mouse intestine, for a longer period of time than the one the treatment lasted. The inoculum administration did not produce any change in the individual activity or appearance, being this an indicator of both, the general state of health and the absence of adverse effects. Followed by doses every other day, the initial massive administration system was efficient considering that such microorganism lodged in the individuals` intestine. The inoculum did not interfere with the normal functioning of the intestinal microbiota, resulting innocuous to the host.
This study was carried out to determine the effects of diets containing 0, 75 and 150 ppm of Yucca schidigera extract (YSE) on fattening performance of Awassi lambs. Sixteen male Awassi lambs were allocated into three groups having similar live weight. The lambs in all groups were fed with a diet containing 134 g CP and 2756 kcal ME per kg dry matter during 63 days of fattening period. Results showed that supplementation of YSE in different dosage to the diet did not affect statistically live weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, total live weight gained at end of the fattening period slightly increased by feeding 150 ppm YSE and feed conversion ratio was improved compared to control group.
Six local Sudanese isolates of S. aureus subsp. anaerobius which were isolated from sheep abscesses were compared with the reference strain of S. aureus subsp. anaerobius ATCC 35844 DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Microorganismen und Zelkulturen, Braunschweig, Germany) No. 20714 in their protein profiles to choose the candidate local isolate for vaccine production.Vertical electrophoresis was used to separate protein of cell lysates and supernatants of the local Sudanese isolates and the reference strain of S. aureus subsp. anaerobius. It was found that the electrophoretic protein pattern for all local isolates and the reference strain resembles each others to a greater extent and many bands are common in all strains. Cell lysates of all local isolates (except isolate 5) and the reference strain had protein bands ranged between 19-24 with molecular mass ranging from 53.35-113.84 KDa. Isolate 5 have 17 protein bands with molecular mass ranging from 53.62-74.89 KDa. All local isolates and the reference strain had no protein bands in their supernatants, except isolate 2 which has 5 protein bands in its supernatant. Most of the local isolates are the same as the reference strain, two local isolates have minor differences compared to the reference strain.
There is little information about itch-associated responses in neonatal rodents. We performed behavioral tests to elucidate itch-associated scratching and wriggling behaviors induced by compound 48/80 (C48/80) in 7- and 14-day-old rats. C48/80 (2.5 μg g 1 body weight per 5 μL) was s.c injected into the rostral part of the back of neonatal rats. Immediately after injection, their behavior was recorded for 30 min using a digital video camera under unmanned conditions. A series of scratching behaviors were counted as one bout of scratching. Total wriggling time was also monitored. Scratching behavior was observed in both ages, whereas wriggling behavior was seen only in 7-day-old rats. These results suggest that wriggling behavior is limited early in life and neonatal rats are available to reveal mechanisms of itch sensation and scratching behavior provoked by diseases specific to neonates or infants.
In this study, the response of Foot-and-Mouth Disease serotype Asia1 vaccine strain IND 491/97 to the immune pressure [antibodies raised in Bovine against IND 63/72 and in Guineapigs against IND 63/72 and IND 491/97] exerted in-vitro in BHK-21 cell culture system was analyzed in terms of genetic alterations at the nucleotide level. The Nr (neutralization resistant) viruses which were selected by growing in the presence of antibodies (Bovine Vaccinate Serum, BVS and Guineapig Serum, GPS) showed certain individual and also common changes in the structural protein coding P1 region. This shows that the virus responds to the antibodies raised in both bovine (natural host) and guineapig (experimental host). The result herein further extends the role of the host antibody in the rapid evolution of FMD Virus.
Studied the effect of different levels of maize gluten meal (60%) on the growth performance of broiler at Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam during October-November, 1999. 300 chicks were divided in six groups, Group A (control), while Groups B, C, D, E and F were given 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% and 15% maize gluten meal respectively. It was observed that highest maize gluten meal MGM levels of 12% (E) and 15% (F) did not show positive effect on any of the quantitative and qualitative characters and group D (9% MGM) was considered as an optimum MGM level for obtaining economical and profitable results. Group D (9% MGM) consumed relatively less quantity of feed (4246.51 g) per bird and produced significantly higher weight gain (2063.50) g, feed conversion ratio (2.05), dressing percentage (68.95), liver weight (51.39) g, gizzard weight (31.27) g and heart weight (10.81) g. No mortality was recorded in group ‘D` and hence was most economical by offering Rs. 26.34/bird net profit as compared to Rs. 23.33, 22.99, 22.36, 12.49 and 11.03/bird net profit in groups F, E, C, B and A, respectively. It was concluded that maize gluten meal (MGM) is a valuable ingredient for broiler ration including 9% MGM proved to be an efficient feed ingredient for optimum broiler growth. Further increase in MGM ingredient did not show any positive effect on production and profitable broiler farming.
Eighteen beef steers (British x Continental; average bW at sampling 329kg) were used to evalute effects of added dietary fat (yello grease) concentration on serum and lung lavage sample concentrations of florfenciol. Steers were assigned randomly to dietary fat concentrations and were housed in individual pens. Treatments were a 70% concentrate diet with 0% added fat (6 steers), 3% added fat (6 steers), and 6% added fat (6 steers). Steers were fed at approximately 2.25% (as-fed absis) of BW for 3 wk before sampling. Florfenicol (Nuflor; Schering-Plough Anim. Health) was administered s.c. at 40 mg/kg of BW in the neck. Serum and lung lavage samples were collected at 0, 6, 12, 24 48 and 72 h after administration of florfenicol. Concentrations of florfenicol in lung lavage fluid an dcells were non-detectable. In serum. In serum, no florfenicol concentrations were observed at 0 h. At 6 h, a quadratic (P0.10) were observed at 12 h. At 24 h, however, a linear (P0.10) were observed at 48 or 72 h. Results suggest that added dietary fat influences serum concentrations of florfenicol. Hoever, methods more sensitive to small antibiotic concentrations need to be conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary fat on host tissue concentrations.
Four Holstein steers (142±9.3 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and p>roximal duodenum were used in a 4x4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the influence of corn processing on digestive function. Four dietary treatments were compared: 1) SFC (density = 0.31 kg L-1); 2) coarsely-ground corn (DRC-CG, density = 0.55 kg L-1); 3) Medium-coarsely Ground-corn (DRC-MG, density = 0.50 kg L-1) and 4) Fine-ground corn (DRC-FG, density = 0.45 kg L-1).The basal diet contained 73.25 corn and 9.8 % forage. Method of corn processing had no effect (p>0.10) on ruminal pH, VFA or methane production. There were no treatment effects (p>0.10) on ruminal digestion of feed N and ruminal microbial efficiency. Ruminal and total tract digestion of ADF was not affected (p>0.10) by corn processing. Ruminal digestibility of OM and starch was greater (12.6 and 14%, respectively; p>0.10) for SFC than for DRC-CG, DRC-MG and DRC-FG. Total-tract digestibilities of OM, starch, N and DE were greater (6.1, 3.9, 8.4 and 7.3% respectively, p>0.10) for SFC than for DRC treatments. Total tract digestibility of starch tended to increase (linear component, p>0.10) with degree of dry processing, although total tract digestibility of OM and GE was not improved (p>0.10). Given that the DE value of SFC was 4.10 Mcal kg-1, the DE values for DRC-CG, DRC-MG and DRC-FG were 3.88, 3.71 and 3.60 Mcal kg-1, respectively. It is concluded that the feeding value of dry-processed corn is not enhanced by reducing the particle size of the kernels beyond to that obtained following coarse rolling.
The present seroprevalence of EDS-76 by HI test revealed widespread distribution of EDS-76 antibodies in layer chicken in Kerala, India. Out of 615 sera samples tested by HI test, 58 samples found to be positive for EDS-76 virus antibodies. The overall prevalence of EDS-76 antibodies in Kerala was 9.43 % The attempts for virus isolation from clinical materials were failed.
To determine the possibility of Egg Drop syndrome `76 virus infection as one of the causes of low egg production in commercial poultry farms in the middle belt of Nigeria and to know the prevalence of the infection. Five farms with the history of low eggs production in Anyigba, Kogi State were randomly selected and sera from ten hens in each of the farms were screened for antibodies against EDS `76 virus by Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) test. The mean HI titer of the ten hens in each farm was recorded as EDS `76 antibody titer for the farm. The 5 farms tested were positive for EDS `76 antibodies with HI titer ranging between 16 and 128.
Stannous (Sn), as fluoride or chloride, is frequently employed to label cells with Technetium-99m (99mTc) to be used as radiopharmaceuticals or radiotracers. Stannous chloride (SnCl2) is employed as a reducing agent to obtain Technetium-99m-labelled radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine kits, being inject endovenously in humans. Toxic effects of these kits were not studied, thus making it important to evaluate their impact in humans. The use of natural extracts as medicines is growing around the world. The Ageratum conysoides is a plant with analgesic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, depurative, febrifuge, stimulant and vulnerary properties. In order to analyze the effects of the referred extract, in this study plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was exposed to the A. conysoides extract (aqueous extract) (0.1g.mL-1) in presence of stannous chloride (SnCl2). Samples of the plasmid DNA were analyzed through agarose gel electrophoresis. Concerning to the results obtained it was noticed that the refereed extract were capable of damaging the DNA in the presence and in the absent of SnCl2.