Journal of Anatomy

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1469-7580
Print ISSN: 0021-8782
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After birth, exposure to visual inputs modulates cortical development, inducing numerous changes in all of the components of the visual cortex. Most of the cortical changes thus induced occur during what is called the critical period. Astrocytes play an important role in the development, maintenance and plasticity of the cortex as well as in the structure and function of the vascular network. Visual deprivation induces a decrease in the astroglial population, whereas enhanced experience increases it. Exposure to an enriched environment has been shown to prevent the effects of dark-rearing in the visual cortex. Our purpose was to study the effects of an enriched environment on the density of astrocytes per reference surface at the visual cortex of dark-reared rats, in order to determine if enhanced experience is able to compensate the quantitative effects of visual deprivation and the role of physical exercise on the enrichment paradigm. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in one of the following rearing conditions: control rats with standard housing (12-h light/dark cycle); in total darkness for the dark-rearing experiments; and dark-rearing in conditions of enriched environment without and with physical exercise. The astrocytic density was estimated by immunohistochemistry for S-100beta protein. Quantifications were performed in layer IV. The somatosensorial cortex barrel field was also studied as control. The volume of layer IV was stereologically calculated for each region, age and experimental condition. From the beginning of the critical period, astrocyte density was higher in control rats than in the enriched environment group without physical exercise, with densities of astrocytes around 20% higher at all of the different ages. In contrast, when the animals had access to voluntary exercise, densities were significantly higher than even the control rats. Our main result shows that strategies to apply environmental enrichment should always consider the incorporation of physical exercise, even for sensorial areas such as the visual area, where complex enriched experience by itself is not enough to compensate the effects of visual deprivation.
 
We examined 1020 dry clavicles from cadavers of Italian origin to determine the prevalence of the coracoclavicular joint (ccj), a diarthrotic synovial joint occasionally present between the conoid tubercle of the clavicle and the superior surface of the horizontal part of the coracoid process. Five hundred and nine clavicles from individuals of different ages were submitted to X-ray examination. Using radiography, we measured the entire length and the index of sinuosity of the anterior lateral curve, on which the distance between the conoid tubercle and the coracoid process depends. We also used radiography to record the differences in prevalence of arthritis in two neighbouring joints, the acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joints. Of the 1020 clavicles, eight (0.8%) displayed the articular facet of the ccj. No statistical correlation was found between clavicular length and the index of sinuosity of the anterior lateral curve. The prevalence of arthritis in clavicles with ccj was higher than that revealed in clavicles without ccj. The prevalence of ccj in the studied clavicles is lower than that observed in Asian cohorts. Furthermore, ccj is not conditioned by either length or sinuosity of the anterior lateral curve of the clavicle. Finally, the assumption that ccj is a predisposing factor for degenerative changes of neighbouring joints is statistically justified.
 
Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is part of the innate immune system involved in lung homeostasis. SP-D knockout mice show accumulations of foamy alveolar macrophages, alveolar lipoproteinosis and pulmonary emphysema. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been described in the coding sequence of the human SP-D gene SFTPD. Clinical studies showed that the SNP SFTPD with a nucleotide change from A to C resulting in a Met to Thr substitution at position 11 in the protein (Met(11)Thr), is relevant. This study set out to create a humanised mouse model of the Met(11)Thr SNP. Transgenic mice lines expressing either Met(11) or Thr(11) SP-D under the control of the ubiquitously expressed pROSA26 promoter in C57Bl/6 SP-D deficient mice (DKO) was created. Both Met(11) (142 ± 52 ng mL(-1) ) and Thr(11) (228 ± 76 ng mL(-1) ) mice lines expressed human SP-D at almost similar levels. According to the literature this was within the range of SP-D levels found in wildtype (WT) mice (253 ± 22 ng mL(-1) ). Met(11) or Thr(11) SP-D in serum from transgenic mice bound maltose in a calcium-dependent manner, and binding was inhibited in the presence of EDTA or maltose. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed for both transgenic mice lines complementation of the DKO phenotype by restoring cell counts, phospholipid levels and protein content back to WT levels. Cytospins of BAL pellet cells showed a resemblance to WT but both mice lines showed some foamy alveolar macrophages. The stereological analysis showed for none of the mice lines a complete abrogation of emphysematous alterations. However, both Met(11) and Thr(11) mice lines were partially reverted back to a WT phenotype when compared with DKO mice, indicating important effects on surfactant metabolism in vivo.
 
In the avian lung, the bronchial system forms from epithelial (endodermal) cells. The intrapulmonary primary bronchus is the focal point of airway development. It originates secondary bronchi (SB) along its proximal-distal extent and parabronchi (tertiary bronchi) arise from and connect the SB. From as early as day 3.5, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is diffusely expressed in the epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Up-regulation of FGF-2 in discrete areas of the developing lung seem to set the growth rate, trajectories followed, areas appropriated, three-dimensional symmetry and coupling of the airways. Expressed early in development and persisting into the incubation period, FGF-2 may be involved in the formation of the avian lung. Morphogenetic differences between the avian and the mammalian lungs may explain the existing structural contrarieties.
 
Post-implantation mouse and rat embryos are usually cultured in sera obtained from various rodents and from humans. We describe here a simple and inexpensive culture medium--Dulbecco's minimal essential medium/Ham's F12 (DMEM/F12) supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS)--in which E11.5 rat embryos of the Hebrew University Sabra strain grow for 28 h slightly better than in heat-inactivated 90% rat serum with 10% distilled water and addition of 1 mg mL(-1) glucose. They have good growth and development and a low rate of anomalies, similar to that observed in embryos cultured on rat serum. Their size, total score and olfactory system development is slightly higher than in rat embryos cultured in rat serum. About 7.2% of these embryos exhibit subcutaneous haemorrhages in various areas, but these do not seem to interfere with their growth and development. This method is not appropriate for younger embryos; in E10.5 embryos cultured for 28 h we found increased embryonic death and anomalies.
 
Glucocorticoids have been implicated in male reproductive function and 11β-HSD-1 and -2, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), all of which are known to modulate glucocorticoid action, have been localised in the adult rat epididymis, but their developmental expression has not been investigated. Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, responsible for sodium transport, is induced by both mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids in the kidney and colon, and has been localised in epididymal epithelium. This study examined the immunolocalisation of 11β-HSD-1 and -2, GR, MR and Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in rat epididymal epithelium (n = 5) at postnatal days (pnd) 1, 7, 15, 28, 40, 60, 75 and 104, and relative mRNA expression of 11β-HSD-1 and -2, and GR at pre-puberty (pnd 28) and post-puberty (pnd 75). 11β-HSD-1, GR and MR were localised in the epididymal epithelium from pnd 1, and 11β-HSD-2 and Na(+)K(+)-ATPase reactivity from pnd 15. At pnd 28 there was maximal immunoreactivity for both the GR and MR and 11β-HSD-1 and -2. 11β-HSD-1 mRNA expression in the caput increased from pre- to post-puberty, whereas 11β-HSD-2 mRNA expression fell over the same period (P < 0.01). GR mRNA expression was similar at pre- and post-puberty in both caput and cauda. Developmental changes in expression of 11β-HSD-1 and -2 suggest that overall exposure of the epididymis to glucocorticoids increases post-puberty, but cell-specific expression of the 11β-HSD enzymes still provides a capacity for intricate local control of glucocorticoid exposure.
 
Palatogenesis in the Wistar rat fetus was studied macroscopically, ultrastructurally and experimentally between days 13 and 19. Palatal shelf elevation occurs at day 16.4 ± 0.1. Experimentally induced shelf elevation in freshly delivered fetuses was sluggish at day 14, but day by day 16.3 it occurred in less than 1 second. Both shelf by shelf fusion begin anteriorly where the shelves show a marked convexity of their margins, and proceed posteriorly. The extreme posterior part of each shelf (future soft palate) is horizontal from the beginning. The matrix of the shelf mesenchyme (especially in the region of the anterior convexities) shows an increasing accumulation of mucopolysaccharides from day 14 to day 16.3 and becomes increasingly oedematous. The shelf attachment to the main maxillary process is progressively undercut by epithelial invagination, producing a fulcrum for shelf elevation. The maxillary and palatine osteogenic blastemata are present at the base of the shelf prior to elevation and rapidly invade the shelves after the event. The elevated palatal shelves fuse with the nasal septum anteriorly, but posteriorly the palate is not attached to the septum. The posterior septum at first has a free lower edge, but then it develops lateral flanges which fuse with corresponding bulges on the lateral nasal walls. In this way two sphenoethmoidal recesses are formed above the fused flanges, while a common nasal passage is formed above the palate, roofed anteriorly by the septal flanges and posteriorly by the cranial base. The space needed to create (simultaneous with shelf elevation) the common nasal passage is made available by flattening of the tongue and protrusion of its tip out of the oral cavity - this protrusion being facilitated by the sloping bulge of the primary palate and nasal septum.
 
5-[125I]iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (125IUdR) has been shown to be effective in monitoring DNA synthesis in murine tumour and human benign prostatic hyperplasia explants maintained in organ culture for 2 days, thus making possible the rapid screening of antitumour drugs. Uptake was linear for at least 24 hours in the case of the murine tumour and for 6 hours in the case of the prostate. Hydroxyurea almost completely blocked uptake by the murine tumour at doses above 10(-4) mole. Fluorodeoxyuridine (10(-6) mole) markedly increased the uptake of 125IUdR into the human prostate explants. Fixation of the murine tumour explants in alcoholic Bouin after culture did not alter the radioactive uptake and so routine histological examination of the tissue can be carried out after counting, which is a major advantage over [3H]thymidine.
 
Mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) was iodinated with 125iodine (I) and injected intravenously into pregnant mice in order to examine whether mouse granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells are able to take up IgG in vivo. The mice were injected intravenously on days 8, 12 or 16 of pregnancy and killed either 5 min, 2 h or 24 h after injection. Implantation sites and spleen, thymus, liver and para-aortic lymph nodes were fixed and autoradiographs of sectioned (1 micron) material prepared to examine the distribution of labelled IgG. In general, at all stages of pregnancy and time intervals examined after injection of the 125I IgG, radioactivity was detected at higher levels in blood vessels than in tissue spaces of the same regions. No evidence for the uptake of radioactive IgG by normal GMG cells in the decidua basalis, metrial gland or in the maternal blood spaces of the labyrinthine placenta was found. The only GMG cells which had accumulations of silver grains showed signs of pyknosis. The uptake of IgG by stromal cells in close proximity to GMG cells and the distribution of radioactivity in the extravascular tissues showed that the intravenously injected 125I IgG was available to the GMG cells. Accumulations of silver grains were a prominent feature of the regions immediately adjacent to most GMG cells in the placental labyrinth and some were clearly associated with degenerate layer 1 trophoblast cells. The radioactivity detected in degenerate GMG cells and degenerate layer 1 trophoblast cells may be the result of nonspecific uptake as a consequence of the cells' death.
 
In order to analyse the patterns of cellular proliferation both in the mesenchyme of the urorectal septum (URS) and in the adjacent territories (posterior urogenital mesenchyme, anterior intestinal mesenchyme and cloacal folds mesenchyme), as well as their contribution to the process of cloacal division, a computer-assisted method was used to obtain the nuclear area of 3874 mesenchymal cells from camera lucida drawings of nuclear contours of selected sections of human embryos [Carnegie stages (CSs) 13-18]. Based on changes in the size of the nucleus during the cellular cycle, we considered proliferating cells in each territory to be those with a nuclear area over the 75th percentile. The URS showed increasing cell proliferation, with proliferation patterns that coincided closely with cloacal folds mesenchyme, and with less overall proliferation than urogenital and intestinal mesenchymes. Furthermore, at CS 18, we observed the beginning of the rupture in the cloacal membrane; however, no fusion has been demonstrated either between the URS and the cloacal membrane or between the cloacal folds. The results suggest that cloacal division depends on a morphogenetic complex where the URS adjacent territories could determine septal displacement at the time that their mesenchymes could be partially incorporated within the proliferating URS.
 
Numerous studies have reported that all components of the cerebral arterial circle in the 4-month-old human fetus are more slender than adult vessels, and of equal caliber. After that period, a degree of caliber differentiation is present, especially at the level of the posterior communicating arteries. The aim of this study was to determine arterial diameters in the posterior part of the fetal cerebral arterial circle from the 4th month (IV) to the 6th (VI). One hundred and seventy-two fetal cerebral arterial circles were examined by means of a surgical microscope. It was determined that average diameters of the left (right) pre-communicating parts of the posterior cerebral artery ranged from 0.30 +/- 0.03 (0.29 +/- 0.02) mm in month IV, to 0.36 +/- 0.04 (0.36 +/- 0.03) mm during month V and up to 0.55 +/- 0.22 (0.50 +/- 0.18) mm in month VI. The average diameters of the left (right) posterior communicating artery ranged from 0.24 +/- 0.02 mm (0.25 +/- 0.02) in month IV, to 0.30 +/- 0.03 mm (0.29 +/- 0.05) during month V and up to 0.38 +/- 0.08 (0.44 +/- 0.10) in month VI. Gender differences between posterior cerebral artery and posterior communicating artery diameters were not significant. Average posterior cerebral artery diameters were significantly larger than posterior communicating artery diameters in months IV and V, but not in month VI. It was established that caliber differentiation in the posterior part of the cerebral arterial circle began from gestational month IV, and that gender differences in arterial diameters were not significant until month VI of gestation.
 
The oesophagus of 18 minipiglets was exposed to endoscopic intraluminal irradiation with a 1320 nm Nd:YAG laser (10 W, 20 s) via a radial applicator with strictly radially symmetric light distribution. Immediately and at 2, 3, 4 and 8 wk after irradiation, the oesophagus was perfusion-fixed and filled with contrast solution. Radiographs were taken for evaluation by microradiometry. The specimens were subsequently prepared for light and transmission electron microscopy. The immediate reaction to irradiation was a morphological gradient of damage extending from the centre of the laser exposure where there was cellular thermonecrosis in all layers of the wall and condensation of the extracellular matrix, to a peripheral zone (at a distance of up to 8 mm from the region where the laser was centred) which showed only minor tissue damage manifested by intracellular vacuolation. In this zone dilatation of most vascular lumina was prominent. In the period between 2 and 8 wk after irradiation all phases of wound healing were observed and resulted in occlusion of the lumen of the oesophagus by early scar tissue after an interval of more than 3 wk at the former centre of laser exposure. Peripherally, epithelial regeneration resulted in a new luminal lining. Both the process of epithelial regeneration and that of fibrous repair indicated a good reparative capacity of laser-irradiated oesophageal wall tissues resembling the phases of normal wound healing. The immediate laser interaction with tissue indicated that the noncellular matrix components of tissues are more resistant to the photothermal effect than the cellular components.
 
Klippel-Feil syndrome, or synostosis of the cervical spine, is the result of an abnormal division of somites during embryonic development. This report analyses an adult male (exhumed from a Portuguese graveyard dating from the 13th to the 15th century) with malformations in the cranium and vertebral column. Besides the lesions that are typical of Klippel-Feil syndrome type II, other defects usually linked to this pathology are described (occipito-atlantal fusion, hemivertebrae, butterfly vertebrae, cervical rib, changes in normal number of vertebral segments and a possible Sprengel deformity).
 
The role of neurotrophic factors in the maintenance and survival of peripheral neuronal cells has been the subject of numerous studies. Administration of exogenous neurotrophic factors after nerve injury has been shown to mimic the effect of target organ-derived trophic factors on neuronal cells. After axotomy and during peripheral nerve regeneration, the neurotrophins NGF, NT-3 and BDNF show a well defined and selective beneficial effect on the survival and phenotypic expression of primary sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia and of motoneurons in spinal cord. Other neurotrophic factors such as CNTF, GDNF and LIF also exert a variety of actions on neuronal cells, which appear to overlap and complement those of the neurotrophins. In addition, there is an indirect contribution of GGF to nerve regeneration. GGF is produced by neurons and stimulates proliferation of Schwann cells, underlining the close interaction between neuronal and glial cells during peripheral nerve regeneration. Different possibilities have been investigated for the delivery of growth factors to the injured neurons, in search of a suitable system for clinical applications. The studies reviewed in this article show the therapeutic potential of neurotrophic factors for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury and for neuropathies.
 
Small Merkel cells are described in the hard palate epithelium of the chick. Further, spherical juxtaepithelial Merkel cells and more deeply situated apparently degenerating Merkel corpuscles are also described. The observations are interpreted as a reflection of a sequence of growth and decay of Merkel corpuscles, and seem to support the hypothesis of an epithelial origin of the Merkel cells.
 
In order to show changes in the local cerebral glucose utilization during an avoidance task, dry-autoradiography with [14C]deoxyglucose was employed in the present work. The following regions showed increased radioactivity following the avoidance task: nucleus ventralis thalami of the pars medialis and lateralis thalami, corpus striatum, nucleus periventricularis hypothalami, paraflocculus, stratum lacuno-moleculare, and nucleus lateralis septi. Among other regions, the stratum lacuno-moleculare of area CA1 and CA2 of the hippocampus showed increased activity apparently related to the memory formation.
 
We demonstrated fetal peripheral lymphatic vessels (LVs) using D2-40 immunohistochemistry in a whole female fetus (18 weeks of gestation, CRL 155 mm) except for the head. There were abundant LVs in the thyroid gland, lung, stomach, small intestine, rectum and pancreas, whereas no LVs were seen in the parathyroid gland, spleen and adrenal cortex. In the liver, except for the gallbladder bed, LVs were still restricted to around hilar thick portal veins and around the hepatic vein terminals. Subcutaneous LVs were well developed throughout the body even in areas where no or few perforating LVs connected with the deep LVs. The diaphragm contained abundant, dilated LVs in the pleural half of its thickness. LVs were also seen not only along supplying arteries of muscles and cartilage but also along the epimysium and perichondrium. LVs ran in a space between the obliquus internus and transversus abdominis but not between the obliquus internus and obliquus externus. Some tight connective tissues such as the sacrotuberous ligament contained abundant LVs. The intervertebral foramen contained a lymphatic plexus. The present observations provide a better understanding of peripheral lymphatic development. The fetal lymphatic morphology seems not to represent a mini-version of the adult morphology.
 
Our previous reports on medieval mummies in Korea have provided information on their preservation status. Because invasive techniques cannot easily be applied when investigating such mummies, the need for non-invasive techniques incurring minimal damage has increased among researchers. Therefore, we wished to confirm whether endoscopy, which has been used in non-invasive and minimally invasive studies of mummies around the world, is an effective tool for study of Korean mummies as well. In conducting an endoscopic investigation on a 15th-century child mummy, we found that well-preserved internal organs remained within the thoracic, abdominal and cranial cavities. The internal organs - including the brain, spinal cord, lung, muscles, liver, heart, intestine, diaphragm and mesentery - were easily investigated by endoscopy. Even the stool of the mummy, which accidentally leaked into the abdominal cavity during an endoscopic biopsy, was clearly observed. In addition, unusual nodules were found on the surface of the intestines and liver. Our current study therefore showed that endoscopic observation could provide an invaluable tool for the palaeo-pathological study of Korean mummies. This technique will continue to be used in the study of medieval mummy cases in the future.
 
Results of MR analysis of thoracic disc degenerative changes (# Grade 1 or normal ; Grade 2 or moderate ; = Grade 3 or severe), indicating the distribution of disc grades according to age cohort and thoracic region, for (a) females, and (b) males. Data are expressed as a percentage of total discs involved for each sex and age cohort, within a thoracic region.
Comparison of (a) anterior wedge index or Ha\Hp, (b) biconcavity index or Hm\Hp, and (c) compression index or Hp\D, of adjacent vertebral bodies with increasing disc degenerative grades, analysed by sex and thoracic region (* significant difference at P 0.05). Error bars represent 95 % confidence intervals. Legend for disc grades : Grade 1 ; Grade 2 ; Grade 3.
Modified Thompson grading system for MR assessment of disc degeneration
Distribution of 169 cases by age cohort and gender, used in an MR investigation of thoracic vertebral body shape and disc degeneration
There are limited data detailing the pattern of age and gender-related changes to the thoracic vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs. A retrospective MR investigation, involving T1-weighted midsagittal images from 169 cases, was undertaken to examine age influences on the anterior wedge (anteroposterior height ratio or Ha/Hp), biconcavity (midposterior height ratio or Hm/Hp), and compression indices (posterior height/anteroposterior diameter or Hp/D) of the thoracic vertebral bodies. Disc degenerative changes in the annulus, nucleus, end-plate and disc margin were noted on T2-weighted sagittal images for the 169 cases, based on a 3-level grading system. A linear age-related decline in the Ha/Hp and Hm/Hp indices was noted. The Hp/D index increased during the first few decades of life, then decreased gradually thereafter. The prevalence of abnormal findings in the annuli, nuclei and disc margins increased with increasing age, particularly in the mid and lower thoracic discs. Greater disc degenerative changes were observed in males. These findings provide further insight into the nature of thoracic vertebral shape changes across the lifespan, and the typical patterns of degeneration of the thoracic intervertebral discs.
 
Although the contribution to anatomical illustration by Vesalius and his followers has received much attention, less credit has been given to Veslingius and particularly Fabricius. By 1600, Fabricius had amassed more than 300 paintings that together made the Tabulae Pictae, a great atlas of anatomy that was highly admired by his contemporaries. Many of his new observations were incorporated into subsequent books, including those by Casserius, Spighelius, Harvey and Veslingius. Also of importance were the Tabulae by Eustachius (1552), which, although only published in 1714, greatly influenced anatomical wax modelling. In 1742, Pope Benedict XIV established a Museum of Anatomy in Bologna, entrusting to Ercole Lelli the creation of several anatomical preparations in wax. Felice Fontana realised that the production of a large number of models by the casting method would make cadaveric specimens superfluous for anatomical teaching and in 1771 he asked the Grand Duke to fund a wax-modelling workshop in Florence as part of the Natural History Museum, later known as La Specola. Fontana engaged Giuseppe Ferrini as his first modeller and then the 19-year-old Clemente Susini who, by his death in 1814, had superintended the production of, or personally made, more than 2000 models. In 1780, the Austrian Emperor Joseph II visited La Specola and ordered a great number of models for his Josephinum museum; these were made by Fontana with the help of Clemente Susini and supervised by the anatomist Paolo Mascagni. It is, however, in Cagliari that some of Susini's greatest waxes are to be found. These were made when he was free of Fontana's influence and were based on dissections made by Francesco Antonio Boi (University of Cagliari). Their distinctive anatomical features include the emphasis given to nerves and the absence of lymphatics in the brain, a mistake made on earlier waxes. The refined technical perfection of the anatomical details demonstrates the closeness of the cooperation between Susini and Boi, whereas the expressiveness of the faces and the harmony of colours make the models of Cagliari masterpieces of figurative art.
 
During archaeological excavations in the early modern cemetery in Kernavé, Lithuania, a complete skeleton of a presumed adult male individual was found (grave 108). This skeleton showed a short right humerus and missing radius, ulna and hand. Other parts of the skeleton appeared to be normal, characteristic of a robust constitution. The skeletal material was analysed by macroscopic and radiological techniques. Sex and age were determined following the suggestions of the European Association of Anthropologists (Ferembach et al. 1980), measurements were recorded according to Martin (1928) and Bräuer (1988), and the pathological alterations according to Schultz (1988). The robustness and the measurements indicate a male individual, whose age was put at 40–45 y using the combined method (cf. Ferembach et al. 1980; Szilvássy, 1988) of cranial suture closure, spongiosa structure of the proximal humerus and femur and structure of the pubic symphysis. Skeletal elements analysed included both humeri, clavicles and scapulae.
 
Black and white hooded Lister rats were undernourished from the sixteenth day of gestation until 25 postnatal days of age. Around 85 days of age, 12 previously undernourished male rats were assigned to an 'enriched environmental condition' and 12 to an 'isolated environmental condition'. Well fed controls were similarly assigned. After 30 days in these environmental conditions all rats were killed by perfusion with 2% buffered glutaraldehyde. Body and forebrain weights and forebrain lengths and widths were determined for each animal. Cortical depths were measured from sections through the left occipital cortical region. Neuronal and glial cell nuclear diameters and numerical densities as well as neuronal perikaryal volumes were determined from sections through the right visual cortex. In both well fed and previously undernourished groups, the environmentally enriched rats had heavier forebrains and greater forebrain lengths compared to isolated rats. There were no significant differences between enriched and isolated rats in forebrain width or cortical depth measurements in either nutritional group. In both the well fed and previously undernourished groups there were no consistently significant differences between enriched and isolated rats in any of the measurements on neurons and glial cells. Two-way analysis of variance tests on combined data from both nutritional groups indicated significant effects of environment on forebrain weight, forebrain length and on cortical depth in one of the three sections studied (section 10). Nutrition had a significant effect on body weight, forebrain weight and forebrain width. The interaction between nutrition and environment was not statistically significant for any of the measurements carried out.
 
This study has examined the karyometric changes within pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus, motor area 6 and visual area 17 in a hypothyroid group of male mice treated with propylthiouracil, with or without interruption of treatment at the 35th postnatal day. Hypothyroidism resulted in decrease of nuclear size in the three areas before puberty and even after puberty in the hippocampus. Where the treatment was continued throughout the experimental period there was a progressive increase of nuclear size in both visual and motor areas.
 
Top-cited authors
Bernard Wood
  • George Washington University
Evie E Vereecke
Mark Schuenke
  • University of New England (USA)
Frank Willard
  • University of New England (USA)
Lieven Danneels
  • Ghent University