Journal of Agricultural Studies

Published by Macrothink Institute
Online ISSN: 2166-0379
Publications
Effects of salinity on physiological responses of cherry plants
Salt stress is a common environmental challenge that adversely affects plant growth. However, little is known about the responses of plants to short term salinity. In the current experiment, we investigated morphological and physiological responses of a cherry cultivar (0900 Ziraat) grafted onto three rootstocks (CAB-6P, MaxMa 14 and Mazzard) to 35 mM NaCl stress. After one month, salt stress decreased plant growth of cherry plants. Rootstock, scion and shoot diameters and shoot length significantly decreased with salinity. The higher decrease in membrane permeability under salt stress was found in 0900/MaxMa 14 by 41%. 0900/Mazzard had the highest decline in LRWC by 15%. The results obtained demonstrate that a higher tolerance to short term salt stress was found in 0900 Ziraat grafted onto Mazzard is associated with: lower depression in plant growth, less decrease in chlorophyll content and more stability in cell membranes determined in membrane permeability measurement. Furthermore, the results showed that in the short term, cherry can be considered salt tolerant.
 
Soil properties of experiment site (Balcı and Yakupoğlu, 2018)
SPAD, anthocyanin, stomatal conductance and leaf temperature values of cultivars
The study was conducted in order to assess the leaf properties of different sweet cherry varieties grafted onto MaxMa 14 rootstock. The experiment was arranged in a randomized plot desing with three replicates of five plants per replication. The soil analyses showed that the soil properties of experiment site were found as moderate alkaline, low amount of organic material, N, P, Zn and Mn. The soil characteristics may be sub-optimum for cherry growing. According to our results, Kordia had the highest SPAD value (37.86) among the cultivars. Samba, Regina, Kordia and 0900 Ziraat cultivars had the highest anthocyanin contents. The highest stomatal conductance was in 0900 Ziraat cv followed by Sweetheart. Samba had greater leaf area (53.25 cm2) compared to other cultivars. The highest LRWC was obtained with Lorry Bloom. Epicuticular was content of Regina leaves was higher among the cultivars. The results of the present study provide useful informations about how the cherry scions grafted onto MaxMa 14 response to environmental challenges in nature. The identified leaf properties are valuable targets for physiological studies related with environmental stresses.
 
Formulation and proximate composition of the test diets
A 56-day feeding trial was performed to examine the effects of using Nymphaea lotus leaf meal (NLM) on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition, and survival rate of African catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis). Five treatment groups in triplicates with an average of the initial weight of 0.26±0.07g were fed diets incorporated with graded levels of NLM (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%). The obtained results showed that higher final body weight (FBW), daily weight gain (DWG), and specific growth rate (SGR) were observed with fish fed the control diet (CD) and NLM at the level of 20% compared to those of fish fed other diets. Protein efficiency ratios (PER) were not altered with dietary treatment. In addition, feed conversion ratio (FCR) of fish groups fed up to 30% of NLM were not varied (p>0.05), meanwhile, daily feed intake of fish fed NLM diets exhibited lower values compared to those of fish fed CD. Final whole body proximate compositions of catfish showed no significant differences (P>0.05) except for the body total fat and ash contents. Fat contents of fish fed diets incorporated with NLM were significantly lower than those of fish fed the control diet (CD) (P<0.05). Meanwhile, ash contents of fish fed diets incorporated with high levels of NLM (30, 40%) were significantly lower than those of fish fed the control diet (CD) (P<0.05). Survival rates ranged between 72 - 80% and there were no differences among all groups (P > 0.05). Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that up to 20% of NLM protein can be incorporated in the diet of African catfish with no adverse effects on growth performance, feed utilization, and survival rate.
 
Diets composition
To investigate the effects of replacement of fish oil by a mixture of Balanites aegyptiaca and Adansonia digitata seed oils three isonitrogenous (35.36%) and isoenergetic diets (3.48 MJ / kg) were formulated for one kilogram (1kg). The study was carried out on fries Clarias anguillaris for six weeks.At the beginning of the experiment, 90 Clarias anguillaris of the initial average weight of 0.82 ± 0.055g were randomly divided into three different groups with two replicates containing 15 fish/each. Fish were kept in six plastic tanks (50 x 40 x 30 cm) container (50 L). The results showed that the substitution of fish oil by a mixture of Balanites aegyptiaca seed oil and Adansonia digitata seed oil gives growth for all diets. However, the best growths are obtained from all points of view (MWGr, MWGa and SGR) with diet A (mixture of Adansonia seed oil and Balanites seed oil at a ratio of 20 : 20) followed by the diet D (mixture of Adansonia seed oil and Balanites seed oil at 10 : 30) compare to the control diet M containing fish oil. The best FCR was observed with the diet A followed by the diet D compare to the FCR observed with the diet M. The PER was higher in diet A (0.57) followed by diet D with (0.45) that has no significant difference with the control diet M (0.43). The highest value 63% was obtained with the diet D followed by 60% with the diet M and finally the lowest value 53% was obtained with the diet A. In regards to the growth performance, fish fed a 100% vegetable oil diet showed the best growth performance. Therefore, the replacement of fish oil with a mixture of Balanites aegyptiaca seed oil and Adansonia digitata seed oil has no negative impact on the growth of Clarias anguillaris fry. It would be interesting first to study the inclusion rate of Balanites aegyptiaca seed oil for a partial replacement of fish oil.
 
Means and standard deviations of weight and length of fish from groups exposed to different concentrations of the herbicide at the beginning of the experiment (Day 0) and at the end of the experiment (Day 60)
The presence of herbicides in the aquatic environment can cause different effects at all levels of biological organization. This study aimed to evaluate the hepatic alterations of the herbicide Roundup WG® on juvenile Pseudoplatystoma corruscans exposed to three different concentrations of this chemical compound: 0.25g/1000L, 0.50g/1000L, and 0.75g/1000L, plus control treatment (0.00g/1000L). The experiment lasted sixty days and, in the end, liver fragments were collected for further histological processing, using the hematoxylin-eosin (HE) technique. Only the control group showed a statistically significant increase in body mass and total length during the experiment. Blood glucose also showed no difference among the sample groups. The lesions found in the liver considered severe were hemorrhage, vacuolization, and hypertrophy of hepatocytes and the presence of free melanomacrophages, recorded in the groups exposed to 0.50 and 0.75g/1000L. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the herbicide Roundup WG® can promote liver alterations in Pseudoplatystoma corruscans.
 
This article explores the inception and development of pig factory farming in Ontario, Canada, since the 1950s to date, focusing on animal welfare dimensions. The study showed that although the term “animal welfare” was not well-known until the 1980s, discussions on cruelty and abnormal animal behaviour begun in the early days of factory farms. The article also delves into tensions between the humane movement and the agribusiness sector in Ontario. The article further sheds light on the social context that eventually led to an alliance in support of a conservative, incomplete notion of animal welfare between these former opponents. The article posits that as opposed to supporting the abolition of factory farming, the concept of animal welfare became central to implementing limited reforms in factory farming to convince the public and to marginalize discordant voices while concurrently expanding pig and other animal production worldwide.
 
Mean and standard deviation of the density of myenteric neurons revealed by
The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is widely used in several countries. Research on the neurotoxicity of 2,4-D has been focused on the central nervous system, and little is known about its effects on the myenteric plexus. Therefore, to elucidate the neurotoxicity of 2,4-D and the viability of its use, we investigated the effects of daily intake of 5 mg 2,4-D/kg for 60 days on the myenteric plexus neurons of the rat ileum using quantitative and morphometric analyses. Twenty male Wistar rats aged 60 days were divided into two groups (n=10 rats/group). The group E animals received daily 5 mg doses of 2,4-D/kg diluted in 1 mL of water, whereas the group C animals were not treated with the herbicide. The animals were euthanized with anesthetic after 60 days; subsequently, the ileum was dissected out, and procedures were performed to visualize the total population of neurons (Giemsa staining), the nitrergic neurons (NADPHd+), and the estimated population of cholinergic neurons (NADPHd-). The results were statistically analyzed and compared between groups. In group E, the densities of Giemsa-stained neurons and NADPHd- neurons decreased (p<0.05) by 7% and 10%, respectively, whereas the density of NADPHd+ neurons remained constant. The cell body area was 5.8% greater (p<0.05) for the NADPHd+ neurons but remained unchanged for the neurons stained with Giemsa. These results suggest that 2,4-D causes a reduction in neuronal density, particularly for cholinergic neurons, and promotes an increase in the cell body area of nitrergic neurons, leading to hypertrophy.
 
Emergence of cucumber seedlings grown in soil contaminated with 2,4-D + picloram at different times of evaluation The residue of this herbicide can cause damage to sensitive species, causing a drastic reduction in their emergence. The effects on the early development of sensitive plants (tomatoes, lettuce, cucumbers, cotton, grapes and tobacco) can be seen in very low doses (Mancuso et al., 2011; Franceschi et al., 2019).
Herbicide breakdown x evaluation times of the dry air mass variable of Cucumis sativus L. seedlings grown under different phytoremediation agents, herbicide dose and evaluation periods
Physical and chemical characterization of the dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol used in the experiments before correction
Evaluation times x Varieties of the variable aerial dry mass of Cucumis sativus L. seedlings cultivated in soil contaminated with herbicide collected after cultivation of different maize varieties in three evaluation times
Sample Split x Herbicide x Evaluation times for root dry mass of Cucumis sativus L. seedlings grown under different phytoremediation agents, herbicide dose and evaluation times
The use of herbicides such as 2,4-D + picloram in livestock areas can contaminate and hinder the use of the production system for subsequent crops of other crops. The objective of the research was to evaluate the ability of landrace maize varieties to reduce contamination of soil treated with 2,4-D + picloram, simulating existing conditions in the Amazon Biome. The experiment consisted of 6 phytoremediation treatments (4 landrace maize varieties, 1 hybrid maize cultivar and 1 control without cultivation), 2 herbicide conditions (with and without) and 3 evaluation periods (28, 56 and 84 days). The soil was contaminated and the maize was subsequently cultivated under the herbicide conditions mentioned above. After each evaluation period, soil samples were collected, which were used to mount bioassays by growing cucumber (plants sensitive to the herbicide). Emergence, aerial dry mass and root dry mass were evaluated. All variables were affected by the herbicide residue. However, the reduction in herbicide persistence in each evaluation period was notable, resulting in the normal reestablishment of bioindicator seedlings, especially in the last evaluation at 84 days. The samples obtained in the soil cultivated with the varieties CR purple and CR white showed the best conditions for the development of cucumber, demonstrating the potential to be studied in phytoremediation programs.
 
Shibuyunji District, Zambia
Area allocated towards cultivation of major crops in Shibuyunji district during the 2012/2013 agricultural season.
Crop production and sales in Shibuyunji District, 2012/2013 agricultural season
Typology of input subsidy packages under the Fertilizer Input Support Programme. 2 Basal fertilizer is (N: P 2 O: K 0, 10:20:10) while top dressing fertilizer is 46% N. 
Off-season vegetable crop production in Shibuyunji district, 2012/2013 agricultural season
The study, conducted in central Zambia was aimed at determining the major drivers of crop production choices among smallholder farmers. It utilized recent national crop production and utilization data; 200 semi-structured interview schedules, and key informant interviews Journal of Agricultural Studies 2 conducted with smallholder farmers and experts from the agricultural sector in Zambia respectively. Results showed that despite being confronted by late onset of rains and post germination crop attacks by army worms which made maize (Zea mays) production extremely precarious, 61.5% of the affected smallholder farmers replanted their cultivated land with maize. The farmers had a choice of whether to replant maize which had a ready market from the state agency, the Food Reserve Agency, or to plant a drought tolerant crop such as sorghum or millet which would have guaranteed them with household food security from own production. They mainly chose the former option. They increased production of other crops such as soya beans (Glycine max), sun flower (Helianthus annuus) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) when contract farming with private business entities became available. Markets determined smallholder farmers' crop production choices more than household food security from own production or availability of climate information forecasting poor rainfall distribution. The study concludes that (i) prior knowledge of climate information does not necessarily result in a change of smallholder farmers' crop production choices in response to a predicted climate anomaly, (ii) markets are a major determinant of crops cultivated by smallholder farmers, and hence adaptation measures involving crop diversification should be designed with market availability in mind.
 
p align="center">Reviewer Acknowledgements for Vol. 4, No. 4, December 2016 Journal of Agricultural Studies would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JAS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue Reviewers for Volume 4, Number 4 Abhishek A. Cukkemane Aftab Alam Ariel Reinaldo Soto Chenlin Hu Ewa Moliszewska Gerardo Ojeda Jeong Hwan Sahar Bahmani Zakaria Fouad Abdallah Zhao Chen Richard Williams Editor Journal of Agricultural Studies ------------------------------------------- Macrothink Institute 5348 Vegas Dr.#825 Las Vegas, Nevada 89108 United States Phone: 1-702-953-1852 ext.521 Fax: 1-702-420-2900 Email: jas@macrothink.org URL: http://jas.macrothink.org</p
 
Journal of Agricultural Studies would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JAS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issueReviewers for Volume 5, Number 1Eliana Mariela Werbin, National University of Cordoba, ArgentinianEwa Moliszewska, Opole University, PolandPramod Kumar Mishra, Indian Institute of Management Bangalore, India Sahar Bahmani, University of Wisconsin at Parkside, USASait Engindeniz, Ege University Faculty of Agriculture, TurkeyGerardo Ojeda, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, ColombiaHui Guo, University of Georgia, USAZakaria Fouad Abdallah, National Research Centre, Egypt Zhao Chen, Clemson University, USChenlin Hu, The Ohio State University, USALuisa Pozzo, IBBA of Pisa, ItalyAftab Alam, Edenworks Inc. New York, USAErnest Baafi, CSIR-Crops Research Institute, GhanaJeong Hwan, Sejong University, South KoreaAbhishek A. Cukkemane, Bijasu Agri Research Laboratory LLP, IndiaSoto Caro Ariel Reinaldo, Universidad de Concepción, Chile Richard WilliamsEditorJournal of Agricultural Studies-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesPhone: 1-702-953-1852 ext.521Fax: 1-702-420-2900Email: jas@macrothink.orgURL: http://jas.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Agricultural Studies would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JAS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issueReviewers for Volume 5, Number 2 Abhishek A. Cukkemane, Bijasu Agri Research Laboratory LLP, IndiaAshit Kumar Paul, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, BangladeshChenlin Hu, The Ohio State University, USA,Eliana Mariela Werbin, National University of Cordoba, ArgentinianErnest Baafi, CSIR-Crops Research Institute, GhanaGerardo Ojeda , Universidad Nacional de Colombia, ColombiaGulzar Ahmad Nayik, SLIET Punjab, IndiaJiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, NepalMing-Chi Wei, Department and Graduate Institute of Pharmacology, TaiwanReham Ibrahim Abo-Shnaf, Agricultural Research Center, EgyptSahar Bahmani, University of Wisconsin at Parkside, USASait Engindeniz, Ege University Faculty of Agriculture, TurkeySelmi Houc, University of Jandouba, TunisiaSoto Caro Ariel Reinaldo, Universidad de Concepción, ChileZakaria Fouad Abdallah, National Research Centre, EgyptZhao Chen, Clemson University, US Richard Williams,EditorJournal of Agricultural Studies-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesPhone: 1-702-953-1852 ext.521Fax: 1-702-420-2900Email: jas@macrothink.orgURL: http://jas.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Agricultural Studies would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JAS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issueReviewers for Volume 5, Number 3 Aftab Alam, Edenworks Inc., USAAshit Kumar Paul, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, BangladeshChenlin Hu, The Ohio State University, USA,Ernest Baafi, CSIRCrops Research Institute, GhanaEwa Moliszewska, Opole University, PolandGerardo Ojeda, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, ColombiaJeong Hwan, Sejong University, South Korea Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, NepalPramod Kumar Mishra, School of Management Studies, IndiaSoto Caro Ariel Reinaldo, Universidad de Concepción, ChileZakaria Fouad Abdallah, National Research Centre, EgyptZhao Chen, Clemson University, USA Richard Williams,EditorJournal of Agricultural Studies-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesPhone: 1-702-953-1852 ext.521Fax: 1-702-420-2900Email: jas@macrothink.orgURL: http://jas.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Agricultural Studies would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JAS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issueReviewers for Volume 5, Number 4Abhishek A. Cukkemane, Bijasu Agri Research Laboratory LLP, IndiaAftab Alam, Edenworks Inc. New York, USAChenlin Hu, The Ohio State University, USA,Ernest Baafi, CSIR-Crops Research Institute, GhanaEwa Moliszewska, Opole University, PolandGerardo Ojeda, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, ColombiaMoses Olotu, Mkwawa University College of Educati, TanzaniaSahar Bahmani, University of Wisconsin at Parkside, USAZakaria Fouad Abdallah, National Research Centre, EgyptZhao Chen, Clemson University, USAZoi M. Parissi, School of Forestry and Natural Environment Aristotle University, Greece Richard Williams,EditorJournal of Agricultural Studies-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesPhone: 1-702-953-1852 ext.521Fax: 1-702-420-2900Email: jas@macrothink.orgURL: http://jas.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Agricultural Studies would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JAS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 6, Number 2 Abhishek A. Cukkemane, Bijasu Agri Research Laboratory LLP, IndiaAshit Kumar Paul, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, BangladeshBabak Mohammadi, University of Tehran, IranChenlin Hu, The Ohio State University, USAGerardo Ojeda , Universidad Nacional de Colombia, ColombiaMohamed Mattar, King Saud University, Saudi ArabiaPramod Kumar Mishra, University of Hyderabad, IndiaSahar Bahmani, University of Wisconsin at Parkside, USASait Engindeniz, Ege University Faculty of Agriculture, TurkeySoto Caro Ariel Reinaldo, Universidad de Concepción, ChileZhao Chen, Clemson University, USA Richard Williams,EditorJournal of Agricultural Studies-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesPhone: 1-702-953-1852 ext.521Fax: 1-702-420-2900Email: jas@macrothink.orgURL: http://jas.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Agricultural Studies would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JAS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issueReviewers for Volume 6, Number 1 Gerardo Ojeda, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, ColombiaLuisa Pozzo, "Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology (IBBA) of Pisa, National Research Council", ItalySahar Bahmani, University of Wisconsin at Parkside, USASelmi Houc, University of Jandouba, TunisiaZakaria Fouad Abdallah, National Research Centre, EgyptZhao Chen, Clemson University, US Richard Williams,EditorJournal of Agricultural Studies-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesPhone: 1-702-953-1852 ext.521Fax: 1-702-420-2900Email: jas@macrothink.orgURL: http://jas.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Agricultural Studies would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JAS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 6, Number 4Abhishek A. Cukkemane, Bijasu Agri Research Laboratory LLP, IndiaAftab Alam, Edenworks Inc. New York, USAAnil Kumar Matta, Vaddeswaram, Guntur dst, IndiaBabak Mohammadi, University of Tehran, IranChenlin Hu, The Ohio State University, USAEben von Well, Agricultural Research Council, South AfricaEliana Mariela Werbin, National University of Cordoba, ArgentinianErnest Baafi, CSIR-Crops Research Institute, GhanaIl Rae Rho, Gyeongsang National University, South KoreaJiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, NepalSait Engindeniz, Ege University Faculty of Agriculture, TurkeySelmi Houc, University of Jandouba, TunisiaServet Aras, Bozok University, TurkeySomaia Alkhair, Alzaeim Alazhari University, Saudi ArabiaSoto Caro Ariel Reinaldo, Universidad de Concepción, ChileZakaria Fouad Abdallah, National Research Centre, Egypt Richard Williams,EditorJournal of Agricultural Studies-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesPhone: 1-702-953-1852 ext.521Fax: 1-702-420-2900Email: jas@macrothink.orgURL: http://jas.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Agricultural Studies would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JAS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 6, Number 3 Abhishek A. Cukkemane, Bijasu Agri Research Laboratory LLP, IndiaAnil Kumar Matta, Vaddeswaram, Guntur dst, IndiaBabak Mohammadi, University of Tehran, IranChenlin Hu, The Ohio State University, USAEben von Well, Agricultural Research Council, South AfricaEliana Mariela Werbin, National University of Cordoba, ArgentinianErnest Baafi, CSIR-Crops Research Institute, GhanaEwa Moliszewska, Opole University, PolandGerardo Ojeda, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, ColombiaPramod Kumar Mishra, University of Hyderabad, IndiaSahar Bahmani, University of Wisconsin at Parkside, USASait Engindeniz, Ege University Faculty of Agriculture, TurkeyZakaria Fouad Abdallah, National Research Centre, EgyptZhao Chen, Clemson University, USAZoi M. Parissi, School of Forestry and Natural Environment Aristotle University, Greece Richard Williams,EditorJournal of Agricultural Studies-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesPhone: 1-702-953-1852 ext.521Fax: 1-702-420-2900Email: jas@macrothink.orgURL: http://jas.macrothink.org
 
Heterosis over mid parent and better parent for days to maturity, plant height, stem diameter and head diameter in sunflower
Selected eight inbreed line were used in crossing as half diallel fashion to find out different genetic parameter as well as targeting superior combination for hybrid vigour. Sunflower first introduce in Bangladesh 1980 by Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute and Mennonite Central Committee. BARI Sunflower-1(Kironi) and BARI Sunflower-2 is only two released variety. But major obstacles for sunflower cultivation are both varieties are more than 1.50m height and require > 100 days for maturity. As this country is facing climate change unfavorable weather, sunflower cannot withstand in stormy weather. Specially at the time of prematurity stormy weather causes lodging due to over height, it is essential to develop dwarf stature plant. Due to strong crop competition in winter it cannot fit in major cropping pattern T-Aman-Mustard-Boro due to it long duration. Bangladesh has accessible land of 0.85 million hectares in saline areas (Banik et al., 2011). These lands can be used for sunflower cultivation as it is moderately saline tolerant (Rahman et. al. 2018). On the other hand in different part of Bangladesh (e.g. Cumilla, Manikgonj, Sherpur, Jamalpur, Netrokina, Tangail, Dinajpur, etc.), a huge amount of lands are kept fellow after T. Aman harvest. These current fellow lands can be easily used by sunflower cultivation if short duration varieties are available. Both plant height and days to maturity were considered as favorable for negative heterosis to obtain dwarf plant stature and short duration plant to fit in existing cropping pattern in Bangladesh. Positive heterosis is considered desirable for other yield contributing traits. The hybrid HE15, HE17 and HE16 showed significant negative heterosis both for mid parent and better parent. Negative heterosis for plant height is desirable to adopt hybrid in unfavorable weather condition. The Hybrid HE15 showed both for significant negative mid parent and better parent heterosis. High heritability along with significant mid parent and better parent heterosis indicate scope of utilization of hybrid as commercial and further use in breeding programmes. Several outstanding cross combinations, HE17, HE16, HE14, HE15, and HE18 showed significant and desirable heterosis for seed yield per plant over mid parent and better parent. The hybrid combinations HE17, HE16 and HE14 could be utilized to exploit the heterosis as well as commercial multiplication of seed to get direct benefit by the farmers.
 
Mean (M, indicated unit) and Coefficients of variation (CV, %) for groups of samples organized by first order of BSSC and soil horizon. C/FSand = Coarse/Fine Sand, %; Silt and Clay in %; FD = Flocculation Degree, %; pH dimensionless; OrgC = Organic C, N, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, K and P in mg.kg -1 ; BS = Base saturation, %
Means for the chemical variables by class of soil and horizons A and sub-superficial.
Relative accumulation indexes for A horizon (RIA), Sub-superficial horizon (RIS) and Wine (RIW). -/+ = impoverishment/enrichment
The purpose of this study was a comparison of soil parameters among superficial and sub-superficial horizons of three representative type of soils in Vale dos Vinhedos, Brazil, aiming Viticulture in general, but Precision Viticulture (PV) management as specific focus. Basic aspects of Viticulture or PV are still discussed, by instance, sampling procedures, influence of pedology on quality of wine or methods for defining the management zones. Samples were collected according to each horizon, superficial (0-20 cm in depth) or sub-superficial (>40 cm in depth), that is, A (all soils), A2 (Neossolo), Bi (Cambissolo), or Bt (Argissolo). Micro-vinification was performed for grapes derived from five classes of soil. The pedological parameters analyzed were granulometric fractions, chemical parameters and degree of flocculation. Data were organized according to a Geographic Information System (GIS) by ten classes of soil. Basic statistical analysis, line graphs, XY plots and factor analysis were used to interpret the physicochemical variables related to horizons, soil and wine. Relative Accumulation Indexes were evaluated for horizons of soil, classes of soil and wine. Data organized by horizon and type of soil showed great dispersion, so outliers were discarded and data organized by class of soil. Correlation of data related to soil horizons, A against A2/B, was evident for macronutrients. Micro-vinification altered content of K and P in wine. Relative Accumulation Indexes of soil horizons correlated to declivity, when declivity lesser than 20% occurred. Fe and Zn showed correlation among sub-superficial horizon and wine for some classes of soil.
 
The lack of sufficient knowledge on nutritional requirements, as well as efficiency parameters, in the use, absorption, and translocation of nutrients by seedlings in developmental stages may lead to the excessive use of chemical fertilizers, which end up contaminating the environment. Therefore, this research adopted the hydroponic system to elucidate the nutritional requirements of Hymenaea courbaril L. seedlings, a fruit tree of neotropical importance, throughout its development (30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days after transplantation). Consequently, biometric data on growth and mineral nutrition were obtained and utilized to determine efficiency parameters in the use, absorption, and translocation of nutrients. Although H. courbaril leaves functioned as efficient drains throughout the development, S and Fe accumulated in the roots, owing to their not very mobile nature. The macro and micronutrients that were accumulated the most in the tissues were N and Mn, which even suggested a tendency for H. courbaril to tolerate Mn concentrations that are naturally toxic. The most efficient adoption was observed for the S and Cu nutrients, whereas the most efficiently absorbed nutrients were N (the macro and micronutrient with the greatest accumulation) and Fe (the second micronutrient with the greatest accumulation). However, the seedlings efficiently translocated Ca-N and Mn, i.e., the most accumulated nutrients. Positive effects on growth were correlated with increases in P, Ca, and Mg levels, thus signaling the importance of an optimal supply of these nutrients in obtaining healthy seedlings of this species. This work suggests that to obtain seedlings of H. courbaril in practice, the availability of N, Mn, P, Ca and Mg should be reviewed.
 
Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is an agricultural crop with a large increase in production in the last three decades and is an essential component in the manufacture of animal and human food. Understanding the interactions between crop and other plant species used as green manure that can improve yield and so reduce environmental damage. Forages can release secondary metabolites in the environment that influence in a beneficial or harmful way to other plants, characterizing the allelopathy process. The Níger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) is used in agricultural systems because it releases allelochemicals, especially flavonoids. Therefore, this study is aimed to evaluate the allelopathic effects of the Niger straw on the germination and initial growth of soybean seedlings. The treatments consisted of aqueous extracts of niger stems, leaves and roots in different concentrations (0; 25; 50; 75 and 100%). For each treatment, five replications were performed, each composed by a 25 seeds distributed in gearbox kept in incubator chamber for 7 days at 25ºC and 12 hours photo period. The experimental design was completely randomized and the data were evaluated by analysis of variance and the means of treatments compared by Tukey’s test at 5% significance. The results show a reduction in germination and initial growth of soybean seedlings submitted to aqueous extract of niger stem and roots. In contrast, the aqueous extract of the Niger leaves increased the length of soybean seedlings. The allelopathic effects of the Niger probably occur due to the presence of flavonoids in the tissues of this plant species.
 
Plant height (A), number of leaves (C), leaf width (B), leaf length (D), fresh (•) and dried (▲) grain productivity (E) per hectare as a function of base saturation in a Latool of medium texture
Fertigram of leaf cation contents (LCC) in the different treatments
Leaf contents of macro and micronutrients and aluminum in normal and deficient crambe plants reported in the literature and values observed in the present study
Crambe cultivation has expanded in Brazil. The species is a promising alternative for biodiesel production since its seed contain great amounts of oil. Nevertheless, only few studies have focused on the growth and nutritional requirements of crambe cultivated in acidic soils. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of liming on the growth and nutrient accumulation of crambe cultivated in a Yellow Latosol of medium texture. The experiment was carried out using a randomized complete block design. The treatments consisted of different soil base saturation levels (0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80%) with five replications. Plant height, leaf length, leaf width and the number of seeds were evaluated 90 days after planting. The plant material was separated into leaves, stem, seeds and roots, which were oven dried at 70 ºC until constant weight. Analysis of variance was performed, followed by data regression when significant at 5% probability level by the F test. Crambe responded positively to liming in the soil under study at a base saturation of 56.95% as a function of the biometric variables. The increase in the base saturation of the soil to up to 60% promoted a drastic reduction in plant growth and, therefore, in the final grain yield. The decreasing order of the leaf nutritional content at 56.95% base saturation was: N>Ca>K>Mg>S>P>Fe>B>Mn>Zn> Cu.
 
The acai palm tree is a species of multiple use and of great importance for the Amazonian economy and riverside families. The high appreciation of the acai berry in the national and international markets contributes to the search for new producing areas and the reduction of repressed demand. This research aimed to identify the knowledge of the riverside families about the acai berry extraction activity in the Araguari river valley. The study was between the municipalities of Ferreira Gomes and Cutias, in an extension of 80 kilometers. The properties were sampled according to the following criteria: i) presence of natural acai massifs; ii) acceptance of the research by the interviewee and iii) permission to implement sample plots. Data were obtained through a form and interviews with structured questions. Non-probabilistic sampling (n = 13) was used to select local extractivists who hold acai areas. The field research with extractivists allowed us to infer that the period of high fruit production extends from March to June. The use of byproducts of the acai is little expressive. Although livestock is the most expressive activity in the region, others stand out: fishing, agriculture and extractivism. The commercial production of acai fruit is destined to the municipality of Cutias and most native acai owners have significant interest in the management of this species.
 
Initial water content (W.C.), First count of germination (FCG), germination (G) and speed of germination index (SGI) of ten tobacco seed lots, Pelotas-RS, UFPel, 2018
Standard accelerated aging with water (SAA), as proposed by AOSA, and water content reached after the SAA (W.C. SAA) of ten tobacco seed lots, Pelotas-RS, UFPel, 2018
Vigor tests are very important to obtain additional information to the standard germination test and can assist in decision-making. The aim of this work was to evaluate accelerated aging test methodologies for the determination of vigor in tobacco seeds. For the study, ten seed lots of tobacco were used. The initial quality of the tobacco seeds was determined through the germination test, first count of germination, germination speed index, seedling emergence at 7, 14 and 21 days after sowing, emergence speed index and the accelerated aging with water performed as proposed by the Association of Official Seed Analysts. After the determination of seed initial quality, the accelerated aging test was studied in the following methods: accelerated aging with water, saturated saline solution (40g NaCl 100mL-1 water) and unsaturated saline solution (11g NaCl 100mL-1 water), submitted to the temperatures of 45 and 41°C, for the exposure periods of 24, 48 and 72 hours. According to the results obtained, the accelerated aging test with water conducted under a temperature of 45°C combined with a 24-hour exposure period is shown as adequate for evaluating the vigor of tobacco seeds.
 
Normal seedlings percentage (%) of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), after traditional aging periods
Normal seedlings percentage (%) of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), after saline solution aging periods
Water content (%) of three bathes of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), after traditional aging period
Simple correlation coefficient (r) among data obtained according to accelerated aging test (traditional and saline solution procedure) and seedling emergence for three thyme bathes (Thymus vulgaris L.)
Evaluating seed quality with precision and accuracy is one of the priorities for obtaining high quality material. This study aimed to evaluate whether the variations in the performance of the accelerated aging test, in terms of exposure time and temperature, in the traditional form or in saline solution, would result in an efficient combination to evaluate the physiological quality of thyme seeds (Thymus vulgaris L.). The seeds were submitted to the tests of total germination, germination speed index, first germination count, seedlings emergence, seedling length, seedling dry mass, cold test, electrical conductivity, variations in the conduction of the accelerated aging test and the water content of the seeds was performed after each accelerated aging period. The treatments were the combination of temperatures (36, 38, 40 and 42 ºC), exposure time (24, 36, 48 and 72 hours) and two procedures (traditional and saline), with four replications for each batch. Traditional accelerated aging test at 42 ºC and 24 hours of exposure time, and saline solution accelerated aging test at 38 ºC and 24 hours of exposure time showed sensibility to evaluate physiological potential for thyme seed. For both saline solution and traditional accelerated aging test, the exposition time of 24 hours was efficient to evaluate physiological potential of thyme seeds.
 
Respondents' segmentation according to their market relationship
Socioeconomic characteristics by groups (t-test)
Sensory index distribution by respondents groups
Chi-person test results to evaluate the relation between sensory and agronomic index to the different market relation categories (p-value)
Average WTP and its distribution by respondents' market relationships
This study introduces respondent’s market participation on the analysis of the consumer acceptance of biofortified beans. Biofortification is a complementary strategy to fight iron deficiencies mainly in populations who usually produce and consume their own beans. As most of biofortification’s target population and consumer acceptance studies participants are farmers who produce and consume their own food, their evaluation as producers hasn’t yet been evaluated. The evaluation will depend on the respondents’ market participation. The aims of this study are: (i) to compare the consumer acceptance results of two different studies, one evaluating grain and the other evaluating seed of an iron-enriched bean variety; (ii) to analyze how market participation influences respondents’ preferences and willingness to pay (WTP); and (iii) to evaluate how agronomic and sensory evaluation are defined by market participation. Two data sets from studies evaluating the consumer’s acceptance of an iron-enriched bean variety, one testing seed, conducted with 360 households in Huehuetenango in 2013 and the other testing grain, with 322 beans producers in 8 departments in Guatemala, were used for this purpose. Results indicate that there are differences in how respondents valued the iron-enriched bean variety attributes, and this depended on if a seed or grain was tested and on respondents’ market participation. The link between market participation and the acceptance of the iron-enriched bean variety was validated by an econometric analysis. Results are relevant for future research on consumer acceptance of biofortified crops, identifying if crops or seed must be tasted based on the respondents’ profile.
 
The study assessed rice farmers’ access to credit and constraints in rice production in the Tolon District of Ghana. A total of 140 rice farmers were sampled for the study using multi-stage sampling technique. The probit model was used to estimate the factors that affected rice farmers’ access to credit. The Kendall’s coefficient of concordance was used to assess the constraints in rice production. The results of the study revealed that majority of the rice farmers accessed credit from family and friends and invested the credit into non-agricultural activities. The probit result revealed that age, marital status, member of farmer based organization, extension visit, record keeping and farm income were the significant variables that influenced rice farmers’ access to credit. The results also revealed that high cost of inputs and pest were the most pressing institutional and technical constraints in rice production, respectively. The study recommends that credit should be converted to physical inputs and other services and delivered to farmers to help minimize credit diversion from the farm sector. Rice farmers should be encouraged to form farmer groups and keep records of farming activities considering the fact that it positively influenced farmers’ access to credit. Subsidies should be provided on farm inputs. Effective ways of eliminating pest on rice fields should be developed since it was a major challenge facing the rice farmers in their production.
 
While Malawi’s per capita cereal production may be higher than her per capita cereal consumption, Malawi is a net cereal importer and thus food insecure. The food situation is much worse in Malawi’s prisons because inmates generally eat one meal per day.The general objective of this study was to determine the effect of smaller prisoner numbers at a prison on the inmates’ access to food. This was done by comparing food insecurity in small prisons with that in big institutions. An institution housing less than 400 inmates was considered a small prison while one housing more than 400 prisoners was considered a big institution. Using structured questionnaires in face to face interviews, the study collected data from 1000 inmates and 30 officers-in-charge from all prisons in the country. The data was analysed using Stata 12 and employed the probit and the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) models as analytical tools.Results from the analysis showed that practically all inmates in Malawi’s prisons were food insecure. There was, however, a higher perception of food insecurity in big prisons than there was in small ones. Conditions of severe food insecurity were experienced more in big institutions than in small ones, and more inmates in big prisons depended on food brought to them from their homes. Food insecurity was more prevalent in big prisons than in small ones.
 
Nutrient contents of organic Nitrogen fertilizer sources
Quantities of fertilizer application
The influence of fertilizers and individual features of amaranth accessions on the plant height
The influence of fertilizers and individual features of amaranth accessions on the number of leaves
The influence of fertilizers and individual features of amaranth accessions on the stem girth
The experiment was conducted at National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan and Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Teaching and Research Farm Ogbomoso between August and December, 2015. Five accessions of grain amaranth were screened in the field at both locations. The trials was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used in assigning treatments in the field and replicated three times. Seven Nitrogen sources: poultry manure, cow dung, pacesetter organic fertilizer, brewery waste, providence organic fertilizer, Aleshinloye organic fertilizer N:P:K and control each applied at 120 kg N ha-1 imposed on the five selected accessions. Data were collected on growth (plant height, stem girth, number of branches and number of leaves) biweekly and subjected to analysis of variance. The results shows that, irrespective of the accessions, the two agro-ecological zones are suitable for high grain yield of grain amaranth but Ogbomosho; derived savannah zone gave better growth biomass than the transitional rainforest ecology of Ibadan in grain amaranth production. To improve the growth of amaranth, addition of fertilizer up to 120 kg N ha-1 is recommendedpreferably organic fertilizer like cow dung.
 
Seed morphometric parameters (seed area, length, diameter, circumference, roundness and aspect ratio) of 15 accessions were analysed. Measurements on seeds were taken with help of a Computer- Camera system. Variation among accessions and genetic relationships were estimated. Great variability was observed for all parameters studied. ¶High positive or negative correlation (r=0.726-0.963) was showed by Pearson’s correlation analysis for the seed metric data of the 15 accessions. The cluster analysis revealed that the 15 accessions could be grouped into three to five clusters according to the methods (Single or Complete Linkage) used. The principal components analysis showed that the first two components accounted for 99.3% of the variability. Morphometric characterization of seeds is rapid, reproducible, reliable and cost effective. This technique of digital imaging is strongly recommended for researchers from developing country like Benin, because of its efficiency.
 
Sulfur (S) is usually the second most accumulated nutrient in seeds of Cruciferae plant species such as the radish. Tropical soils have low S availability creating a challenge to manage plant nutrition and balanced plant development to produce high-quality seeds. This study evaluated the influence of S doses and organic compost fertilization on the content and accumulation of macronutrients in radish seeds. Eight treatments were studied in subdivided plots, where the presence (50 t ha-1) or absence of organic compost was placed in the main plot, and the S doses (0, 60, 120, 180 kg ha-1 of S) were placed in the subplots. A randomized block design with six replications was used. Seed dry weight, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S concentration (g kg-1 of dry matter), and the accumulation of nutrients in seeds (g plant-1) were evaluated. There was no significant effect of S doses, or organic compost, on the contents of macronutrients in radish seeds. When organic compost was not applied, great doses of S generated great dry weight and accumulation of macronutrients in the radish seeds. However, the application of organic compost increased the dry weight and the accumulation of all macronutrients in radish seeds in low S doses (up to 66 kg ha-1). Also, the presence of organic compost increased the dry weight and the concentration of macronutrients in radish seeds. The decreasing order of macronutrient content and accumulation by the radish seeds was: N > S > K > P > Ca > Mg.
 
Concentration of pigments (DM) of the experimental diets of Macrobrachium amazonicum
The color is an important factor to distinguish the commercialized Amazon river prawns. The accumulation of pigments in the body can vary according to the prawn’s diet. In this work, ethanolic extracts of “buriti” and annatto rich in pigments were obtained and tested comparatively with synthetic astaxanthin in the feeding of adults of Macrobrachium amazonicum, together with a control group without pigments and a newly captured wild group. Levels of body pigments were measured using UV reflective spectroscopy and external staining by colorimetry. Differences were observed in the accumulation of astaxanthin in body tissues, differences in saturation between genders and that annatto extract has greater stability in the feed after water immersion (P˂0.05). Further studies are recommended to verify the ideal dosage of natural pigments in relation to synthetic astaxanthin that benefits the productive development of prawns.
 
Effect of irrigation water, N and P application rate treatments on potato LAI 
Effect of irrigation water, N and P rates on potato leaf chlorophyll content index 
A study was conducted in a Rainshelter (RTrial) at Horticultural Research and Teaching Farm, Egerton University to determine the effect of integration of irrigation water, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) application on seed potato leaf area index (LAI), stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content. The treatments arranged in a split-split plot layout in a completely randomised block design, consisted of three irrigation water rates (40%, 65% and 100% field capacity), four N rates (0, 75, 112.5 and 150 kg N/ha) supplied as urea (46% N), and four P rates (0, 50.6, 75.9, 101.2 kg P/ha) supplied as triple superphosphate, replicated three times and repeated once. During the growth leaf area, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll content were measured. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and significantly different means separated using Tukey’s Studentized Range Test at P≤0.05. Leaf area index was greater with high irrigation water at 100%, N at 150 kg N/ha and P at 101.2 kg P/ha, which was 2.6 and 1.3 at 51 days after planting (DAP) and 3.5 and 3.1 at 64 DAP. Furthermore, low irrigation water rate at 40% together with low N and P rates of 0 kg N/ha and 0 kg P/ha had the least LAI, which was 0.28 and 0.19 at 51 DAP and 0.28 and 0.24 at 64 DAP both in RTrials I and II, respectively. Subjecting potato to 100% compared to 40% irrigation rate increased stomatal conductance at 87 days after planting (DAP) by 32.82 and 31.99 mmolm⁻²s⁻¹, leaf chlorophyll content index by 16.2 and 16.5, 19.8 and 19.6, and 15 and 20.3, when integrated with high compared with low N and P application rates at 59, 73 and 87 DAP, in RTrials I and II respectively. Irrespective of N and P rates LAI, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content were significantly greater with high irrigation water at 100% followed by 65% and was lowest with 40% irrigation water rate.
 
Weeds dry mass in coexistence with cassava plants 'Baianinha' and 'Clone 56-03' throughout the crop development (1 st cycle)
Maximum accumulation rate, period up to the maximum daily accumulation rate and duration of maximum daily rate of root dry mass accumulation of cassava plants with and without coexistence with weeds
The development of cassava varieties with more efficient nutrient absorption can prevent losses caused by weed competition. The objective of this study was to evaluate dry matter accumulation and leaf nutrient content in traditional and improved cassava varieties, with and without coexistence with weeds throughout the cycle. A randomized complete block design was used in a 2 x 2 x 11 factorial scheme with four replications. The first factor consisted of two varieties (Baianinha and Clone 56-03); the second factor was composed of the conditions with and without coexistence with weeds, and the third factor was 11 harvest periods. Coexistence with weeds reduced leaf contents of N (20.8% and 24.8%), P (26.7% and 4.6%) and K (27.1% and 12.6%) for 'Baianinha' and 'Clone 56-03', respectively. For coexistence with 'Baianinha', the period up to the maximum daily nutrient accumulation rate (N, P and K) ranged from 82 to 99 days after planting (DAP), while for 'Clone 56-03', coexistence in this period ranged from 80 to 88 DAP. The plants from the variety 'Clone 56-03' presented higher total dry mass and root dry mass accumulation, as well as higher leaf contents of N, P and K than the traditional cassava variety 'Baianinha', especially when in coexistence with weeds during the whole cycle.
 
Figure1. The Number, Length of Root for Hardwood Cuttings  
p>The purpose of this research is to determine the impact of the turf-only substrate and turf–perlite in the ratio 2:1 and of growth regulators in the quality of adventive roots ( the number and length) of well lignified one-year old branches without fruit buds in the Bluecrop cultivar ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) taken at the end of the latent period before budding at the February 15 th during the -2015 growing season. In order to support the increase of the number of roots and their length the hardwood cuttings are treated with different IBA and NAA concentrations (1500, 3000, 4500 ppm), while a part of cuttings were untreated control. The number and the length of roots have increased in relation to the increase of concentration from 1500 to 3000 ppm followed by a decline of these values in concentrations over 3000 ppm. Respectively, the number of roots (8) and the higher values of root length (4.6 cm) are achieved in the turf–perlite substrate, IBA 3000 ppm (compared to the turf-only substrate). The presence of perlite helps the aeration of the substrate and supports biochemical and physiological processes which lead to the inducing of adventive roots. Regarding the number and length of roots an important variation for (p<0.05) was observed between different concentrations of IBA and NAA. In general the effect of IBA was a lot better than the effect of NAA.</p
 
Physicochemical characterization of yogurt with acchairuu pulp
Yogurt is defined as being the product obtained through the fermentation of milk, its pleasant taste and high nutritional value are the main factors responsible for the acceptance of the product in the market. The present study aims to evaluate the physicochemical and textural properties of a yoghurt supplemented with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% Acacchairu pulp. Fresh pulp and yoghurt were submitted to the following physicochemical analyzes: moisture content and total solids, pH, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, ratio, water activity, vitamin C and lipids. Regarding the texture profile, only yogurts were evaluated the following parameters: firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity index. Achachairu pulp presented high moisture content and water activity, as well as low percentage of lipids. Higher values were obtained regarding moisture content, water activity, acidity, lipids and vitamin C in the formulations with higher pulp percentage and for all texture attributes the formulation with 0% pulp obtained the highest values. The formulations proposed with the addition of different pulp concentrations improved the physicochemical and texture attributes of yogurt.
 
Unfolding of the interactions of treatments and times for counts of coliforms on cheeses T1: withoutcoating; T2: sodium alginate coating; T3: sodium alginate coating + L. acidophilus and T4: sodium alginate coating + L. helveticus
Unfolding of the interactions of treatments and times, for water activity on cheeses T1: withoutcoating; T2: sodium alginate coating; T3: sodium alginate coating + L. acidophilus and T4: sodium alginate coating + L. helveticus
Unfolding of the interactions of treatments and times, for pH on cheeses T1: withoutcoating; T2: sodium alginate coating; T3: sodium alginate coating + L. acidophilus and T4: sodium alginate coating + L. helveticus
Sodium alginate and L. acidophilus coating 5,000 and 10,000 times
Characterization of sodium alginate coatings and containing microorganisms
Edible films have been employed to improve the food quality. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the edible coverage as a vehicle for probiotics bacteria in cheeses. The experimental design was completely randomized containing four treatments: uncoated cheeses, sodium alginate coated cheeses, sodium alginate + Lactobacillus acidophilus coated cheeses and sodium alginate + Lactobacillus helveticus coated cheeses, analysed for 15 days. The parameters of water steam permeability, thickness and Young's modulus were significant. In the simulation of gastrointestinal conditions, there was a reduction in lactic acid bacteria. There was a reduction in coliform values in coated cheeses. In the identification using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA technique, Lactobacillus helveticus strains were isolated, suggesting the microorganism migration to inside the cheese. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the lactic acid bacteria were distributed throughout the surface of the edible coating. It suggested the Lactobacillus helveticus permeability added in the cover to the cheese interior, ensuring that the cover can be a vehicle for dairy bacteria.
 
Journal of Agricultural Studies (JAS) would like to thank the following reviewers for reviewing manuscripts from March 1, 2014, to September 1, 2014. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Many authors, regardless of whether JAS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Macrothink Institute appreciates the following reviewers’ rigorous and conscientious efforts for this journal. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review during this period. Carlos Alberto Zúniga GonzálezEliana Mariela WerbinEwa MoliszewskaGeonyzl Lepiten AlviolaLucélia CabralMarie-Madeleine Pare NgoutaneMohamed El-EsawiMoses OlotuPramod Kumar MishraSahar BahmaniSahar BahmaniTran Dang Khanh
 
Reviewer AcknowledgementsJournal of Agricultural Studies (JAS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JAS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 10, Number 1Ahmad Reza Pirali Zefrehei, Gorgan Univ. of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, IranAi-Ping Wu, Hunan Agricultural University, ChinaAlessandra M. Lima Naoe, Federal University of Tocantins, BrazilBenard Kiplangat Rop, University of Nairobi, KenyaCamilla H. M. Camargos, University of Campinas, BrazilFábio Cassola, UNICAMP, BrazilGeorgiana G. Codina, Stefan cel Mare University, RomaniaJuliana Nneka Ikpe, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, NigeriaMariana Esteves, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture University of Sao Paulo, BrazilMohammed El Basuini, Kagoshima University, JapanNkemkanma Vivian Agi, Rivers State University Port Harcourt, NigeriaOlga Mykhailenko, National University of Pharmacy, UkraineOscar Mitsuo Yamashita, Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso, BrazilRaul Pașcalău, Banat's Univ. of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, RomaniaSomaia Alkhair, Alzaeim Alazhari University, Sudan Richard WilliamsEditorial AssistantJournal of Agricultural Studies--------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesPhone: 1-702-953-1852 ext.521Email 1: jas@macrothink.orgEmail 2: jas@macrothink.comURL: http://jas.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Agricultural Studies (JAS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JAS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 9, Number 3Ahmad Reza Pirali Zefrehei, Gorgan University, IranAlessandra M. Lima Naoe, Federal University of Tocantins, BrazilAlexandru Ioan Apahidean, Univ. of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, RomaniaAna Daniela Lopes, Universidade Paranaense, BrazilAnca-Luiza Stanila, ICPA, RomaniaAndré Luiz Rodrigues Magalhães, UFAPE, BrazilAngel Ramon Sanchez Delgado, Universidade federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BrazilArnaud Z. Dragicevic, IRSTEA, FranceBenard Kiplangat Rop, University of Nairobi, KenyaCamilla H. M. Camargos, University of Campinas, BrazilCleber Duarte, University of Guararapes, BrazilDarwin Pangaribuan, University of Lampung, IndonesiaEben von Well, Agricultural Research Council, South AfricaEliana Mariela Werbin, National University of Cordoba, ArgentinianEmmanuel E. Omeje, University of Nigeria, NigeriaEric Krawczyk, University of Michigan, USAEric Owusu Danquah, CSIR-Crops Research Institute, GhanaFernando Rodrigues de Amorim, State University of Paulista (UNESP), BrazilGuitong Li, China Agricultural University, ChinaHabu Saleh Hamisu, National Horticultural Research Institute, NigeriaHedayatollah K. Soureshjani, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, IranJacquelin Teresa Camperos Reyes, São Paulo State University (UNESP), BrazilJorge A. López, University Tiradentes, BrazilJuliana Nneka Ikpe, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, NigeriaLuh Suriati, Warmadewa University, IndonesiaMahyar Gerami, Sana Institute of Higher Education, IranMaría Francisca Perera, ITANOA, EEAOC-CONICET, ArgentinaMariana Esteves, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture University of Sao Paulo, BrazilMohamed Mattar, King Saud University, Saudi ArabiaMohammed El Basuini, Kagoshima University, JapanMohammed Jamal Uddin, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), BangladeshNkemkanma Vivian Agi, Rivers State University Port Harcourt, NigeriaOlga Mykhailenko, National University of Pharmacy, UkraineRadu Liviu Sumalan, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary, RomaniaRaul Pașcalău, Banat's University, RomaniaSaiful Irwan Zubairi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), MalaysiaSarir Ahmad, Abdul Wali Khan University, PakistanShubha Kumari, ICAR-RCER, IndiaSina Nabaei, Azad University, IranSudu Hakuruge Pushpa Malkanthi, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Sri LankaSybelle Mesquita Silva, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, BrazilToncho Gospodinov Penev, Trakia University, BulgariaTugay Ayasan, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University, TurkeyUtkarsh R. Moon, Mahatma Gandhi College of Science, IndiaZakaria Fouad Abdallah, National Research Centre, EgyptZeinab Mohammadi Shad, Iowa State University, USAZhao Chen, Clemson University, USA Richard WilliamsEditorial AssistantJournal of Agricultural Studies--------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesPhone: 1-702-953-1852 ext.521Fax: 1-702-420-2900Email 1: jas@macrothink.orgEmail 2: jas@macrothink.comURL: http://jas.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Agricultural Studies would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JAS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issueReviewers for Volume 4, Number 3 Carlos Alberto Zúniga GonzálezChenlin HuEwa MoliszewskaGerardo OjedaJeong HwanMing-Chi WeiPramod Kumar MishraSahar BahmaniZakaria Fouad AbdallahZhao ChenZoi M. Parissi Richard WilliamsEditorJournal of Agricultural Studies-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesPhone: 1-702-953-1852 ext.521Fax: 1-702-420-2900Email: jas@macrothink.orgURL: http://jas.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Agricultural Studies (JAS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JAS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 9, Number 4Ahmad Reza Pirali Zefrehei, Gorgan Univ. of Agricultural Sci. & Natural Resources, IranAlessandra M. Lima Naoe, Federal University of Tocantins, BrazilAndré Luiz Rodrigues Magalhães, UFAPE, BrazilCamilla H. M. Camargos, University of Campinas, BrazilEmmanuel E. Omeje, University of Nigeria, NigeriaEric Krawczyk, University of Michigan, USAEric Owusu Danquah, CSIR-Crops Research Institute, GhanaJorge A. López, University Tiradentes, BrazilJuliana Nneka Ikpe, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, NigeriaLuh Suriati, Warmadewa University, IndonesiaNkemkanma Vivian Agi, Rivers State University Port Harcourt, NigeriaRaul Pașcalău, Banat's University, RomaniaSaiful Irwan Zubairi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), MalaysiaShakirudeen Abimbola Lawal, University of Cape Town, South AfricaSomaia Alkhair, Alzaeim Alazhari University, SudanToncho Gospodinov Penev, Trakia University, BulgariaZakaria Fouad Abdallah, National Research Centre, EgyptRichard WilliamsEditorial AssistantJournal of Agricultural Studies--------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesPhone: 1-702-953-1852 ext.521Email 1: jas@macrothink.orgEmail 2: jas@macrothink.comURL: http://jas.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Agricultural Studies (JAS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JAS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 9, Number 2Ai-Ping Wu, Hunan Agricultural University, ChinaAlessandra M. Lima Naoe, Federal University of Tocantins, BrazilAlexandra-Nadia Cirdei, Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest, RomaniaAlexandru Ioan Apahidean, Univ. of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, RomaniaAna Daniela Lopes, Universidade Paranaense, BrazilAnca-Luiza Stanila, ICPA, RomaniaAndré Luiz Rodrigues Magalhães, UFAPE, BrazilAngel Ramon Sanchez Delgado, Universidade federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BrazilArnaud Z. Dragicevic, IRSTEA, FranceCleber Duarte, University of Guararapes, BrazilDarwin Pangaribuan, University of Lampung, IndonesiaEben von Well, Agricultural Research Council, South AfricaEliana Mariela Werbin, National University of Cordoba, ArgentinianEric Krawczyk, University of Michigan, USAEric Owusu Danquah, CSIR-Crops Research Institute, GhanaErnest Baafi, CSIR-Crops Research Institute, GhanaEwa Moliszewska, Opole University, PolandFernando Coelho Eugenio, Federal University of Santa Maria, BrazilFernando Rodrigues de Amorim, State University of Paulista (UNESP), BrazilHabu Saleh Hamisu, National Horticultural Research Institute, NigeriaHedayatollah K. Soureshjani, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, IranJoão Manoel da Silva, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, BrazilJorge A. López, University Tiradentes, BrazilJuliana Nneka Ikpe, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, NigeriaMahyar Gerami, Sana Institute of Higher Education, IranMariana Esteves, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture University of Sao Paulo, BrazilMohammed El Basuini, Kagoshima University, JapanMpho Tshikororo, University of Venda, South AfricaNkemkanma Vivian Agi, Rivers State University Port Harcourt, NigeriaRadu Liviu Sumalan, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary, RomaniaRaul Pașcalău, Banat's University, RomaniaSaiful Irwan Zubairi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), MalaysiaSait Engindeniz, Ege University Faculty of Agriculture, TurkeySamir Neggaz, Université Oran, AlgeriaServet Aras, Bozok University, TurkeyShubha Kumari, ICAR-RCER, IndiaSina Nabaei, Azad University, IranSybelle Mesquita Silva, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, BrazilToncho Gospodinov Penev, Trakia University, BulgariaTugay Ayasan, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University, TurkeyUtkarsh R. Moon, Mahatma Gandhi College of Science, IndiaWossenie Shibabaw Mebratie, Bahir Dar University, EthiopiaZakaria Fouad Abdallah, National Research Centre, Egypt Richard WilliamsEditorial AssistantJournal of Agricultural Studies--------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesPhone: 1-702-953-1852 ext.521Fax: 1-702-420-2900Email 1: jas@macrothink.orgEmail 2: jas@macrothink.comURL: http://jas.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Agricultural Studies (JAS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JAS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 7, Number 3Abhishek A. Cukkemane, Bijasu Agri Research Laboratory LLP, IndiaAngel Ramon Sanchez Delgado, Universidade federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BrazilAnil Kumar Matta, KLEF, IndiaBabak Mohammadi, University of Tehran, IranBoumahdi Merad Zoubeida, University Blida, AlgeriaChenlin Hu, The Ohio State University, USAEben von Well, Agricultural Research Council, South AfricaEliana Mariela Werbin, National University of Cordoba, ArgentinianErnest Baafi, CSIR-Crops Research Institute, GhanaFabrício Oliveira Fernandes, State University Júlio de Mesquita Filho - FCAV, BrazilPramod Kumar Mishra, University of Hyderabad, IndiaServet Aras, Bozok University, TurkeyShaibu Baanni Azumah, University for Development Studies, GhanaShubha Kumari, ICAR-RCER, IndiaSomaia Alkhair, Alzaeim Alazhari University, SudanSoto Caro Ariel Reinaldo, Universidad de Concepción, ChileToncho Gospodinov Penev, Trakia University, BulgariaZakaria Fouad Abdallah, National Research Centre, EgyptZhao Chen, Clemson University, USAZsolt Domozi, Obuda University, Hungary Richard WilliamsEditorial AssistantJournal of Agricultural Studies--------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesPhone: 1-702-953-1852 ext.521Fax: 1-702-420-2900Email: jas@macrothink.orgURL: http://jas.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Agricultural Studies would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JAS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issueReviewers for Volume 4, Number 2 Ashit Kumar PaulChenlin HuEwa MoliszewskaGerardo OjedaHui GuoLuisa PozzoPramod Kumar MishraRasha Mousa AhmedSahar BahmaniZakaria Fouad Abdallah Zhao Chen Richard WilliamsEditorJournal of Agricultural Studies-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesPhone: 1-702-953-1852 ext.521Fax: 1-702-420-2900Email: jas@macrothink.orgURL: http://jas.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Agricultural Studies (JAS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JAS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 7, Number 2Angel Ramon Sanchez Delgado, Universidade federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BrazilAnil Kumar Matta, KLEF, IndiaBabak Mohammadi, University of Tehran, IranChenlin Hu, The Ohio State University, USAEliana Mariela Werbin, National University of Cordoba, ArgentinianFábio Cassola, UNICAMP, BrazilFabrício Oliveira Fernandes, State University Júlio de Mesquita Filho - FCAV, BrazilIl Rae Rho, Gyeongsang National University, South KoreaJeferson Coutinho, Federal Institute of Science, BrazilJosé Roberto Chaves Neto, Federal University of Santa Maria, BrazilLiang Guo, Northwest A&F University, ChinaMohammed El Basuini, Kagoshima University, JapanPatricia P. Acheampong, CSIR-Crops Research Institute, GhanaServet Aras, Bozok University, TurkeyShaibu Baanni Azumah, University for Development Studies, GhanaSomaia Alkhair, Alzaeim Alazhari University, SudanZakaria Fouad Abdallah, National Research Centre, EgyptZhao Chen, Clemson University, USA Richard WilliamsEditorial AssistantJournal of Agricultural Studies--------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesPhone: 1-702-953-1852 ext.521Fax: 1-702-420-2900Email: jas@macrothink.orgURL: http://jas.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Agricultural Studies (JAS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JAS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 8, Number 4Ahmed Mohamed Elbeltagi, Mansoura University, EgyptAi-Ping Wu, Hunan Agricultural University, ChinaAlessandra M. Lima Naoe, Federal University of Tocantins, BrazilAlexandra-Nadia Cirdei, Technical Univ. of Civil Engineering of Bucharest, RomaniaAlexandru I. Apahidean, Univ. of Agricultural Sciences&Veterinary Medicine, RomaniaAnca-Luiza Stanila, National Research Institute for Soil Science, RomaniaAngel Ramon Sanchez Delgado, Universidade federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BrazilArnaud Z. Dragicevic, IRSTEA, FranceAshit Kumar Paul, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, BangladeshBenard Kiplangat Rop, University of Nairobi, KenyaBoumahdi Merad Zoubeida, University Blida, AlgeriaDarwin Pangaribuan, University of Lampung, IndonesiaEben von Well, Agricultural Research Council, South AfricaEliana Mariela Werbin, National University of Cordoba, ArgentinianElizabeth Amélia Alves Duarte, College Maria Milza-FAMAM, BrazilEric Krawczyk, University of Michigan, USAEwa Moliszewska, Opole University, PolandFábio Cassola, UNICAMP, BrazilFernando Coelho Eugenio, Federal University of Santa Maria, BrazilFernando Rodrigues de Amorim, State University of Paulista (UNESP), BrazilGeorgiana G. Codina, Stefan cel Mare University, RomaniaGuitong Li, China Agricultural University, ChinaHabu Saleh Hamisu, National Horticultural Research Institute, NigeriaHéctor S. Tavárez Vargas, Universidad de Puerto Rico, BrazilHedayatollah K. Soureshjani, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, IranJoão Manoel da Silva, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, BrazilJorge A. López, University Tiradentes, BrazilJuliana Nneka Ikpe, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, NigeriaMahyar Gerami, Sana Institute of Higher Education, IranMaría Elena Estrada Martínez, Universidad Metropolitana, EcuadorMaría Francisca Perera, ITANOA, EEAOC-CONICET, ArgentinaMohammed El Basuini, Kagoshima University, JapanNkemkanma Vivian Agi, Rivers State University Port Harcourt, NigeriaOlga Mykhailenko, National University of Pharmacy, UkraineOscar Mitsuo Yamashita, Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso, BrazilSaiful Irwan Zubairi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), MalaysiaSarir Ahmad, Abdul Wali Khan University, PakistanServet Aras, Bozok University, TurkeyShaibu Baanni Azumah, University for Development Studies, GhanaShakirudeen Abimbola Lawal, University of Cape Town, South AfricaShubha Kumari, ICAR-RCER, IndiaSina Nabaei, Azad University, IranSomaia Alkhair, Alzaeim Alazhari University, SudanSybelle Mesquita Silva, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, BrazilToncho Gospodinov Penev, Trakia University, BulgariaUtkarsh R. Moon, Mahatma Gandhi College of Science, IndiaWossenie Shibabaw Mebratie, Bahir Dar University, EthiopiaZakaria Fouad Abdallah, National Research Centre, EgyptZhao Chen, Clemson University, USA Richard WilliamsEditorial AssistantJournal of Agricultural Studies--------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesPhone: 1-702-953-1852 ext.521Fax: 1-702-420-2900Email 1: jas@macrothink.orgEmail 2: jas@macrothink.comURL: http://jas.macrothink.org
 
Journal of Agricultural Studies (JAS) would like to thank the following reviewers for reviewing manuscripts from September 1, 2014, March to 1, 2015. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Many authors, regardless of whether JAS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Macrothink Institute appreciates the following reviewers’ rigorous and conscientious efforts for this journal. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review during this period.Ashit Kumar PaulCarlos Alberto Zúniga GonzálezEliana Mariela WerbinGerardo OjedaHui GuoMirza HasanuzzamanMohammad Reza AlizadehPramod Kumar MishraSahar BahmaniSait EngindenizTran Dang KhanhWaldiney MelloZakaria Fouad Abdallah
 
Journal of Agricultural Studies would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether JAS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issueReviewers for Volume 4, Number 1 Ashit Kumar PaulBOUMAHDI MERAD ZOUBEIDACarlos Alberto Zúniga GonzálezChenlin HuEliana Mariela WerbinEwa MoliszewskaFerdaous ManiGajanan T BehereGerardo OjedaGulzar Ahmad NayikHojjat HasheminasabHui GuoIdin ZibaeeIdress Hamad AttitallaIvo Vaz OliveiraLuisa PozzoMartin Ernesto QuadroMing-Chi WeiMohamed EL Sayed MegahedMohammad Reza AlizadehMoses OlotuMuhammed YuceerPramod Kumar MishraRasha Mousa AhmedReham Ibrahim Abo-ShnafRichard UwieraSahar BahmaniSait EngindenizSyed Rizwan AbbasTran Dang KhanhZakaria Fouad AbdallahZhao ChenZoi M. Parissi Richard WilliamsEditorJournal of Agricultural Studies-------------------------------------------Macrothink Institute5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesPhone: 1-702-953-1852 ext.521Fax: 1-702-420-2900Email: jas@macrothink.orgURL: http://jas.macrothink.org
 
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